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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922177/before-attachment-theory-separation-research-at-the-tavistock-clinic-1948-1956
#1
Bican Polat
This article traces the formation of attachment theory to the pioneering research program of Bowlby and his colleagues at the Tavistock Clinic between 1948 and 1956. Through a discussion of the concepts and practices that informed Bowlby's program, I examine the efforts of his team to reconstruct psychoanalytic objects according to preventive objectives and operational criteria. I discuss how the exploratory techniques that Bowlby and his colleagues were developing during these years ultimately led to the establishment of a hybrid investigative framework, in which the prophylactic requirements of mental hygiene, the psychometric model of personality disturbances, the psychoanalytic theory of object relations, and a direct-observational methodology were brought to bear on the problem of the psychological consequences of early separation experiences...
December 6, 2016: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921368/competing-mechanisms-in-the-acetaldehyde-functionalization-of-positively-charged-hydrogenated-silicene
#2
Li-Kun Yang, Xia-Guang Zhang, Fang-Zu Yang, De-Yin Wu, Zhong-Qun Tian, Xiang-Yang Liu
Density functional theory calculations have been used to elucidate the mechanism of the addition reaction of acetaldehyde to the positively charged hydrogenated silicene (H-silicene). We find that the positively charged H-silicene plane could be partially restructured to form a vacant Si site, enabling a further nucleophilic addition reaction. After acetaldehyde molecule attached to the H-silicene plane, two competing pathways are involved in hydrogen abstraction process: a random reaction mechanism and a chain reaction mechanism...
December 6, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921274/evaluating-determinants-of-rural-villagers-engagement-in-conservation-and-waste-management-behaviors-based-on-integrated-conceptual-framework-of-pro-environmental-behavior
#3
Piyapong Janmaimool, Chaweewan Denpaiboon
This study aims to evaluate determinants of villagers' engagement in pro-environmental behavior (PEB), including ecological conservation behavior (ECB) and waste management behavior (WMB). An integrated exploratory model representing the proposed relationship between villagers' engagement in ECB/WMB and their determinants was created based on the integration of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the Stern's value belief norm (VBN) theory, environmental education and psychosocial characteristic perspectives...
December 2016: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921121/a%C3%A2-4d-ultrasound-real-time-tracking-system-for-external-beam-radiotherapy-of-upper-abdominal-lesions-under-breath-hold
#4
Dwi Seno Kuncoro Sihono, Lena Vogel, Christel Weiß, Johannes Thölking, Frederik Wenz, Frank Lohr, Judit Boda-Heggemann, Hansjörg Wertz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate a novel four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound (US) tracking system for external beam radiotherapy of upper abdominal lesions under computer-controlled deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The tracking accuracy of the research 4D US system was evaluated using two motion phantoms programmed with sinusoidal and breathing patterns to simulate free breathing and DIBH. Clinical performance was evaluated with five healthy volunteers...
December 5, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921010/structural-insights-into-substrate-recognition-by-clostridium-difficile-sortase
#5
Jui-Chieh Yin, Chun-Hsien Fei, Yen-Chen Lo, Yu-Yuan Hsiao, Jyun-Cyuan Chang, Jay C Nix, Yuan-Yu Chang, Lee-Wei Yang, I-Hsiu Huang, Shuying Wang
Sortases function as cysteine transpeptidases that catalyze the covalent attachment of virulence-associated surface proteins into the cell wall peptidoglycan in Gram-positive bacteria. The substrate proteins targeted by sortase enzymes have a cell wall sorting signal (CWSS) located at the C-terminus. Up to date, it is still not well understood how sortases with structural resemblance among different classes and diverse species of bacteria achieve substrate specificity. In this study, we focus on elucidating the molecular basis for specific recognition of peptide substrate PPKTG by Clostridium difficile sortase B (Cd-SrtB)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920713/late-onset-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-with-cerebellar-ataxia-as-an-initial-symptom
#6
Jung-Min Pyun, Hyeyoung Park, Kyung Chul Moon, Beomseok Jeon
Late-onset progressive cerebellar ataxia is a diagnostic challenge because of a poor correlation between genotype and phenotype, and a broad range of secondary causes that extend beyond the neurological field. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman admitted after 2 years of slowly progressing cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and emotional instability. Notably, she was diagnosed with diabetes insipidus at the age of 35. As 'idiopathic cerebellar ataxia' was suspected, diagnostic tests, including genetic testing as well as serum and cerebrospinal fluid analyses, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed...
September 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920653/intestinal-bacterial-infection-diagnosed-by-histological-examination-of-endoscopic-biopsy-specimens
#7
Michiko Yuki, Yuko Emoto, Katsuhiko Yoshizawa, Takashi Yuri, Airo Tsubura
Intestinal spirochetosis (IS) in humans is characterized by spirochetal microorganisms attached to the luminal surface of the colonic epithelium. In the present case, attached organisms appeared as 3- to 4 μm-thick (average thickness, 3.4 μm) basophilic fringes or haze in HE-stained endoscopic biopsy specimens. The basophilic fringes were clearly labeled by Treponema pallidum antiserum. Because IS is relatively rare in developed countries, thin basophilic fringes characteristic of IS are readily overlooked...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920639/a-giant-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor-of-the-stomach-with-extramural-growth
#8
Ryosuke Miyazaki, Seiji Arihiro, Eri Hayashi, Takuya Kitahara, Sayumi Oki, Syunsuke Kamba, Daisuke Ide, Nobuhiko Komoike, Kenichi Satoh, Tomohiro Kato, Masayuki Saruta, Hisao Tajiri, Hiroaki Aoki, Nobuo Omura, Norio Mitsumori, Takehiro Mitsuishi, Haruka Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki Takahashi
A 76-year-old man presented to our hospital with abdominal distention and loss of appetite. The 10% of weight lost relative to this patient in 1 month. Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a giant mass, with a major axis of 23 cm, containing solid components, not involving the upper abdominal organs. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed extramural compression from the middle gastric body to the antrum, as well as a normal mucosal surface. These findings were suggestive of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor attached to the anterior wall of the stomach without metastasis or invasion...
May 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920212/inhibition-of-antigen-specific-and-non-specific-stimulation-of-bovine-t-and-b-cells-by-lymphostatin-from-attaching-and-effacing-escherichia-coli
#9
Robin L Cassady-Cain, Elizabeth A Blackburn, Charlotte R Bell, Elizaveta Elshina, Jayne C Hope, Mark P Stevens
Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are enteric bacterial pathogens of worldwide importance. Most EPEC and non-O157 EHEC strains express lymphostatin (also known as LifA), a chromosomally-encoded 365 kDa protein. We previously demonstrated that lymphostatin is a putative glycosyltransferase that is important in intestinal colonisation of cattle by EHEC serogroup O5, O111 and O26 strains. However, the nature and consequences of the interaction between lymphostatin and immune cells from the bovine host are ill-defined...
December 5, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920201/the-streptococcus-gordonii-adhesin-csha-binds-host-fibronectin-via-a-catch-clamp-mechanism
#10
Catherine R Back, Maryta N Sztukowska, Marisa Till, Richard J Lamont, Howard F Jenkinson, Angela H Nobbs, Paul R Race
Adherence of bacteria to biotic or abiotic surfaces is a prerequisite for host colonization and represents an important step in microbial pathogenicity. This attachment is facilitated by bacterial adhesins at the cell surface. Due to their size and often elaborate multi-domain architectures, these polypeptides represent challenging targets for detailed structural and functional characterization. The multifunctional fibrillar adhesin CshA, which mediates binding to both host molecules and other microorganisms, is an important determinant of colonisation by Streptococcus gordonii, an oral commensal and opportunistic pathogen of animals and humans...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920125/structures-of-human-mitofusin-1-provide-insight-into-mitochondrial-tethering
#11
Yuanbo Qi, Liming Yan, Caiting Yu, Xiangyang Guo, Xin Zhou, Xiaoyu Hu, Xiaofang Huang, Zihe Rao, Zhiyong Lou, Junjie Hu
Mitochondria undergo fusion and fission. The merging of outer mitochondrial membranes requires mitofusin (MFN), a dynamin-like GTPase. How exactly MFN mediates membrane fusion is poorly understood. Here, we determined crystal structures of a minimal GTPase domain (MGD) of human MFN1, including the predicted GTPase and the distal part of the C-terminal tail (CT). The structures revealed that a helix bundle (HB) formed by three helices extending from the GTPase and one extending from the CT closely attaches to the GTPase domain, resembling the configuration of bacterial dynamin-like protein...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919961/effects-of-spiro-bisheterocycles-on-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-human-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#12
Lamia Hamdan Ramdani, Oualid Talhi, Nadia Taibi, Laetitia Delort, Caroline Decombat, Artur Silva, Khaldoun Bachari, Marie-Paule Vasson, Florence Caldefie-Chezet
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide and a critical public health concern. Here we investigated the anticancer potential and effects of low-molecular-weight bridgehead oxygen and nitrogen-containing spiro-bisheterocycles on proliferation and apoptosis of the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The compounds feature a hydantoin moiety attached to either diazole, isoxazole, diazepine, oxazepine or benzodiazepine via the privileged tetrahedral spiro-linkage...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919815/chemical-modification-of-functionalized-polyhydroxyalkanoates-via-click-chemistry-a-proof-of-concept
#13
Samuel Nkrumah-Agyeefi, Carmen Scholz
A novel approach to the post-biosynthetic chemical modification of bromo and alkyne functionalized poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates), (PHAs), via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) and strain promoted azide alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) is reported. Optimum conditions for the biosynthesis of the PHA copolymers, poly(3-hydroxynonanoate-co-3-hydroxy-11-bromoundecanoate) (PHNUBr) and poly(3-hydroxynonanoate-co-3-hydroxy-10-undecynoate) (PHNUD), using Pseudomonas oleovorans as cell factories were 20h of fermentation time and a total carbon substrate concentration of 40mM...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919613/cellular-uptake-of-glucoheptoamidated-poly-amidoamine-pamam-g3-dendrimer-with-amide-conjugated-biotin-a-potential-carrier-of-anticancer-drugs
#14
Łukasz Uram, Magdalena Szuster, Aleksandra Filipowicz, Magdalena Zaręba, Elżbieta Wałajtys-Rode, Stanisław Wołowiec
In search for soluble derivatives of PAMAM dendrimers as potential carriers for hydrophobic drugs, the conjugates of PAMAM G3 with biotin, further converted into glycodendrimer with d-glucoheptono-1,4-lactone, were prepared. Polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM) of third generation, G3 was functionalized with four biotin equivalents covalently attached to terminal amine nitrogens via amide bond G3(4B). The remaining 28 amine groups were blocked by glucoheptoamide substituents (gh) to give G3(4B28gh) or with one fluorescein equivalent (attached by reaction of G3(4B) with fluorescein isothiocyanate, FITC) via thiourea bond as FITC followed by exhaustive glucoheptoamidation to get G3(4B27gh1F)...
November 25, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919568/all-trans-retinoic-acid-suppresses-the-adhering-ability-of-arpe-19-cells-via-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-and-focal-adhesion-kinase
#15
Yo-Chen Chang, Yuh-Shin Chang, Ming-Chu Hsieh, Horng-Jiun Wu, Meng-Hsien Wu, Chia-Wei Lin, Wen-Chuan Wu, Ying-Hsien Kao
This study investigated the signaling mechanism underlying the anti-adhesive effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on retinal pigment epithelial ARPE-19 cells. Adhesion kinetics with or without ATRA treatment were profiled by adhesion assay. Surface coating with type IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, but not type I collagen, significantly enhanced adhesion and spreading of ARPE-19 cells, while ATRA at subtoxic doses (ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-6) M) profoundly suppressed the extracellular matrix-enhanced adhesion ability...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919267/targeted-drug-delivery-of-near-ir-fluorescent-doxorubicin-conjugated-poly-ethylene-glycol-bisphosphonate-nanoparticles-for-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-primary-and-metastatic-bone-cancer-in-a-mouse-model
#16
S Rudnick-Glick, E Corem-Salkmon, I Grinberg, S Margel
BACKGROUND: Most primary and metastatic bone tumors demonstrate increased osteoclast activity and bone resorption. Current treatment is based on a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Severe side effects are associated with chemotherapy due to use of high dosage and nonspecific uptake. Bisphosphonates have a strong affinity to Ca(2+) ions and are widely used in the treatment of bone disorders. RESULTS: We have engineered a unique biodegradable bisphosphonate nanoparticle (NPs) bearing two functional surface groups: (1) primary amine groups for covalent attachment of a dye/drug (e...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918878/maternal-mental-health-over-the-course-of-four-years-following-childbirth-the-contribution-of-birth-circumstances-and-psycho-social-factors
#17
Ginna Porat-Zyman, Orit Taubman Ben-Ari, Iris Morag, Jacob Kuint
We aimed to identify mothers at risk for poorer maternal mental health (MMH) one month post-partum and to determine changes in MMH over four years in relation to birth circumstances (singleton/twins, full-term/pre-term infant/s, first/non-first child), internal resources (adult attachment styles), and external resources (marital quality and maternal grandmother's support) at one month post-partum. The mediating effects of external resources were also investigated. Questionnaires were completed between 2001 and 2012 by 561 Israeli mothers...
December 5, 2016: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918543/ficd-acts-bifunctionally-to-ampylate-and-de-ampylate-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperone-bip
#18
Steffen Preissler, Claudia Rato, Luke A Perera, Vladimir Saudek, David Ron
Protein folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is defended by an unfolded protein response that matches ER chaperone capacity to the burden of unfolded proteins. As levels of unfolded proteins decline, a metazoan-specific FIC-domain-containing ER-localized enzyme (FICD) rapidly inactivates the major ER chaperone BiP by AMPylating T518. Here we show that the single catalytic domain of FICD can also release the attached AMP, restoring functionality to BiP. Consistent with a role for endogenous FICD in de-AMPylating BiP, FICD(-/-) hamster cells are hypersensitive to introduction of a constitutively AMPylating, de-AMPylation-defective mutant FICD...
December 5, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918440/a-computational-study-of-structure-and-reactivity-of-n-substitued-4-piperidones-curcumin-analogues-and-their-radical-anions
#19
Maximiliano Martínez-Cifuentes, Boris Weiss-López, Ramiro Araya-Maturana
In this work, a computational study of a series of N-substitued-4-piperidones curcumin analogues is presented. The molecular structure of the neutral molecules and their radical anions, as well as their reactivity, are investigated. N-substituents include methyl and benzyl groups, while substituents on the aromatic rings cover electron-donor and electron-acceptor groups. Substitutions at the nitrogen atom do not significantly affect the geometry and frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) energies of these molecules...
December 2, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918193/dna-barcodes-identify-medically-important-tick-species-in-canada
#20
Danielle A Ondrejicka, Kevin C Morey, Robert H Hanner
Medically important ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are often difficult to identify morphologically. A standardized, molecular approach using a 658 base pair DNA barcode sequence (from the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene) was evaluated for its effectiveness in discriminating ticks in North America, with an emphasis on Canadian ticks. DNA barcodes were generated for 96 of 154 specimens representing 26 ixodid species. A genetic cluster analysis was performed on the barcode sequences, which separated specimens into haplogroups closely corresponding with morphologically identified species...
July 19, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
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