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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750339/differential-neuronal-and-glial-behavior-on-flat-and-micro-patterned-chitosan-films
#1
Marta Mattotti, Zaida Alvarez, Luis Delgado, Miguel A Mateos-Timoneda, Conrado Aparicio, Josep A Planell, Soledad Alcántara, Elisabeth Engel
Chitosan is a biodegradable natural polysaccharide that has been widely studied for regenerative purposes in the central nervous system. In this study we assessed the in vitro glial and neuronal cells response to chitosan either flat or patterned with grooves in the micrometric range. Chitosan demonstrated to be a good substrate for the attachment and growth of both neurons and glial cells. Chitosan micropatterns promoted glial cell maturation, suggesting astroglial activation. Nevertheless, those mature/reactive glial cells were permissive for axonal growth...
July 19, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750073/a-preliminary-study-to-estimate-contact-rates-between-free-roaming-domestic-dogs-using-novel-miniature-cameras
#2
Courtenay B Bombara, Salome Dürr, Gabriel E Machovsky-Capuska, Peter W Jones, Michael P Ward
Information on contacts between individuals within a population is crucial to inform disease control strategies, via parameterisation of disease spread models. In this study we investigated the use of dog-borne video cameras-in conjunction with global positioning systems (GPS) loggers-to both characterise dog-to-dog contacts and to estimate contact rates. We customized miniaturised video cameras, enclosed within 3D-printed plastic cases, and attached these to nylon dog collars. Using two 3400 mAh NCR lithium Li-ion batteries, cameras could record a maximum of 22 hr of continuous video footage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749945/quantitative-computed-tomography-determined-regional-lung-mechanics-in-normal-nonsmokers-normal-smokers-and-metastatic-sarcoma-subjects
#3
Jiwoong Choi, Eric A Hoffman, Ching-Long Lin, Mohammed M Milhem, Jean Tessier, John D Newell
OBJECTIVES: Extra-thoracic tumors send out pilot cells that attach to the pulmonary endothelium. We hypothesized that this could alter regional lung mechanics (tissue stiffening or accumulation of fluid and inflammatory cells) through interactions with host cells. We explored this with serial inspiratory computed tomography (CT) and image matching to assess regional changes in lung expansion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 44 pairs of two serial CT scans on 21 sarcoma patients: 12 without lung metastases and 9 with lung metastases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749929/chemoenzymatic-synthesis-of-glycoengineered-igg-antibodies-and-glycosite-specific-antibody-drug-conjugates
#4
Feng Tang, Lai-Xi Wang, Wei Huang
Glycoengineered therapeutic antibodies and glycosite-specific antibody-drug conjugates (gsADCs) have generated great interest among researchers because of their therapeutic potential. Endoglycosidase-catalyzed in vitro glycoengineering technology is a powerful tool for IgG Fc (fragment cystallizable) N-glycosylation remodeling. In this protocol, native heterogeneously glycosylated IgG N-glycans are first deglycosylated with a wild-type endoglycosidase. Next, a homogeneous N-glycan substrate, presynthesized as described here, is attached to the remaining N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) of IgG, using a mutant endoglycosidase (also called endoglycosynthase) that lacks hydrolytic activity but possesses transglycosylation activity for glycoengineering...
August 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749899/effect-of-donor-and-recipient-diabetes-status-on-descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty-adherence-and-survival
#5
Marianne O Price, Marek Lisek, Matthew T Feng, Francis W Price
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether donor and/or recipient diabetes status affects the outcomes of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). METHODS: A consecutive, single-center DMEK case series was reviewed. The outcome measures were success of surgeon tissue preparation, air reinjection rate, Kaplan-Meier 4-year graft replacement/failure rate for any reason, and endothelial cell loss. RESULTS: The donor had a history of diabetes in 504 of 1791 cases (28%) and the recipient in 14%...
July 26, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749687/site-specific-covalent-conjugation-of-modified-mrna-by-trna-guanine-transglycosylase
#6
Fabian Ehret, Cun Yu Zhou, Seth C Alexander, Dongyang Zhang, Neal K Devaraj
Modified messenger RNA (mod-mRNA) has recently been widely studied as the form of RNA useful for therapeutic applications due to its high stability and lowered immune response. Herein we extend the scope of the recently established RNA-TAG (transglycosylation at guanosine) methodology, a novel approach for genetically encoded site-specific labeling of large mRNA transcripts, by employing mod-mRNA as substrate. As a proof of concept, we covalently attached a fluorescent probe to mCherry encoding mod-mRNA transcripts bearing 5-methylcytidine and/or pseudouridine substitutions with high labeling efficiencies...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749501/a-mild-post-functionalization-method-for-the-vanadium-substituted-p2w15v3-wells-dawson-polyoxometalate-based-on-a-copper-catalyzed-azide-alkyne-cycloaddition
#7
S Vanhaecht, T Quanten, T N Parac-Vogt
A mild post-functionalization method, based on a copper(i) catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, was developed for the fragile [P2W15V3](9-) (PWV). PWV was functionalized with an azide and used as a platform to attach various alkyne functionalized compounds.
July 27, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749324/investigation-of-the-fim1-putative-pilus-locus-of-streptococcus-equi-subspecies-equi
#8
Karen Frances Steward, Carl Robinson, Duncan J Maskell, Chiara Nenci, Andrew Stephen Waller
The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is the causative agent of strangles, among the most frequently diagnosed infectious diseases of horses worldwide. Genome analysis of S. equi strain 4047 (Se4047) identified a putative operon, Fim1, with similarity to the pilus loci of other Gram-positive bacteria. The Fim1 locus was present in all strains of S. equi and its close relative S. equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) that have been studied to date. In this study we provide evidence that the putative structural pilus proteins, SEQ_0936 and CNE, are produced on the cell surface during in vitro growth and in vivo infection...
July 28, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748636/compact-cell-settlers-for-perfusion-cultures-of-microbial-and-mammalian-cells
#9
Cassandra A Freeman, Premsingh S D Samuel, Dhinakar S Kompala
As microbial secretory expression systems have become well developed for microbial yeast cells, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, it is advantageous to develop high cell density continuous perfusion cultures of microbial yeast cells to retain the live and productive yeast cells inside the perfusion bioreactor while removing the dead cells and cell debris along with the secreted product protein in the harvest stream. While the previously demonstrated inclined or lamellar settlers can be used for such perfusion bioreactors for microbial cells, the size and footprint requirements of such inefficiently scaled up devices can be quite large in comparison to the bioreactor size...
July 27, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748517/analysis-of-cation-dependent-dna-g3t1-4-shape-change-using-fluorescence-correlation-spectroscopy
#10
Jaeran Lee, Sok Won Kim
In G-rich DNA, it is well known that the form changes from single-strand DNA to G-quadruplex due to cations. In this study, we analyze the diffusion coefficient and fluorescence intensity obtained by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for short G-rich DNA of the (G3T1)4 sequence labeled as 5-Carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA) with variation of the K(+) ion concentration. At a K(+) ion concentration of more than 200 mM, the single-strand DNA was changed to the G-quadruplex. The size of the G-quadruplex decreased to 86% than the size of the single strand DNA at K(+) ion concentration of 0 M...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748362/case-study-failure-of-superior-capsular-reconstruction-using-dermal-allograft
#11
J Zerr, J D McDermott, N M Beckmann, R K Fullick, A Chhabra
Superior capsular reconstruction (SCR) is a novel technique for treating irreparable rotator cuff tears in younger patients in whom a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is not the optimal treatment choice. This case study describes a middle-aged male with a recurrent, massive, irreparable rotator cuff tear treated with SCR that subsequently failed at the glenoid attachment. The patient underwent successful arthroscopic revision of the SCR. The case illustrates the MRI and arthroscopic correlations of the failed dermal allograft reconstruction, which to our knowledge has not been previously shown in the radiology literature...
July 26, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748210/dataset-on-genetic-and-physiological-adults-responses-to-social-distress
#12
Andrea Bonassi, Tommaso Ghilardi, Anna Truzzi, Ilaria Cataldo, Atiqah Azhari, Peipei Setoh, Kazuyuki Shinohara, Gianluca Esposito
Both expectations towards interactions with conspecifics, and genetic predispositions, affect adults׳ social behaviors. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report data to investigate the interaction between genetic factors, (oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms), and adult interactional patterns in shaping physiological responses to social distress. During the presentation of distress vocalizations (cries of human female, infants and bonobos) we assessed participants׳ (N = 42 males) heart rate (HR) and peripheral nose temperature, which index state of arousal and readiness to action...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748111/dimerized-domain-v-of-beta2-glycoprotein-i-is-sufficient-to-upregulate-procoagulant-activity-in-pma-treated-u937-monocytes-and-require-intact-residues-in-two-phospholipid-binding-loops
#13
Alexey Kolyada, David A Barrios, Natalia Beglova
Upregulation of the procoagulant activity of monocytes by antibodies to beta2- glycoprotein I (β2GPI) is one of the mechanisms contributing to thrombosis in antiphospholipid syndrome. Current knowledge about receptors responsible for the upregulation of procoagulant activity by β2GPI/anti-β2GPI complexes and their binding sites on β2GPI is far from complete. We quantified the procoagulant activity expressed by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)- differentiated U937 cells by measuring clotting kinetics in human plasma exposed to stimulated cells...
June 2017: Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747528/embryo-implantation-evolved-from-an-ancestral-inflammatory-attachment-reaction
#14
Oliver W Griffith, Arun R Chavan, Stella Protopapas, Jamie Maziarz, Roberto Romero, Gunter P Wagner
The molecular changes that support implantation in eutherian mammals are necessary to establish pregnancy. In marsupials, pregnancy is relatively short, and although a placenta does form, it is present for only a few days before parturition. However, morphological changes in the uterus of marsupials at term mimic those that occur during implantation in humans and mice. We investigated the molecular similarity between term pregnancy in the marsupials and implantation in eutherian mammals using the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) as a model...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747508/mutations-in-the-e2-glycoprotein-and-the-3-untranslated-region-enhance-chikungunya-virus-virulence-in-mice
#15
David W Hawman, Kathryn S Carpentier, Julie M Fox, Nicholas A May, Wes Sanders, Stephanie A Montgomery, Nathaniel J Moorman, Michael S Diamond, Thomas E Morrison
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes debilitating musculoskeletal pain and inflammation and can persist for months to years after acute infection. Although studies in humans and experimentally-infected animals suggest that CHIKV infection persists in musculoskeletal tissues, the mechanisms for this remain poorly understood. To evaluate this further, we isolated CHIKV from the serum of persistently infected Rag1(-/-) mice at day 28. When inoculated into naïve WT mice, this persistently circulating CHIKV strain displayed a capacity for earlier dissemination and greater pathogenicity compared with the parental virus...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747507/roles-of-cellular-nsf-protein-in-entry-and-nuclear-egress-of-budded-virions-of-autographa-californica-multiple-nucleopolyhedrovirus
#16
Ya Guo, Qi Yue, Jinli Gao, Zhe Wang, Yun-Ru Chen, Gary W Blissard, Tong-Xian Liu, Zhaofei Li
In eukaryotic cells, the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins comprise the minimal machinery that triggers fusion of transport vesicles with their target membranes. Comparative studies revealed that genes encoding the components of the SNARE system are highly conserved in yeast, insect, and human genomes. Upon infection of insect cells by the virus AcMNPV, the transcript levels of most SNARE genes were initially up-regulated. We found that overexpression of dominant-negative (DN) forms of NSF or knock-down of the expression of NSF, the key regulator of the SNARE system, significantly affected the infectious AcMNPV production...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747497/the-genetic-stability-of-piv5-vectored-rsv-vaccine-candidates-after-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-passage
#17
Shannon I Phan, Carolyn M Adam, Zhenhai Chen, Michael Citron, Xiaoping Liang, Amy S Espeseth, Dai Wang, Biao He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading etiologic agent of lower respiratory tract infections in children, but no licensed vaccine exists. Previously, our laboratory developed two parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-based RSV vaccine candidates that protect mice against RSV challenge. PIV5 was engineered to express either the RSV fusion protein (F) or the RSV major attachment glycoprotein (G) between the HN and L genes of the PIV5 genome [PIV5-RSV-F (HN-L) or PIV5-RSV-G (HN-L)]. To investigate the stability of the vaccine candidates in vitro, they were passaged in Vero cells at high and low multiplicities of infection (MOI) for eleven generations and the genome sequences, growth kinetics, and protein expression of the resulting viruses were compared with those of the parent viruses...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747495/hiv-and-siv-maintain-high-levels-of-infectivity-in-the-complete-absence-of-mucin-type-o-glycosylation
#18
James M Termini, Elizabeth S Church, Zachary A Silver, Stuart M Haslam, Anne Dell, Ronald C Desrosiers
A highly conserved threonine near the C-terminus of gp120 of HIV and SIV was investigated for its contributions to envelope protein function and virion infectivity. When this highly conserved Thr residue was substituted with anything other than serine (the other amino acid that can accept O-glycosylation), the resulting virus was non-infectious. We found that this Thr was critical for the association of gp120 with the virion and that amino acid substitution increased the amount of dissociated gp120 in the cell culture supernatant...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747466/network-activity-influences-the-subthreshold-and-spiking-visual-responses-of-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-three-layer-turtle-cortex
#19
Nathaniel Caleb Wright, Ralf Wessel
A primary goal of systems neuroscience is to understand cortical function, which typically involves studying spontaneous and stimulus-modulated cortical activity. Mounting evidence suggests a strong and complex relationship exists between the ongoing and stimulus-modulated cortical state. To date, most work in this area has been based on spiking in populations of neurons. While advantageous in many respects, this approach is limited in scope; it records the activity of a minority of neurons, and gives no direct indication of the underlying subthreshold dynamics...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747398/a-durable-and-biocompatible-ascorbic-acid-based-covalent-coating-method-of-polydimethylsiloxane-for-dynamic-cell-culture
#20
Joni Leivo, Sanni Virjula, Sari Vanhatupa, Kimmo Kartasalo, Joose Kreutzer, Susanna Miettinen, Pasi Kallio
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is widely used in dynamic biological microfluidic applications. As a highly hydrophobic material, native PDMS does not support cell attachment and culture, especially in dynamic conditions. Previous covalent coating methods use glutaraldehyde (GA) which, however, is cytotoxic. This paper introduces a novel and simple method for binding collagen type I covalently on PDMS using ascorbic acid (AA) as a cross-linker instead of GA. We compare the novel method against physisorption and GA cross-linker-based methods...
July 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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