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Harri Hemilä
BACKGROUND: Vitamin E has influenced the immune system in laboratory studies. Dozens of animal experiments have found that vitamin E offered protection against infections caused by viruses and bacteria. Previously, significant heterogeneity was found in the effect of vitamin E supplementation on pneumonia in humans. The aim of this study was to examine how the effect of vitamin E on pneumonia risk depends on age. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention study in Finland, 1985-1993, was performed...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Zhe Wu, Wipawee Dejtisakdi, Prasart Kermanee, Chunhong Ma, Wallop Arirob, Ramaraj Sathasivam, Niran Juntawong
To evaluate the potential for algal biotechnology to replace traditional agriculture in northeastern Thailand, an open race-way cultivation system was developed to produce biomass and beta-carotene. Dunaliella salina KU 11 isolated from local saline soil was cultured in open race-way tanks using brine and saline lake water. Grown in modified Johnson's medium (with 2-3.5 M NaCl), the algae reached a maximum cell density on the fourth day (1.8×10(6) cells mL(-1) ). Increasing KNO3 and NaHCO3 from 0.5 and 0.043 g L(-1) to 1 and 2...
October 3, 2016: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
S Gharbi, G Renda, L La Barbera, M Amri, C M Messina, A Santulli
Consumption of tomato and tomato products is positively related to the reduction in cardiovascular disease and several types of cancer, thanks to the presence of natural compounds, such as antioxidants. Peels and seeds fractions of tomato, collected after industrial processing in Tunisian industries, were analysed for nutritional and antioxidants composition in perspective of its utilisation. Proximate composition, fatty acids profile, carotenoids, such as lycopene and beta-carotene, polyphenols contents, demonstrated the good potential of these residual products as a source of natural compounds, useful for food and nutraceuticals applications...
August 10, 2016: Natural Product Research
Thiago Queiroz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Chizuko Maruyama, Rena Nakano, Mitsuha Shima, Asumi Mae, Yuri Shijo, Eri Nakamura, Yuuna Okabe, Sunmi Park, Noriko Kameyama, Satomi Hirai, Mamoru Nakanishi, Kagehiro Uchida, Hiroshi Nishiyama
AIM: We conducted a pilot study to clarify the effects of the Japan Diet nutritional education program on metabolic risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men who were brought up in the westernized dietary environment of modern Japan. METHODS: Thirty-three men, 30-49 years of age, attended a nutrition education class to learn food items and recommended volumes comprising the Japan Diet (more fish, soybeans and soy products, vegetables, seaweed, mushrooms and unrefined cereals, and less animal fat, meat and poultry with fat, sweets, desserts and snacks, and alcoholic drinks), and were encouraged to consume the Japan Diet for 6 weeks...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
M Esrefoglu, A Akinci, E Taslidere, H Elbe, A Cetin, B Ates
Antioxidants are potential therapeutic agents for reducing stress-induced organ damage. We investigated the effects of ascorbic acid and β-carotene on oxidative stress-induced cerebral, cerebellar, cardiac and hepatic damage using microscopy and biochemistry. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: untreated control, stressed, stressed + saline, stressed + ascorbic acid and stressed + β-carotene. The rats in the stressed groups were subjected to starvation, immobilization and cold. The histopathological damage scores for the stressed and stressed + saline groups were higher than those of the control group for all organs examined...
October 2016: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
Toru Nagao, Saman Warnakulasuriya, Hidenori Sakuma, Satoru Miyabe, Shogo Hasegawa, Junichiro Machida, Koji Suzuki, Hideo Fukano, Kazuo Shimozato, Shuji Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: We performed a randomized controlled chemoprevention trial of oral leukoplakia by administrating a low dose of beta-carotene and vitamin C supplements. 17% of subjects in the experimental arm (4/23) demonstrated clinical remission (complete or partial response) at completion of the trial. The objective of this study was to determine whether baseline expression of p53 and ki67 demonstrated any differences between those responding or not responding to our intervention. A secondary objective was to elucidate any relationship between dietary factors and clinical responses...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
Khadidja Dehimi, Antonio Speciale, Antonina Saija, Saliha Dahamna, Roberto Raciti, Francesco Cimino, Mariateresa Cristani
BACKGROUND: Thymelaea microphylla Coss. et Dur. (Thymelaeaceae) (TM) is a rare medicinal plant endemic to Algeria. Leaves decoction is used in folk medicine for anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic properties. OBJECTIVE: Herein, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of different extracts from leaves and flowers of Algerian TM were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out by in vitro cell-free assays (antioxidant/radical properties), ex vivo experiments (inhibition of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 release in human whole blood) and in vitro experiments on cell systems (cytotoxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and protective effects on human vein endothelial cells exposed to TNF-α)...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Li Li, Lutz Krause, Shawn Somerset
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) involves chronic inflammation and oxidative stress affecting mainly the respiratory and digestive systems. Survival rates for CF have improved with advances in treatment including nutritional interventions such as micronutrient supplementation. Diet can modulate gut microbiota in the general population with consequences on local and systemic immunity, and inflammation. The gut microbiota appears disrupted and may associate with pulmonary status in CF. This study investigated associations between micronutrient intakes and gut microbiota variations in a group of adults with CF...
August 27, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
David P L Toews, Scott A Taylor, Rachel Vallender, Alan Brelsford, Bronwyn G Butcher, Philipp W Messer, Irby J Lovette
When related taxa hybridize extensively, their genomes may become increasingly homogenized over time. This mixing via hybridization creates conservation challenges when it reduces genetic or phenotypic diversity and when it endangers previously distinct species via genetic swamping [1]. However, hybridization also facilitates admixture mapping of traits that distinguish each species and the associated genes that maintain distinctiveness despite ongoing gene flow [2]. We address these dual aspects of hybridization in the golden-winged/blue-winged warbler complex, two phenotypically divergent warblers that are indistinguishable using traditional molecular markers and that draw substantial conservation attention [3-5]...
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Eugenia H Miranti, Neal D Freedman, Stephanie J Weinstein, Christian C Abnet, Jacob Selhub, Gwen Murphy, Lena Diaw, Satu Männistö, Philip R Taylor, Demetrius Albanes, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon
BACKGROUND: The nonessential amino acid cysteine is known to be involved in many antioxidant and anticarcinogenic pathways. Cysteinylglycine is a pro-oxidant metabolite of glutathione and a precursor of cysteine. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between serum cysteine and cysteinylglycine and risk of gastric adenocarcinomas, esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, we conducted a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention study of male Finnish smokers aged 50-69 y at baseline...
September 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Shakira M Nelson, Orestis A Panagiotou, Gabriella M Anic, Alison M Mondul, Satu Männistö, Stephanie J Weinstein, Demetrius Albanes
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has been discussed in the context of cardiovascular disease, cancer, bone health and other outcomes. Epidemiological studies have reported on the importance of vitamin D in cancer prevention and treatment. The discovery of vitamin D-associated metabolites through agnostic metabolomics analyses offers a new approach for elucidating disease aetiology and health-related pathway identification. METHODS: Baseline serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] and 940 serum metabolites were measured in 392 men from eight nested cancer case-control studies in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study of Finnish male smokers (aged 50-69 years)...
August 14, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Vivek Vashishtha, Kalpana Barhwal, Ashish Kumar, Sunil Kumar Hota, Om Prakash Chaurasia, Bhuvnesh Kumar
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The present study aimed at investigating whether dietary supplementation of seabuckthorn seed oil which is rich in omega fatty acids at an oral dose of 0.75 ml could affect cardiovascular risk factors and reduce hypertension and systolic blood pressure. METHODS: Toxicological evaluation and efficacy of seabuckthorn seed oil in reducing high fat diet induced dyslipidemia was initially conducted on adult male Sprague Dawley rats. 32 normal and 74 hypertensive and hypercholestrolemic human subjects participated in the randomized, controlled, double blind longitudinal study...
August 3, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Inger Christine Munch, Ulla Toft, Allan Linneberg, Michael Larsen
PURPOSE: To investigate associations of very early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with daily intake of vitamin A, beta-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc and copper and interactions with AMD-associated polymorphisms in complement factor H (CFHY402H) and ARMS2/LOC387715. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 848 subjects aged 30-60 years from the Inter99 Eye Study. Daily intake of vitamins and minerals was estimated from a 198-item food frequency questionnaire...
November 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
Giovanni Lodi, Roberto Franchini, Saman Warnakulasuriya, Elena Maria Varoni, Andrea Sardella, Alexander R Kerr, Antonio Carrassi, L C I MacDonald, Helen V Worthington
BACKGROUND: Oral leukoplakia is a relatively common oral lesion that, in a small proportion of people, precedes the development of oral cancer. Most leukoplakias are asymptomatic; therefore, the primary objective of treatment should be to prevent onset of cancer. This review updates our previous review, published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of treatments for leukoplakia in preventing oral cancer. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 16 May 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 4), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 16 May 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 16 May 2016) and CancerLit via PubMed (1950 to 16 May 2016)...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Huirong Zhu, Stacia M DeSantis, Sheng Luo
Longitudinal zero-inflated count data are encountered frequently in substance-use research when assessing the effects of covariates and risk factors on outcomes. Often, both the time to a terminal event such as death or dropout and repeated measure count responses are collected for each subject. In this setting, the longitudinal counts are censored by the terminal event, and the time to the terminal event may depend on the longitudinal outcomes. In the study described herein, we expand the class of joint models for longitudinal and survival data to accommodate zero-inflated counts and time-to-event data by using a Cox proportional hazards model with piecewise constant baseline hazard...
July 26, 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Mengjin Cao, Xuesong Zhang, Xiaojiig Wang, Xiang Shen, Zhu Wang
OBJECTIVE: To optimize the determination method of carotene in order to separate the alpha and beta carotene. METHODS: The homogenized samples were extracted with ethanol before saponification, and then extracted with petroleum ether followed by wash, dry and concentration. At last, the separation was performed on the high performance liquid chromatographic with YMC Carotenoid C30 column (3 microm 4.6 mm x 150 mm). The mobile phase was consisted of A (methanol: acetonitrile: water = 73...
May 2016: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Guillermo Sánchez, John Nova, Andrea Esperanza Rodriguez-Hernandez, Roger David Medina, Carolina Solorzano-Restrepo, Jenny Gonzalez, Miguel Olmos, Kathie Godfrey, Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: 'Keratinocyte cancer' is now the preferred term for the most commonly identified skin cancers basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), which were previously commonly categorised as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Keratinocyte cancer (KC) represents about 95% of malignant skin tumours. Lifestyle changes have led to increased exposure to the sun, which has, in turn, led to a significant increase of new cases of KC, with a worldwide annual incidence of between 3% and 8%...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yuanjie Pan, Rohan V Tikekar, N Nitin
The overall goal of this study was to characterize the distribution of a model bioactive encapsulant in the lipid domain of SLNs and NLCs and its relationship with loading efficiency and reactivity of the model encapsulant with oxidative stress agents. Distribution of a model bioactive (beta-carotene) was compared to that of a fluorescent dye (Nile red) in SLNs, 10% NLC, 30% NLC, 50% NLC, 70% NLC (the number represents the percentage of liquid lipid within the total lipid amount) and emulsions. Fluorescence imaging shows that the distribution of Nile red in the lipid domain of colloidal carriers was similar to that of beta-carotene in all formulations...
September 10, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Xiaoming Gong, Raju Marisiddaiah, Susan Zaripheh, Doris Wiener, Lewis P Rubin
: Despite numerous inquiries into protective roles of lycopene in prostate cancer (PCa) prevention or therapy, little is known about mechanisms by which lycopene or its metabolites inhibit PCa. The enzyme beta-carotene 9,10'-oxygenase (BCO2), which catalyzes asymmetric cleavage of several carotenoids, is the principal regulator of lycopene metabolism, but the range of BCO2 biological functions is incompletely understood. This study investigated expression and functional roles of BCO2 in human PCa...
July 12, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
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