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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096780/molecular-breeding-of-a-novel-orange-brown-tomato-fruit-with-enhanced-beta-carotene-and-chlorophyll-accumulation
#1
Ranjith Kumar Manoharan, Hee-Jeong Jung, Indeok Hwang, Namhee Jeong, Kang Hee Kho, Mi-Young Chung, Ill-Sup Nou
BACKGROUND: Tomatoes provide a significant dietary source of the carotenoids, lycopene and β-carotene. During ripening, carotenoid accumulation determines the fruit colors while chlorophyll degradation. These traits have been, and continue to be, a significant focus for plant breeding efforts. Previous work has found strong evidence for a relationship between CYC-B gene expression and the orange color of fleshy fruit. Other work has identified a point mutation in SGR that impedes chlorophyll degradation and causes brown flesh color to be retained in some tomato varieties...
2017: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096201/serum-c-peptide-total-and-high-molecular-weight-adiponectin-and-pancreatic-cancer-do-associations-differ-by-smoking
#2
Leticia M Nogueira, Christina C Newton, Michael N Pollak, Debra T Silverman, Demetrius Albanes, Satu Männistö, Stephanie J Weinstein, Eric J Jacobs, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon
BACKGROUND: Studies examining associations between circulating concentrations of C-peptide and total adiponectin, two biomarkers related to obesity and insulin secretion and sensitivity and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) risk have shown inconsistent results and included limited numbers of smokers. METHODS: We examined associations of these biomarkers and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin with PDA, overall, and by smoking status. We conducted a pooled nested case-control analysis in 3 cohorts (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Trial, Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, and Cancer Prevention Study-II), with 758 cases (435 current smokers) and 1052 controls (531 smokers) matched by cohort, age, sex, race, blood draw date and follow-up time...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077427/serum-trimethylamine-n-oxide-carnitine-choline-and-betaine-in-relation-to-colorectal-cancer-risk-in-the-alpha-tocopherol-and-beta-carotene-study
#3
Kristin A Guertin, Xinmin S Li, Barry I Graubard, Demetrius Albanes, Stephanie J Weinstein, James J Goedert, Zeneng Wang, Stanley L Hazen, Rashmi Sinha
BACKGROUND: TMAO, a choline-derived metabolite produced by gut microbiota, and its biomarker precursors have not been adequately evaluated in relation to colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of TMAO and its biomarker precursors (choline, carnitine and betaine) and incident colorectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study of male smokers in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study...
January 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061399/transcriptome-sequencing-and-metabolic-pathways-of-astaxanthin-accumulated-in-haematococcus-pluvialis-mutant-under-15-co2
#4
Jun Cheng, Ke Li, Yanxia Zhu, Weijuan Yang, Junhu Zhou, Kefa Cen
Transcriptome sequencing and annotation was performed on Haematococcus pluvialis mutant red cells induced with high light under 15% CO2 to demonstrate why astaxanthin yield of the mutant was 1.7 times higher than that of a wild strain. It was found that 56% of 1947 differentially expressed genes were upregulated in mutant cells. Most significant differences were found in unigenes related to photosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways. The pyruvate kinase increased by 3.5-fold in mutant cells...
December 24, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054464/economic-improvement-of-continuous-pharmaceutical-production-via-the-optimal-control-of-a-multi-feed-bioreactor
#5
Jonathan P Raftery, Melanie R DeSessa, M Nazmul Karim
Projections on the profitability of the pharmaceutical industry predict a large amount of growth in the coming years. Stagnation over the last 20 years in product development has led to the search for new processing methods leading to improvements in profitability by the reduction of operating costs or the improvement of process productivity. This work proposes a novel multi-feed bioreactor system composed of independently controlled feeds for substrate(s) and media used as a supplement and allows for the free manipulation of the bioreactor supply rate and substrate concentrations to maximize bioreactor productivity and substrate utilization while reducing operating costs...
January 5, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034704/antioxidants-taken-orally-prior-to-diagnostic-radiation-exposure-can-prevent-dna-injury
#6
Nivethan Velauthapillai, Joe Barfett, Hussein Jaffer, David Mikulis, Kieran Murphy
PURPOSE: To evaluate efficacy of oral antioxidant treatment given to patients before radiologic procedures in reducing x-ray-induced DNA damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a single-center prospective controlled trial, antioxidant treatment with 2 g ascorbate, 1.2 g N-acetylcysteine, 600 mg lipoic acid, and 30 mg beta carotene was given to 5 consecutive participants before undergoing clinically indicated technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc MDP) bone scans for cancer staging...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031192/identifying-biomarkers-of-dietary-patterns-by-using-metabolomics
#7
Mary C Playdon, Steven C Moore, Andriy Derkach, Jill Reedy, Amy F Subar, Joshua N Sampson, Demetrius Albanes, Fangyi Gu, Jukka Kontto, Camille Lassale, Linda M Liao, Satu Männistö, Alison M Mondul, Stephanie J Weinstein, Melinda L Irwin, Susan T Mayne, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon
BACKGROUND: Healthy dietary patterns that conform to national dietary guidelines are related to lower chronic disease incidence and longer life span. However, the precise mechanisms involved are unclear. Identifying biomarkers of dietary patterns may provide tools to validate diet quality measurement and determine underlying metabolic pathways influenced by diet quality. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the correlation of 4 diet quality indexes [the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED), the WHO Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and the Baltic Sea Diet (BSD)] with serum metabolites...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017254/role-of-vitamin-a-metabolism-in-iih-results-from-the-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-treatment-trial
#8
J Libien, M J Kupersmith, W Blaner, M P McDermott, S Gao, Y Liu, J Corbett, M Wall
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin A and its metabolites (called retinoids) have been thought to play a role in the development of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). The IIH Treatment Trial (IIHTT) showed the efficacy of acetazolamide (ACZ) in improving visual field function, papilledema grade, quality of life and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. We postulated that IIH patients would demonstrate elevated measures of vitamin A metabolites in the serum and CSF. METHODS: Comprehensive measures of serum vitamin A and its metabolites were obtained from 96 IIHTT subjects, randomly assigned to treatment with ACZ or placebo, and 25 controls with similar gender, age and body mass index (BMI)...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011986/carotenoid-intake-and-risk-of-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-a-systematic-review-and-dose-response-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#9
REVIEW
Feifei Chen, Jiyi Hu, Ping Liu, Jing Li, Zheng Wei, Peng Liu
Carotenoids may play a protective role in the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but findings from epidemiological studies on the associations between carotenoid intake and NHL risk are inconsistent. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to systemically evaluate the associations. Eligible studies were identified by a search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and article reference lists. We pooled risk estimates from individual studies using a random-effect model to quantify the associations between intakes of specific carotenoids and NHL risk...
December 24, 2016: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941847/association-between-vitamin-a-retinol-and-carotenoid-intake-and-pancreatic-cancer-risk-evidence-from-epidemiologic-studies
#10
Xiaoyi Huang, Yisha Gao, Xiaosong Zhi, Na Ta, Hui Jiang, Jianming Zheng
Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with poor prognosis. The association between vitamin A, retinol and carotenoid intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer occurrence remains controversial, and therefore it is necessary to make a meta-analysis to clarify the association between vitamin A, retinol and carotenoid intake and pancreatic cancer risk. In the present study, PubMed and EMBASE databases were used to identify qualified studies. The association between dietary vitamin A, retinol and carotenoids was estimated by pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
December 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941116/greater-coronary-heart-disease-risk-with-lower-intensity-and-longer-duration-smoking-compared-with-higher-intensity-and-shorter-duration-smoking-congruent-results-across-diverse-cohorts
#11
Jay H Lubin, Demetrius Albanes, Jane A Hoppin, Honglei Chen, Catherine C Lerro, Stephanie J Weinstein, Dale P Sandler, Laura E Beane Freeman
INTRODUCTION: Relative risks (RRs) for coronary heart disease (CHD) by cigarettes/day exhibit a concave pattern, implying the RR increase with each additional cigarette/day consumed decreases with greater intensity. Interpreting this pattern faces limitations, since cigarettes/day alone does not fully characterize smoking-related exposure. A more complete understanding of smoking and CHD risk requires a more comprehensive representation of smoking. METHODS: Using Poisson regression, we applied a RR model in pack-years and cigarettes/day to analyze two diverse cohorts, the US Agricultural Health Study, with 4396 CHD events and 1 425 976 person-years of follow-up, and the Finnish Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, with 5979 CHD events and 486 643 person-years...
December 9, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929676/antioxidant-supplementation-is-not-associated-with-long-term-quality-of-life-in-stage-ii-colorectal-cancer-survivors-a-follow-up-of-the-study-of-colorectal-cancer-survivors-cohort
#12
Cari Lewis Tsinovoi, Pengcheng Xun, Ka He
Cancer survivors are motivated to change lifestyle following diagnosis, but studies investigating the outcomes are scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between antioxidant supplementation and quality of life (QoL) in stage-II colorectal cancer survivors. Four-hundred-fifty-three survivors were enrolled from the North Carolina Cancer Registry from 2009 to 2011. Interview data on demography, treatment, health behaviors, and QoL were collected at diagnosis, and at 12 and 24 mo post-diagnosis...
January 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899367/intake-of-key-micronutrients-and-food-groups-in-patients-with-late-stage-age-related-macular-degeneration-compared-with-age-sex-matched-controls
#13
Bamini Gopinath, Gerald Liew, Joanna Russell, Victoria Cosatto, George Burlutsky, Paul Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the risk factor profile of patients presenting with late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) could help identify the most frequent modifiable AMD precursors among people who are referred for treatment. We aimed to assess dietary behaviours by comparing adjusted mean intakes of micronutrients and major food groups (fruits, vegetables, fish) among patients with AMD and a sample of age-sex-matched controls. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 480 late AMD cases and 518 population-based age-sex-matched controls with no AMD signs...
November 29, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867449/exploring-the-potential-of-indigenous-foods-to-address-hidden-hunger-nutritive-value-of-indigenous-foods-of-santhal-tribal-community-of-jharkhand-india
#14
Suparna Ghosh-Jerath, Archna Singh, Melina S Magsumbol, Preeti Kamboj, Gail Goldberg
Traditional foods of indigenous communities can be explored as a sustainable means of addressing undernutrition. Our study aimed at identifying indigenous foods of the Santhal tribal community of Godda district of Jharkhand, India, assessing their nutritive value, and appraising their potential role in addressing hidden hunger. A cross-sectional survey using qualitative methods like focus group discussions with women of childbearing age (15-49 years), adult males, and elderly people was conducted for food identification...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859376/microwave-drying-of-germinated-corn-and-its-effect-on-phytochemical-properties
#15
Oraporn Bualuang, Onwude Daniel Iroemeha, Kwanta Pracha
BACKGROUND: Drying is a preservation method that removes or reduces the moisture content of a product. This process could affect the nutritional properties of agricultural crops. Therefore, this research seeks to investigate the effect of microwave drying power (100-700 W) on drying rate, effective diffusivity, antioxidant value of beta-carotene content (BCC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and the antioxidant capacity of sprouted corn, which can be applied as a rich antioxidant source...
November 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855891/modulation-of-chemical-stability-and-in-vitro-bioaccessibility-of-beta-carotene-loaded-in-kappa-carrageenan-oil-in-gel-emulsions
#16
Christos Soukoulis, Maria Tsevdou, Christelle M Andre, Sébastien Cambier, Lina Yonekura, Petros S Taoukis, Lucien Hoffmann
In the present paper, ionotropically structured κ-carrageenan based oil-in-gel (o/g) emulsions were tested as potential carrier systems for the delivery of β-carotene. In situ ionic gelation was induced by Na(+), K(+) or Ca(2+) added at the level of 0.2-0.6% (w/w). All o/g emulsions exerted a true gel like behaviour with storage modulus (G') being reduced according to the order: K(+)>Ca(2+)>Na(+). Ionic gelation induced a moderate increase in the microscopically assessed lipid droplets radii. O/g emulsions containing monovalent ions exerted the highest β-carotene retention throughout isothermal storage particularly at high (37 and 55°C) temperatures...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837090/distinct-mechanisms-of-the-orange-protein-in-controlling-carotenoid-flux
#17
Noam Chayut, Hui Yuan, Shachar Ohali, Ayala Meir, Uzi Sa'ar, Galil Tzuri, Yi Zheng, Michael Mazourek, Shimon Gepstein, Xiangjun Zhou, Vitaly Portnoy, Efraim Lewinsohn, Arthur A Schaffer, Nurit Katzir, Zhangjun Fei, Ralf Welsch, Li Li, Joseph Burger, Yaakov Tadmor
β-Carotene adds nutritious value and determines the color of many fruits, including melon (Cucumis melo). In melon mesocarp, β-carotene accumulation is governed by the Orange gene (CmOr) golden single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) through a yet to be discovered mechanism. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), OR increases carotenoid levels by posttranscriptionally regulating phytoene synthase (PSY). Here, we identified a CmOr nonsense mutation (Cmor-lowβ) that lowered fruit β-carotene levels with impaired chromoplast biogenesis...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823732/cancer-chemoprevention-by-dietary-phytochemicals-epidemiological-evidence
#18
REVIEW
Raúl Baena Ruiz, Pedro Salinas Hernández
BACKGROUND: In recent years, natural compounds called "phytochemicals", which are present in fruits, vegetables, and plants, have received special attention due to their potential to interfere with tumour formation and development. Many of these phytochemicals are being used in chemoprevention strategies. However, the scientific evidence regarding the modification of cancer risk continues to be debated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to review the current scientific evidence and the most relevant epidemiological studies regarding the consumption or use of phytochemicals and their effects on the incidence of cancer...
December 2016: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822323/inhibitory-effect-of-actinidia-arguta-on-mutagenesis-inflammation-and-two-stage-mouse-skin-tumorigenesis
#19
Mari Nishimura, Yuma Okimasu, Naoko Miyake, Misako Tada, Ryoko Hida, Tomoe Negishi, Sakae Arimoto-Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Actinidia arguta, known as sarunashi in Japan, is a vine tree native to east-Asia, including Japan, that produces small fruit rich in anthocyanins, catechins, vitamin C, chlorophyll, beta-carotene and other polyphenols. RESULTS: Our study revealed the inhibitory effect of the juice of A. arguta (arguta-juice) toward the mutagenicity of food-derived carcinogens and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using the Ames test, and antioxidant activity of arguta-juice as determined using a free radical scavenging assay...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780487/vitamin-e-and-the-risk-of-pneumonia-using-the-i-2-statistic-to-quantify-heterogeneity-within-a-controlled-trial
#20
Harri Hemilä
Analyses in nutritional epidemiology usually assume a uniform effect of a nutrient. Previously, four subgroups of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study of Finnish male smokers aged 50-69 years were identified in which vitamin E supplementation either significantly increased or decreased the risk of pneumonia. The purpose of this present study was to quantify the level of true heterogeneity in the effect of vitamin E on pneumonia incidence using the I 2 statistic. The I 2 value estimates the percentage of total variation across studies that is explained by true differences in the treatment effect rather than by chance, with a range from 0 to 100 %...
October 26, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
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