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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202646/mussel-adhesion-essential-footwork
#1
REVIEW
J Herbert Waite
Robust adhesion to wet, salt-encrusted, corroded and slimy surfaces has been an essential adaptation in the life histories of sessile marine organisms for hundreds of millions of years, but it remains a major impasse for technology. Mussel adhesion has served as one of many model systems providing a fundamental understanding of what is required for attachment to wet surfaces. Most polymer engineers have focused on the use of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (Dopa), a peculiar but abundant catecholic amino acid in mussel adhesive proteins...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195063/generation-of-membrane-bound-catechol-o-methyl-transferase-deficient-mice-with-disctinct-sex-dependent-behavioral-phenotype
#2
A Tammimaki, A Aonurm-Helm, F P Zhang, M Poutanen, G Duran-Torres, A Garcia-Horsman, P T Mannisto
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has two isoforms: soluble (S-COMT), which resides in the cytoplasm, and membrane-bound (MB-MT), anchored to intracellular membranes. COMT is involved in the O-methylation of L-DOPA, dopamine and other catechols. The exact role of MB-COMT is still mostly unclear. We wanted to create a novel genetically modified mouse model that specifically lacks MB-COMT activity and to study their behavioral phenotype. MB-COMT knock-in mutant mice were generated by introducing two point mutations in exon 2 of the Comt gene (ATGCTG->GAGCTC disabling the function of the P2 promoter and allowing only the P1-regulated S-COMT transcription...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192140/action-of-2-2-4-4-tetrahydroxybenzophenone-in-the-biosynthesis-pathway-of-melanin
#3
Antonio Garcia-Jimenez, Jose Antonio Teruel-Puche, Pedro Antonio Garcia-Ruiz, Jose Berna, Jose Neptuno Rodríguez-López, Jose Tudela, Francisco Garcia-Canovas
2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (Uvinul D50), a sunscreen used in cosmetics, has two effects in the melanin biosynthesis pathway. On the one hand, it acts a weak inhibitor of tyrosinase and on the other, it accelerates the conversion of dopachrome to melanin. Uvinul D50 was seen to behave as a weak competitive inhibitor: apparent constant inhibition=2.02±0.09mM and IC50=3.82±0.39mM established in this work. These values are higher than those in the bibliography, which tend to be undersetimated. This discrepancy could be explained by the reaction of Uvinul D50 with the dopachrome produced from l-tyrosine or l-dopa, which would interfere in the measurement...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186666/impaired-intracortical-transmission-in-g2019s-leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-parkinson-patients
#4
Viviana Ponzo, Francesco Di Lorenzo, Livia Brusa, Tommaso Schirinzi, Stefania Battistini, Claudia Ricci, Manolo Sambucci, Carlo Caltagirone, Giacomo Koch
OBJECTIVES: A mutation in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 is the most common cause of hereditary Parkinson's disease (PD), yet the neural mechanisms and the circuitry potentially involved are poorly understood. METHODS: We used different transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols to explore in the primary motor cortex the activity of intracortical circuits and cortical plasticity (long-term potentiation) in patients with the G2019S leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene mutation when compared with idiopathic PD patients and age-matched healthy subjects...
February 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176003/assessment-of-individual-cognitive-changes-after-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery-in-parkinson-s-disease-using-the-neuropsychological-test-battery-vienna-short-version
#5
Thomas Foki, Daniela Hitzl, Walter Pirker, Klaus Novak, Gisela Pusswald, Eduard Auff, Johann Lehrner
Long-term therapy of Parkinson's disease with L‑DOPA is associated with a high risk of developing motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can improve these motor complications. Although the positive effect on motor symptoms has been proven, postoperative cognitive decline has been documented. To tackle the impact of DBS on cognition, 18 DBS patients were compared to 25 best medically treated Parkinson's patients, 24 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 12 healthy controls using the Neuropsychological Test Battery Vienna short version (NTBV-short) for cognitive outcome 12 months after the first examination...
February 7, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166239/depletion-of-aadc-activity-in-caudate-nucleus-and-putamen-of-parkinson-s-disease-patients-implications-for-ongoing-aav2-aadc-gene-therapy-trial
#6
Agnieszka Ciesielska, Lluis Samaranch, Waldy San Sebastian, Dennis W Dickson, Samuel Goldman, John Forsayeth, Krystof S Bankiewicz
In Parkinson's disease (PD), aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of L-DOPA (Sinemet) to dopamine (DA). Previous studies in PD animal models demonstrated that lesion of dopaminergic neurons is associated with profound loss of AADC activity in the striatum, blocking efficient conversion of L-DOPA to DA. Relatively few studies have directly analyzed AADC in PD brains. Thus, the aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of regional changes in AADC activity, DA, serotonin and their monoamine metabolites in the striatum of PD patients and experimentally lesioned animals (rat and MPTP-treated nonhuman primate, NHP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164079/short-stature-and-growth-hormone-deficiency-in-a-girl-with-encephalocraniocutaneous-lipomatosis-and-jaffe-campanacci-syndrome-a-case-report
#7
Eun Mi Choi, Nani Jung, Ye Jee Shim, Hee Joung Choi, Joon Sik Kim, Heung Sik Kim, Kwang Soon Song, Hee Jung Lee, Sang Pyo Kim
A 9-year-old Tajikistani girl presented to Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center for evaluation of a skin lesion on her left eyelid, focal alopecia, unilateral ventricular dilatation, and aortic coarctation. She was diagnosed with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL) according to Moog's diagnostic criteria. Café-au-lait spots were found on the left side of her trunk. Multiple nonossifying fibromas were found on her left proximal humerus, left distal femur, both proximal tibias, and left proximal fibula, suggesting Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome (JCS), following imaging of the extremities...
December 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160151/neuromelanin-mri-is-useful-for-monitoring-motor-complications-in-parkinson-s-and-park2-disease
#8
REVIEW
Taku Hatano, Ayami Okuzumi, Koji Kamagata, Kensuke Daida, Daisuke Taniguchi, Masaaki Hori, Hiroyo Yoshino, Shigeki Aoki, Nobutaka Hattori
Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Recently, specific T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 Tesla was reported to visualize neuromelanin (NM)-related contrast of dopaminergic neurons. Using NM-MRI, we analyzed whether disease severity and motor complications (MC) are associated with the degree of dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in patients with idiopathic PD (PD) and PARK2. We examined 27 individuals with PD, 11 with PARK2, and a control group of 18...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150102/adaptation-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-italian-version-of-the-non-motor-symptoms-questionnaire-for-parkinson-s-disease
#9
I Cova, M E Di Battista, N Vanacore, C P Papi, G Alampi, A Rubino, M Valente, G Meco, P Contri, A Di Pucchio, E Lacorte, A Priori, C Mariani, S Pomati
Although non-motor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) are very common also in early stages of the disease, they are still under-recognized. Screening tools for non-motor symptoms, such as non-motor symptoms questionnaire (NMSQuest), help clinicians to recognize NMS and to evaluate if patients could require further assessment or specific treatments. To validate an adapted Italian version of NMSQuest and study its psychometric properties, Italian PD patients self-completed Italian NMSQuest, and then underwent a standard clinical evaluation including motor assessment (by Hoehn and Yahr staging, unified Parkinson's disease rating scale part III) and non-motor assessment (by Montreal cognitive assessment, Beck depression inventory, neuropsychiatric inventory, Epworth sleepiness scale, scale for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-Autonomic and movement disorder society-sponsored revision of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale part I)...
February 1, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137434/copper-mediated-dna-damage-by-the-neurotransmitter-dopamine-and-l-dopa-a-pro-oxidant-mechanism
#10
Nida Rehmani, Atif Zafar, Hussain Arif, Sheikh Mumtaz Hadi, Altaf A Wani
Oxidative DNA damage has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders, cancer and ageing. Owing to the established link between labile copper concentrations and neurological diseases, it is critical to explore the interactions of neurotransmitters and drug supplements with copper. Herein, we investigate the pro-oxidant DNA damage induced by the interaction of L-DOPA and dopamine (DA) with copper. The DNA binding affinity order of the compounds has been determined by in silico molecular docking...
January 27, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132689/biallelic-mutations-in-dnajc12-cause-hyperphenylalaninemia-dystonia-and-intellectual-disability
#11
Yair Anikster, Tobias B Haack, Thierry Vilboux, Ben Pode-Shakked, Beat Thöny, Nan Shen, Virginia Guarani, Thomas Meissner, Ertan Mayatepek, Friedrich K Trefz, Dina Marek-Yagel, Aurora Martinez, Edward L Huttlin, Joao A Paulo, Riccardo Berutti, Jean-François Benoist, Apolline Imbard, Imen Dorboz, Gali Heimer, Yuval Landau, Limor Ziv-Strasser, May Christine V Malicdan, Corinne Gemperle-Britschgi, Kirsten Cremer, Hartmut Engels, David Meili, Irene Keller, Rémy Bruggmann, Tim M Strom, Thomas Meitinger, James C Mullikin, Gerard Schwartz, Bruria Ben-Zeev, William A Gahl, J Wade Harper, Nenad Blau, Georg F Hoffmann, Holger Prokisch, Thomas Opladen, Manuel Schiff
Phenylketonuria (PKU, phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency), an inborn error of metabolism, can be detected through newborn screening for hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA). Most individuals with HPA harbor mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), and a small proportion (2%) exhibit tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency with additional neurotransmitter (dopamine and serotonin) deficiency. Here we report six individuals from four unrelated families with HPA who exhibited progressive neurodevelopmental delay, dystonia, and a unique profile of neurotransmitter deficiencies without mutations in PAH or BH4 metabolism disorder-related genes...
February 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131725/the-5-alpha-reductase-inhibitor-finasteride-reduces-dyskinesia-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Roberto Frau, Paola Savoia, Silvia Fanni, Chiara Fiorentini, Camino Fidalgo, Elisabetta Tronci, Roberto Stancampiano, Mario Meloni, Antonino Cannas, Francesco Marrosu, Marco Bortolato, Paola Devoto, Cristina Missale, Manolo Carta
Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a disabling motor complication occurring in Parkinson's disease patients (PD) after long-term l-DOPA treatment. Although its etiology remains unclear, there is accumulating evidence that LID relies on an excessive dopamine receptor transmission, particularly at the downstream signaling of D1 receptors. We previously reported that the pharmacological blockade of 5-alpha reductase (5AR), the rate limiting enzyme in neurosteroids synthesis, rescued a number of behavioral aberrations induced by D1 receptor-selective and non-selective agonists, without inducing extrapyramidal symptoms...
January 26, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130646/the-effect-of-mirtazapine-on-dopaminergic-psychosis-and-dyskinesia-in-the-parkinsonian-marmoset
#13
Adjia Hamadjida, Stephen G Nuara, Nicolas Veyres, Imane Frouni, Cynthia Kwan, Lamia Sid-Otmane, Mery-Jane Harraka, Jim C Gourdon, Philippe Huot
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) psychosis is encountered in as many as 50% of patients with advanced disease. Treatment options for PD psychosis are few. In fact, only clozapine and pimavanserin have shown efficacy in randomised controlled trials. Clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe the former, due to the risk of agranulocytosis, while the latter is not widely available yet. Because it is already clinically available and exhibits high affinity for serotonin 2A receptors, a target with which both clozapine and pimavanserin interact, we hypothesised that the anti-depressant mirtazapine might be effective to alleviate PD psychosis...
January 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126506/-other-causes-of-parkinsonism
#14
Christine Tranchant
Numerous causes may induce parkinsonism, and in case of Parkinsonism, l-dopa resistance, associated neurological signs, early falls, early dysautonomia or early cognitive disorders are the main red flags which should lead to exclude Parkinson's disease. Drug-induced parkinsonism and in young people, Wilson disease, should always be searched. Lower limbs parkinsonism is often due to vascular lesions. Multiple systemic atrophy, supranuclear palsy, Lewy body disease and the rarer corticobasal degeneration, each have specific clinical signs...
January 23, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125015/polymorphisms-of-dopamine-receptor-genes-and-risk-of-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Cristoforo Comi, Marco Ferrari, Franca Marino, Luca Magistrelli, Roberto Cantello, Giulio Riboldazzi, Maria Laura Ester Bianchi, Giorgio Bono, Marco Cosentino
L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a frequent motor complication of Parkinson's disease (PD), associated with a negative prognosis. Previous studies showed an association between dopamine receptor (DR) gene (DR) variants and LID, the results of which have not been confirmed. The present study is aimed to determine whether genetic differences of DR are associated with LID in a small but well-characterized cohort of PD patients. To this end we enrolled 100 PD subjects, 50 with and 50 without LID, matched for age, gender, disease duration and dopaminergic medication in a case-control study...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120630/a-randomized-fixed-dose-dose-response-study-of-ropinirole-prolonged-release-in-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Theresa A Zesiewicz, Stephen Chriscoe, Theresa Jimenez, James Upward, Maria Davy, Susan VanMeter
AIM: This Phase IV, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study characterized the dose-response and tolerability of fixed doses of ropinirole prolonged release (PR) in subjects with advanced Parkinson's disease. PATIENTS & METHODS: Subjects receiving concomitant l-dopa received once-daily ropinirole PR 4, 8, 12, 16 or 24 mg, or placebo, up-titrated for 13 weeks, maintained for 4 weeks. RESULTS: At maintenance period week 4, ropinirole PR significantly reduced total awake 'Off-time' (16 mg; p = 0...
February 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119123/a-novel-injectable-formulation-of-6-fluoro-l-dopa-imaging-agent-for-diagnosis-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-and-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Adriana Trapani, Domenico Tricarico, Antonietta Mele, Fatima Maqoud, Delia Mandracchia, Paola Vitale, Vito Capriati, Giuseppe Trapani, Vincenzo Dimiccoli, Anna Tolomeo, Antonio Scilimati
Two [19F]F-l-DOPA (F-DOPA) new β-cyclodextrin (CD)-based dosage forms (FA and FB, respectively) have been studied and their physico-chemical and pharmacological features determined to overcome the administration site reactions showed by the currently used [18F]F-l-DOPA formulation (IASOdopa(®)) to perform PET-CT diagnosis in oncology (neuroendocrine tumors) and neurological (Parkinson's disease) field. Chemical stability of FA and FB was found to be longer than IASOdopa(®) by adding the thiol-antioxidant agent, L-Cysteine...
January 21, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112685/chemogenetic-stimulation-of-striatal-projection-neurons-modulates-responses-to-parkinson-s-disease-therapy
#18
Cristina Alcacer, Laura Andreoli, Irene Sebastianutto, Johan Jakobsson, Tim Fieblinger, Maria Angela Cenci
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients experience loss of normal motor function (hypokinesia), but can develop uncontrollable movements known as dyskinesia upon treatment with L-DOPA. Poverty or excess of movement in PD has been attributed to overactivity of striatal projection neurons forming either the indirect (iSPNs) or the direct (dSPNs) pathway, respectively. Here, we investigated the two pathways' contribution to different motor features using SPN type-specific chemogenetic stimulation in rodent models of PD (PD mice) and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID mice)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105331/opioid-system-in-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia
#19
REVIEW
Jing Pan, Huaibin Cai
L-3, 4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a major clinical complication in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). This debilitating side effect likely reflects aberrant compensatory responses for a combination of dopaminergic neuron denervation and repeated L-DOPA administration. Abnormal endogenous opioid signal transduction pathways in basal ganglia have been well documented in LID. Opioid receptors have been targeted to alleviate the dyskinesia. However, the exact role of this altered opioid activity is remains under active investigation...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104460/fetal-growth-retardation-and-brain-sparing-by-malnutrition-are-associated-to-changes-in-neurotransmitters-profile
#20
C García-Contreras, D Valent, M Vázquez-Gómez, L Arroyo, B Isabel, S Astiz, A Bassols, A Gonzalez-Bulnes
The present study assesses possible changes in the levels of different neurotransmitters (catecholamines and indoleamines) in fetuses affected by nutrient shortage. Hence, we determined the concentration of catecholamines and indoleamines at the hypothalamus of 56 swine fetuses obtained at both 70 and 90days of pregnancy (n=33 and 23 fetuses, respectively). The degree of fetal development and the fetal sex affected the neurotransmitters profile at both stages. At Day 70, there were found higher mean concentrations of l-DOPA in both female and male fetuses with severe IUGR; male fetuses with severe IUGR also showed higher concentrations of TRP than normal male littermates...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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