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Beata Gąsowska-Bajger, Yuki Nishigaya, Krystyna Hirsz-Wiktorzak, Anna Rybczyńska, Toshimasa Yamazaki, Hubert Wojtasek
BACKGROUND: A number of compounds, including ascorbic acid, catecholamines, flavonoids, p-diphenols and hydrazine derivatives have been reported to interfere with peroxidase-based medical diagnostic tests (Trinder reaction) but the mechanisms of these effects have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: Reactions of bovine myeloperoxidase with o-dianisidine, bovine lactoperoxidase with ABTS and horseradish peroxidase with 4-aminoantipyrine/phenol in the presence of carbidopa, an anti-Parkinsonian drug, and other catechols, including l-dopa, were monitored spectrophotometrically and by measuring hydrogen peroxide consumption...
April 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Agostino Chiaravalloti, Gaetano Barbagallo, Maria Ricci, Pasqualina Sannino, Georgios Karalis, Francesco Ursini, Orazio Schillaci
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between age and uptake of fluorine-18-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (F-DOPA) in the brain and myocardial uptake of iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-MIBG) in normal adult participants. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: To this end, a total of 72 healthy participants were enroled. Of these, 37 individuals (male, 21; female, 16; mean age: 60±12 years; age range: 38-85 years) underwent F-DOPA PET/CT, whereas 35 individuals (male, 19; female, 16; mean age: 61±17 years; age range: 17-87 years) underwent I-MIBG scintigraphy...
April 11, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
O Bartošová, C Bonnet, O Ulmanová, M Šíma, F Perlík, E Růžička, O Slanař
Unfortunately, original article has been published without acknowledgement section.
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Pratiksha V Bhat, T Anand, Manu T Mohan, Farhath Khanum
The toxic effects of Ochratoxin A (OTA), a fungal secondary metabolite of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) a Parkinson inducing drug were investigated to evaluate the neurotoxic effects exerted by OTA. OTA is known to contaminate food and feedstuff leading to a wide range of toxicity like nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and immunotoxicity. However, due to the dearth of available information on the possible mechanisms of OTA neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration the current study was undertaken...
April 5, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Irene Sebastianutto, Maria Angela Cenci
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by typical motor features that result from dopamine (DA) depletion in the striatum. DA replacement therapy with L-DOPA is the most efficacious symptomatic treatment, but causes complications that limit its utility, in particular, L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). LID is primarily caused by pre-synaptic and post-synaptic changes in DA neurotransmission, although it also depends on altered glutamatergic transmission at several nodes of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical network...
April 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Sorour Hassani, Behzad Gharechaei, Somayeh Nikfard, Mostafa Fazli, Nematollah Gheibi, Renaud Hardré, Raymond L Legge, Kamahldin Haghbeen
Kinetics studies of L-tyrosine (LTy) ortho-hydroxylation by mushroom tyrosinase (MT) confirmed that MT was severely, but not completely, inhibited at higher concentrations of LTy. Despite the availability of the crystal structure reports, no allosteric site has been identified on MT. To examine the assumption that a non-specific binding site works as a regulatory site, docking simulations were run for the second molecule of L-tyrosine (LTy2 ) on the complexes of the first L-tyrosine molecule (LTy1 ) with the heavy chain (H) of MT (LTy1 /HMT) and its dimer with the light chain (Ty1 /LHMT)...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yannick Vermeiren, Jana Janssens, Debby Van Dam, Peter P De Deyn
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease (PD) share similar pathophysiological mechanisms. From a neurochemical point of view, the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) dysfunction in both movement disorders-related to probable lesioning of the raphe nuclei-is profound, and, therefore, may be partially responsible for motor as well as non-motor disturbances. More specifically, in ALS, it has been hypothesized that serotonergic denervation leads to loss of its inhibitory control on glutamate release, resulting into glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in lower and/or upper motor neurons, combined with a detrimental decrease of its facilitatory effects on glutamatergic motor neuron excitation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Mariam Sabbar, Claire Delaville, Philippe De Deurwaerdère, Nouria Lakhdar-Ghazal, Abdelhamid Benazzouz
Background: Lead neurotoxicity is a major health problem known as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, including the manifestation of parkinsonism-like disorder. While lead is known to preferentially accumulate in basal ganglia, the mechanisms underlying behavioral disorders remain unknown. Here, we investigated the neurophysiological and biochemical correlates of motor deficits induced by sub-chronic injections of lead. Methods: Sprague Dawely rats were exposed to sub-chronic injections of lead (10 mg/kg, i...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
G C Nascimento, K Bariotto-Dos-Santos, C R A Leite-Panissi, E A Del-Bel, M Bortolanza
Non-motor symptoms are increasingly identified to present clinical and diagnostic importance for Parkinson's disease (PD). The multifactorial origin of pain in PD makes this symptom of great complexity. The dopamine precursor, L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), the classic therapy for PD, seems to be effective in pain threshold; however, there are no studies correlating L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) and nociception development in experimental Parkinsonism. Here, we first investigated nociceptive responses in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease to a hind paw-induced persistent inflammation...
April 2, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Michael L Sullivan, Nicholas D Bonawitz
Hydroxycinnamoyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) hydroxycinnamoyl transferases are BAHD family acyltransferases that transfer hydroxycinnamoyl moieties from a CoA-thioester to an acceptor amine or alcohol to form an N-hydroxycinnamoyl amide or O-hydroxycinnamoyl ester, respectively, with the concomitant release of free CoA. One approach to measure reaction rates for these enzymes is to quantify the hydroxycinnamoyl amide or ester reaction product following chromatographic separation of reaction components. This approach can be labor-intensive and time-consuming...
April 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Josiel M Mack, Tainara M Moura, Débora Lanznaster, Franciane Bobinski, Caio M Massari, Tuane B Sampaio, Ariana E Schmitz, Luiz F Souza, Roger Walz, Carla I Tasca, Anicleto Poli, Richard L Doty, Alcir L Dafre, Rui D Prediger
The primary etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear, but likely reflects a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Exposure to some pesticides, including ziram (zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate), is a relevant risk factor for PD. Like some other environmental neurotoxicants, we hypothesized that ziram can enter the central nervous system from the nasal mucosa via the olfactory nerves. To address this issue, we evaluated the effects of 1, 2 or 4 days of intranasal (i.n., 1 mg/nostril/day) infusions of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDMDC), a dimethyldithiocarbamate more soluble than ziram, on locomotor activity in the open field, neurological severity score and rotarod performance...
March 29, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Jean-Philippe Buffet, Erwan Corre, Evelyne Duvernois-Berthet, Jérôme Fournier, Pascal Jean Lopez
Tube-building sabellariid polychaetes are hermatypic organisms capable of forming vast reefs in highly turbulent marine habitats. Sabellariid worms assemble their tube by gluing together siliceous and calcareous clastic particles using a polyelectrolytic biocement. Here, we performed transcriptomic analyses to investigate the genes that are differentially expressed in the parathorax region, which contains the adhesive gland and tissues, from the rest of the body. We found a large number of candidate genes to be involved in the composition and formation of biocement in two species: Sabellaria alveolata and Phragmatopoma caudata...
March 26, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Tiago Furtado Sampaio, Erinaldo Ubirajara Damasceno Dos Santos, Gessica Dayane Cordeiro de Lima, Rute Salgues Gueiros Dos Anjos, Ronaldo Celerino da Silva, Amdore Guescel C Asano, Nadja Maria Jorge Asano, Sergio Crovella, Paulo Roberto Eleutério de Souza
The most commonly used Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment is the replacement of dopamine by its levodopa precursor (l-dopa). Monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) and catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) are enzymes involved in the metabolism and regulation of dopamine availability. In our study we investigated the possible relation among selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MAO-B (rs1799836) and COMT (rs4680) genes and the therapeutic response to levodopa (l-dopa). A total of 162 Brazilian patients from the Pro-Parkinson service of Clinics Hospital of Pernambuco diagnosed with sporadic PD and treated with levodopa were enrolled...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Jun-Hui Hong, Huo-Ji Chen, Shi-Jian Xiang, Si-Wei Cao, Bai-Chao An, Shi-Fa Ruan, Bin Zhang, Li-Dong Weng, Hong-Xia Zhu, Qiang Liu
Introduction: Melanin is synthesized by melanocytes, which are located in the basal layer of the skin. After synthesis, melanin is further deposited on the surface of the skin to form black spots or chloasma. Tyrosinase is a rate-limiting enzyme that plays an important role in melanogenesis. Currently, there are many drugs that inhibit tyrosinase expression to further reduce melanogenesis. Nevertheless, some of these could reverse the pharmacological effect of other drugs, when used simultaneously...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Adrian Newman-Tancredi, Mark A Varney, Andrew C McCreary
Peak-dose dyskinesia is associated with the dramatic increase in striatal dopamine levels that follows L-DOPA administration. The 'false neurotransmitter' hypothesis postulates that the latter is likely due to an aberrant processing of L-DOPA by serotonergic neurons. In keeping with this hypothesis, two highly selective 'biased agonists' of 5-HT1A receptors-namely F13714 and F15599 (NLX-101)-were recently shown to exhibit exceptionally potent anti-dyskinetic activity without impairing L-DOPA therapeutic properties despite their differential targeting of 5-HT1A receptor sub-populations...
March 23, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Fradique Moreira, Ana Brás, Joana Ramos Lopes, Cristina Januário
A growing amount of evidence indicates that 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) increases the risk of early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD). Here, we describe a 36-year-old patient with EOPD. The patient presented with 22q11.2DS features, including associated cognitive disabilities, hypocalcaemia and facial dysmorphia that led us to screen for and confirm this deletion. In addition, hypocalcaemia and vitamin D deficiency were the main factors responsible for severe, painful muscle spasms that were non-levodopa (L-Dopa) responsive and remitted after calcium and vitamin D replacement therapy...
March 22, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Kai Wu, Fang Han, Yi Yuan, Yining Liu, Erjun Ling, Qian Wang, Wuren Huang
Insect prophenoloxidase (PPO) induces melanization around pathogens. Before melanization, PPO is cleaved into phenoloxidase (PO) by serine proteases. Insect PPO can also be activated by exogenous proteases secreted by pathogens as well as by other compounds, such as ethanol and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). However, the effect of these activators on the activity of PO is unclear. In this study, the insect endogenous serine protease AMM1, α-chymotrypsin, and ethanol were used to activate recombinant Drosophila PPO1 (rPPO1), and the PO activity differed depending on the activator applied...
March 23, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Namrata Kumari, Saurabh Agrawal, Rita Kumari, Dimpy Sharma, Pratibha Mehta Luthra
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative motor disorder characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. Levodopa (L-DOPA) is the most effective therapy for PD, however, PD progression continues with significant side effects in long term, thus necessitating the search for effective therapy that impedes PD progression. PD therapy through non-dopaminergic pathways offers treatment without the risk of extrapyramidal effects. In this regard, earlier, we had reported, a novel compound IDPU with potential adenosine A2A receptor antagonist effect in haloperidol (chronic treatment) induced Parkinson model...
March 19, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Rafael V M Manalo, Paul M B Medina
Previous studies have suggested that caffeine reduces the risk of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. However, caffeine is also known to promote dopamine signaling, which seemingly contradicts this observed effect. To this end, the study aimed to clarify the mechanism of caffeine neuroprotection in vivo when excess dopamine is present. Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (UA57) overproducing dopamine was exposed to caffeine for 7 days and monitored by observing GFP-tagged dopaminergic (DA) neurons via fluorescence microscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Antonio Lopalco, Annalisa Cutrignelli, Nunzio Denora, Angela Lopedota, Massimo Franco, Valentino Laquintana
The transport of dopamine across the blood brain barrier represents a challenge for the management of Parkinson's disease. The employment of central nervous system targeted ligands functionalized nanocarriers could be a valid tactic to overcome this obstacle and avoid undesirable side effects. In this work, transferrin functionalized dopamine-loaded liposomes were made by a modified dehydration-rehydration technique from hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcoline, cholesterol and 1,2-stearoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine- N -[carboxy(poly(ethylene glycol)-2000)]...
March 20, 2018: Nanomaterials
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