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Mervat El-Hefny, Nader A Ashmawy, Mohamed Z M Salem, Abdelfattah Z M Salem
Three bacterial isolates were isolated from infected potato tubers showing soft and brown rots like symptoms as well as one isolate from infected peach tree showing crown gall symptom. The morphological, biochemical and molecular assays proved that bacterial isolates belonging to Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, Dickeya spp. and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The acetone (AcE) and n-butanol (ButE) extracts of Callistemon viminalis flowers and essential oil from aerial parts of Conyza dioscoridis as well as ButE of Eucalyptus camaldulensis bark are evaluated at different concentrations against the growth of the isolated bacteria...
November 7, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Vinod Kumar, Vishma Pratap Sur, Rajdeep Guha, Aditya Konar, Sarbani Hazra
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of estrogen in corneal nociception, its influence on lacrimal secretion, and development of dry eye. METHODS: Ovariectomy was performed in normal healthy female rats (OVX). Estrogen replacement was performed in a population of these rats (OVX+E). Tests for dry eye and corneal sensitivity were performed and compared with rats in proestrus (PRO) as controls. Gene expression of neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene receptor-like protein (CGRP), estrogen receptor α, TRPV1, and TRPM8 was evaluated in the cornea and trigeminal ganglion...
November 6, 2017: Cornea
Ce Shang, Jidong Huang, Frank J Chaloupka, Sherry L Emery
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of flavour, device type and health warning messages on youth preference for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and to provide evidence and data to inform the Food and Drug Administration's potential regulatory actions on ENDS. DESIGN: An online discrete choice experiment was conducted in September 2015. Each participant was given nine choice sets and asked to choose one out of two alternative ENDS products, with varying characteristics in three attributes (flavour, device type and warning message)...
November 2, 2017: Tobacco Control
Mustafa Nazıroğlu, Walter Blum, Katalin Jósvay, Bilal Çiğ, Thomas Henzi, Zoltán Oláh, Csaba Vizler, Beat Schwaller, László Pecze
Menthol is a naturally occurring monoterpene alcohol possessing remarkable biological properties including antipruritic, analgesic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and cooling effects. Here, we examined the menthol-evoked Ca(2+) signals in breast and prostate cancer cell lines. The effect of menthol (50-500µM) was predicted to be mediated by the transient receptor potential ion channel melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8). However, the intensity of menthol-evoked Ca(2+) signals did not correlate with the expression levels of TRPM8 in breast and prostate cancer cells indicating a TRPM8-independent signaling pathway...
October 12, 2017: Redox Biology
William S Farmer, Kalyani S Marathe
Atopic dermatitis has a substantial impact on sleep, appearance, psychological well-being, and other qualities of life. The visual appearance of lichenification, cheilitis, hyperpigmentation, ichthyosis, and erythema can be socially stigmatizing, and treatment of these symptoms is challenging. In managing pruritus in patients, practitioners should assess and document pruritus through questionnaires at each routine visit. Initially, practitioners should advise patients to employ non-pharmaceutical treatments such as emollients with wet wraps, elimination of triggers, changing scratching habits, and psychological interventions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Saul Shiffman, Sarah Scholl
Introduction: Studies testing novel tobacco products often provide participants with free product and assess consumption. Some, but not all, studies find that providing fee cigarettes increases smoking. We tested changes in smoking when free cigarettes were provided to non-daily, intermittent smokers (ITS), who constitute one third of US adult smokers. Methods: Cigarette consumption was assessed by Time-line Follow-back in 235 ITS for two two-week periods: when providing their own cigarettes, and when provided own-brand cigarettes for free...
September 27, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Crawford Moodie, Allison Ford, Fiona Dobbie, James F Thrasher, Jennifer McKell, Richard Purves
Introduction: Since being brought to market in 2007, cigarettes with capsules in the filter that can be burst to change the flavour have had remarkable global success, highlighting the importance of product innovation for tobacco companies. Very few studies have explored how these products are perceived by smokers however. This paper sought to address this gap by exploring smokers' awareness of cigarettes with one or two flavour-changing capsules in the filter and the appeal of these products...
August 30, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Allison J Lazard, Sarah D Kowitt, Li-Ling Huang, Seth M Noar, Kristen Jarman, Adam O Goldstein
Introduction: We conducted two experiments to examine the believability of three addiction-focused cigarette warnings and the influence of message source on believability among adolescents and adults in the US. Methods: Experimental data were collected using national phone surveys of adolescents (age 13-17; n = 1,125; response rate, 66%) and adults (age 18+; n = 5,014; response rate, 42%). We assessed the believability of three cigarette warnings about addiction attributed to four message sources (FDA, Surgeon General, CDC, no source)...
August 30, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Joanne D'Silva, Amy M Cohn, Amanda L Johnson, Andrea C Villanti
Purpose: Menthol has been hypothesized to ease the harshness of cigarette smoke. Thus, sensory experiences at first cigarette use may be one mechanism by which menthol facilitates progression to regular smoking. This study examined differences in subjective experiences to first use of a menthol vs. non-menthol cigarette among new young adult smokers. Methods: Data were drawn from Waves 5-8 of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study, a national sample of 18-34 year olds assessed every six months...
August 17, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Chen Li, Jia Li, Xiujuan Xiong, Ying Liu, Yanxia Lv, Shanshan Qin, Dandan Liu, Ronghua Wei, Xuzhi Ruan, Jingxuan Zhang, Liang Xu, Xuanbin Wang, Jicheng Chen, Yonghong Zhang, Lanlan Zheng
Skeletal muscle serving as the major organ is responsible for energy expenditure and exercise endurance, which directly influence cardiometabolic risk factors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8), a Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channel, plays vital roles in the regulation of various cellular functions. It has been reported that TRPM8 activation enhanced the energy metabolism of adipocytes. However, the involvement of TRPM8 in the energy metabolism of skeletal muscle remains unexplored...
October 17, 2017: Gene
Ramona-Madalina Babes, Tudor Selescu, Dan Domocos, Alexandru Babes
Praziquantel is the most effective anthelminthic drug for the treatment of schistosomiasis, an infectious disease caused by the platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. While praziquantel is known to trigger calcium influx into schisostomes, followed by spastic paralysis of the worms and tegumental disruption, the mechanism of action of the drug is not completely understood. Although relatively well tolerated, praziquantel has been reported to cause mild adverse effects, including nausea, abdominal pain and headaches...
October 18, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Elise E DeVito, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use has increased substantially in recent years. While e-cigarettes have been proposed as a potentially effective smoking cessation tool, dual-use in smokers is common and e-cigarettes are widely used by non-smokers, including youth and young-adult non-smokers. Nicotine, the primary addictive component in cigarettes, is present at varying levels in many e-liquids. E-cigarettes may lead to initiation of nicotine use in adult and youth non-smokers, re-initiation of nicotine dependence in ex-smokers or increased severity of nicotine dependence in dual-users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes...
October 16, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
John G Lamb, Erin G Romero, Zhenyu Lu, Seychelle K Marcus, Hannah C Peterson, John M Veranth, Cassandra E Deering-Rice, Christopher A Reilly
To better understand how adverse health effects are caused by particulate materials, and to develop preventative measures, it is important to identify the properties of particles and proteins that link exposure with specific biological outcomes. Coal fly ash (CFA) is a by-product of coal combustion that can affect human health. Here we show that human transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8) and an N-terminally truncated TRPM8 variant (TRPM8-Δ801) are activated by CFA and calcium-rich nanoparticles and/or soluble salts within CFA...
October 16, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
Joseph G L Lee, Shelley D Golden, Kurt M Ribisl
Increasing the per-unit cost of tobacco products is one of the strongest interventions for tobacco control. In jurisdictions with higher taxes in the U.S., however, cigarette pack litter studies show a substantial proportion of littered packs lack the appropriate tax stamp. More limited but still present counterfeiting also exists. We sought to examine the role of tobacco retailers as a source for untaxed and counterfeit products. Data collectors purchased Newport Green (menthol) or Marlboro Red cigarette packs in a national probability-based sample of tobacco retailers (in 97 counties) from June-October 2012...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Niket Yadav, Harish Chandra
There is a continuing need for discovering novel primary or adjunct therapeutic agents to treat inflammatory conditions and infections. Natural products have inspired the discovery of several modern therapeutics; however, there is a paucity of mechanistic information on their mode of action. This study investigated the therapeutic potential and mode of action of corn mint's (Mentha arvensis) leaf extract (ME) in alveolar macrophages (AMs) challenged with model pro-inflammatory (LPS), pro- oxidant (LPS or H2O2), and infection (Mycobacterium) agents and contribution of its dominant constituents rosmarinic acid, l-menthol, and l-menthone...
October 8, 2017: Immunobiology
Jih-Terng Wang, Shashank Keshavmurthy, Tzu-Ying Chu, Chaolun Allen Chen
To understand the mechanism of photosynthetic inhibition and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Symbiodinium types under stress, chemicals such as dichlorophenyl dimethylurea (DCMU) are widely used. Moreover, DCMU and recently menthol were used to generate aposymbiotic cnidarian hosts. While the effects of DCMU on Symbiodinium cells have been extensively studied, no studies have shown the mechanism behind menthol-induced coral bleaching. Moreover, no study has compared the effects of DCMU and menthol treatments on photosystem II (PSII) activity and generation of ROS in different Symbiodinium types...
2017: PeerJ
Qianhua Feng, Wanxia Zhang, Yuzhen Li, Xuemei Yang, Yongwei Hao, Hongling Zhang, Wei Li, Lin Hou, Zhenzhong Zhang
The chelate copper-based anticancer drug bleomycin (BLM) is usually believed to bind metal ions especially Cu(ii) to generate the "activated BLM" for DNA cleavage. Herein, BLM and L-menthol (LM) co-loaded hollow mesoporous Cu2-xS nanoparticles (HMCu2-xS NPs) with surface folic acid (FA) modification were formulated to construct an intelligent NIR-responsive nanoplatform for synergistic tumor targeted chemo-phototherapy. With the tumor targeting ability of the folate receptor (FR)-positive, FA-HMCu2-xS/BLM/LM could pinpoint tumor cells efficiently...
October 19, 2017: Nanoscale
Michelle Scollo, Megan Bayly, Sarah White, Kylie Lindorff, Melanie Wakefield
This paper aimed to identify continued and emerging trends in the Australian tobacco market following plain packaging implementation, over a period of substantial increases in tobacco taxes. Since 2012, our surveillance activities (including review of trade product and price lists, ingredient reports submitted by tobacco companies to government and monitoring of the retail environment) found several trends in the factory-made cigarette market. These include the continued release of extra-long and slim cigarettes and packs with bonus cigarettes, particularly in the mainstream and premium market segments; new menthol capsule products; other novel flavourings in cigarettes; filter innovations including recessed and firm filters; continued use of evocative and descriptive product names; the proliferation of the new super-value market segment; and umbrella branding, where new products are introduced within established brand families...
October 9, 2017: Tobacco Control
Tameka S Lawler, Stephen B Stanfill, B Rey deCastro, Joseph G Lisko, Bryce W Duncan, Patricia Richter, Clifford H Watson
OBJECTIVE: We examined differences between nicotine concentrations and pH in cigarette and cigar tobacco filler. METHODS: Nicotine and pH levels for 50 cigarette and 75 cigar brands were measured. Non-mentholated and mentholated cigarette products were included in the analysis along with several cigar types as identified by the manufacturer: large cigars, pipe tobacco cigars, cigarillos, mini cigarillos, and little cigars. RESULTS: There were significant differences found between pH and nicotine for cigarette and cigar tobacco products...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Zijun Zhou, Yanjun Li, Bowen Han, Lei Gong, Eric Meggers
A new mechanistic approach for the catalytic, enantioselective conjugate addition of nitrogen-based nucleophiles to acceptor-substituted alkenes is reported, which is based on a visible light induced and phosphate base promoted transfer of a single electron from a nitrogen nucleophile to a catalyst-bound acceptor-substituted alkene, followed by a stereocontrolled C-N bond formation through stereocontrolled radical-radical coupling. Specifically, N-aryl carbamates are added to the β-position of α,β-unsaturated 2-acyl imidazoles using a visible light activated photoredox mediator in combination with a chiral-at-rhodium Lewis acid catalyst and a weak phosphate base, affording new C-N bonds in a highly enantioselective fashion with enantioselectivities reaching up to 99% ee and >99 : 1 dr for a menthol-derived carbamate...
August 1, 2017: Chemical Science
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