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Vasileios Paraskeuas, Konstantinos Fegeros, Irida Palamidi, Christine Hunger, Konstantinos C Mountzouris
The effects of inclusion levels of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA), characterized by menthol anethol and eugenol, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, biochemical biomarkers and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of plasma and meat, as well as on the relative expression of selected cytokines, were studied in a 42-d experiment. A total of 225 one-day-old male Cobb broiler chickens were assigned into 3 treatments, with 5 replicates of 15 chickens each. Chickens were fed maize-soybean meal basal diets following a 3 phase (i...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
Stephanie Helfert, Maren Reimer, Lutz Barnscheid, Philipp Hüllemann, Jens Rengelshausen, Thomas Keller, Ralf Baron, Andreas Binder
BACKGROUND: Human experimental pain models in healthy subjects offer unique possibilities to study mechanisms of pain within a defined setting of expected pain symptoms, signs and mechanisms. Previous trials in healthy subjects demonstrated that topical application of 40% menthol is suitable to induce cold hyperalgesia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of suggestion on this experimental human pain model. METHODS: The study was performed within a single-center, randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind, 2 period cross-over trial in a cohort of 16 healthy subjects...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Pradnya D Rao, Husile Nanding, Andrew A Strasser, Paul M Wise
Introduction: The US Food and Drug Administration banned most "sweet" flavorants for use in cigarettes due to the concern that sweet flavors appeal to young, beginning smokers. However, many of the same flavors, including fruity and confection-associated aromas (e.g. vanilla) are still used in e-cigarettes. Sweet flavors may have a number of effects, including enhancement of the taste of other ingredients. The current work focused on the impact of model flavorants on the taste of a mixture of propylene glycol and vegetable glycerine, solvents used in most e-cigarettes and related products...
April 2018: Chemosensory Perception
Andrew Currin, Mark S Dunstan, Linus O Johannissen, Katherine A Hollywood, Maria Vinaixa, Adrian J Jervis, Neil Swainston, Nicholas J W Rattray, John M Gardiner, Douglas B Kell, Eriko Takano, Helen S Toogood, Nigel S Scrutton
The realization of a synthetic biology approach to microbial (1 R ,2 S ,5 R )-( - )-menthol ( 1 ) production relies on the identification of a gene encoding an isopulegone isomerase (IPGI), the only enzyme in the Mentha piperita biosynthetic pathway as yet unidentified. We demonstrate that Δ5-3-ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) from Pseudomonas putida can act as an IPGI, producing ( R )-(+)-pulegone (( R )- 2 ) from (+)- cis -isopulegone ( 3 ). Using a robotics-driven semirational design strategy, we identified a key KSI variant encoding four active site mutations, which confer a 4...
March 2, 2018: ACS Catalysis
Zhang Lu, Zhang Xiao Yan, Hu Yu Lan, Zhang Bing Jian
Temporary consolidants, such as cyclododecane, menthol, coumarin, and ethyl maltol, are proved to be effective for urgent conservation in archaeological field. However, the safety of these temporary consolidants is still unknown although they are always heavily used in archaeological field. Thus reports on the toxicity of these temporary consolidants are limited. Here, a zebrafish model was used for safety evaluation of these four temporary consolidants. In the present study, four temporary consolidants, including cyclododecane, menthol, coumarin, and ethyl maltol, at different concentrations were incubated with zebrafish embryos, and their biological toxic effects were firstly evaluated...
May 7, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Siyeon Kim, Joo-Young Lee
BACKGROUND: Menthol chemically triggers cold-sensitive receptors in the skin without conductive skin cooling. We investigated the effects of menthol-induced activation of cutaneous cold receptors on the cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) of the finger. We hypothesized that the menthol application would attenuate typical CIVD responses. METHODS: 1.5% L-menthol was fully applied over the left hand and forearm, and then, the middle finger of the left hand was immersed into 4 °C water for 30 min...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Jae-Jun Song, Yoon Young Go, Ji Yoen Mun, Sehee Lee, Gi Jung Im, Yoo Yon Kim, Jun Ho Lee, Jiwon Chang
OBJECTIVE: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are the most commonly used electronic nicotine delivery systems and are a relatively new product designed for smoking cessation. The market scale of electronic cigarettes is growing rapidly, but the potential impact of e-cigarettes on public health has not yet been verified. In this study, we examined the effect of e-liquids on a human middle ear epithelial cell (HMEEC) line. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The main components of e-liquids are propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin and flavoring agents with or without nicotine...
June 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Mitchell F Stiles, Leanne R Campbell, Tao Jin, Donald W Graff, Reginald V Fant, Jack E Henningfield
RATIONALE: We previously reported that following a short-term product use period, use of non-menthol Vuse Solo electronic cigarettes (ECs) resulted in product effect-related subjective responses and nicotine uptake between those of combustible cigarettes (high-abuse liability comparator) and nicotine gum (low-abuse liability comparator); the results were generally closer to those of nicotine gum. OBJECTIVE: Using a similar design to the previous study, we evaluated the abuse liability of three menthol-flavored Vuse Solo ECs with the same nicotine contents (14, 29, and 36 mg) in a group of EC-naïve, menthol cigarette smokers, relative to comparator products...
May 3, 2018: Psychopharmacology
R J Robinson, E C Hensel, A A Al-Olayan, J M Nonnemaker, Y O Lee
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) offer an alternate means to consume nicotine in a variety of flavored aerosols. Data are needed to better understand the impact of flavors on use behavior. A natural environment observational study was conducted on experienced ENDS users to measure the effect of e-liquid flavor on topography and consumption behavior. The RIT wPUMTM monitor was used to record to record the date and time and puff topography (flow rate, volume, duration) for every puff taken by N = 34 participants over the course of two weeks...
2018: PloS One
Yuming Ning, Xiaojin Chen, Zhenwei Yu, Wenquan Liang, Fanzhu Li
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a transdermal delivery system for RIS using hydrogels. First, the effects of different concentrations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and Carbomer 934 (CBR) on RIS permeation were investigated in porcine skin. The optimized formulation was chosen as the base gel to screen for penetration enhancers. The pharmacokinetics of the optimized RIS formulation was then studied in vitro in rabbits. A formulation with 0.5% CBR showed the highest RIS permeation and was selected as the base gel...
May 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Amanda Y Kong, Shelley D Golden, Allison E Myers, Melissa A Little, Robert Klesges, Wayne Talcott, Sara M Vandegrift, Daniel G Cassidy, Kurt M Ribisl
INTRODUCTION: Active duty military personnel have higher cigarette and smokeless tobacco use rates than civilian populations. Although US Airmen (called Airmen regardless of gender or rank) are required to be tobacco-free during initial training, many resume use once this period ends, perhaps as a result of easy access to cheap tobacco products. METHODS: Between July and September 2016, we collected tobacco product, price and promotion information by visiting on-base (n=28) and off-base (n=80) tobacco retailers near the eight technical training bases where approximately 99% of Airmen attend training...
April 28, 2018: Tobacco Control
Yohei Inaba, Shigehisa Uchiyama, Naoki Kunugita
BACKGROUND: The ammonia contained in tobacco fillers and mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke accelerates nicotine dependence in cigarette smokers. Ammonia has been included in the non-exhaustive priority list of 39 tobacco components and emissions of cigarette published by the World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation. The development of a simple ammonia detection method will contribute to the establishment of tobacco product regulation under tobacco control policies and allow surveys to be conducted, even by laboratories with small research budgets...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Shyam Sathyamoorthi, Yin-Hung Lai, Ryan M Bain, Richard N Zare
The mechanism of the Ritter-type C-H amination reaction of menthol with acetonitrile using CuBr2 , Selectfluor®, and Zn(OTf)2 , first disclosed by Baran and co-workers in 2012, has been studied using a combination of online electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), continuous UV/vis spectrometric monitoring, and density functional theory calculations. In addition to corroborating Baran's original mechanistic proposal, these studies have uncovered a second pathway to product formation. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations show that neither pathway has a barrier that is greater than 6...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ali Reza Zarei, Maryam Nedaei, Sohrab Ali Ghorbanian
In this work, for the first time, ferrofluid of magnetic montmorillonite nanoclay and deep eutectic solvent was prepared and coupled with directly suspended droplet microextraction. Incorporation of ferrofluid in a miniaturized sample preparation technique resulted in achieving high extraction efficiency while developing a green analytical method. The prepared ferrofluid has strong sorbing properties and hydrophobic characteristics. In this method, a micro-droplet of ferrofluid was suspended into the vortex of a stirring aqueous solution and after completing the extraction process, was easily separated from the solution by a magnetic rod without any operational problems...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Lori A J Scott-Sheldon, Laura R Stroud
OBJECTIVE: We assessed preferences, perceptions, and intentions to use flavored waterpipe (hookah) tobacco (HT) among women of reproductive age in the United States. METHODS: A convenience sample of women 18-44 years of age (N = 238; mean age = 28; 74% white) were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk to complete a survey assessing preferences, perceptions, and intentions to use flavored HT. RESULTS: Of the women who had ever used hookah (62%), most (82%) used hookah sweetened with fruit flavors...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Behavior
Mary F Brunette, Joelle C Ferron, Pamela Geiger, Andrea C Villanti
Introduction: Smokers with severe mental illness (SMI) are more likely to start smoking and less likely to quit. Menthol may facilitate smoking progression, dependence and maintenance by reducing harshness and irritation from smoking and providing a unique sensory experience during use. High rates of menthol use have been reported in smokers with SMI, but information on young adults with SMI has not been reported. Methods: This study provides a secondary analysis to assess the impact of menthol use in a pilot trial of brief tobacco interventions...
April 12, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Alyne Mara Rodrigues de Carvalho, Leonardo Freire Vasconcelos, Nayrton Flávio Moura Rocha, Emiliano Ricardo Vasconcelos Rios, Marília Leite Dias, Marta Maria de França Fonteles, Danielle Macêdo Gaspar, José Maria Barbosa Filho, Stanley Juan Chavez Gutierrez, Francisca Cléa Florenço de Sousa
Riparin II (RipII) has an anti-inflammatory activity potentially due its ability to decrease TNF-α and IL-1β production and its histamine antagonism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of RipII in the pain process and the possible antinociceptive mechanisms involved, using classic models of nociception. Male Swiss mice were used in the assays. Determinate the acute toxicity according to the OECD 425 test guideline. The models used were the acetic acid-, formalin-, hot plate and glutamate-induced nociception...
April 12, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Tessa Rose Flood
Menthol is a compound of plant origin and has recently been used to aid exercise performance in hot, humid environments. Menthol creates a sensation of coolness when applied to the skin or mucosal surfaces stimulating the cold receptors. In these environments, fatigue is known to be accelerated and feelings of being hot are one of the main contributors to the early onset of fatigue. However, current research indicates that nonthermal perceptual cooling interventions could alter behavior in the heat by reducing thermal perception...
April 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Kathleen A Garrison, Stephanie S O'Malley, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
BACKGROUND: E-cigarettes are sold in flavors such as "skittles," "strawberrylicious," and "juicy fruit," and no restrictions are in place on marketing e-cigarettes to youth. Sweets/fruits depicted in e-cigarette advertisements may increase their appeal to youth and interfere with health warnings. This study tested a brain biomarker of product preference for sweet/fruit versus tobacco flavor e-cigarettes, and whether advertising for flavors interfered with warning labels...
March 23, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Julia Cen Chen
BACKGROUND: E-cigarette use prevalence has increased drastically among young adult cigarette smokers in recent years. OBJECTIVES: This study seeks to understand which e-cigarette flavors-sweet and fruity or tobacco and menthol/mint-are more likely to be associated with smoking reduction and cessation among young adults. METHODS: Longitudinal data (waves 1 and 2) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study from young adult (aged 18-34) cigarette smokers (n = 4,645) at wave 1 and current e-cigarette users (n = 844) at wave 2 were used...
April 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
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