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Xing Kong, Hongliang Cao, Chang Li, Xin Chen
HYPOTHESIS: Template-free and surfactant-free strategies are highly desirable, which might be used for high efficient platinum catalyst developments. EXPERIMENTS: In this work, a facile one step photochemical synthesis method was developed to prepare sponge-like porous platinum. The present synthesis was performed via ultraviolet light irradiation on a K2PtCl4 aqueous solution at ambient condition. The final pore sizes were in the range of 1-3nm. The walls of the pores were formed with platinum nanoparticles of 3-5nm average diameters...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Andrea C Villanti, Paul D Mowery, Cristine D Delnevo, Raymond S Niaura, David B Abrams, Gary A Giovino
INTRODUCTION: National data from 2004 to 2010 showed that despite decreases in non-menthol cigarette use prevalence, menthol cigarette use prevalence remained constant in adolescents and adults and increased in young adults. The purpose of the current study was to extend these analyses through 2014. METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of menthol cigarette smoking in the USA during 2004-2014 using annual cross-sectional data on persons aged ≥12 years from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health...
October 11, 2016: Tobacco Control
Yun Ji Park, Thanislas Bastin Baskar, Sun Kyung Yeo, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Soon Sung Lim, Sang Un Park
BACKGROUND: Mentha plants containing over 25 species are aromatic perennial herbs. These species have been interested and widely used because of various clinical findings. Many volatile compounds facilitate environmental interactions such as protecting themselves from pathogens, parasites, and herbivores. Therefore, this study assessed comparison of volatile composition and antimicrobial activity from nine Mentha species. The composition of volatiles was investigated from the aerial parts of nine different Mentha species using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS)...
2016: SpringerPlus
Tamara V Kozyreva, Galina M Khramova, Irina P Voronova, Anna A Evtushenko
The role of thermosensitive TRP ion channels in physiological processes in the whole organism is far from being clear. In present work we tried to understand the possible participation of the cold-sensitive ion channel TRPM8 in regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine level in blood, and to see if hypertension (widely spread disease) changes this relationship. Experiments were carried out on normotensive Wistar rats and rats with inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension. The effects of deep rapid and slow cooling with decrease in rectal temperature by 3°C, and activation of the skin TRPM8 ion channel by its agonist menthol (application of 1% L-menthol) on the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β and TNFα) in blood have been studied...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Hyoshin Kim, Juyun Lim, Stephanie S Buehler, Marielle C Brinkman, Nathan M Johnson, Laura Wilson, Kandice S Cross, Pamela I Clark
OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which the perception of sweet and other flavours is associated with liking and disliking of flavoured electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). METHODS: 31 participants (13 females/18 males; 12 sole/19 dual users) vaped 6 commercially available flavours of blu Tanks: Classic Tobacco (CT), Magnificent Menthol (MM), Cherry Crush (CC), Vivid Vanilla (VV), Piña Colada (PC) and Peach Schnapps (PS); all 'medium' strength, 12 mg/mL nicotine concentration...
October 5, 2016: Tobacco Control
Danielle M Smith, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Jidong Huang, Dianne Barker, Andrew J Hyland, Frank Chaloupka
BACKGROUND: Non-menthol characterising flavours (eg, fruit, candy) are banned in cigarettes, yet are still permitted in non-cigarette tobacco (NCT) products. This study examined associations between first use and current use of flavoured tobacco products, and current flavoured tobacco use and quit behaviours. METHODS: A nationally representative, telephone-based survey completed in 2012 by 1443 US adult tobacco users asked about use of 9 tobacco products: cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, cigarillos, little filtered cigars, pipes, hookah, smokeless tobacco and snus...
October 5, 2016: Tobacco Control
F Riera, T T Trong, K Rinaldi, O Hue
This study investigated whether the combination of internal precooling (PC) and internal midcooling (MC cooling during exercise) would enhance performance more than MC alone. 9 trained males completed two 30-km cycling trials in a hot and humid environment (WBGT: 29±0.7°C, 80±0.02% relative humidity). For 30 min before exercise, the subjects sat quietly and drank water at 23°C (MC) or 3°C (PC+MC). During the MC and PC+MC time trials, they drank an ice-slush/menthol beverage (i. e., 0.025% menthol)...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Lu Fan, Shrilatha Balakrishna, Sairam V Jabba, Pamela E Bonner, Seth R Taylor, Marina R Picciotto, Sven-Eric Jordt
BACKGROUND: Nicotine is a major oral irritant in smokeless tobacco products and has an aversive taste. Mentholated smokeless tobacco products are highly popular, suggesting that menthol increases their palatability and may facilitate initiation of product use. While menthol is known to reduce respiratory irritation by tobacco smoke irritants, it is not known whether this activity extends to oral nicotine and its aversive effects. STUDY DESIGN: The two-bottle choice drinking assay was used to characterise aversion and preference in C57BL/6 mice to a range of menthol concentrations (10-200 µg/mL)...
October 3, 2016: Tobacco Control
Catherine Peyrot des Gachons, Julie Avrillier, Michael Gleason, Laure Algarra, Siyu Zhang, Emi Mura, Hajime Nagai, Paul A S Breslin
Fluid ingestion is necessary for life, and thirst sensations are a prime motivator to drink. There is evidence of the influence of oropharyngeal stimulation on thirst and water intake in both animals and humans, but how those oral sensory cues impact thirst and ultimately the amount of liquid ingested is not well understood. We investigated which sensory trait(s) of a beverage influence the thirst quenching efficacy of ingested liquids and the perceived amount ingested. We deprived healthy individuals of liquid and food overnight (> 12 hours) to make them thirsty...
2016: PloS One
Tong-Hong Wang, Shih-Min Hsia, Chi-Hao Wu, Shun-Yao Ko, Michael Yuanchien Chen, Yin-Hua Shih, Tzong-Ming Shieh, Li-Chuan Chuang, Ching-Yi Wu
The aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial activities of the phenolic essential oil (EO) compounds hinokitiol, carvacrol, thymol, and menthol against oral pathogens. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus mutans, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Escherichia. coli were used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), bacterial growth curves, temperature and pH stabilities, and synergistic effects of the liquid and vapor EO compounds were tested...
2016: PloS One
Christopher J Stevens, Lee Taylor, Ben J Dascombe
It is well established that endurance performance is negatively affected by environmental heat stress due to a complex interaction of physical, physiological and psychological alterations. Numerous scientific investigations have attempted to improve performance in the heat with pre-cooling (cooling prior to an exercise test), and as such this has become a well-established ergogenic practice for endurance athletes. However, the use of mid-cooling (cooling during an exercise test) has received considerably less research attention in comparison, despite recent evidence to suggest that the advantage gained from mid-cooling may outweigh that of pre-cooling...
September 27, 2016: Sports Medicine
Scott C Hutchings, Katy M Horner, Victoria A Dible, John M V Grigor, Dolores O'Riordan
This research investigated the effect of modifying the aftertaste of potato crisps on (1) temporal sensory perception and (2) appetite using three mouthwash conditions (no mouthwash, a water mouthwash, and a menthol mouthwash). For the sensory study, 17 screened female subjects were trained on the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) methodology. Subjects undertook TDS to monitor all sensory attributes during the mastication of a 2 g crisp until swallowing (at 20s), then conducted the mouthwash, and then continued the TDS task to monitor aftertaste until 90s...
September 20, 2016: Appetite
Young-Chang P Arai, Jun Kawanishi, Yoshikazu Sakakima, Koichi Ohmoto, Akihiro Ito, Yuki Maruyama, Tatsunori Ikemoto
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary collapse after intubation is common, and it is caused by a variety of factors. CASE PRESENTATION: A 21-year-old man presented at our operation room to undergo an appendectomy. Except for a history of cigarette smoking, his history was negative. Anesthesia was induced with 100% oxygen and sevoflurane, remifentanil infusion, and propofol. Neuromuscular block was obtained with rocuronium. The tip and cuff of a tracheal tube were lubricated with a topical metered-dose of 8% Lidocaine pump spray...
June 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Greg Dussor, Yu-Qing Cao
Migraine is among the most common diseases on earth and one of the most disabling, the latter due in large part to poor treatment efficacy. Development of new therapeutics is dependent on the identification of mechanisms contributing to migraine and discovery of targets for new drugs. Numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated the transient receptor-potential M8 (TRPM8) channel in migraine. This channel is predominantly expressed on peripheral sensory neurons and is known as the sensor for cold temperature in cutaneous tissue but is also expressed on deep visceral afferents where cold is not likely a stimulus...
October 2016: Headache
Noel J Leigh, Ralph I Lawton, Pamela A Hershberger, Maciej L Goniewicz
BACKGROUND: E-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are designed to deliver nicotine-containing aerosol via inhalation. Little is known about the health effects of flavoured ENDS aerosol when inhaled. METHODS: Aerosol from ENDS was generated using a smoking machine. Various types of ENDS devices or a tank system prefilled with liquids of different flavours, nicotine carrier, variable nicotine concentrations and with modified battery output voltage were tested...
September 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
Mark D Litt, Valerie Duffy, Cheryl Oncken
INTRODUCTION: The present study examined the influence of flavouring on the smoking and vaping behaviour of cigarette smokers asked to adopt e-cigarettes for a period of 6 weeks. METHODS: Participants were 88 current male and female smokers with no intention to stop smoking, but who agreed to substitute e-cigarettes for their current cigarettes. On intake, participants were administered tests of taste and smell for e-cigarettes flavoured with tobacco, menthol, cherry and chocolate, and were given a refillable e-cigarette of their preferred flavour or a control flavour...
September 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
Jonathan M Samet, Mary Ann Pentz, Jennifer B Unger
The menthol report developed by the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee (TPSAC) of the Center for Tobacco Products elaborated a methodology for considering the public health impact of menthol in cigarettes that has relevance to flavourings generally. The TPSAC report was based on a conceptual framework on how menthol in cigarettes has public health impact results of evidence from related systematic reviews, and an evidence-based statistical model. In extending this approach to flavourings generally, consideration will need to be given to the existence of multiple flavourings, a very dynamic market place and regulatory interventions and industry activities...
September 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
J K Pepper, K M Ribisl, N T Brewer
BACKGROUND: More US adolescents use e-cigarettes than smoke cigarettes. Research suggests flavoured e-cigarettes appeal to youth, but little is known about perceptions of and reasons for attraction to specific flavours. METHODS: A national sample of adolescents (n=1125) ages 13-17 participated in a phone survey from November 2014 to June 2015. We randomly assigned adolescents to respond to survey items about 1 of 5 e-cigarette flavours (tobacco, alcohol, menthol, candy or fruit) and used regression analysis to examine the impact of flavour on interest in trying e-cigarettes and harm beliefs...
September 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
Ping-Ching Hsu, Renny S Lan, Theodore M Brasky, Catalin Marian, Amrita K Cheema, Habtom W Ressom, Christopher A Loffredo, Wallace B Pickworth, Peter G Shields
BACKGROUND: The use of menthol in cigarettes and marketing is under consideration for regulation by the FDA. However, the effects of menthol on smoking behavior and carcinogen exposure have been inconclusive. We previously reported metabolomic profiling for cigarette smokers, and novelly identified menthol-glucuronide (MG) as the most significant metabolite directly related to smoking. Here, MG is studied in relation to smoking behavior and metabolomic profiles. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 105 smokers who smoked two cigarettes in the laboratory one hour apart...
September 14, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Courtney Keeler, Wendy Max, Valerie Yerger, Tingting Yao, Michael K Ong, Hai-Yen Sung
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have examined the relationship between menthol use and smoking cessation across various racial/ethnic groups; the findings were mixed. This study explored the association of menthol cigarette use with quit attempts, smoking cessation, and intention-to-quit among U.S. adults and by race/ethnicity. METHODS: Using the 2006/07 and 2010/11 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey data, this study analyzed 54,448 recent active smokers, defined as current smokers or former smokers who quit <12 months ago...
August 24, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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