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Glutamine cancer

Robert Fuchs, Anika Stracke, Viktoria Holzmann, Gerfried Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nathalie Meier-Allard, Nadine Ebner, Teresa Maria Lassacher, Markus Absenger-Novak, Eleonore Fröhlich, Matthias Schittmayer, Sara Cano Crespo, Manuel Palacin, Beate Rinner, Ruth Birner-Gruenberger
The quinazoline based drug prazosin (PRZ) is a potent inducer of apoptosis in human cancer cells. We recently reported that PRZ enters cells via endocytosis and induces tubulation of the endolysosomal system. In a proteomics approach aimed at identifying potential membrane proteins with binding affinity to quinazolines, we detected the oncoprotein CD98hc. We confirmed shuttling of CD98hc towards lysosomes and upregulation of CD98hc expression in PRZ treated cells. Gene knockout (KO) experiments revealed that endocytosis of PRZ still occurs in the absence of CD98hc - suggesting that PRZ does not enter the cell via CD98hc but misroutes the protein towards tubular lysosomes...
June 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Julian Hlouschek, Christine Hansel, Verena Jendrossek, Johann Matschke
Pronounced resistance of lung cancer cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy is a major barrier to successful treatment. Herein, both tumor hypoxia and the upregulation of the cellular antioxidant defense systems observed during malignant progression can contribute to radioresistance. We recently found that exposure to chronic cycling severe hypoxia/reoxygenation stress results in glutamine-dependent upregulation of cellular glutathione (GSH) levels and associated radiation resistance opening novel routes for tumor cell-specific radiosensitization...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Florine Obrist, Judith Michels, Sylvere Durand, Alexis Chery, Jonathan Pol, Sarah Levesque, Adrien Joseph, Valentina Astesana, Federico Pietrocola, Gen Sheng Wu, Maria Castedo, Guido Kroemer
Cisplatin is the most widely used chemotherapeutic agent, and resistance of neoplastic cells against this cytoxicant poses a major problem in clinical oncology. Here, we explored potential metabolic vulnerabilities of cisplatin-resistant non-small human cell lung cancer and ovarian cancer cell lines. Cisplatin-resistant clones were more sensitive to killing by nutrient deprivation in vitro and in vivo than their parental cisplatin-sensitive controls. The susceptibility of cisplatin-resistant cells to starvation could be explained by a particularly strong dependence on glutamine...
June 6, 2018: EMBO Journal
Heike Miess, Beatrice Dankworth, Arvin M Gouw, Mathias Rosenfeldt, Werner Schmitz, Ming Jiang, Becky Saunders, Michael Howell, Julian Downward, Dean W Felsher, Barrie Peck, Almut Schulze
Metabolic reprogramming is a prominent feature of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Here we investigated metabolic dependencies in a panel of ccRCC cell lines using nutrient depletion, functional RNAi screening and inhibitor treatment. We found that ccRCC cells are highly sensitive to the depletion of glutamine or cystine, two amino acids required for glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Moreover, silencing of enzymes of the GSH biosynthesis pathway or glutathione peroxidases, which depend on GSH for the removal of cellular hydroperoxides, selectively reduced viability of ccRCC cells but did not affect the growth of non-malignant renal epithelial cells...
June 5, 2018: Oncogene
G A Nagana Gowda, Gregory A Barding, Jin Dai, Haiwei Gu, Daciana H Margineantu, David M Hockenbery, Daniel Raftery
The Warburg effect is a well-known phenomenon in cancer, but the glutamine addiction in which cancer cells utilize glutamine as an alternative source of energy is less well known. Recent efforts have focused on preventing cancer cell proliferation associated with glutamine addiction by targeting glutaminase using the inhibitor BPTES (bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide). In the current study, an investigation of the BPTES induced changes in metabolism was made in two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 (an estrogen receptor dependent cell line) and MDA-MB231 (a triple negative cell line), relative to the non-cancerous cell line, MCF10A...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Ferdinando Chiaradonna, Francesca Ricciardiello, Roberta Palorini
Alterations in glucose and glutamine utilizing pathways and in fatty acid metabolism are currently considered the most significant and prevalent metabolic changes observed in almost all types of tumors. Glucose, glutamine and fatty acids are the substrates for the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). This metabolic pathway generates the "sensing molecule" UDP- N -Acetylglucosamine (UDP-Glc N Ac). UDP-Glc N Ac is the substrate for the enzymes involved in protein N - and O -glycosylation, two important post-translational modifications (PTMs) identified in several proteins localized in the extracellular space, on the cell membrane and in the cytoplasm, nucleus and mitochondria...
June 2, 2018: Cells
M-J Chen, I-C Wu, Y-J Chen, T-E Wang, Y-F Chang, C-L Yang, W-C Huang, W-K Chang, B-S Sheu, M-S Wu, J-T Lin, C-H Chu
A number of clinical guidelines on nutrition therapy in cancer patients have been published by national and international societies; however, most of the reviewed data focused on gastrointestinal cancer or non-cancerous abdominal surgery. To collate the corresponding data for esophageal cancer (EC), a consensus panel was convened to aid specialists from different disciplines, who are involved in the clinical nutrition care of EC patients. The literature was searched using MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the ISI Web of Knowledge...
May 31, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Mahmood H Akhtar, Khalil K Hussain, N G Gurudatt, Pranjal Chandra, Yoon-Bo Shim
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was detected in the extracellular matrix of neuronal cells using a dual probe immunosensor (DPI), where one of them was used as a working and another bioconjugate loading probe. The working probe was fabricated by covalently immobilizing capture anti-BDNF (Cap Ab) on the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)/conducting polymer composite layer. The bioconjugate probe was modified by drop casting a bioconjugate particles composed of conducting polymer self-assembled AuNPs, immobilized with detection anti-BDNF (Det Ab) and toluidine blue O (TBO)...
May 28, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
C Ma, H Tsai, W Su, L Sun, Y Shih, J Wang
Background: Perioperative enteral nutrition (EN) enriched with immune-modulating substrates is preferable for patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery. In this study, perioperative EN enriched with immune-modulating nutrients such as arginine, glutamine, and omega-3 fatty acids was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory efficacy in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma or gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) receiving curative surgery. Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized, double-blind study recruited 34 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma or gastric GIST undergoing elective curative surgery...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Katharina Leithner, Alexander Triebl, Martin Trötzmüller, Barbara Hinteregger, Petra Leko, Beatrix I Wieser, Gabriele Grasmann, Alexandra L Bertsch, Thomas Züllig, Elvira Stacher, Alessandro Valli, Ruth Prassl, Andrea Olschewski, Adrian L Harris, Harald C Köfeler, Horst Olschewski, Andelko Hrzenjak
Cancer cells are reprogrammed to consume large amounts of glucose to support anabolic biosynthetic pathways. However, blood perfusion and consequently the supply with glucose are frequently inadequate in solid cancers. PEPCK-M ( PCK2 ), the mitochondrial isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), has been shown by us and others to be functionally expressed and to mediate gluconeogenesis, the reverse pathway of glycolysis, in different cancer cells. Serine and ribose synthesis have been identified as downstream pathways fed by PEPCK in cancer cells...
May 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tahira Younis, Mohammad Imran Khan, Muhammad Rashid Khan, Azhar Rasul, Muhammad Majid, Vaqar Mustafa Adhami, Hasan Mukhtar
We recently identified and characterized nummularic acid (NA) as a major chemical constituent of Fraxinus xanthoxyloides, a medicinal plant used for over hundred years in traditional medicine. In this study, we describe its potential anti-cancer activity using prostate cancer (PCa) cells as a model. We found that NA treatment (5-60 μM) significantly reduced the proliferation and colony formation capabilities of PCa DU145 and C4-2 cells in a time and dose dependent manner, reduced the migratory and invasive properties and increased apoptotic cell population...
May 26, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Minsoo Song, Soong-Hyun Kim, Chun Young Im, Hee-Jong Hwang
Glutaminase (GLS) which is responsible for the conversion of glutamine to glutamate plays vital role in up-regulating cell metabolism for tumor cell growth, and is considered as a valuable therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Based on this important function of glutaminase in cancer, several GLS inhibitors have been developed from both academia and industries. Most importantly, Calithera Biosciences Inc. is actively developing glutaminase inhibitor CB-839 for the treatment of various cancers in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials at present...
May 24, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Robert Kleszcz, Jarosław Paluszczak, Violetta Krajka-Kuźniak, Wanda Baer-Dubowska
BACKGROUND: Cancer cells are dependent on aerobic glycolysis for energy production and increased glutamine consumption. HIF-1α and c-MYC transcription factors regulate the expression of glycolytic and glutaminolytic genes. Their activity may be repressed by SIRT6. Head and neck carcinomas show frequent activation of c-MYC function and SIRT6 down-regulation, which contributes to a strong dependence on glucose and glutamine availability. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the influence of HIF-1α and c-MYC inhibitors (KG-548 and 10058-F4, respectively) and potential SIRT6 inducers - resveratrol and its synthetic derivative DMU-212 with the effect of glycolysis and glutaminolysis inhibitors (2-deoxyglucose and aminooxyacetic acid, respectively) on the metabolism and expression of metabolic enzymes in FaDu hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells...
May 17, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Xiangming Ji, Jun Qian, S M Jamshedur Rahman, Peter J Siska, Yong Zou, Bradford K Harris, Megan D Hoeksema, Irina A Trenary, Chen Heidi, Rosana Eisenberg, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Jamey D Young, Pierre P Massion
Many tumors increase uptake and dependence on glucose, cystine or glutamine. These basic observations on cancer cell metabolism have opened multiple new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues in cancer research. Recent studies demonstrated that smoking could induce the expression of xCT (SLC7A11) in oral cancer cells, suggesting that overexpression of xCT may support lung tumor progression. We hypothesized that overexpression of xCT occurs in lung cancer cells to satisfy the metabolic requirements for growth and survival...
May 23, 2018: Oncogene
Swatishree Sradhanjali, Mamatha M Reddy
Cancer cells alter their metabolism to support the uninterrupted supply of biosynthetic molecules required for continuous proliferation. Glucose metabolism is frequently reprogrammed in several tumors in addition to fatty acid, amino acid and glutamine metabolism. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is a gatekeeper enzyme involved in altered glucose metabolism in tumors. There are four isoforms of PDK (1 to 4) in humans. PDK phosphorylates E1α subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and inactivates it...
May 22, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Anna Halama, Michal Kulinski, Shaima S Dib, Shaza B Zaghlool, Kodappully S Siveen, Ahmad Iskandarani, Jonas Zierer, Kirti S Prabhu, Noothan J Satheesh, Aditya M Bhagwat, Shahab Uddin, Gabi Kastenmüller, Olivier Elemento, Steven S Gross, Karsten Suhre
Suppressing glutaminolysis does not always induce cancer cell death in glutamine dependent tumors because cells may switch to alternative energy sources. To reveal compensatory metabolic pathways, we investigated the metabolome-wide cellular response to inhibited glutaminolysis in cancer cells. Glutaminolysis inhibition with C.968 suppressed cell proliferation but was insufficient to induce cancer cell death. We found that lipid catabolism was activated as a compensation for glutaminolysis inhibition. Accelerated lipid catabolism, together with oxidative stress induced by glutaminolysis inhibition, triggered autophagy...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Letters
Horrick Sharma
Isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) are key metabolic enzymes that catalyze the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (αKG). IDH 1 and IDH2 regulate several cellular processes, including oxidative respiration, glutamine metabolism, lipogenesis, and cellular defense against oxidative damage. Mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 have recently been observed in multiple tumor types, including gliomas, acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and chondrosarcoma. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations involve a gain in neomorphic activity that catalyze αKG conversion to (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate ((R)-2HG)...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Dohyup Kim, Bushra F Minhas, Hongmei Li-Byarlay, Allison K Hansen
Microbes are known to influence insect-plant interactions; however, it is unclear if host-plant diet influences the regulation of nutritional insect symbioses. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum , requires its nutritional endosymbiont, Buchnera , for the production of essential amino acids. We hypothesize that key aphid genes that regulate the nutritional symbioses respond to host-plant diet when aphids feed on a specialized (alfalfa) compared to a universal host-plant diet (fava), which vary in amino acid profiles...
May 16, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Pranavi Koppula, Yilei Zhang, Li Zhuang, Boyi Gan
Cancer cells often upregulate nutrient transporters to fulfill their increased biosynthetic and bioenergetic needs, and to maintain redox homeostasis. One nutrient transporter frequently overexpressed in human cancers is the cystine/glutamate antiporter solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11; also known as xCT). SLC7A11 promotes cystine uptake and glutathione biosynthesis, resulting in protection from oxidative stress and ferroptotic cell death. Recent studies have unexpectedly revealed that SLC7A11 also plays critical roles in glutamine metabolism and regulates the glucose and glutamine dependency of cancer cells...
April 25, 2018: Cancer communications
Milica Momcilovic, Sean T Bailey, Jason T Lee, Michael C Fishbein, Daniel Braas, James Go, Thomas G Graeber, Francesco Parlati, Susan Demo, Rui Li, Tonya C Walser, Michael Gricowski, Robert Shuman, Julio Ibarra, Deborah Fridman, Michael E Phelps, Karam Badran, Maie St John, Nicholas M Bernthal, Noah Federman, Jane Yanagawa, Steven M Dubinett, Saman Sadeghi, Heather R Christofk, David B Shackelford
Altered metabolism is a hallmark of cancer growth, forming the conceptual basis for development of metabolic therapies as cancer treatments. We performed in vivo metabolic profiling and molecular analysis of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to identify metabolic nodes for therapeutic targeting. Lung SCCs adapt to chronic mTOR inhibition and suppression of glycolysis through the GSK3α/β signaling pathway, which upregulates glutaminolysis. Phospho-GSK3α/β protein levels are predictive of response to single-therapy mTOR inhibition while combinatorial treatment with the glutaminase inhibitor CB-839 effectively overcomes therapy resistance...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Cell
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