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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550268/improving-reproducibility-of-phenotypic-assessments-in-the-dyw-mouse-model-of-laminin-%C3%AE-2-related-congenital-muscular-dystrophy
#1
Raffaella Willmann, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Sarina Meinen, Markus A Rüegg, Qing Yu, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Ayar Kumar, Mahasweta Girgenrath, Caroline B M Coffey, Vivian Cruz, Pam M Van Ry, Laurent Bogdanik, Cathleen Lutz, Anne Rutkowski, Dean J Burkin
Laminin-α2 related Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (LAMA2-CMD) is a progressive muscle disease caused by partial or complete deficiency of laminin-211, a skeletal muscle extracellular matrix protein. In the last decade, basic science research has queried underlying disease mechanisms in existing LAMA2-CMD murine models and identified possible clinical targets and pharmacological interventions. Experimental rigor in preclinical studies is critical to efficiently and accurately quantify both negative and positive results, degree of efficiency of potential therapeutics and determine whether to move a compound forward for additional preclinical testing...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549752/inter-rater-variability-in-motor-function-assessment-in-parkinson-s-disease-between-experts-in-movement-disorders-and-nurses-specialising-in-pd-management
#2
T de Deus Fonticoba, D Santos García, M Macías Arribí
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: In clinical practice, assessing patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex, time-consuming task. Our purpose is to provide a rigorous and objective evaluation of how motor function in PD patients is assessed by neurologists specialising in movement disorders, on the one hand, and by nurses specialising in PD management, on the other. METHODS: We conducted an observational, cross-sectional, single-centre study of 50 patients with PD (52% men; mean age: 64...
May 23, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549678/use-of-mathematics-to-guide-target-selection-in-systems-pharmacology-application-to-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-rtk-pathways
#3
Neil Benson, Piet H van der Graaf, Lambertus A Peletier
A key element of the drug discovery process is target selection. Although the topic is subject to much discussion and experimental effort, there are no defined quantitative rules around optimal selection. Often 'rules of thumb', that have not been subject to rigorous exploration, are used. In this paper we explore the 'rule of thumb' notion that the molecule that initiates a pathway signal is the optimal target. Given the multi-factorial and complex nature of this question, we have simplified an example pathway to its logical minimum of two steps and used a mathematical model of this to explore the different options in the context of typical small and large molecule drugs...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549471/the-shared-health-appointments-and-reciprocal-enhanced-support-shares-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-trial
#4
Michele Heisler, Jennifer Burgess, Jeffrey Cass, John F Chardos, Alexander B Guirguis, Sean M Jeffery, Lorrie A Strohecker, Adam S Tremblay, Wen-Chih Wu, Donna M Zulman
BACKGROUND: Diabetes shared medical appointments (SMAs) and reciprocal peer support programs have been found in efficacy trials to help adults with diabetes improve their self-management and achieve short-term gains in clinical and patient-centered outcomes. In order to translate this evidence to system-level interventions, there is a need for large-scale, pragmatic trials that examine the effectiveness, implementation, and costs of SMAs and reciprocal peer support across diverse settings...
May 26, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549382/is-remote-health-different-to-rural-health
#5
John Wakerman, Lisa Bourke, John S Humphreys, Judy Taylor
INTRODUCTION: The study identifies the differences between rural health and remote health and describes key distinctive characteristics of remote health. METHODS: The study used a mixed method approach of interviews and questionnaires (utilising a Likert scale) with expert stakeholders in rural health and remote health. A total of 45 interviews were conducted with experts selected from every state and territory of Australia. Of these, 41 also completed a questionnaire, of which 21 respondents were female, 20 identified predominantly as academics while six, five and five indicated that they worked in policy, advocacy and as a practitioner, respectively...
April 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549264/effectiveness-of-family-group-conferencing-in-preventing-repeat-referrals-to-child-protective-services-and-out-of-home-placements
#6
Dana M Hollinshead, Tyler W Corwin, Erin J Maher, Lisa Merkel-Holguin, Heather Allan, John D Fluke
Rigorous research on the efficacy of family group conferencing is rare. This randomized control trial study used an intent-to-treat approach to examine whether a referral to a family group conference (FGC) was associated with re-referrals, substantiated re-referrals, or out-of-home placements among child welfare-involved families receiving in-home services. We found no significant associations between treatment and control group assignment and the three outcomes for the sample as a whole. However, families with more children had higher odds of a re-referral and a substantiated re-referral, families with more than one parent had higher odds of re-referral, and families where a substance abuse services referral was noted had higher odds of out-of-home placement...
May 23, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549257/human-somatic-cells-deficient-for-rad52-are-impaired-for-viral-integration-and-compromised-for-most-aspects-of-homology-directed-repair
#7
Yinan Kan, Nizar N Batada, Eric A Hendrickson
Homology-directed repair (HDR) maintains genomic integrity by eliminating lesions such as DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) and stalled replication forks and thus a deficiency in HDR is associated with genomic instability and cancer predisposition. The mechanism of HDR is best understood and most rigorously characterized in yeast. The inactivation of the fungal radiation sensitive 52 (RAD52) gene, which has both recombination mediator and single-strand annealing (SSA) activities in vitro, leads to severe HDR defects in vivo...
May 10, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549073/repeated-measurements-of-blood-pressure-and-cholesterol-improves-cardiovascular-disease-risk-prediction-an-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis
#8
Ellie Paige, Jessica Barrett, Lisa Pennells, Michael Sweeting, Peter Willeit, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Vilmundur Gudnason, Børge G Nordestgaard, Bruce M Psaty, Uri Goldbourt, Lyle G Best, Gerd Assmann, Jukka T Salonen, Paul J Nietert, Wm Monique Verschuren, Eric J Brunner, Richard A Kronmal, Veikko Salomaa, Stephan Jl Bakker, Gilles R Dagenais, Shinichi Sato, Jan-Håkan Jansson, Johann Willeit, Altan Onat, Agustin Gómez de la Cámara, Ronan Roussel, Henry Völzke, Rachel Dankner, Robert W Tipping, Tom W Meade, Chiara Donfrancesco, Lewis H Kuller, Annette Peters, John Gallacher, Daan Kromhout, Hiroyasu Iso, Matthew Knuiman, Edoardo Casiglia, Maryam Kavousi, Luigi Palmieri, Johan Sundström, Barry R Davis, Inger Njølstad, David Couper, John Danesh, Simon G Thompson, Angela Wood
The added value of incorporating information from repeated measurements of blood pressure and cholesterol for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction has not been rigorously assessed. We used data from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration on 191,445 adults (38 cohorts from across 17 countries with data from 1962-2014) with > 1 million measurements of systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; over a median 12 years of follow-up, 21,170 CVD events occurred...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548837/the-role-of-the-hydroxyl-group-in-propofol-protein-target-recognition-insights-from-oniom-studies
#9
Ling Qiu, Jianguo Lin, Qingzhu Liu, Shanshan Wang, Gaochao Lv, Ke Li, Haiming Shi, Zhengkun Huang, Edward J Bertaccini
Propofol (PFL, 1-hydroxyl-2,6-diisopropylbenzene) is currently used widely as one of the most well-known intravenous anesthetics to relieve surgical suffering, but its mechanism of action is not yet clear. Previous experimental studies have demonstrated that the hydroxyl group of PFL plays a dominant role in the molecular recognition of PFL with receptors that lead to hypnosis. To further explore the mechanism of anesthesia induced by PFL in the present work, the exact binding features and interaction details of PFL with three important proteins, human serum albumin (HSA), the pH-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) and horse spleen apoferritin (HSAF), were investigated systematically by using a rigorous three-layer ONIOM(M06-2X/6-31+G*:PM6:AMBER) method...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548682/arthrotomy-based-pre-clinical-models-of-particle-induced-osteolysis-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Meghan M Moran, Brittany M Wilson, Ryan D Ross, Amarjit S Virdi, D Rick Sumner
We completed a systematic literature review of in vivo animal models that use arthrotomy-based methods to study particle-induced peri-implant osteolysis. The purpose of the review was to characterize the models developed to date, to determine the questions addressed, to assess scientific rigor and transparency and to identify gaps in knowledge. We probed three literature databases (Medline, Embase and Scopus) and found 77 manuscripts that fit the search parameters. In the most recent 10 years, researchers mainly used rat and mouse models, whereas in the previous 20 years large animal, canine and rabbit models were more common...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548543/systematic-review-of-clinical-guidance-documents-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-diagnostic-assessment-in-select-regions
#11
Melanie Penner, Evdokia Anagnostou, Lana Y Andoni, Wendy J Ungar
Clinical guidance documents play an important role in ensuring access to high-quality autism spectrum disorder diagnostic assessment practices. The objective was to perform a systematic review of professional association and government clinical guidance documents for autism spectrum disorder diagnostic assessment, analyzing their quality and content. The government search was limited to English-speaking, single-payer, publicly funded health systems. A quality appraisal was conducted by two appraisers using the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation, second edition tool...
May 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548195/-qualitative-research-methodology-in-health-care
#12
Paula Bedregal, Carolina Besoain, Alejandro Reinoso, Tamara Zubarew
Health care research requires different methodological approaches such as qualitative and quantitative analyzes to understand the phenomena under study. Qualitative research is usually the least considered. Central elements of the qualitative method are that the object of study is constituted by perceptions, emotions and beliefs, non-random sampling by purpose, circular process of knowledge construction, and methodological rigor throughout the research process, from quality design to the consistency of results...
March 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547532/prehospital-blood-transfusions-in-pediatric-trauma-and-nontrauma-patients-a-single-center-review-of-safety-and-outcomes
#13
Aodhnait S Fahy, Cornelius A Thiels, Stephanie F Polites, Maile Parker, Michael B Ishitani, Christopher R Moir, Kathleen Berns, James R Stubbs, Donald H Jenkins, Scott P Zietlow, Martin D Zielinski
PURPOSE: Prehospital transfusions are a novel yet increasingly accepted intervention in the adult population as part of remote damage control resuscitation, but prehospital transfusions remain controversial in children. Our purpose was to review our pediatric prehospital transfusion experience over 12 years to describe the safety of prehospital transfusion in appropriately triaged trauma and nontrauma patients. METHODS: Children (<18 years) transfused with packed red blood cells (pRBC) or plasma during transport to a single regional academic medical center between 2002 and 2014 were identified...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546793/current-management-of-low-grade-dysplasia-in-barrett-esophagus
#14
Gary W Falk
Low-grade dysplasia in Barrett esophagus remains an ongoing challenge in clinical management. Recent studies suggest an increased risk in progression of low-grade dysplasia to high-grade dysplasia and/or adenocarcinoma. This is especially seen when 1 or more expert gastrointestinal pathologist confirms the diagnosis and in the setting of low-grade dysplasia that persists on more than 1 endoscopy. In the setting of confirmed and persistent low-grade dysplasia, level 1 evidence supports endoscopic ablation as a treatment option for these patients, although continued surveillance remains a viable option...
April 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546141/clinical-insight-into-latent-variables-of-psychiatric-questionnaires-for-mood-symptom-self-assessment
#15
Athanasios Tsanas, Kate Saunders, Amy Bilderbeck, Niclas Palmius, Guy Goodwin, Maarten De Vos
BACKGROUND: We recently described a new questionnaire to monitor mood called mood zoom (MZ). MZ comprises 6 items assessing mood symptoms on a 7-point Likert scale; we had previously used standard principal component analysis (PCA) to tentatively understand its properties, but the presence of multiple nonzero loadings obstructed the interpretation of its latent variables. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to rigorously investigate the internal properties and latent variables of MZ using an algorithmic approach which may lead to more interpretable results than PCA...
May 25, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545717/preseason-screening-of-shoulder-range-of-motion-and-humeral-retrotorsion-does-not-predict-injury-in-high-school-baseball-players
#16
Sakiko Oyama, Elizabeth E Hibberd, Joseph B Myers
BACKGROUND: Shoulder and elbow injuries are commonplace in high school baseball. Although altered shoulder range of motion (ROM) and humeral retrotorsion angles have been associated with injuries, the efficacy of preseason screening of these characteristics remains controversial. METHODS: We conducted preseason screenings for shoulder internal and external rotation ROM and humeral retrotorsion on 832 high school baseball players and tracked their exposure and incidence on throwing-related shoulder and elbow injuries during a subsequent season...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545526/effective-implementation-of-the-uncrpd-by-thailand-state-party-challenges-and-potential-remedies
#17
Donruedee Srisuppaphon, Arnon Sriboonroj, Wachara Riewpaiboon, Viroj Tangcharoensathien
BACKGROUND: The Thai government ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) in 2008, and the first progress report by the State Party was issued in 2012. This study assesses and identifies gaps in the Government's implementation of the Convention. METHODS: Using the Deming Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle as an analytical framework for continuous quality improvement, we reviewed five documents which are: the 2012 State Party report; the list of issues by the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; the 2015 replies to the list of issues by the Thai government; an alternative report produced by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs); and an alternative report produced by the National Human Rights Commission of Thailand...
May 25, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545045/differences-in-speb-protease-activity-among-group-a-streptococci-associated-with-superficial-invasive-and-autoimmune-disease
#18
Anhphan T Ly, John P Noto, Odaelys L Walwyn, Robert R Tanz, Stanford T Shulman, William Kabat, Debra E Bessen
The secreted cysteine proteinase SpeB is an important virulence factor of group A streptococci (GAS), whereby SpeB activity varies widely among strains. To establish the degree to which SpeB activity correlates with disease, GAS organisms were recovered from patients with pharyngitis, impetigo, invasive disease or acute rheumatic fever (ARF), and selected for analysis using rigorous sampling criteria; >300 GAS isolates were tested for SpeB activity by casein digestion assays, and each GAS isolate was scored as a SpeB-producer or non-producer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544666/identifying-target-reference-points-for-harvesting-assessment-limited-wildlife-populations-a-case-study
#19
Bryan S Stevens, James R Bence, William F Porter, Michael L Jones
Identifying appropriate strategies for sustainable harvest is a challenge for many terrestrial vertebrate species because of uncertain system dynamics, limited data to inform population models, and potentially conflicting objectives that seek to harvest and maintain populations at desirable levels. The absence of monitoring and assessment infrastructure needed to regularly estimate abundance accentuates this challenge for many species, and limits application of rigorous state-dependent frameworks for decision making that are commonly advocated in natural resource management...
May 22, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544556/electrophysiological-analysis-of-synaptic-transmission-in-drosophila
#20
REVIEW
Maria Bykhovskaia, Alexander Vasin
Synaptic transmission is dynamic, plastic, and highly regulated. Drosophila is an advantageous model system for genetic and molecular studies of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms and plasticity. Electrical recordings of synaptic responses represent a wide-spread approach to study neuronal signaling and synaptic transmission. We discuss experimental techniques that allow monitoring synaptic transmission in Drosophila neuromuscular and central systems. Recordings of synaptic potentials or currents at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are most common and provide numerous technical advantages due to robustness of the preparation, large and identifiable muscles, and synaptic boutons which can be readily visualized...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
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