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M Corvaro, S Gehen, K Andrews, R Chatfield, C Arasti, J Mehta
Acute systemic (oral, dermal, inhalation) toxicity testing of agrochemical formulations (end-use products) is mainly needed for Classification and Labelling (C&L) and definition of personal protection equipment (PPE). A retrospective analysis of 225 formulations with available in vivo data showed that: A) LD50/LC50 values were above limit doses in <20.2% via oral route but only in <1% and <2.4% of cases via dermal and inhalation route, respectively; B) for each formulation the acute oral toxicity is always equal or greater than the Acute Toxicity Estimate (ATE) via the other two routes; C) the GHS (Global Harmonised System) computational method based on ATE, currently of limited acceptance, has very high accuracy and specificity for prediction of agrochemical mixture toxicity according to the internationally established classification thresholds...
October 17, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Catherine Utecht Graeve, Patricia Marie McGovern, Bruce Alexander, Timothy Church, Andrew Ryan, Martha Polovich
Approximately 8 million health care workers are unnecessarily exposed to highly toxic drugs used to treat cancer; antineoplastic drugs can contribute to negative health effects for these workers. The drugs have been detected in the urine of workers and on the floors and counters of worksites. Safety precautions that could reduce the risk of exposure are underutilized. This cross-sectional study of 163 oncology health care workers used a survey to measure workplace and individual factors, and environmental sampling to measure surface contamination...
October 6, 2016: Workplace Health & Safety
Courtney N Gleason, Deanna L Kerkhof, Elizabeth A Cilia, Maria A Lanyi, Jonathan Finnoff, Dai Sugimoto, Gianmichel D Corrado
OBJECTIVE: The traditional history and physical (H&P) is a poor screening modality to identify athletes at risk for sudden cardiac death. Although better than H&P alone, electrocardiograms (ECG) have also been found to have high false-positive rates. A limited portable ECG by a frontline physician (PEFP) performed during preparticipation physical examination (PPE) allows for direct measurements of the heart to more accurately identify athletes with structural abnormalities. Therefore, it is worthwhile to assess the feasibility of incorporating limited PEFP as part of PPEs...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Suvajyoti Guha, Brady McCaffrey, Prasanna Hariharan, Matthew R Myers
Surgical respirators, surgical masks (SMs) and facemasks for pediatric use (FPUs) are routinely used in the US healthcare industry as personal protective equipment (PPE) against infectious diseases. While N95s including surgical respirators have been routinely studied, SMs and FPUs have not received as much attention, particularly in the context of aerosolized threats. This is because SMs and PFUs are not designed to protect against sub-micron aerosols. However, with the possibility of new or re-emerging airborne diseases or bio-aerosol weapons lingering, combined with the limited availability of respirators and logistical issues associated with fit-testing millions, the general adult and pediatric populations may elect to wear SMs and FPUs, respectively, in the case of a pandemic or a bio-terrorist attack...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Sarah M Hatcher, Sarah M Rhodes, Jill R Stewart, Ellen Silbergeld, Nora Pisanic, Jesper Larsen, Sharon Jiang, Amanda Krosche, Devon Hall, Karen C Carroll, Christopher D Heaney
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic use in industrial hog operations (IHOs) can support the emergence of antibiotic-resistant (ABR) Staphylococcus aureus. The extent of ABR S. aureus exposure in IHO workers and children living in their households remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate ABR S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence among adults with versus without occupational exposure to IHOs and among children living in their households. METHODS: In total, 198 IHO worker-child household pairs and 202 community referent (CR) adult-child household pairs completed a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab which was analyzed for S...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Donatella Canistro, Fabio Vivarelli, Silvia Cirillo, Guglielmo Costa, Carlo Andreotti, Moreno Paolini
Over the past years, there has been a growing interest in the natural constituents of foods as a potential means of cancer control. To date, epidemiology studies seem to indicate an inverse association between regular consumption of fruit and vegetables and cancer risk. Here, the potential chemopreventive activity of the polyphenolic extract (PPE) of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and of the freeze-dried fruit in toto (LFT), focusing on the modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in vivo, was investigated...
October 11, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Hongyu Mi, Mingming Guan, Hongyan Shan, Qiang Fei, Yanfu Huan, Zhiquan Zhang, Guodong Feng
A label-free, highly selective, and highly sensitive fluorescent sensor to detect Hg(2+) was developed using a water-soluble conjugated polymer with carboxylate groups (poly(2,5-bis(sodium 4-oxybutyrate)-1,4-phenylethynylene-alt-1,4-phenyleneethynylene, PPE-OBS) in this work. The fluorescence of PPE-OBS would be quenched because of the effect among the unique coordination-induced aggregation and electron transfers of PPE-OBS toward Hg(2+). The linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity and concentration of Hg(2+) was observed within the range from 6 × 10(-8) to 8 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) (R(2) = 0...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Amine Namouchi, Marta Gómez-Muñoz, Stephan A Frye, Line Victoria Moen, Torbjørn Rognes, Tone Tønjum, Seetha V Balasingham
BACKGROUND: As an intracellular human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is facing multiple stressful stimuli inside the macrophage and the granuloma. Understanding Mtb responses to stress is essential to identify new virulence factors and pathways that play a role in the survival of the tubercle bacillus. The main goal of this study was to map the regulatory networks of differentially expressed (DE) transcripts in Mtb upon various forms of genotoxic stress. We exposed Mtb cells to oxidative (H2O2 or paraquat), nitrosative (DETA/NO), or alkylation (MNNG) stress or mitomycin C, inducing double-strand breaks in the DNA...
October 10, 2016: BMC Genomics
Antonio Colantuono, Rosalia Ferracane, Paola Vitaglione
Obesity is an urgent social problem and new functional foods providing polyphenols and dietary fibers (DF) may be promising tools to modulate oxidative stress, inflammation and energy homeostasis. Pomegranate peels (PPe) are an agro-industrial by-product containing polyphenols such as ellagitannins (ETs), gallic acid (GA), ellagic acid (EA) and its derivatives (EAs), as well as DF. In this study, PPe enriched cookies (PPeC) were developed, and the bioaccessibility as well as the ability of their polyphenols to exert antioxidant activity along the Gastro-intestinal Tract (GiT) and to modulate digestive enzymes were evaluated in vitro...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Anne-Francoise Spinoit, Tom Claeys, Elke Bruneel, Achilles Ploumidis, Erik Van Laecke, Piet Hoebeke
Background. Isolated male epispadias (IME) is a rare congenital penile malformation, as often part of bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC). In its isolated presentation, it consists in a defect of the dorsal aspect of the penis, leaving the urethral plate open. Occurrence of urinary incontinence is related to the degree of dorsal displacement of the meatus and the underlying underdevelopment of the urethral sphincter. The technique for primary IME reconstruction, based on anatomic restoration of the urethra and bladder neck, is here illustrated...
2016: BioMed Research International
Horng-Yunn Dou, Yih-Yuan Chen, Ying-Tsong Chen, Jia-Ru Chang, Chien-Hsing Lin, Keh-Ming Wu, Ming-Shian Lin, Ih-Jen Su, Shih-Feng Tsai
To better understand the transmission and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in Taiwan, six different MTB isolates (representatives of the Beijing ancient sublineage, Beijing modern sublineage, Haarlem, East-African Indian, T1, and Latin-American Mediterranean (LAM)) were characterized and their genomes were sequenced. Discriminating among large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) that occur once versus those that occur repeatedly in a genomic region may help to elucidate the biological roles of LSPs and to identify the useful phylogenetic relationships...
2016: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
C Rojas Martínez, R I Rodríguez-Vivas, J V Figueroa Millán, K Y Acosta Viana, E J Gutiérrez Ruiz, J A Álvarez Martínez
Bovine serum is an important factor for the optimal growth of Babesia bovis in vitro. This protozoan can be cultured in M-199 with Earle's salts medium (M-199) supplemented with 40% bovine serum (BS). In the present study, four media were assessed along with the control medium M-199. The effect on the proliferation of B. bovis in vitro was tested when these media were combined with insulin (Ins), transferrin (Trans) and selenite (Sel) in the absence of bovine serum. Treatment with Advanced DMEM/F12 medium (A-DMEM/F12) achieved the highest percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE), reaching a maximum value of 9...
October 4, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Peter K Kriz, Ailis Clyne, Sara R Ford
As of 2015, 98% of U.S. states require preparticipation exams (PPE) before participating in scholastic sports. Despite widespread availability of a PPE monograph endorsed by six medical societies, a lack of uniformity exists regarding implementation of the PPE among Rhode Island health care providers (HCPs). Consequently, significant variability exists regarding how comprehensive a history and physical exam screening is conducted for adolescent athletes looking for sports participation clearance. The purpose of this document is to: 1) establish a uniform screening process in Rhode Island for the PPE utilizing a peer-reviewed history and physical exam; 2) familiarize HCPs with the 2010 PPE monograph, with emphasis on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal (MSK) systems; 3) encourage HCPs to treat the PPE as a separate entity from the annual wellness visit; 4) engage HCPs and sports medicine providers in Rhode Island to improve the quality and process of evaluating adolescent athletes for sports participation...
October 4, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
Seow Hoon Saw, Joon Liang Tan, Xin Yue Chan, Kok Gan Chan, Yun Fong Ngeow
BACKGROUND: Meningitis is a major cause of mortality in tuberculosis (TB). It is not clear what factors promote central nervous system invasion and pathology but it has been reported that certain strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) might have genetic traits associated with neurotropism. METHODS: In this study, we generated whole genome sequences of eight clinical strains of Mtb that were isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients presenting with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in Malaysia, and compared them to the genomes of H37Rv and other respiratory Mtb genomes either downloaded from public databases or extracted from local sputum isolates...
2016: PeerJ
Vijay Alexander, Kulandaipalayam Natarajan C Sindhu, Pradeep Zechariah, Abigail Veravolu Resu, Suryanarayan Rajendran Nair, Deepthi Kattula, Venkata Raghava Mohan, Reginald George Alex T
BACKGROUND: Welders in the unorganized occupational sector in the economically developing world are exposed to respiratory, skin, eye, ear, and neurological problems exacerbated by non-usage of personal protective equipment (PPE). OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency of health problems and the usage of PPE among welders in unorganized welding units in Vellore, India. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 150 welders to determine the frequency of skin, ear, eye, and respiratory morbidity and the usage of PPE...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Leena Korpinen, Herkko Pirkkalainen, Timo Heiskanen, Rauno Pääkkönen
Various guidelines for the protection of human beings against possible adverse effects resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been published with a view towards continual improvement; therefore, decreasing exposure is an important research area. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of decreasing electric field exposure with arc flash rated personal protective equipment (PPE), which in this case was a set of coveralls, and to compare the measurement results to calculations using the helmet-mask measuring system...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Andrew J Prendergast, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Peter Mugyenyi, Joseph Lutaakome, Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Margaret J Thomason, Diana M Gibb, A Sarah Walker
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether cotrimoxazole prophylaxis prevents common skin conditions in HIV-infected children. DESIGN: Open-label randomized controlled trial of continuing versus stopping daily cotrimoxazole (post-hoc analysis). SETTING: Three sites in Uganda, one in Zimbabwe. PARTICIPANTS: 758 children aged >3 years receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for >96 weeks in the ARROW trial were randomized to stop (n = 382) or continue (n = 376) cotrimoxazole after median(IQR) 2...
September 20, 2016: AIDS
Stephan Moyses, Anton Ginzburg
A Porous Graphitic Carbon (PGC) column was evaluated for the analysis of poly(phenylene ether) (PPE). This column appears particularly well-suited for the separation of this polymer. Conditions for the elution of PPE either in adsorption mode with chloroform or size exclusion with 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) as eluent were established. Elution of homologous species is obtained in chloroform that follows Martin's rule. A separation based on a gradient consisting of a sequence of non-solvent (acetonitrile), solvent/adsorli (chloroform) provided the highest peak capacity...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Florian J Segerer, Karin Seeger, Anna Maier, Christine Hagemann, Christoph Schoen, Mark van der Linden, Andrea Streng, Markus A Rose, Johannes G Liese
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the initial management of pediatric parapneumonic effusion or pleural empyema (PPE/PE) with regard to length of hospital stay (LOS). METHODS: Collection of pediatric PPE/PE cases using a nationwide surveillance system (ESPED) from 10/2010 to 06/2013, in all German pediatric hospitals. Inclusion of PPE/PE patients <18 years of age requiring drainage or with a PPE/PE persistence >7 days. Staging of PPE/PE based on reported pleural sonographic imaging...
September 20, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Stephen J Ives, Wesley K Lefferts, Margret Wharton, Patricia C Fehling, Denise L Smith
: Heat stress increases cardiovascular strain and is of particular concern in occupations, such as firefighters, where individuals are required to perform strenuous work while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). Sudden cardiac events are associated with strenuous activity and are the leading cause of duty-related death among firefighters, accounting for ∼50% of duty-related fatalities/year. Understanding the acute effects of exercise-induced heat stress (EIHS) on vascular endothelial function may provide insight into mechanisms precipitating acute coronary events in firefighters...
September 20, 2016: Experimental Physiology
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