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Hye-Shin Chung, Ji-Sun Kim, Sang Mee Lee, Soon Jae Park
Alpha 1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is a serine protease inhibitor that mainly inhibits neutrophil elastase in the lungs. A variant of A1AT at the P1 position with methionine 358 to arginine (A1AT-Pittsburgh) is a rapid inhibitor of thrombin with greatly diminished anti-elastase activity. The P2 residue (position 357) of A1AT-Pittsburgh has been shown to play an important role in interactions with thrombin and kallikrein, but the role of P2 residue in wild-type A1AT has largely been unraveled. Here, we investigated the effects of P2 proline substitutions in wild-type A1AT on interactions with porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE)...
2017: PloS One
Toshihiko Myojo, Tomohisa Nagata, Jos Verbeek
Many kinds of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) have been developed and used as basic materials of industrial products, and they may pose health risks for workers in not only developed countries but also in developing countries. Few studies have looked at the evidence for effects of controls that mitigate the risk of exposure to MNMs. Therefore, we systematically searched the literature from the year 2000 to 2015. We included studies that compared the use of an exposure control to the situation without such a technique and those that measured the exposure to MNMs as the outcome...
2017: Journal of UOEH
Jennifer L Doherty-Restrepo, K Erin Harrelson, Tazjanne Swinnie, Alicia M Montalvo
CONTEXT: The incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes is higher than previously estimated. The need for increased screening to detect cardiac diseases in preparticipation physical examinations (PPE) has become a focus in athletic training. The use of simulation-based training in healthcare professionals' education has increased clinical confidence and competence, but research is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine if a simulation-based educational intervention can increase athletic training students' self-reported confidence and clinical competence in conducting a cardiovascular screening...
2017: Journal of Allied Health
Tom E Fletcher, Abuova Gulzhan, Salih Ahmeti, Seif S Al-Abri, Zahide Asik, Aynur Atilla, Nick J Beeching, Heval Bilek, Ilkay Bozkurt, Iva Christova, Fazilet Duygu, Saban Esen, Arjun Khanna, Çiğdem Kader, Masoud Mardani, Faisal Mahmood, Nana Mamuchishvili, Natalia Pshenichnaya, Mustafa Sunbul, Tuğba Y Yalcin, Hakan Leblebicioglu
BACKGROUND: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a life threatening acute viral infection that presents significant risk of nosocomial transmission to healthcare workers. AIM: Evaluation of CCHF infection prevention and control (IP&C) practices in healthcare facilities that routinely manage CCHF cases in Eurasia. METHODS: A cross-sectional CCHF IP&C survey was designed and distributed to CCHF centers in 10 endemic Eurasian countries in 2016...
2017: PloS One
Xiuwen Sue Dong, Julie A Largay, Xuanwen Wang, Chris Trahan Cain, Nancy Romano
INTRODUCTION: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has published reports detailing the results of investigations on selected work-related fatalities through the Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program since 1982. METHOD: Information from construction-related FACE reports was coded into the Construction FACE Database (CFD). Use of the CFD was illustrated by analyzing major CFD variables. RESULTS: A total of 768 construction fatalities were included in the CFD...
September 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Maria Helena Guerra Andersen, Anne Thoustrup Saber, Peter Bøgh Pedersen, Steffen Loft, Åse Marie Hansen, Ismo Kalevi Koponen, Julie Elbæk Pedersen, Niels Ebbehøj, Eva-Carina Nørskov, Per Axel Clausen, Anne Helene Garde, Ulla Vogel, Peter Møller
BACKGROUND: Firefighters have increased risk of cardiovascular disease and of sudden death from coronary heart disease on duty while suppressing fires. This study investigated the effect of firefighting activities, using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), on biomarkers of cardiovascular effects in young conscripts training to become firefighters. METHODS: Healthy conscripts (n = 43) who participated in a rescue educational course for firefighting were enrolled in the study...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Zhongwei Sun, Feng Li, Xin Zhou, Wen Wang
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by persistent airflow limitation and lung parenchymal destruction. It has a very high incidence in aging populations. The current conventional therapies for COPD focus mainly on symptom-modifying drugs; thus, the development of new therapies is urgently needed. Qualified animal models of COPD could help to characterize the underlying mechanisms and can be used for new drug screening. Current COPD models, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema model, generate COPD-like lesions in the lungs and airways but do not otherwise resemble the pathogenesis of human COPD...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Beatrice Mosimann, Chantal Pfiffner, Sofia Amylidi-Mohr, Lorenz Risch, Daniel Surbek, Luigi Raio
AIM OF THE STUDY: Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with severe maternal and fetal morbidity in the acute presentation and there is increasing evidence that it is also an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease later in life. Therefore, preventive strategies are of utmost importance. The Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF) London recently developed a first trimester screening algorithm for placenta-related pregnancy complications, in particular early onset preeclampsia (eoPE) requiring delivery before 34 weeks, and preterm small for gestational age (pSGA), with a birth weight <5th percentile and delivery before 37 weeks of gestation, based on maternal history and characteristics, and biochemical and biophysical parameters...
September 5, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Siobhan Rothwell, Heather A Mcgregor, Zeina A Khouri
BACKGROUND: The emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) resulted in multiple healthcare associated outbreaks. In response, we developed a nurse-led program to screen and triage patients with MERS-CoV infection. METHODS: A formal educational program was implemented to ensure a standardized approach to care planning and delivery. The essential skills that were included were the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) including gown, gloves, head cover and N95 mask, hand hygiene, the practice of donning and doffing and the collection of MERS-CoV nasopharyngeal specimens...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Karin Lemmer, Sabine Howaldt, Renate Heinrich, Anja Roder, Georg Pauli, Brigitte G Dorner, Diana Pauly, Martin Mielke, Ingeborg Schwebke, Roland Grunow
AIMS: The work aimed at developing and evaluating practically relevant methods for testing of disinfectants on contaminated personal protective equipment (PPE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Carriers were prepared from PPE fabrics and contaminated with B. subtilis spores. Peracetic acid (PAA) was applied as suitable disinfectant. In method 1 the contaminated carrier was submerged in PAA solution, in method 2 the contaminated area was covered with PAA and in method 3 PAA, preferentially combined with a surfactant, was dispersed as a thin layer...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jimena E Díaz, Silvia Ranieri, Nadia Gruber, Liliana R Orelli
A straightforward strategy for the synthesis of dihydroquinazolines is presented, which allows for the preparation of 3,4- and 1,4-dihydroquinazolines with different substitution patterns from 2-aminobenzylamine (2-ABA) as common precursor. The required functionalization of both amino groups present in 2-ABA was achieved by different routes involving selective N-acylation and cesium carbonate-mediated N-alkylation reactions, avoiding protection/deprotection steps. The heterocycles were efficiently synthesized in short reaction times by microwave-assisted ring closure of the corresponding aminoamides promoted by ethyl polyphosphate (PPE)...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Enayat Berizi, Saeid Hosseinzadeh, Seyed Shahram Shekarforoush, Giampiero Barbieri
The current study was aimed to investigate the combined effects of chitosan (Ch) and pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on the overall quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during the frozen storage. Fresh gutted fishes were dipped for 60s either in sterile distilled water (Control) or in chitosan combined with 0 (Ch), 1% (Ch+PPE1), 2% (Ch+PPE2), or 4% (Ch+PPE4) (w/v) PPE. Microbial, chemical, textural and sensory properties of the samples were intermittently checked during six months. At the end of storage, the highest and lowest values of psychrophilic, lactic acid bacteria and mold counts in the control and Ch+PPE4 groups were respectively, 5...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Xin Chen, Hiu-Fu Cheng, Junwei Zhou, Chiu-Yeung Chan, Kwok-Fai Lau, Stephen Kwok-Wing Tsui, Shannon Wing-Ngor Au
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, has developed multiple strategies to adapt to the human host. The five type VII secretion systems, ESX-1-5, direct the export of many virulence-promoting protein effectors across the complex mycobacterial cell wall. One class of ESX substrates is the PE/PPE family of proteins, which is unique to mycobacteria and essential for infection, antigenic variation and host-pathogen interactions. The genome of Mtb encodes 168 PE/PPE proteins. Many of them are thought to be secreted through ESX-5 secretion system and to function in pairs...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Setareh Mamishi
Tuberculosis control relies on the identification and preventive treatment of people who are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). PE/PPE proteins have been reported to elicit CD4 and/or CD8 responses either in the form of whole recombinant proteins or as individual peptides. Very few of the PE and PPE proteins have been previously tested for responses in patients with TB and healthy donors. This is the first study to evaluate the Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) after stimulation with PE35 and PPE68...
March 1, 2017: European Cytokine Network
Shuangyue Liu, Tao Xu, Xidi Wu, Yuhan Lin, Dongyan Bao, Yang Di, Tingting Ma, Yan Dang, Peili Jia, Jianqiao Xian, Aimei Wang, Yongxin Liu
Oxidative stress is considered to be a major contributor to age-related hearing loss (ARHL). Here, we investigated whether pomegranate peel extract (PPE) protected against hearing loss by decreased oxidative stress in the cochlea of D-galactose-induced accelerated aging mice. The aging mice exhibited an increase in hearing threshold shifts and hair cells loss, which were improved in the PPE-treated aging mice. The aging mice also exhibited an increase in 4-hydroxynonenal, the expression of protein phosphatase 1 nuclear targeting subunit (PNUTS), p53 and caspase-3, and a decrease in protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and MDM2 in the cochlea...
July 25, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
Kai-Ling Lee, Wei-Lin Chen, Ray-Jade Chen, Kevin S Lai, Chi-Li Chung
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Parapneumonic effusion (PPE) is commonly caused by Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) and often presents with pleural loculation, which is characterized by overproduction of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a surface adhesion molecule of GPB, binds to the pleural mesothelium and triggers inflammation. However, the effects of LTA on PAI-1 expression in PPE and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients with PPE were enrolled, including uncomplicated culture negative (CN, n = 11), Gram-negative bacteria (GNB, n = 7) and GPB (n = 12) groups stratified by pleural fluid characteristics and bacteriology, and the effusion PAI-1 levels were measured...
August 23, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Guoping Yang, Tao Luo, Changfeng Sun, Jinning Yuan, Xuan Peng, Chunxi Zhang, Xiaoqian Zhai, Lang Bao
Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE/PPE family proteins play a vital role in antigenic diversity, host-pathogen interactions, and immune evasion. As secreted by ESX-5 system, M. tuberculosis PPE27 is related to the growth and virulence of the bacilli. In this study, we expressed PPE27 in the nonpathogenic fast growing Mycobacterium smegmatis. We found that the recombinant strain exhibits higher survival rate under several hostile conditions in vitro and longer persistence in mouse tissues. The survival of the recombinant strains was also enhanced in the mouse macrophage ANA-1, accompanied by higher level of host cell death, higher secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and a slightly higher amount of interleukin (IL)-1β, which could be abolished by the nuclear factor-κB, p38, and ERK inhibitors...
September 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Nagarajan Padmavathy, Paresh Kumar Samantaray, Lopamudra Das Ghosh, Giridhar Madras, Suryasarathi Bose
Polymeric architectures with controlled and well-defined structural features are required to render a sustainable antibacterial surface - a key requirement in the design of polymeric membranes for water purification. Herein, surface selective crosslinking of copper oxide-polyphosphoester (CuO-PPE) hybrid nanogels on to polyvinylidene fluoride-styrene maleic anhydride (PVDF/SMA) ultrafiltration membranes was developed. The hybrid nanogels, composed of PPE and CuO, with inherent antifouling and antibacterial properties, were crosslinked using a macroinitiator (polyethylene glycol, PEG) and subsequently grafted on to PVDF/SMA by alkyne-anhydride reaction...
August 31, 2017: Nanoscale
Chao He, Bo Wang, Danni Li, Huan Xu, Yongchun Shen
BACKGROUND: Parapneumonic pleural effusion (PPE) is a common complication of pneumonia. The accurate diagnosis of PPE remains a challenge. Recent studies suggest that procalcitonin (PCT) emerges as a potential biomarker for PPE. Our study aimed to determine the diagnostic value of PCT for PPE by a clinical study and summarize the overall diagnostic performance of PCT through a meta-analysis. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data of the patients with PPE and controls were collected in our clinical study...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Tae Kyung Kim, Byung-Chan Jeon, Eunkyoung Bae, Kyoung Ki Bae, Kyu-Tae Han, Eun-Cheol Park
INTRODUCTION: Soldiers are at a higher risk of injury than people of other occupations. To date, no studies have examined the association between injury and personal protective equipment (PPE) use in the Republic of Korea (ROK) military. Thus, this study aimed to investigate possible associations between injury and PPE use in military personnel. In addition, we aimed to identify the possible interactions between injury and PPE use according to military personnel characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used secondary data from the 2014-2015 Military Health Survey...
July 2017: Military Medicine
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