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Francisco Martín Rodríguez, Cristina Fernández Pérez, Miguel Castro Villamor, José Luis Martín Conty, Pedro Arnillas Gómez, Verónica Casado Vicente
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to determine the usefulness of level D personal protective equipment (PPE) in safeguarding health care staff who perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental, uncontrolled trial in 96 volunteers chosen randomly and stratified by sex, level of training, and professional category. The subjects were selected from a convenience sample of 164 nurses, physicians, and students of nursing and medicine (40 men [41...
2018: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
Luchao Chen, Zhongxia Lu, Yongle Yang, Lijun Du, Xiaofang Zhou, Yitao Chen
Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers globally with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Purified Omphalia lapidescens protein (pPe O p) is a protein extracted from the sclerotium of Omphalia lapidescens . The present study aimed to investigate the effects of pPe O p on the viability, migration, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells. The expression of numerous proteins, namely matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)2, MMP9, p53, caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, cyclin A2, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK)1, CDK2 and CDK4, were investigated using western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Poornima Kumar, Franziska Goer, Laura Murray, Daniel G Dillon, Miranda L Beltzer, Andrew L Cohen, Nancy H Brooks, Diego A Pizzagalli
Anhedonia (hyposensitivity to rewards) and negative bias (hypersensitivity to punishments) are core features of major depressive disorder (MDD), which could stem from abnormal reinforcement learning. Emerging evidence highlights blunted reward learning and reward prediction error (RPE) signaling in the striatum in MDD, although inconsistencies exist. Preclinical studies have clarified that ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons encode RPE and habenular neurons encode punishment prediction error (PPE), which are then transmitted to the striatum and cortex to guide goal-directed behavior...
February 26, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Saskia Den Boon, Constanza Vallenas, Mauricio Ferri, Susan L Norris
Background: Ebola virus disease (EVD) health facility transmission can result in infection and death of health workers. The World Health Organization (WHO) supports countries in preparing for and responding to public health emergencies, which often require developing new guidance in short timelines with scarce evidence. The objective of this study was to understand frontline physicians' and nurses' perspectives about personal protective equipment (PPE) use during the 2014-2016 EVD outbreak in West Africa and to incorporate these findings into the development process of a WHO rapid advice guideline...
2018: F1000Research
Sydney Moser, Ingrid Aragon, Amber Furrer, Jan-Willem Van Klinken, Melissa Kaczmarczyk, Byung-Hoo Lee, Judy George, Bruce R Hamaker, Richard Mattes, Mario G Ferruzzi
Beneficial effects of some phenolic compounds in modulation of carbohydrate digestion and glycemic response have been reported, however effects of phenolics from processed potato products on these endpoints are not well known. The aims of this study were to characterize phenolic profiles of fresh potatoes (purple, red, or white fleshed; 2 varieties each) and chips, and to examine the potential for potato phenolic extracts (PPE) to modulate starch digestion and intestinal glucose transport in model systems. Following in vitro assessment, a pilot clinical study (n=11) assessed differences in glycemic response and gastric emptying between chips from pigmented and white potatoes...
February 12, 2018: Nutrition Research
Shuang Song, Ling-Zhi Cheong, Qing-Qing Man, Shao-Jie Pang, Yue-Qi Li, Biao Ren, Jian Zhang
Early diagnosis of neural changes causing cognitive impairment is critical for development of preventive therapies for dementia. Biomarkers currently characterized cannot be extensively applied due to the invasive sampling of cerebrospinal fluid. The other imaging approaches are either expensive or require a high technique. Phospholipids (PLs), which are basic constituents of neurons, might be a key variable in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment. Changes in plasma PL provide the possibility for development of novel biomarkers with minimal invasion and high patient acceptance...
March 10, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Jacob J Baker, Robert B Abramovitch
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) senses and adapts to acidic environments during the course of infection. Acidic pH-dependent adaptations include the induction of metabolic genes associated with anaplerosis and growth arrest on specific carbon sources. Here we report that deletion of isocitrate lyase or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase results in reduced growth at acidic pH and altered metabolite profiles, supporting that remodeling of anaplerotic metabolism is required for pH-dependent adaptation. Mtb cultured at pH 5...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
José M Porcel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of the contribution of thoracic ultrasound (TUS) and computed tomography (CT) in the identification of complicated parapneumonic effusions (CPPE), defined as those which need chest tube drainage for resolution. RECENT FINDINGS: A recent retrospective study found that visualization of complex (nonanechoic) effusions on TUS (likelihood ratio positive = 6.92) outperformed the recognition of loculated/septated effusions on CT (likelihood ratio = 2...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Brett Vaughan, Sandra Grace
Background: Peer physical examination (PPE) is a teaching and learning strategy utilised in most health profession education programs. Perceptions of participating in PPE have been described in the literature, focusing on areas of the body students are willing, or unwilling, to examine. A small number of questionnaires exist to evaluate these perceptions, however none have described the measurement properties that may allow them to be used longitudinally. The present study undertook a Mokken scale analysis of the Peer Physical Examination Questionnaire (PPEQ) to evaluate its dimensionality and structure when used with Australian osteopathy students...
2018: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
Reema Harrison, Merrilyn Walton, Patrick Kelly, Elizabeth Manias, Christine Jorm, Jennifer Smith-Merry, Rick Iedema, Karen Luxford, Amalie Dyda
Objective: Evidence of the patient experience of hospitalization is an essential component of health policy and service improvement but studies often lack a representative population sample or do not examine the influence of patient and hospital characteristics on experiences. We address these gaps by investigating the experiences of a large cohort of recently hospitalized patients aged 45 years and over in New South Wales (NSW), Australia who were identified using data linkage. Design: Cross-sectional survey...
March 1, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Annabelle de St Maurice, Luke Nyakarahuka, Lawrence Purpura, Elizabeth Ervin, Alex Tumusiime, Stephen Balinandi, Jackson Kyondo, Sophia Mulei, Patrick Tusiime, Craig Manning, Pierre E Rollin, Barbara Knust, Trevor Shoemaker
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF) is a zoonotic virus in the Phenuiviridae family. RVF outbreaks can cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. Following the diagnosis of two RVF cases in March 2016 in southern Kabale district, Uganda, we conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) survey to identify knowledge gaps and at-risk behaviors related to RVF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A multidisciplinary team interviewed 657 community members, including abattoir workers, in and around Kabale District, Uganda...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
S N Karshima
Knowledge of endemic helminths in a resource-limited country such as Nigeria is essential for their diagnosis, treatment and cost-effective control. In the present study, the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guideline was employed to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of zoonotic helminths in food animals slaughtered in Nigerian abattoirs between 1970 and 2016. Pooled prevalence estimate (PPE) was determined by the random-effects model while heterogeneity was evaluated using the Cochran's Q-test...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Matthew M Walsh, Kevin A Gluck, Glenn Gunzelmann, Tiffany Jastrzembski, Michael Krusmark
The spacing effect is among the most widely replicated empirical phenomena in the learning sciences, and its relevance to education and training is readily apparent. Yet successful applications of spacing effect research to education and training is rare. Computational modeling can provide the crucial link between a century of accumulated experimental data on the spacing effect and the emerging interest in using that research to enable adaptive instruction. In this paper, we review relevant literature and identify 10 criteria for rigorously evaluating computational models of the spacing effect...
March 2, 2018: Cognitive Science
Clemente Aguilar-Garduño, Julia Blanco-Muñoz, Karina Roxana Antonio, Consuelo Escamilla-Nuñez, Cuauhtémoc A Juárez-Pérez, Astrid Schilmann, Mariano E Cebrian, Marina Lacasaña
Background Flower growers have high potential for exposures to pesticides. Occupational factors, such as tasks performed, the production method (organic or conventional), the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and workplace characteristics influence the intensity of pesticide exposure. Objective To evaluate occupational characteristics affecting urinary concentration of dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites of organophosphate pesticides among a group of Mexican floricultural workers. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 117 workers who also provided a first morning urine sample...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Maximilian Gertler, Sven Loik, Christian Kleine, Alexa Matuschek, Norbert Gresser, Mario di Gennaro, Andreas Fabricius, Thomas Kratz, August Stich, Joost Butenop
BACKGROUND: In September 2014, the German government mandated the German Red Cross (GRC) and the German Armed Forces to support the international efforts to stop the epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West-Africa. The GRC requested specific training from the Medical Mission Institute Wuerzburg (MI). OBJECTIVES: We describe and discuss the development, strategy, results, and evaluation of the program to formulate conclusions and recommendations for similar emergencies...
February 26, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Mohamed A Zayed, Fong-Fu Hsu, Bruce W Patterson, Yan Yan, Uzma Naim, Malik Darwesh, Gayan De Silva, Chao Yang, Clay F Semenkovich
Patients with diabetes are at higher risk of developing carotid artery stenosis and resultant stroke. Arachidonoyl phospholipids affect plaque inflammation and vulnerability, but whether diabetic patients have unique carotid artery phospholipidomic profiles is unknown. We performed a comprehensive paired analysis of phospholipids in extracranial carotid endarterectomy (CEA) plaques of matched diabetic and nondiabetic patients and analyzed mass spectrometry-derived profiles of three phospholipids - plasmenyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (pPE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) - in minimally diseased (MIN) and maximally diseased (MAX) CEA segments...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Lisa M Casanova, Kimberly Erukunuakpor, Colleen S Kraft, Joel M Mumma, Francis T Durso, Ashley N Ferguson, Christina L Gipson, Victoria L Walsh, Craig Zimring, Jennifer DuBose, Jesse T Jacob
Background: Personal protective equipment (PPE) protects healthcare workers (HCWs) caring for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD), and PPE doffing is a critical point for preventing viral self-contamination. We assessed contamination of skin, gloves, and scrubs after doffing Ebola-level PPE contaminated with surrogate viruses: bacteriophages MS2 and Φ6. Methods: In a medical biocontainment unit, HCWs (n = 10) experienced in EVD care donned and doffed PPE following unit protocols that incorporate trained observer guidance and alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR)...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Joel M Mumma, Francis T Durso, Ashley N Ferguson, Christina L Gipson, Lisa Casanova, Kimberly Erukunuakpor, Colleen S Kraft, Victoria L Walsh, Craig Zimring, Jennifer DuBose, Jesse T Jacob
Background: Doffing protocols for personal protective equipment (PPE) are critical for keeping healthcare workers (HCWs) safe during care of patients with Ebola virus disease. We assessed the relationship between errors and self-contamination during doffing. Methods: Eleven HCWs experienced with doffing Ebola-level PPE participated in simulations in which HCWs donned PPE marked with surrogate viruses (ɸ6 and MS2), completed a clinical task, and were assessed for contamination after doffing...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Wataru Saito, Yuki Hashimoto, Kiriko Hirooka, Susumu Ishida
PURPOSE: To evaluate chronological changes in choroidal thickness in a patient with pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy (PPE) who was later diagnosed with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) during follow-up. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 43-year-old man complained of metamorphopsia in the left eye. Funduscopy showed several punctate white subretinal lesions at the macula, but no macular serous retinal detachment in the left eye. Retinal pigment epithelium abnormality without serous retinal detachment at the macula on optical coherence tomography and choroidal vascular hyperpermeability on indocyanine green angiography suggested PPE in the left eye...
February 21, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
S U Arinze-Onyia, A C Ndu, E N Aguwa, I Modebe, U N Nwamoh
Background: Standard precautions (SPs) are crucial in protecting both health-care workers (HCWs) and patients from nosocomial infections. This study assessed the knowledge and practices of SP among HCWs in tertiary health-care facilities. Methods: This descriptive study was done in October 2014 among 629 HCWs at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu State. A pretested questionnaire was used and analysis done using SPSS version 13. Results: The HCWs studied were 629, mostly females (64...
February 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
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