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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440335/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-pe_pgrs41-enhances-the-intracellular-survival-of-m-smegmatis-within-macrophages-via-blocking-innate-immunity-and-inhibition-of-host-defense
#1
Wanyan Deng, Quanxin Long, Jie Zeng, Ping Li, Wenmin Yang, Xinchun Chen, Jianping Xie
The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) as a pathogen is largely contributes to its ability to manipulate the host immune responses. The genome of M. tuberculosis encodes multiple immune-modulatory proteins, including several members of the multi-genic PE_PPE family. Despite of intense research, the roles of PE_PGRS proteins in mycobacterial pathogenesis remain elusive. The function of M. tuberculosis PE_PGRS41, characterized by an extended and unique C-terminal domain, was studied. Expression of PE_PGRS41 in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a non-pathogenic species intrinsically deficient of PE_PGRS, severely impaired the resistance of the recombinant to multiple stresses via altering the cell wall integrity...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434702/inhibition-or-deletion-of-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-suppresses-elastase-induced-experimental-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#2
Haojun Xuan, Baohui Xu, Wei Wang, Hiroki Tanaka, Naoki Fujimura, Masaaki Miyata, Sara A Michie, Ronald L Dalman
OBJECTIVE: Angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor (AT1) activation is essential for the development of exogenous Ang II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in hyperlipidemic animals. Experimental data derived from this modeling system, however, provide limited insight into the role of endogenous Ang II in aneurysm pathogenesis. Consequently, the potential translational value of AT1 inhibition in clinical AAA disease management remains incompletely understood on the basis of the existing literature...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427270/skin-irritation-testing-of-antimicrobial-conjugated-electrolytes
#3
Kristin N Wilde, Phuong A H Nguyen, David G Whitten, Heather E Canavan
Each year, the United States spends about $20 billion to treat people who have been infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria. Even so, the development of new antibiotics has slowed considerably since the mid-20th century. As a result, researchers are looking into developing synthetic compounds and materials with antimicrobial activities such as those made by the Schanze and Whitten groups [ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3, 2820 (2011)]. Previously, they have demonstrated that poly(phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) based electrolytes and oligomeric end-only phenylene ethynylene (EO-OPE) based electrolytes possess strong biocidal activity...
April 20, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426630/outer-nuclear-layer-thinning-in-pachychoroid-pigment-epitheliopathy
#4
M Giray Ersoz, Murat Karacorlu, Serra Arf, Mumin Hocaoglu, Isil Sayman Muslubas
PURPOSE: To compare the average thicknesses of central inner retinal layers in eyes with pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy (PPE), with uncomplicated pachychoroid (UCP), and of healthy subjects. METHODS: Medical records of patients with PPE and UCP were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-nine eyes with foveal PPE, 30 eyes with UCP, and 29 eyes of healthy subjects were included. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging was used for all optical coherence tomography scans...
April 19, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422931/development-and-psychometric-evaluation-of-the-professional-practice-work-environment-inventory
#5
Jeanette Ives Erickson, Mary E Duffy, Marianne Ditomassi, Dorothy Jones
OBJECTIVE: The purpose is to examine the psychometric properties of the professional practice work environment inventory (PPWEI). BACKGROUND: Derived from the Professional Practice Environment (PPE) and the Revised PPE scales, the PPWEI was designed to measure 8 components of the PPE that can be used to assist nurse administrators in decision-making. METHODS: A psychometric evaluation was undertaken with 874 nurses who were providing direct care to patients at the Massachusetts General Hospital and who provided no missing data on the newly developed 72-item PPWEI...
May 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420487/personal-protective-equipment-solution-for-uk-military-medical-personnel-working-in-an-ebola-virus-disease-treatment-unit-in-sierra-leone
#6
P Reidy, T Fletcher, C Shieber, J Shallcross, H Towler, M Ping, L Kenworthy, N Silman, E Aarons
The combination of personal protective equipment (PPE) together with donning and doffing protocols was designed to protect British and Canadian military medical personnel in the Kerry Town Ebola Treatment Unit (ETU) in Sierra Leone. The PPE solution was selected to protect medical staff from infectious risks, notably Ebola virus, and chemical (hypochlorite) exposure. PPE maximized dexterity, enabled personnel to work in hot temperatures for periods of up to 2h, protected mucosal membranes when doffing outer layers, and minimized potential contamination of the doffing area with infectious material by reducing the requirement to spray PPE with hypochlorite...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418743/stockpile-model-of-personal-protective-equipment-in-taiwan
#7
Yu-Ju Chen, Po-Jung Chiang, Yu-Hsin Cheng, Chun-Wei Huang, Hui-Yun Kao, Chih-Kai Chang, Hsun-Miao Huang, Pei-Yin Liu, Jen-Hsin Wang, Yi-Chien Chih, Shu-Mei Chou, Chin-Hui Yang, Chang-Hsun Chen
The Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) has established a 3-tier personal protective equipment (PPE) stockpiling framework that could maintain a minimum stockpile for the surge demand of PPE in the early stage of a pandemic. However, PPE stockpiling efforts must contend with increasing storage fees and expiration problems. In 2011, the Taiwan CDC initiated a stockpile replacement model in order to optimize the PPE stockpiling efficiency, ensure a minimum stockpile, use the government's limited funds more effectively, and achieve the goal of sustainable management...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415976/smrt-genome-assembly-corrects-reference-errors-resolving-the-genetic-basis-of-virulence-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#8
Afif Elghraoui, Samuel J Modlin, Faramarz Valafar
BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been investigated through genome comparisons of virulent (H37Rv) and attenuated (H37Ra) sister strains. Such analysis, however, relies heavily on the accuracy of the sequences. While the H37Rv reference genome has had several corrections to date, that of H37Ra is unmodified since its original publication. RESULTS: Here, we report the assembly and finishing of the H37Ra genome from single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing...
April 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381304/evaluation-of-biosecurity-measures-to-prevent-indirect-transmission-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#9
Yonghyan Kim, My Yang, Sagar M Goyal, Maxim C-J Cheeran, Montserrat Torremorell
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of biosecurity methods to mitigate the transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) via farm personnel or contaminated fomites is poorly understood. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of biosecurity procedures directed at minimizing transmission via personnel following different biosecurity protocols using a controlled experimental setting. RESULTS: PEDV RNA was detected from rectal swabs of experimentally infected (INF) and sentinel pigs by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR)...
April 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378998/polyphosphoester-camptothecin-prodrug-with-reduction-response-prepared-via-michael-addition-polymerization-and-click-reaction
#10
Xueqiong Du, Yue Sun, Mingzu Zhang, Jinlin He, Peihong Ni
Polyphosphoesters (PPEs), as potential candidates for biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, play an important role in material science. Various synthetic methods have been employed in the preparation of PPEs such as polycondensation, polyaddition, ring-opening polymerization, and olefin metathesis polymerization. In this study, a series of linear PPEs has been prepared via one-step Michael addition polymerization. Subsequently, camptothecin (CPT) derivatives containing disulfide bonds and azido groups were linked onto the side chain of the PPE through Cu(I)-catalyzed azidealkyne cyclo-addition "click" chemistry to yield a reduction-responsive polymeric prodrug P(EAEP-PPA)-g-ss-CPT...
April 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377903/the-bioinformatics-analysis-of-comparative-genomics-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-mtbc-provides-insight-into-dissimilarities-between-intraspecific-groups-differing-in-host-association-virulence-and-epitope-diversity
#11
Xinmiao Jia, Li Yang, Mengxing Dong, Suting Chen, Lingna Lv, Dandan Cao, Jing Fu, Tingting Yang, Ju Zhang, Xiangli Zhang, Yuanyuan Shang, Guirong Wang, Yongjie Sheng, Hairong Huang, Fei Chen
Tuberculosis now exceeds HIV as the top infectious disease cause of mortality, and is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). MTBC strains have highly conserved genome sequences (similarity >99%) but dramatically different phenotypes. To analyze the relationship between genotype and phenotype, we conducted the comparative genomic analysis on 12 MTBC strains representing different lineages (i.e., Mycobacterium bovis; M. bovis BCG; M. microti; M. africanum; M. tuberculosis H37Rv; M. tuberculosis H37Ra, and six M...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377657/evaluation-of-masticatory-stimulation-effect-on-the-maxillary-transversal-growth-in-ectodermal-dysplasia-children
#12
Elia Sfeir, Mona G Nahass, Ayman Mourad
AIMS: Severe oligodontia is one of the most important symptoms in children with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED). The growth of the maxilla is a key consideration in restoring their mouth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transversal maxillary sutural growth, after passive masticatory stimulation, in HED children. We also thought to assess the efficiency and functional outcome of the proposed propriocep-tive passive expansion (PPE) prosthetic device. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 13 children (age 6-11 years) suffering from HED with severe oligodontia...
January 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370693/computed-tomography-scoring-system-for-discriminating-between-parapneumonic-effusions-eventually-drained-and-those-cured-only-with-antibiotics
#13
José M Porcel, Marina Pardina, Carmen Alemán, Esther Pallisa, Richard W Light, Silvia Bielsa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Due to limited data, we aimed to develop and validate a computed tomography (CT)-based scoring system for identifying those parapneumonic effusions (PPEs) requiring drainage. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients with PPE who underwent thoracentesis and a chest CT scan before any attempt to place a tube thoracostomy, if applicable, over an 8-year period was conducted. Eleven chest CT characteristics were compared between 90 patients with complicated PPEs (CPPEs), defined as those which eventually required chest drainage, and 60 with non-complicated effusions (derivation sample)...
March 30, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363903/ifn-regulatory-factor-3-potentiates-emphysematous-aggravation-by-lipopolysaccharide
#14
Takashi Ishii, Keisuke Hosoki, Yuichi Nikura, Naohide Yamashita, Takahide Nagase, Naomi Yamashita
Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often induced by infection and often has a poor prognosis. Bacterial LPS activates innate immune receptor TLR4 followed by activation of a transcriptional factor IFN regulatory factor-3 (IRF3) as well as NF-κB, resulting in upregulation of various inflammatory mediators. To clarify the role of IRF3 in the pathogenesis of LPS-triggered COPD exacerbation, porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) followed by LPS was administered intranasally to wild-type (WT) or IRF3(-/-) male mice...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363046/stress-influence-on-plasma-protein-electrophoresis-in-the-red-breasted-goose-branta-ruficollis-and-hawaiian-goose-branta-sandvicensis
#15
Antoine Leclerc, Baptiste Mulot, Alice Brunet, Yannick Roman
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of stress (as measured by total heterophil + eosinophil counts [THECs] and plasma corticosterone [PC] levels) on plasma protein electrophoresis (PPE) in two Anseriform species. Ten red-breasted geese ( Branta ruficollis ) and eight Hawaiian geese (Branta sandvicensis) were received into quarantine at Beauval Zoo and housed together with other Anseriformes. Two days later, all were examined as part of routine quarantine procedures, and blood was collected...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362266/the-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-among-industrial-hog-operation-workers-community-residents-and-children-living-in-their-households-north-carolina-usa
#16
Sarah M Hatcher, Sarah M Rhodes, Jill R Stewart, Ellen Silbergeld, Nora Pisanic, Jesper Larsen, Sharon Jiang, Amanda Krosche, Devon Hall, Karen C Carroll, Christopher D Heaney
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic use in industrial hog operations (IHOs) can support the emergence of antibiotic-resistant (ABR) Staphylococcus aureus. The extent of ABR S. aureus exposure in IHO workers and children living in their households remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated ABR S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence among adults with versus without occupational exposure to IHOs and among children living in their households. METHODS: In total, 198 IHO worker-child household pairs and 202 community referent (CR) adult-child household pairs completed a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab which was analyzed for S...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355421/an-assessment-of-the-robustness-of-the-coshh-essentials-c-e-target-airborne-concentration-ranges-15-years-on-and-their-usefulness-for-determining-control-measures
#17
Nicholas P Vaughan, Rajadurai Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) in Great Britain (GB), in association with its stakeholders, developed the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH)-Essentials (C-E) control banding tool in 1998. The objective was to provide a simple tool for employers, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), to help select and apply appropriate measures for the adequate control of exposure to hazardous substances. The tool used hazard classification information (R-phrases) to assign substances to one of five health hazard groups, each with its respective 'target airborne concentration range'...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348981/ppe38-protein-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-inhibits-macrophage-mhc-class-i-expression-and-dampens-cd8-t-cell-responses
#18
Lu Meng, Jingfeng Tong, Hui Wang, Chengwu Tao, Qinglan Wang, Chen Niu, Xiaoming Zhang, Qian Gao
Suppression of CD8(+) T cell activation is a critical mechanism used by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) to escape protective host immune responses. PPE38 belongs to the unique PPE family of MTB and in our previous study, PPE38 protein was speculated to participate in manipulating macrophage MHC class I pathway. To test this hypothesis, the function of mycobacterial PPE38 protein was assessed here using macrophage and mouse infection models. Decreased amount of MHC class I was observed on the surface of macrophages infected with PPE38-expressing mycobacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348055/the-enigmatic-pe-ppe-multi-gene-family-of-mycobacteria-and-tb-vaccination
#19
Michael J Brennan
The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the bacteria responsible for the disease tuberculosis, contains an unusual family of abundant antigens (PE/PPEs) . To date certain members of this multigene family occur only in mycobacteria that cause disease. It is possible that the numerous proteins encoded by these mycobacterial genes dictate the immune-pathogenesis of this bacterial pathogen. There is also evidence that some of these antigens are present at the cell surface and that they affect the pathology and immunology of the organism in many ways...
March 27, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347198/endomyometritis-after-cesarean-delivery-in-the-era-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-incidence-and-risk-factors
#20
Laura J Moulton, Mark Lachiewicz, Xiaobo Liu, Oluwatosin Goje
PURPOSE: To identify the rate of endomyometritis (PPE) after cesarean delivery (CD) in the era of antibiotic prophylaxis and determine risk factors. METHODS: A single institution retrospective study was performed in women undergoing CD. Data regarding obstetrical and surgical variables were collected. Diagnosis of PPE was made clinically. RESULTS: Among 2419 patients, the rate of PPE was 1.6% (n = 38) and was associated with lower age (27...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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