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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783026/a-prolonged-and-large-outbreak-of-invasive-group-a-streptococcal-disease-within-a-nursing-home-repeated-intra-facility-transmission-of-a-single-strain
#1
S A Nanduri, B J Metcalf, M A Arwady, C Edens, M A Lavin, J Morgan, W Clegg, A Beron, J P Albertson, R Link-Gelles, A Ogundimu, J Gold, D Jackson, S Chochua, N Stone, C Van Beneden, K Fleming-Dutra, B Beall
OBJECTIVES: Multiple invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections were reported to public health by a skilled nursing facility (Facility A) in Illinois between May 2014 and August 2016. Cases continued despite interventions including antibiotic prophylaxis for all residents and staff. Two other geographically close facilities reported contemporaneous outbreaks of GAS. We investigated potential reasons for ongoing transmission. METHODS: We obtained epidemiologic data from chart review of cases and review of facility and public health records from previous investigations into the outbreak...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779846/simulation-based-training-in-ebola-personal-protective-equipment-for-healthcare-workers-experience-from-king-abdulaziz-university-hospital-in-saudi-arabia
#2
Jameel T Abualenain, Maha M Al-Alawi
BACKGROUND: Millions of Muslims from across the world gather annually to perform pilgrimage. This can import unusual communicable diseases such as Ebola. Communicable diseases with a high risk of mortality necessitate special training to master the required competency to avert transmission of infections. The efficacy of simulation-based training (SBT) has been shown in such circumstances. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop an SBT program in Ebola Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for all healthcare workers (HCWs)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779209/gata3-hypermethylation-and-foxp3-hypomethylation-are-associated-with-sustained-protection-and-bystander-effect-following-epicutaneous-immunotherapy-in-peanut-sensitized-mice
#3
Lucie Mondoulet, Vincent Dioszeghy, Florence Busato, Camille Plaquet, Véronique Dhelft, Kevin Bethune, Laurence Leclere, Christian Daviaud, Mélanie Ligouis, Hugh Sampson, Christophe Dupont, Jörg Tost
BACKGROUND: Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) is a promising method for treating food allergies. In animal models, EPIT induces sustained unresponsiveness and prevents further sensitization mediated by Tregs. Here, we elucidate the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of EPIT, by characterizing the kinetics of DNA methylation changes in sorted cells from spleen and blood and by evaluating its persistence and bystander effect compared to oral immunotherapy (OIT). METHODS: BALB/c mice orally sensitized to peanut proteins (PPE) were treated by EPIT using a PPE-patch or by PPE-OIT...
May 19, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774334/a-comparative-study-of-epa-enriched-ethanolamine-plasmalogen-and-epa-enriched-phosphatidylethanolamine-on-a%C3%AE-42-induced-cognitive-deficiency-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Hongxia Che, Qian Li, Tiantian Zhang, Lin Ding, Lingyu Zhang, Haohao Shi, Teruyoshi Yanagita, Changhu Xue, Yaoguang Chang, Yuming Wang
Ethanolamine plasmalogen (pPE), a major phospholipid in neuronal membranes, is specifically reduced in postmortem brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of EPA-enriched ethanolamine plasmalogen (EPA-pPE) and EPA-enriched phosphatidylethanolamine (EPA-PE) on cognitive deficiency and illustrate the possible underlying mechanisms. SD rats were divided into four groups including the sham group injected with 0.9% saline and three amyloid-β (Aβ) infusion groups, Aβ42 group, EPA-pPE group and EPA-PE group...
May 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765075/possible-causes-of-data-model-discrepancy-in-the-temperature-history-of-the-last-millennium
#5
Raphael Neukom, Andrew P Schurer, Nathan J Steiger, Gabriele C Hegerl
Model simulations and proxy-based reconstructions are the main tools for quantifying pre-instrumental climate variations. For some metrics such as Northern Hemisphere mean temperatures, there is remarkable agreement between models and reconstructions. For other diagnostics, such as the regional response to volcanic eruptions, or hemispheric temperature differences, substantial disagreements between data and models have been reported. Here, we assess the potential sources of these discrepancies by comparing 1000-year hemispheric temperature reconstructions based on real-world paleoclimate proxies with climate-model-based pseudoproxies...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761929/assessment-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-exposure-lung-function-systemic-inflammation-and-genotoxicity-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-firefighters-before-and-after-a-work-shift
#6
Maria Helena Guerra Andersen, Anne Thoustrup Saber, Julie Elbaek Pedersen, Peter Bøgh Pedersen, Per Axel Clausen, Mille Løhr, Ali Kermanizadeh, Steffen Loft, Niels E Ebbehøj, Åse Marie Hansen, Ismo Kalevi Koponen, Eva-Carina Nørskov, Ulla Vogel, Peter Møller
Firefighting is regarded as possibly carcinogenic, although there are few mechanistic studies on genotoxicity in humans. We investigated exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), lung function, systemic inflammation and genotoxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 22 professional firefighters before and after a 24-h work shift. Exposure was assessed by measurements of particulate matter (PM), PAH levels on skin, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and self-reported participation in fire extinguishing activities...
May 15, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751012/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-pe1-and-pe2-proteins-carrying-conserved-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-serine-hydrolase-domain-are-esterases-hydrolyzing-short-to-medium-chain-p-nitrophenyl-esters
#7
Bala Divya M, Maniharika Vemula, Kannan Balakrishnan, Sharmistha Banerjee, Lalitha Guruprasad
The distinctive PE and PPE families of proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the tuberculosis (TB) causing bacteria, have been associated primarily with antigenicity, immune-modulation and virulence. Earlier, using structure-based sequence annotation, we identified a 225 amino acid conserved PE-PPE domain (Pfam: PF08237) commonly present in some PE and PPE proteins which was observed to comprise α/β-serine hydrolase fold. The prediction was supported by experimental validations of PE16 that was shown to exhibit esterase activity...
May 8, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750600/exploring-respiratory-protection-practices-for-prominent-hazards-in-healthcare-settings
#8
Kerri Wizner, Mahiyar Nasarwanji, Edward Fisher, Andrea L Steege, James M Boiano
The use of respiratory protection, an important component of personal protective equipment (PPE) in healthcare, is dependent on the hazard and environmental conditions in the workplace. This requires the employer and healthcare worker (HCW) to be knowledgeable about potential exposures and their respective protective measures. However, the use of respirators is inconsistent in healthcare settings, potentially putting HCWs at risk for illness or injury. To better understand respirator use, barriers, and influences, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers provided an opportunity to examine self-reported use of respirators and surgical masks for targeted hazards...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749097/bimetallic-zn-fe-polyphthalocyanine-derived-single-atom-fe-n4-catalytic-site%C3%AF-a-superior-tri-functional-catalyst-for-overall-water-splitting-and-zn-air-battery
#9
Yuan Pan, Shoujie Liu, Kaian Sun, Xin Chen, Bin Wang, Konglin Wu, Xing Cao, Weng-Chon Cheong, Rongan Shen, Aijuan Han, Zheng Chen, Lirong Zheng, Jun Luo, Yan Lin, Yunqi Liu, Dingsheng Wang, Qiang Zhang, Chen Chen, Yadong Li
Developing an efficient single-atom materials (SAMs) synthesis methodology and exploring the energy-related catalytic reaction are important but still challenging. Herein, we report a novel polymerization-pyrolysis-evaporation (PPE) strategy to synthesize N-doped porous carbon (NPC) anchored atomically dispersed Fe-N4 catalytic site derived from predesigned bimetallic Zn/Fe polyphthalocyanine. Experiments and theory calculations demonstrate the formed Fe-N4 site exhibits superior tri-functional electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution and hydrogen evolution reactions...
May 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743786/awareness-of-occupational-hazards-and-associated-factors-among-automobile-repair-artisans-in-kathmandu-metropolitan-city-nepal
#10
Sujan B Marahatta, Sanju Gautam, Grish Paudel, Uday N Yadav
Background: An occupational hazard contributes to severe health problems among workers due to unhygienic conditions and lack of safety at the workplace. Economic growth and productivity can be well achieved by promoting health, safety, and improved quality workplace. Aims: To assess the knowledge of occupational hazards, use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and the factors associated with awareness on occupational hazards among automobile repair artisans in Kathmandu, Nepal...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739853/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-ppe60-antigen-drives-th1-th17-responses-via-toll-like-receptor-2-dependent-maturation-of-dendritic-cells
#11
Haibo Su, Zhen Zhang, Zijian Liu, Baozhou Peng, Cong Kong, Honghai Wang, Zhi Zhang, Ying Xu
Targeting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) PE/PPE antigens that induce type 1 helper T cell (Th1) and Th17 responses represents a crucial strategy for the development of tuberculosis (TB) vaccines. However, only few PE/PPE antigens induce these responses. Here, we sought to determine how the cell wall-associated antigen PPE60 (Rv3478) activates dendritic cell (DC) maturation and T-cell differentiation. We observed that PPE60 induces DC maturation by augmenting the protein expression of cluster of differentiation 80 (CD80) and CD86, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II on the cell surface...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739433/-because-if-we-talk-about-health-issues-first-it-is-easier-to-talk-about-human-trafficking-findings-from-a-mixed-methods-study-on-health-needs-and-service-provision-among-migrant-and-trafficked-fishermen-in-the-mekong
#12
Nicola S Pocock, Reena Tadee, Kanokwan Tharawan, Wansiri Rongrongmuang, Brett Dickson, Soksreymom Suos, Ligia Kiss, Cathy Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: Human trafficking in the fishing industry or "sea slavery" in the Greater Mekong Subregion is reported to involve some of the most extreme forms of exploitation and abuse. A largely unregulated sector, commercial fishing boats operate in international waters far from shore and outside of national jurisdiction, where workers are commonly subjected to life-threatening risks. Yet, research on the health needs of trafficked fishermen is sparse. This paper describes abuses, occupational hazards, physical and mental health and post-trafficking well-being among a systematic consecutive sample of 275 trafficked fishermen using post-trafficking services in Thailand and Cambodia...
May 9, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730892/activation-of-p70s6-kinase-1-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-essential-to-lung-tissue-repair
#13
Katsuyuki Takeda, Fangkun Ning, Joanne Domenico, Masakazu Okamoto, Shigeru Ashino, Sang-Ha Kim, Yi Yeong Jeong, Yoshiki Shiraishi, Naohiro Terada, Everett Rand Sutherland, Erwin W Gelfand
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to promote lung tissue regeneration in animal models of emphysema. However, the reparative effects of the combination of the two and the role of p70S6 kinase-1 (p70S6k1) activation in the repair process have not been defined. Twenty-one days after intratracheal instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE), MSC and/or 10 days of ATRA treatment was initiated. Thirty-two days later, static lung compliance (Cst), mean linear intercepts (MLIs), and alveolar surface area (S) were measured...
May 5, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720067/national-tuberculosis-advisory-committee-guideline-management-of-tuberculosis-risk-in-healthcare-workers-in-australia
#14
Justin Waring, Justin Waring
Tuberculosis (TB) is uncommon in Australia and not commonly managed by most healthcare workers (HCWs). However, even in a low incidence setting, occasional exposure of HCWs is inevitable and transmission of TB to HCWs leading to disease does occur. In addition, HCWs may have been recruited to Australia from countries with high TB incidence. These HCWs are more likely to be infected with TB before arrival and subsequently develop active disease while working in health settings in Australia. In 2001, there were 20 TB notifications in HCWs in Australia, of which 10 were born overseas, whereas in 2013, 70 of 77 notified cases (91%) were people born overseas...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710821/frequency-analysis-of-failure-scenarios-from-shale-gas-development
#15
Noura Abualfaraj, Patrick L Gurian, Mira S Olson
This study identified and prioritized potential failure scenarios for natural gas drilling operations through an elicitation of people who work in the industry. A list of twelve failure scenarios of concern was developed focusing on specific events that may occur during the shale gas extraction process involving an operational failure or a violation of regulations. Participants prioritized the twelve scenarios based on their potential impact on the health and welfare of the general public, potential impact on worker safety, how well safety guidelines protect against their occurrence, and how frequently they occur...
April 29, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708853/a-method-to-reduce-heat-strain-while-clad-in-encapsulating-outerwear
#16
Dennis Grahn, Megha Makam, H Craig Heller
The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) increases the risk of heat related maladies. A means to enhance heat dissipation capacity of individuals clad in PPE would be of benefit. The glabrous skin regions of the hands, face, and feet are portals for direct heat transfer between the body core and the external environment. The effects of PPE outerwear and palmar glabrous skin cooling on heat storage were assessed. Subjects engaged in fixed load treadmill exercise in a thermoneutral environment (Ta = 20 - 24ºC) or rested in a hot environment (45 ± 0...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703523/four-surgical-modifications-to-the-classic-elastase-perfusion-aneurysm-model-enable-haemodynamic-alterations-and-extended-elastase-perfusion
#17
Albert Busch, Ekaterina Chernogubova, Hong Jin, Felix Meurer, Hans-Henning Eckstein, Mia Kim, Lars Maegdefessel
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an individual and socioeconomic burden in today's ageing society. Treatment relies on surgical exclusion of the dilated aorta by open or endovascular repair. For research purposes, animal models are necessary and the elastase induced aneurysm model closely mimics end stage human aneurysm disease. To improve the translational value of this model, four modifications to the classic elastase perfusion procedure (PPE) in relation to human aneurysm morphology were conducted...
April 24, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700184/wearing-ppe-a-culture-change-for-vets
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696465/the-use-of-gelatine-in-wound-ballistics-research
#19
REVIEW
D J Carr, T Stevenson, P F Mahoney
Blocks of gelatine are used in both lethality and survivability studies for broadly the same reason, i.e. comparison of ammunition effects using a material that it is assumed represents (some part of) the human body. The gelatine is used to visualise the temporary and permanent wound profiles; elements of which are recognised as providing a reasonable approximation to wounding in humans. One set of researchers aim to improve the lethality of the projectile, and the other to understand the effects of the projectile on the body to improve survivability...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694886/multiplexed-quantitation-of-intraphagocyte-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-secreted-protein-effectors
#20
Fadel Sayes, Catherine Blanc, Louis S Ates, Nathalie Deboosere, Mickael Orgeur, Fabien Le Chevalier, Matthias I Gröschel, Wafa Frigui, Ok-Ryul Song, Richard Lo-Man, Florence Brossier, Wladimir Sougakoff, Daria Bottai, Priscille Brodin, Pierre Charneau, Roland Brosch, Laleh Majlessi
The pathogenic potential of Mycobacterium tuberculosis largely depends on ESX secretion systems exporting members of the multigenic Esx, Esp, and PE/PPE protein families. To study the secretion and regulation patterns of these proteins while circumventing immune cross-reactions due to their extensive sequence homologies, we developed an approach that relies on the recognition of their MHC class II epitopes by highly discriminative T cell receptors (TCRs) of a panel of T cell hybridomas. The latter were engineered so that each expresses a unique fluorescent reporter linked to specific antigen recognition...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
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