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Hendrik Slabbinck, Arjen van Witteloostuijn, Julie Hermans, Johanna Vanderstraeten, Marcus Dejardin, Jacqueline Brassey, Dendi Ramdani
Many Management (sub-)disciplines, from Organizational Behavior and Marketing to Accounting and Strategy, are interested in antecedents and consequences of individual attitudes and traits. A key aspect of personality profiles are explicit and implicit motives. Yet, Management scholars mainly focus on explicit motives, with limited attention to implicit motives. We argue that this state of affairs probably came into being because current Management researchers mainly rely on implicit motive measures that are either difficult to apply or to develop, hampering researchers from applying implicit motive measures...
2018: PloS One
Stephanie J Spielman, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond
The relative evolutionary rates at individual sites in proteins are informative measures of conservation or adaptation. Often used as evolutionarily-aware conservation scores, relative rates reveal key functional or strongly-selected residues. Estimating rates in a phylogenetic context requires specifying a protein substitution model, which is typically a phenomenological model trained on a large empirical dataset. A strong emphasis has traditionally been placed on selecting the "best-fit" model, with the implicit understanding that suboptimal or otherwise ill-fitting models might bias inferences...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Ana Costa, Luísa Faria
The current study intended to model the link between implicit theories of intelligence (ITI) and students' academic achievement, within a meta-analytic review procedure. To assess studies' effect size, the Pearson's correlation coefficient ( r ) was used. The review of 46 studies (94 effect sizes) with 412,022 students presented a low-to-moderate association between the ITI and students' academic achievement. The results indicated that incremental theorists are more likely to have higher grades in specific subjects (verbal and quantitative) and in overall achievement...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Tatsuya Daikoku
Statistical learning (SL) is a method of learning based on the transitional probabilities embedded in sequential phenomena such as music and language. It has been considered an implicit and domain-general mechanism that is innate in the human brain and that functions independently of intention to learn and awareness of what has been learned. SL is an interdisciplinary notion that incorporates information technology, artificial intelligence, musicology, and linguistics, as well as psychology and neuroscience...
June 19, 2018: Brain Sciences
Edmund G Howe
Ethics consultants' grasp of ethical principles is ever improving. Yet, what still remains and will remain lacking is their ability to access factors that lie outside their conscious awareness and thus still effect suboptimal outcomes. This article will explore several ways in which these poor outcomes may occur. This discussion will include clinicians' implicit biases, well-intentioned but nonetheless intrusive violations of patients' privacy, and clinicians' unwittingly connoting to patients and families that clinicians regard their moral values and conclusions as superior...
2018: Journal of Clinical Ethics
Dominik Stämpfli, Fabienne Boeni, Andy Gerber, Victor A D Bättig, Kurt E Hersberger, Markus L Lampert
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate prescribing is linked to increased risks for adverse drug reactions and hospitalisation. Combining explicit and implicit criteria of inappropriate prescribing with the information obtained in patient interviews seems beneficial with regard to the identification of drug-related problems (DRPs) in hospitalised patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the inclusion of pharmacist interviews as part of medication reviews (including the use of explicit and implicit criteria of inappropriate prescribing) to identify DRPs in older inpatients...
June 19, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Valentina Cazzato, S Makris, J C Flavell, Carmelo Mario Vicario
Social group categorization has been mainly studied in relation to ownership manipulations involving highly-salient multisensory cues. Here, we propose a novel paradigm that can implicitly activate the embodiment process in the presence of group affiliation information, whilst participants complete a task irrelevant to social categorization. Ethnically White participants watched videos of White- and Black-skinned models writing a proverb. The writing was interrupted 7, 4 or 1 s before completion. Participants were tasked with estimating the residual duration following interruption...
June 18, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Thorsten Fehr, Angelica Staniloiu, Hans J Markowitsch, Peter Erhard, Manfred Herrmann
BACKGROUND: Memory performance of an individual (within the age range: 50-55 years old) showing superior memory abilities (protagonist PR) was compared to an age- and education-matched reference group in a historical facts ("famous events") retrieval task. RESULTS: Contrasting task versus baseline performance both PR and the reference group showed fMRI activation patterns in parietal and occipital brain regions. The reference group additionally demonstrated activation patterns in cingulate gyrus, whereas PR showed additional widespread activation patterns comprising frontal and cerebellar brain regions...
June 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Tanya R Berry, Wendy M Rodgers, Alison Divine, Craig Hall
Discrepancies between automatically activated associations (i.e., implicit evaluations) and explicit evaluations of motives (measured with a questionnaire) could lead to greater information processing to resolve discrepancies or self-regulatory failures that may affect behavior. This research examined the relationship of health and appearance exercise-related explicit-implicit evaluative discrepancies, the interaction between implicit and explicit evaluations, and the combined value of explicit and implicit evaluations (i...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Ladislav Kesner, Dominika Grygarová, Iveta Fajnerová, Jiří Lukavský, Tereza Nekovářová, Jaroslav Tintěra, Yuliya Zaytseva, Jiří Horáček
In this study, we use separate eye-tracking measurements and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neuronal and behavioral response to painted portraits with direct versus averted gaze. We further explored modulatory effects of several painting characteristics (premodern vs modern period, influence of style and pictorial context). In the fMRI experiment, we show that the direct versus averted gaze elicited increased activation in lingual and inferior occipital and the fusiform face area, as well as in several areas involved in attentional and social cognitive processes, especially the theory of mind: angular gyrus/temporo-parietal junction, inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
June 15, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Robert D Ashford, Austin M Brown, Brenda Curtis
BACKGROUND: The general public, treatment professionals, and healthcare professionals have been found to exhibit an explicit negative bias towards substance use and individuals with a substance use disorder (SUD). Terms such as "substance abuser" and "opioid addict" have shown to elicit greater negative explicit bias. However, other common terms have yet to be empirically studied. METHODS: 1,288 participants were recruited from ResearchMatch...
June 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Eszter Ferentzi, Tamás Bogdány, Zsuzsanna Szabolcs, Barbara Csala, Áron Horváth, Ferenc Köteles
Objective : The term interoception refers to the perception of bodily cues. In empirical studies, it is assessed using heartbeat detection or tracking tasks, often with the implicit assumption that cardioception reflects general interoceptive ability. Studies that applied a multichannel approach measured only a limited number of modalities. In the current study, six modalities were assessed to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between the different sensory channels of interoception. Methods : For 118 university students (53% male) gastric perception (water load test), heartbeat perception (Schandry task), proprioception (elbow joint), ischemic pain (tourniquet technique), balancing ability (one leg stand), and perception of bitter taste were measured...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kelly A Knowles, Rebecca C Cox, Thomas Armstrong, Bunmi O Olatunji
A growing body of research has implicated disgust in various psychopathologies, especially anxiety-related disorders. Although the observed role of disgust in many disorders is robust, the mechanisms that may explain this role are unclear. Cutting-edge research in cognitive science has the potential to elucidate such mechanisms and consequently improve our understanding of how disgust contributes to the etiology and maintenance of psychopathology. In this qualitative review, we systematically assess cognitive bias mechanisms that have been linked to disgust and its disorders...
June 7, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
Juliann B Purcell, Samantha R Winter, Caitlin M Breslin, Nicole C White, Michael R Lowe, H Branch Coslett
OBJECTIVES: A rich body of literature has established the role of body image distortion and dissatisfaction in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. However, many of the currently used techniques require explicit comparison of the person's body to an external stimulus. As the body schema is a largely unconscious construct, explicit comparison tasks may reflect a proxy, rather than the body schema itself. METHODS: Here we use an implicit mental motor imagery (MMI) task to interrogate the body schema in healthy control participants (N=40) and participants at a residential eating disorder treatment center (N=42)...
June 18, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Lopamudra Satpathy, Prabhat K Sahu, Pradipta Behera, Bijay K Mishra
Although substantial works have been undertaken on reaction pathways involved in base-promoted elimination reactions and bimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction of F- on CH3CH2X (X=Cl, Br, I), the effect of solvents with varying dielectric constants on the stereochemistry of each of the reaction species involved across the reaction profile have not yet been clearly understood. The present investigation reports the effect of solvents on the potential energy surfaces (PES) and structures of the species appearing in the reaction pathway of F- with bromoethane...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Sonia Singh, Anne M Walk, Christopher M Conway
Previous research suggests that individuals with developmental dyslexia perform below typical readers on non-linguistic cognitive tasks involving the learning and encoding of statistical-sequential patterns. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such a deficit have not been well examined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of sequence processing in a sample of children diagnosed with dyslexia using a non-linguistic visual statistical learning paradigm...
June 15, 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
Shira Cohen-Zimerman, Ran R Hassin
It is widely accepted that while controlled processes (e.g., working memory and executive functions) decline with age, implicit (automatic) processes are not affected by age. In this paper we challenge this view by arguing that high-level automatic processes (e.g., recruiting motivation) decline with age, and that this decline plays an unappreciated role in cognitive aging. Specifically, we hypothesized that due to their decline, automatic motivational processes are less likely to be spontaneously activated in old age; thus, implicit external activation of them should have stronger effects on older (vs...
June 12, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Yue Zhang, Lianhua Zhu, Ruijie Wang, Zhaoli Guo
Recently a discrete unified gas kinetic scheme (DUGKS) in a finite-volume formulation based on the Boltzmann model equation has been developed for gas flows in all flow regimes. The original DUGKS is designed for flows of single-species gases. In this work, we extend the DUGKS to flows of binary gas mixtures of Maxwell molecules based on the Andries-Aoki-Perthame kinetic model [P. Andries et al., J. Stat. Phys. 106, 993 (2002)JSTPBS0022-471510.1023/A:1014033703134. A particular feature of the method is that the flux at each cell interface is evaluated based on the characteristic solution of the kinetic equation itself; thus the numerical dissipation is low in comparison with that using direct reconstruction...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Frédéric Basso, Olivia Petit, Sophie Le Bellu, Saadi Lahlou, Aïda Cancel, Jean-Luc Anton
Every day, people are exposed to images of appetizing foods that can lead to high-calorie intake and contribute to overweight and obesity. Research has documented that manipulating the visual perspective from which eating is viewed helps resist temptation by altering the appraisal of unhealthy foods. However, the neural basis of this effect has not yet been examined using neuroimaging methods. Moreover, it is not known whether the benefits of this strategy can be observed when people, especially overweight, are not explicitly asked to imagine themselves eating...
June 12, 2018: Appetite
Rebecca J Sharman, Sebastian Gregersen, Elena Gheorghiu
Recent studies have suggested that temporal dynamics rather than symmetrical motion-direction contribute to mirror-symmetry perception. Here we investigate temporal aspects of symmetry perception and implicitly, its temporal flexibility and limitations, by examining how symmetrical pattern elements are combined over time. Stimuli were dynamic dot-patterns consisting of either an on-going alternation of two images (sustained stimulus presentation) or just two images each presented once (transient stimulus presentation) containing different amounts of symmetry about the vertical axis...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
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