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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822886/concurrent-spectrometry-of-annihilation-radiation-and-characteristic-gamma-rays-for-activity-assessment-of-selected-positron-emitters
#1
S G Dolley, G F Steyn, T J van Rooyen, F Szelecsényi, Z Kovács, C Vermeulen, N P van der Meulen
A method is described to determine the activity of non-pure positron emitters in a radionuclide production environment by assessing the 511keV annihilation radiation concurrently with selected γ-lines, using a single High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Liquid sources of (22)Na, (52)Fe, (52m)Mn, (61)Cu, (64)Cu, (65)Zn, (66)Ga, (68)Ga, (82)Rb, (88)Y, (89)Zr and (132)Cs were prepared specifically for this study. Acrylic absorbers surrounding the sources ensured that the emitted β(+)-particles could not escape and annihilate away from the source region...
August 1, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822044/capsule-commentary-on-phelan-et-al-medical-school-factors-associated-with-changes-in-implicit-and-explicit-bias-against-gay-and-lesbian-people-among-3492-graduating-medical-students
#2
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821755/effects-of-emotional-valence-on-sense-of-agency-require-a-predictive-model
#3
Michiko Yoshie, Patrick Haggard
Sense of agency (SoA), a feeling that one's voluntary actions produce events in the external world, is a key factor behind every goal-directed human behaviour. Recent studies have demonstrated that SoA is reduced when one's voluntary action causes negative outcomes, compared to when it causes positive outcomes. It is yet unclear whether this emotional modulation of SoA is caused by predicting the outcome valence (prediction hypothesis) or by retrospectively interpreting the outcome (postdiction hypothesis)...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820740/subspace-based-interference-removal-methods-for-a-multichannel-biomagnetic-sensor-array
#4
Kensuke Sekihara, Srikantan S Nagarajan
OBJECTIVE: In biomagnetic signal processing, the theory of the signal subspace has been applied to removing interfering magnetic fields, and a representative algorithm is the signal space projection algorithm, in which the signal/interference subspace is defined in the spatial domain as the span of signal/interference-source lead field vectors. This paper extends the notion of this conventional (spatial domain) signal subspace by introducing a new definition of signal subspace in the time domain...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818670/depictive-and-metric-body-size-estimation-in-anorexia-nervosa-and-bulimia-nervosa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Simone Claire Mölbert, Lukas Klein, Anne Thaler, Betty J Mohler, Chiara Brozzo, Peter Martus, Hans-Otto Karnath, Stephan Zipfel, Katrin Elisabeth Giel
A distorted representation of one's own body is a diagnostic criterion and core psychopathology of both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Despite recent technical advances in research, it is still unknown whether this body image disturbance is characterized by body dissatisfaction and a low ideal weight and/or includes a distorted perception or processing of body size. In this article, we provide an update and meta-analysis of 42 articles summarizing measures and results for body size estimation (BSE) from 926 individuals with AN, 536 individuals with BN and 1920 controls...
August 10, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818635/linking-the-tao-biomathics-and-information-through-the-logic-of-energy
#6
REVIEW
Joseph E Brenner
The knowledge accumulated in West and East is incomplete in different ways. The mainstream Western approach has contributed the basis for modern science, but indications have appeared in the Western literature that something has been missing in it that Eastern thought could offer. This paper explores the similarities and differences between Eastern and Western approaches to knowledge and whether a trend exists toward their conjunction or convergence. I suggest that a process of conjunction of these different modes of exploration of what the concepts of 'Life and Mind' really entail, at the interface of philosophy and science, is taking place in the areas of information and biomathics...
August 14, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816465/on-informing-jurors-of-potential-sanctions
#7
Jennifer Teitcher, Nicholas Scurich
Two experiments tested (a) whether jurors make assumptions about the potential punishment that would follow from a guilty verdict, (b) whether those assumptions influence jurors' implicit threshold for reasonable doubt, and (c) whether informing jurors of the potential punishment additionally influences their implicit threshold. Experiment 1 manipulated the alleged crime (grand theft vs. manslaughter) holding all other factors constant, and found that mock jurors (n = 102, recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk) had different expectations about the relative punishments but that these expectations did not affect their implicit threshold for reasonable doubt...
August 17, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816025/aromatic-interactions-at-the-ligand-protein-interface-implications-for-the-development-of-docking-scoring-functions
#8
Michal Brylinski
The ability to design and fine-tune non-covalent interactions between organic ligands and proteins is indispensable to rational drug development. Aromatic stacking has long been recognized as one of the key constituents of ligand-protein interfaces. In this communication, we employ a two-parameter geometric model to conduct a large-scale statistical analysis of aromatic contacts in the experimental and computer-generated structures of ligand-protein complexes, considering various combinations of aromatic amino acid residues and ligand rings...
August 17, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815904/comparative-in-vitro-study-on-cytotoxicity-of-recombinant-%C3%AE-hairpin-peptides
#9
Denis V Kuzmin, Anna A Emelianova, Mariana B Kalashnikova, Pavel V Panteleev, Sergey V Balandin, Ekaterina O Serebrovskaya, Oksana Yu Belogurova-Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V Ovchinnikova
Natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the innate immune system with a wide spectrum of biological activity. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of three recombinant β-hairpin cationic AMPs: arenicin-1 from the polychaeta Arenicola marina, tachyplesin I from the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus, and gomesin from the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana. All the three β-hairpin AMPs were overexpressed in E. coli. Different cell lines were incubated with various concentrations of the investigated AMPs in order to evaluate their cytotoxic activity...
August 16, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813575/subclinical-decrease-in-central-inner-retinal-activity-is-associated-with-myopia-development-in-children
#10
Serena Zhe-Chuang Li, Wing-Yan Yu, Kai-Yip Choi, Christie Hang-I Lam, Yamunadevi Lakshmanan, Francisca Siu-Yin Wong, Henry Ho-Lung Chan
Purpose: To investigate the characteristics of retinal electrophysiological activity in relation to early myopia development in children. Methods: Fifty-six children aged 6 to 9 years with emmetropic refractive error (defined as ≥ -0.5 diopter [D] and ≤ +0.5 D) were recruited. Cycloplegic refraction, axial length, and global flash multifocal electroretinogram (MOFO mfERG) at 49% and 96% contrast levels were recorded in all children at their first visit. The refraction and axial length measurements were repeated after 1 year...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813565/selectivity-hyperselectivity-and-the-tuning-of-v1-neurons
#11
Kedarnath P Vilankar, David J Field
In this article, we explore two forms of selectivity in sensory neurons. The first we call classic selectivity, referring to the stimulus that optimally stimulates a neuron. If a neuron is linear, then this stimulus can be determined by measuring the response to an orthonormal basis set (the receptive field). The second type of selectivity we call hyperselectivity; it is either implicitly or explicitly a component of several models including sparse coding, gain control, and some linear-nonlinear models. Hyperselectivity is unrelated to the stimulus that maximizes the response...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813524/medical-student-nursing-student-and-non-health-care-respondents-implicit-attitudes-toward-doctors-and-patients-development-and-a-pilot-study-of-a-new-implicit-attitudes-test-iat
#12
Alan Schwartz, Abdelhamid Mazouni
INTRODUCTION: Medical educators have been concerned that medical students may decline in empathy for patients during the course of their training, based on studies measuring clinical empathy using psychometrically strong self-report measures. Clinical empathy is a complex construct, incorporating attitudes toward patients but also other components, such as professional detachment. Triangulation of extant measures with instruments based on nonreactive methods could provide a better understanding of whether and how physician attitudes toward patients may be changing during training...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813367/electron-transfer-processes-occurring-on-platinum-neural-stimulating-electrodes-pulsing-experiments-for-cathodic-first-charge-balanced-biphasic-pulses-for-0-566%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-k%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-2-3-in-rat-subcutaneous-tissues
#13
Doe W Kumsa, Narendra Bhadra, Eric M Hudak, J Thomas Mortimer
OBJECTIVE: Our mission is twofold: (1) find a way to safely inject more charge through platinum electrodes than the Shannon limit (k  =  1.75) permits and (2) nurture an interest in the neural stimulation community to understand the electron transfer process occurring on neural stimulating electrodes. APPROACH: We report here on measurements of the electrode potential, performed on platinum neural stimulating electrodes in the subcutaneous space of an anesthetized rat under neural stimulation conditions...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812832/exploring-the-functioning-of-decision-space-a-review-of-the-available-health-systems-literature
#14
REVIEW
Tamlyn Eslie Roman, Susan Cleary, Diane McIntyre
BACKGROUND: The concept of decision space holds appeal as an approach to disaggregating the elements that may influence decision-making in decentralized systems. This narrative review aims to explore the functioning of decision space and the factors that influence decision space. METHODS: A narrative review of the literature was conducted with searches of online databases and academic journals including PubMed Central, Emerald, Wiley, Science Direct, JSTOR, and Sage...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812570/independent-evolution-of-shape-and-motility-allows-evolutionary-flexibility-in-firmicutes-bacteria
#15
Fouad El Baidouri, Chris Venditti, Stuart Humphries
Functional morphological adaptation is an implicit assumption across many ecological studies. However, despite a few pioneering attempts to link bacterial form and function, functional morphology is largely unstudied in prokaryotes. One intriguing candidate for analysis is bacterial shape, as multiple lines of theory indicate that cell shape and motility should be strongly correlated. Here we present a large-scale use of modern phylogenetic comparative methods to explore this relationship across 325 species of the phylum Firmicutes...
November 21, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812291/technology-games-using-wittgenstein-for-understanding-and-evaluating-technology
#16
Mark Coeckelbergh
In the philosophy of technology after the empirical turn, little attention has been paid to language and its relation to technology. In this programmatic and explorative paper, it is proposed to use the later Wittgenstein, not only to pay more attention to language use in philosophy of technology, but also to rethink technology itself-at least technology in its aspect of tool, technology-in-use. This is done by outlining a working account of Wittgenstein's view of language (as articulated mainly in the Investigations) and by then applying that account to technology-turning around Wittgenstein's metaphor of the toolbox...
August 15, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811595/delayed-effects-of-transcriptional-responses-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-exposed-to-nitric-oxide-suggest-other-mechanisms-involved-in-survival
#17
Teresa Cortes, Olga T Schubert, Amir Banaei-Esfahani, Ben C Collins, Ruedi Aebersold, Douglas B Young
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has succeeded as a human pathogen for tens of thousands of years thanks to its ability to resist and adapt to the adverse conditions it encounters upon infection. Bacterial adaptation to stress is commonly viewed in the context of transcriptional regulation, with the implicit expectation that an initial transcriptomic response is tightly coupled to an ensuing proteomic response. However, after challenging M. tuberculosis with nitric oxide we found that the rapid transcriptional responses, detectable within minutes of nitric oxide exposure, typically took several hours to manifest on the protein level...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810752/rupturing-the-hemi-fission-intermediate-in-membrane-fission-under-tension-reaction-coordinates-kinetic-pathways-and-free-energy-barriers
#18
Guojie Zhang, Marcus Müller
Membrane fission is a fundamental process in cells, involved inter alia in endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, and virus infection. Its underlying molecular mechanism, however, is only incompletely understood. Recently, experiments and computer simulation studies have revealed that dynamin-mediated membrane fission is a two-step process that proceeds via a metastable hemi-fission intermediate (or wormlike micelle) formed by dynamin's constriction. Importantly, this hemi-fission intermediate is remarkably metastable, i...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809068/false-belief-attribution-in-children-with-williams-syndrome-the-answer-is-in-the-emotion
#19
R Campos, P Martínez-Castilla, M Sotillo
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) show difficulties in attributing false beliefs, whereas they are better at attributing emotions. This study examines whether being asked about the emotion linked to a false belief, instead of explicitly about the belief, facilitates performance on theory of mind (ToM) tasks. METHOD: Thirty children with WS and 90 typically developing children, who were individually matched on mental age (50-112 months), were administered six explicit (i...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808667/process-information-and-evolution
#20
Erick Chastain, Cameron Smith
Universal Semantic Communication (USC) is a theory that models communication among agents without the assumption of a fixed protocol. We demonstrate a connection, via a concept we refer to as process information, between a special case of USC and evolutionary processes. In this context, one agent attempts to interpret a potentially arbitrary signal produced within its environment. Sources of this effective signal can be modeled as a single alternative agent. Given a set of common underlying concepts that may be symbolized differently by different sources in the environment, any given entity must be able to correlate intrinsic information with input it receives from the environment in order to accurately interpret the ambient signal and ultimately coordinate its own actions...
December 2016: IEEE Trans Mol Biol Multiscale Commun
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