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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441393/sequence-learning-modulates-neural-responses-and-oscillatory-coupling-in-human-and-monkey-auditory-cortex
#1
Yukiko Kikuchi, Adam Attaheri, Benjamin Wilson, Ariane E Rhone, Kirill V Nourski, Phillip E Gander, Christopher K Kovach, Hiroto Kawasaki, Timothy D Griffiths, Matthew A Howard, Christopher I Petkov
Learning complex ordering relationships between sensory events in a sequence is fundamental for animal perception and human communication. While it is known that rhythmic sensory events can entrain brain oscillations at different frequencies, how learning and prior experience with sequencing relationships affect neocortical oscillations and neuronal responses is poorly understood. We used an implicit sequence learning paradigm (an "artificial grammar") in which humans and monkeys were exposed to sequences of nonsense words with regularities in the ordering relationships between the words...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439248/effects-of-promotion-and-compunction-interventions-on-real-intergroup-interactions-promotion-helps-but-high-compunction-hurts
#2
Katy Greenland, Dimitrios Xenias, Gregory R Maio
HIGHLIGHTS  We show the promotion intervention has positive effects during intergroup contact, but that high levels of compunction can have negative effects. Intergroup contact is probably the longest standing and most comprehensively researched intervention to reduce discrimination. It is also part of ordinary social experience, and a key context in which discrimination is played out. In this paper, we explore two additional interventions which are also designed to reduce discrimination, but which have not yet been applied to real intergroup interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438437/schizophrenia-patients-have-higher-order-language-and-extralinguistic-impairments
#3
Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Magdalena Kotlicka-Antczak, Emila Łojek, Anna Ruszpel, Tomasz Pawełczyk
INTRODUCTION: The extralinguistic and paralinguistic aspects of the language refer to higher-order language functions such as lexical-semantic processes, prosody, indirect speech acts or discourse comprehension and production. Studies suggest that these processes are mediated by the Right Hemisphere (RH) and there is also some evidence of RH dysfunctions in schizophrenia. The aim of the paper is to investigate the extralinguistic and paralinguistic processing mediated by Right Hemisphere in schizophrenia patients using a validated and standardized battery of tests...
April 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438157/age-period-and-cohort-effects-and-the-predictors-of-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behaviour-among-chinese-children-from-2004-to-2011
#4
Xinping Wei, Yu Zang, Xiaodong Jia, Xiangui He, Shurong Zou, Hui Wang, Meihua Shen, Jiajie Zang
BACKGROUND: Very few studies have explored the effects of age, time period, and cohort in association with biological, behavioral, economic, and environmental factors predictors on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) among Chinese children. METHODS: We used data from a cohort study of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) between 2004 and 2011 (2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011). The outcomes of interest were metabolic equivalent of task (MET) hours per week from both active and sedentary activities...
April 24, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437469/virtual-race-transformation-reverses-racial-in-group-bias
#5
Béatrice S Hasler, Bernhard Spanlang, Mel Slater
People generally show greater preference for members of their own racial group compared to racial out-group members. This type of 'in-group bias' is evident in mimicry behaviors. We tend to automatically mimic the behaviors of in-group members, and this behavior is associated with interpersonal sensitivity and empathy. However, mimicry is reduced when interacting with out-group members. Although race is considered an unchangeable trait, it is possible using embodiment in immersive virtual reality to engender the illusion in people of having a body of a different race...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436928/moral-distress-conscious-and-unconscious-feelings
#6
William J Winslade
In analyzing moral distress, perhaps greater attention should be given to the possible implicit sources of feelings of distress, as well as explicit sources.
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434717/relative-genetic-and-environmental-contributions-to-variations-in-human-retinal-electrical-responses-quantified-in-a-twin-study
#7
Taha Bhatti, Ambreen Tariq, Ting Shen, Katie M Williams, Christopher J Hammond, Omar A Mahroo
PURPOSE: To estimate heritability of parameters of human retinal electrophysiology and to explore which parameters change with age. DESIGN: Prospective, classic twin study. PARTICIPANTS: Adult monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs recruited from the TwinsUK cohort. METHODS: Electroretinogram responses were recorded using conductive fiber electrodes in response to stimuli incorporating standards set by the International Society for the Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision...
April 20, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434224/modeling-coordination-directed-self-assembly-of-m2l4-nanocapsule-featuring-competitive-guest-encapsulation
#8
Yang Jiang, Haiyang Zhang, Ziheng Cui, Tianwei Tan
Exploring the mechanism of self-assembly and guest encapsulation of nanocapsules is highly imperative for the design of sophisticated molecular containers and multistimuli-responsive functional materials. Here we present a molecular dynamics simulation protocol with implicit solvent and simulated annealing techniques to investigate the self-assembly and competitive guest (C60 and C70 fullerenes) encapsulation of a M2L4 nanocapsule that is self-assembled by the coordination of mercury cations and bent bidentate ligands...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433926/discredited-legacy-stigma-and-familial-amyloid-polyneuropathy-in-northwestern-portugal
#9
Álvaro Mendes, Liliana Sousa, Jorge Sequeiros, Angus Clarke
RATIONALE: Genetic inherited conditions may result in feelings of stigmatisation, mainly because of visible physical appearance and its transmissibility to offspring. OBJECTIVE: This article reports accounts of stigmatisation from Portuguese patients affected by the inherited neurodegenerative disease, familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), living in the largest cluster of patients worldwide. METHOD: We draw on semi-structured interviews conducted with individuals at-risk or affected by FAP, recruited through the national patients' association, about their experiences of stigmatisation related to the illness...
April 15, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433790/a-strain-mediated-corrosion-model-for-bioabsorbable-metallic-stents
#10
E Galvin, D O'Brien, C Cummins, B J Mac Donald, C Lally
This paper presents a strain-mediated phenomenological corrosion model, based on the discrete finite element modelling method which was developed for use with the ANSYS Implicit finite element code. The corrosion model was calibrated from experimental data and used to simulate the corrosion performance of a WE43 magnesium alloy stent. The model was found to be capable of predicting the experimentally observed plastic strain-mediated mass loss profile. The non-linear plastic strain model, extrapolated from the experimental data, was also found to adequately capture the corrosion-induced reduction in the radial stiffness of the stent over time...
April 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433419/disconnect-between-alcohol-induced-alterations-in-chromatin-structure-and-gene-transcription-in-a-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-model-of-exposure
#11
Kylee J Veazey, Haiqing Wang, Yudhishtar S Bedi, William M Skiles, Richard Cheng-An Chang, Michael C Golding
Alterations to chromatin structure induced by environmental insults have become an attractive explanation for the persistence of exposure effects into subsequent life stages. However, a growing body of work examining the epigenetic impact that alcohol and other drugs of abuse exert consistently notes a disconnection between induced changes in chromatin structure and patterns of gene transcription. Thus, an important question is whether perturbations in the 'histone code' induced by prenatal exposures to alcohol implicitly subvert gene expression, or whether the hierarchy of cellular signaling networks driving development is such that they retain control over the transcriptional program...
January 11, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433196/relational-information-moderates-approach-avoidance-instruction-effects-on-implicit-evaluation
#12
Pieter Van Dessel, Jan De Houwer, Colin Tucker Smith
Previous research demonstrated that instructions to approach one stimulus and avoid another stimulus can result in a spontaneous or implicit preference for the former stimulus. In the current study, we tested whether the effect of approach-avoidance instructions on implicit evaluation depends on the relational information embedded in these instructions. Participants received instructions that they would move towards a certain non-existing word and move away from another non-existing word (self-agent instructions) or that one non-existing word would move towards them and the other non-existing word would move away from them (stimulus-agent instructions)...
April 19, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433014/phase-behavior-of-supported-lipid-bilayers-a-systematic-study-by-coarse-grained-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#13
Asma Poursoroush, Maria Maddalena Sperotto, Mohamed Laradji
Solid-supported lipid bilayers are utilized by experimental scientists as models for biological membranes because of their stability. However, compared to free standing bilayers, their close proximity to the substrate may affect their phase behavior. As this is still poorly understood, and few computational studies have been performed on such systems thus far, here we present the results from a systematic study based on molecular dynamics simulations of an implicit-solvent model for solid-supported lipid bilayers with varying lipid-substrate interactions...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432966/risk-for-eating-disorders-modulates-interpretation-bias-in-a-semantic-priming-task
#14
Kaylee Misener, Maya Libben
The current study used a semantic priming paradigm to investigate the presence of implicit interpretation biases for food and body shape words among 118 undergraduate females. Reaction times (RTs) were recorded while participants made lexical decisions (i.e., word vs. non-word judgments) to lexical targets that were preceded by negatively valenced eating disorder related (e.g., fat-PIZZA), eating disorder unrelated (e.g., party-PIZZA), or semantically unrelated (e.g., umbrella-PIZZA) prime words. Self-reported eating disorder traits were assessed using the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-34), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE-Q 6...
April 19, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432577/implicit-reasons-for-disclosure-of-the-use-of-complementary-health-approaches-cha-a-consumer-commitment-perspective
#15
Fuschia M Sirois, Helene Riess, Dawn M Upchurch
BACKGROUND: Disclosure of the use of complementary health approaches (CHA) is an important yet understudied health behavior with important implications for patient care. Yet research into disclosure of CHA has been atheoretical and neglected the role of health beliefs. PURPOSE: Using a consumer commitment model of CHA use as a guiding conceptual framework, the current study tests the hypotheses that perceived positive CHA outcomes (utilitarian values) and positive CHA beliefs (symbolic values) are associated with disclosure of CHA to conventional care providers in a nationally representative US sample...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432446/biasing-spatial-attention-with-semantic-information-an-event-coding-approach
#16
Tarek Amer, Davood G Gozli, Jay Pratt
We investigated the influence of conceptual processing on visual attention from the standpoint of Theory of Event Coding (TEC). The theory makes two predictions: first, an important factor in determining the influence of event 1 on processing event 2 is whether features of event 1 are bound into a unified representation (i.e., selection or retrieval of event 1). Second, whether processing the two events facilitates or interferes with each other should depend on the extent to which their constituent features overlap...
April 21, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432196/the-case-against-libertarian-arguments-for-compulsory-vaccination
#17
Justin Bernstein
In a recent paper in this journal, Jason Brennan correctly notes that libertarians struggle to justify a policy of compulsory vaccination. The most straightforward argument that justifies compulsory vaccination is that such a policy promotes welfare. But libertarians cannot make this argument because they claim that the state is justified only in protecting negative rights, not in promoting welfare. I consider two representative libertarian attempts to justify compulsory vaccination, and I argue that such arguments are unsuccessful...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432134/tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling-and-tissue-fibrosis
#18
Kevin K Kim, Dean Sheppard, Harold A Chapman
Activation of TGF-β1 initiates a program of temporary collagen accumulation important to wound repair in many organs. However, the outcome of temporary extracellular matrix strengthening all too frequently morphs into progressive fibrosis, contributing to morbidity and mortality worldwide. To avoid this maladaptive outcome, TGF-β1 signaling is regulated at numerous levels and intimately connected to feedback signals that limit accumulation. Here, we examine the current understanding of the core functions of TGF-β1 in promoting collagen accumulation, parallel pathways that promote physiological repair, and pathological triggers that tip the balance toward progressive fibrosis...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430432/absolute-binding-free-energies-between-t4-lysozyme-and-141-small-molecules-calculations-based-on-multiple-rigid-receptor-configurations
#19
Bing Xie, Trung Hai Nguyen, David D L Minh
We demonstrate the feasibility of estimating protein-ligand binding free energies using multiple rigid receptor configurations. Based on T4 lysozyme snapshots extracted from six alchemical binding free energy calculations with a flexible receptor, binding free energies were estimated for a total of 141 ligands. For 24 ligands, the calculations reproduced flexible-receptor estimates with a correlation coefficient of 0.90 and a root mean square error of 1.59 kcal/mol. The accuracy of calculations based on Poisson-Boltzmann/Surface Area implicit solvent was comparable to previously reported free energy calculations...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429784/sight-and-sound-persistently-out-of-synch-stable-individual-differences-in-audiovisual-synchronisation-revealed-by-implicit-measures-of-lip-voice-integration
#20
Alberta Ipser, Vlera Agolli, Anisa Bajraktari, Fatimah Al-Alawi, Nurfitriani Djaafara, Elliot D Freeman
Are sight and sound out of synch? Signs that they are have been dismissed for over two centuries as an artefact of attentional and response bias, to which traditional subjective methods are prone. To avoid such biases, we measured performance on objective tasks that depend implicitly on achieving good lip-synch. We measured the McGurk effect (in which incongruent lip-voice pairs evoke illusory phonemes), and also identification of degraded speech, while manipulating audiovisual asynchrony. Peak performance was found at an average auditory lag of ~100 ms, but this varied widely between individuals...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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