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Jenni Leppanen, Felicity Sedgewick, Janet Treasure, Kate Tchanturia
BACKGROUND: This meta-analytic review examines the theory of mind profiles in both patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and autistic individuals. METHODOLOGY: The studies examining theory of mind were divided into the following categories: emotional theory of mind, understanding simple social situations, understanding complex social interactions, and implicit social attribution. All included studies investigated differences between healthy control (HCs) individuals and people with AN or autistic people...
April 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Santiago Alonso-Diaz, Jessica F Cantlon
Rational numbers are essential in mathematics and decision-making but humans often and erroneously rely on the magnitude of the numerator or denominator to determine the relative size of a quotient. The source of this flawed whole number strategy is poorly understood. Here we test the Bayesian hypothesis that the human bias toward large values in the numerator or denominator of a ratio estimate is the result of higher confidence in large samples. Larger values are considered a better (more certain) instance of that ratio than the same ratio composed of smaller values...
April 12, 2018: Cognition
Martin Nørgaard, Melanie Ganz, Claus Svarer, Ling Feng, Masanori Ichise, Rupert Lanzenberger, Mark Lubberink, Ramin V Parsey, Marios Politis, Eugenii A Rabiner, Mark Slifstein, Vesna Sossi, Tetsuya Suhara, Peter S Talbot, Federico Turkheimer, Stephen C Strother, Gitte M Knudsen
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging has become a prominent tool to capture the spatiotemporal distribution of neurotransmitters and receptors in the brain. The outcome of a PET study can, however, potentially be obscured by suboptimal and/or inconsistent choices made in complex processing pipelines required to reach a quantitative estimate of radioligand binding. Variations in subject selection, experimental design, data acquisition, preprocessing, and statistical analysis may lead to different outcomes and neurobiological interpretations...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Cyril Thomas, André Didierjean, François Maquestiaux, Annabelle Goujon
Since the seminal study by Chun and Jiang (Cognitive Psychology, 36, 28-71, 1998), a large body of research based on the contextual-cueing paradigm has shown that the cognitive system is capable of extracting statistical contingencies from visual environments. Most of these studies have focused on how individuals learn regularities found within an intratrial temporal window: A context predicts the target position within a given trial. However, Ono, Jiang, and Kawahara (Journal of Experimental Psychology, 31, 703-712, 2005) provided evidence of an intertrial implicit-learning effect when a distractor configuration in preceding trials N - 1 predicted the target location in trials N...
April 12, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Darius E Parvin, Samuel D McDougle, Jordan A Taylor, Richard B Ivry
Failures to obtain reward can occur from errors in action selection or action execution. Recently, we observed marked differences in choice behavior when the failure to obtain a reward was attributed to errors in action execution compared to errors in action selection (McDougle et al. , 2016). Specifically, participants appeared to solve this credit assignment problem by discounting outcomes in which the absence of reward was attributed to errors in action execution. Building on recent evidence indicating relatively direct communication between the cerebellum and basal ganglia, we hypothesized that cerebellar-dependent sensory-prediction errors (SPEs), a signal indicating execution failure, could attenuate value updating within a basal-ganglia dependent reinforcement learning system...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Julija Zavadlav, Jurij Sablić, Rudolf Podgornik, Matej Praprotnik
The composition and electrolyte concentration of the aqueous bathing environment have important consequences for many biological processes and can profoundly affect the behavior of biomolecules. Nevertheless, because of computational limitations, many molecular simulations of biophysical systems can be performed only at specific ionic conditions: either at nominally zero salt concentration, i.e., including only counterions enforcing the system's electroneutrality, or at excessive salt concentrations. Here, we introduce an efficient molecular dynamics simulation approach for an atomistic DNA molecule at realistic physiological ionic conditions...
April 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Mara Mădălina Mihai, Mădălina Preda, Iulia Lungu, Monica Cartelle Gestal, Mircea Ioan Popa, Alina Maria Holban
Wound healing involves a complex interaction between immunity and other natural host processes, and to succeed it requires a well-defined cascade of events. Chronic wound infections can be mono- or polymicrobial but their major characteristic is their ability to develop a biofilm. A biofilm reduces the effectiveness of treatment and increases resistance. A biofilm is an ecosystem on its own, enabling the bacteria and the host to establish different social interactions, such as competition or cooperation. With an increasing incidence of chronic wounds and, implicitly, of chronic biofilm infections, there is a need for alternative therapeutic agents...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rachael Allen, Cara T Motz, Andrew Feola, Kyle Chesler, Raza Haider, Sringanesh Ramachandra Rao, Lara Skelton, Steven Fliesler, Machelle T Pardue
Acoustic blast overpressure (ABO) injury in military personnel and civilians is often accompanied by delayed visual deficits. However, most animal model studies dealing with blast-induced visual defects have focused on short-term (≤1 month) changes. Here, we evaluated long-term (≤8 months) retinal structure and function deficits in rats with ABO injury. Adult male Long Evans rats were subjected to ABO from a single blast (∼ 190 dB SPL, ∼ 63 kPa, @80 psi), generated by a shock tube device. Retinal function (electroretinography), visual function (optokinetic tracking), retinal thickness (spectral domain-optical coherence tomography), and spatial cognition/exploratory motor behavior (Y-maze) were measured at 2, 4, 6, and 8 months post-blast...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Jon B Prince, Catherine J Stevens, Mari Riess Jones, Barbara Tillmann
Despite the empirical evidence for the power of the cognitive capacity of implicit learning of structures and regularities in several modalities and materials, it remains controversial whether implicit learning extends to the learning of temporal structures and regularities. We investigated whether (a) an artificial grammar can be learned equally well when expressed in duration sequences as when expressed in pitch sequences, (b) learning of the artificial grammar in either duration or pitch (as the primary dimension) sequences can be influenced by the properties of the secondary dimension (invariant vs...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Frank Theil, Johanna Milsmann, Sankaran Anantharaman, Holger van Lishaut
The preparation of an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) by dissolving a poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a polymer matrix can improve the bioavailability by orders of magnitude. Crystallization of the API in the ASD, though, is an inherent threat for bioavailability. Commonly, the impact of crystalline API on the drug release of the dosage form is studied with samples containing spiked crystallinity. These spiked samples possess implicit differences compared to native crystalline samples, regarding size and spatial distribution of the crystals as well as their molecular environment...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Rachael Hernandez
Sorority women are at risk for engaging in unsafe sexual behavior. Fortunately, the positive influence of peer communication about condom use can mitigate the risk these women face. To better understand this communication, this article investigates sorority women's communication about condom use through focus groups, using the lens of the theory of Communication Privacy Management. The results revealed the criteria for privacy rules sorority women use to negotiate privacy and engage in comfortable communication with other women in the sorority...
April 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Wenxiang Hu, Bing Gu, Ignacio Franco
Electronic decoherence processes in molecules and materials are usually thought and modeled via schemes for the system-bath evolution in which the bath is treated either implicitly or approximately. Here we present computations of the electronic decoherence dynamics of a model many-body molecular system described by the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Hamiltonian with Hubbard electron-electron interactions using an exact method in which both electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom are taken into account explicitly and fully quantum mechanically...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Gary M Oppenheim
With 40,000 words in the average vocabulary, how can speakers find the specific words that they want so quickly and easily? Cumulative semantic interference in language production provides a clue: when naming a large series of pictures, with a few mammals sprinkled about, naming each subsequent mammal becomes slower and more error-prone. Such interference mirrors predictions from an incremental learning algorithm applied to meaning-driven retrieval from an established vocabulary, suggesting retrieval benefits from a constant, implicit, re-optimization process (Oppenheim et al...
April 4, 2018: Cognition
Andrew Smart, Kate Weiner
This article examines the articulation and enactment of racialised classifications in clinical practice guidelines and in accounts of clinical practice. It contributes to debates about racialisation in medicine and its consequences. The research centred on the case study of prescribing guidelines for hypertension in England and Wales, drawing on documentary sources and semi-structured expert interviews. We found that conceptual and socio-political uncertainties existed about how to interpret the designation 'Black patients' and about the practices for identifying patients' race/ethnicity...
April 6, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Robert Andrew Gardner, Kori L Brewer, Dennis B Langston
BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) patients with chronic pain challenge providers to make quick and accurate assessments without an in-depth pain management consultation. Emergency physicians need reliable means to determine which patients may receive opioid therapy without exacerbating opioid use disorder (OUD). METHODS: Eighty-nine ED patients with a chief complaint of chronic pain were enrolled. Researchers administered questionnaires and reviewed medical and state prescription monitoring database information...
April 6, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Trish Greenhalgh, Sara Shaw, Joseph Wherton, Shanti Vijayaraghavan, Joanne Morris, Satya Bhattacharya, Philippa Hanson, Desirée Campbell-Richards, Seendy Ramoutar, Anna Collard, Isabel Hodkinson
BACKGROUND: There is much interest in virtual consultations using video technology. Randomized controlled trials have shown video consultations to be acceptable, safe, and effective in selected conditions and circumstances. But this model has rarely been mainstreamed and sustained in real-world settings. OBJECTIVE: The study sought to (1) define good practice and inform implementation of video outpatient consultations and (2) generate transferable knowledge about challenges to scaling up and routinizing this service model...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Xiao-Lei Zhang
Multilayer bootstrap network builds a gradually narrowed multilayer nonlinear network from bottom up for unsupervised nonlinear dimensionality reduction. Each layer of the network is a nonparametric density estimator. It consists of a group of k-centroids clusterings. Each clustering randomly selects data points with randomly selected features as its centroids, and learns a one-hot encoder by one-nearest-neighbor optimization. Geometrically, the nonparametric density estimator at each layer projects the input data space to a uniformly-distributed discrete feature space, where the similarity of two data points in the discrete feature space is measured by the number of the nearest centroids they share in common...
March 20, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Chun Wang, Shiyang Su, David J Weiss
A central assumption that is implicit in estimating item parameters in item response theory (IRT) models is the normality of the latent trait distribution, whereas a similar assumption made in categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) models is the multivariate normality of the latent response variables. Violation of the normality assumption can lead to biased parameter estimates. Although previous studies have focused primarily on unidimensional IRT models, this study extended the literature by considering a multidimensional IRT model for polytomous responses, namely the multidimensional graded response model...
April 6, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
Joshua G W Bernstein, Olga A Stakhovskaya, Gerald I Schuchman, Kenneth K Jensen, Matthew J Goupell
Current clinical practice in programming a cochlear implant (CI) for individuals with single-sided deafness (SSD) is to maximize the transmission of speech information via the implant, with the implicit assumption that this will also result in improved spatial-hearing abilities. However, binaural sensitivity is reduced by interaural place-of-stimulation mismatch, a likely occurrence with a standard CI frequency-to-electrode allocation table (FAT). As a step toward reducing interaural mismatch, this study investigated whether a test of interaural-time-difference (ITD) discrimination could be used to estimate the acoustic frequency yielding the best place match for a given CI electrode...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Dominika Maison, Marta Marchlewska, Dewi Syarifah, Rizqy A Zein, Herison P Purba
Halal refers to what is permissible in traditional Islamic law. Food that meets halal requirements is marked by a halal label on the packaging and should be especially attractive to those Muslims who follow the set of dietary laws outlined in the Quran. This research examines the role of the halal label (explicit cue) and the country-of-origin (COO) (implicit cue) in predicting positive product perceptions among Muslim consumers. We hypothesized that when an explicit sign of "halalness" (i.e., halal label) relating to a particular product is accompanied by an implicit sign of anti - "halalness" (i...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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