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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453844/integrating-scenario-planning-and-cost-benefit-methods
#1
Stephen C Aldrich
By their nature, the most vexing social problems reflect collisions between social and economic interests of parties with highly divergent views and perspectives on the cause and character of what is at issue and the consequences that flow from it. Conflicts around biotechnology applications are good examples of these problems. When considering the potential consequences of proposed biotechnology applications, an enormous range of perspectives arise reflecting the breadth of different and often competing interests with a stake in life's future...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453834/demystifying-evidence-based-policy-analysis-by-revealing-hidden-value-laden-constraints
#2
Adam M Finkel
Consider any choice that affects some social policy. A decision that considers evidence will, at its heart, contain some kind of explicit or implicit "because" statement: "We are doing X because the evidence says Y." But can evidence ever truly speak for itself, in the sense of being reducible to objective utterances that are either correct or in need of correction? Before answering, consider what you'd prefer. Would you rather receive evidence that was free of any value judgments imposed by human actors, that was laden with value judgments that you agree with, or laden with value judgments that you disagree with? The central assertion of this essay is that, throughout policy analysis but especially in assessments of the costs and benefits of regulating versus encouraging new technologies (cost-benefit analysis, or CBA), the first possibility above is a mirage, and the second and third are self-contradictory...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453778/-i-m-happy-to-own-my-implicit-biases-public-encounters-with-the-implicit-association-test
#3
Jeffery Yen, Kevin Durrheim, Romin W Tafarodi
The implicit association test (IAT) and concept of implicit bias have significantly influenced the scientific, institutional, and public discourse on racial prejudice. In spite of this, there has been little investigation of how ordinary people make sense of the IAT and the bias it claims to measure. This article examines the public understanding of this research through a discourse analysis of reactions to the IAT and implicit bias in the news media. It demonstrates the ways in which readers interpreted, related to, and negotiated the claims of IAT science in relation to socially shared and historically embedded concerns and identities...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451497/automated-skeletal-tissue-quantification-in-the-lower-leg-using-pqct
#4
Sokratis Makrogiannis, Fatima Boukari, Luigi Ferrucci
In this paper we introduce a methodology for hard and soft tissue quantification at proximal, intermediate and distal tibia sites using peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) scans. Quantification of bone properties is crucial for estimating bone structure resistance to mechanical stress and adaptations to loading. Soft tissue variables can be computed to investigate muscle volume and density, muscle-bone relationship, and fat infiltration.
 Approach: We employed implicit active contour models and clustering techniques for automated segmentation and identification of bone, muscle and fat at 4%, 38%, and 66% tibia length...
February 15, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450789/control-by-association-transfer-of-implicitly-primed-attentional-states-across-linked-stimuli
#5
Christina Bejjani, Ziwei Zhang, Tobias Egner
Although cognitive control has traditionally been viewed in opposition to associative learning, recent studies show that people can learn to link particular stimuli with specific cognitive control states (e.g., high attentional selectivity). Here, we tested whether such learned stimulus-control associations can transfer across paired-associates. In the Stimulus-Stimulus (S-S) Association phase, specific face or house images repeatedly preceded the presentation of particular scene stimuli, creating paired face/house-scene associates in memory...
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450224/individual-differences-in-implicit-learning-abilities-and-impulsive-behavior-in-the-context-of-internet-addiction-and-internet-gaming-disorder-under-the-consideration-of-gender
#6
Rayna Sariyska, Bernd Lachmann, Sebastian Markett, Martin Reuter, Christian Montag
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448941/traditional-healing-practices-in-rural-bangladesh-a-qualitative-investigation
#7
Md Imdadul Haque, A B M Alauddin Chowdhury, Md Shahjahan, Md Golam Dostogir Harun
BACKGROUND: Traditional healing practice is an important and integral part of healthcare systems in almost all countries of the world. Very few studies have addressed the holistic scenario of traditional healing practices in Bangladesh, although these serve around 80% of the ailing people. This study explored distinctive forms of traditional healing practices in rural Bangladesh. METHODS: During July to October 2007, the study team conducted 64 unstructured interviews, and 18 key informant interviews with traditional healers and patients from Bhabanipur and Jobra, two adjacent villages in Chittagong district, Bangladesh...
February 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448909/a-preliminary-investigation-into-a-range-of-implicit-and-explicit-offense-supportive-cognitions-in-perpetrators-of-physical-intimate-partner-violence
#8
Chrisa D Pornari, Louise Dixon, Glyn W Humphreys
The current study assessed a wide range of offense supportive cognitions in relation to the perpetration of physical intimate partner violence (IPV). This research used both implicit and explicit measures in a U.K. sample of 19 male IPV perpetrators recruited from a community-based IPV intervention program and 20 men from the community with no history of IPV. The study also explored the ability of the implicit measures to differentiate between the two groups. The cognitions assessed included gender-role stereotype, attitudes condoning violence against a partner, attitudes condoning violence in general, hostile attitudes toward women, sense of entitlement in the relationship and over the intimate partner (control and dominance), and general sense of entitlement...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447996/sleep-food-cravings-and-taste
#9
Wen Lv, Graham Findlayson, Robin Dando
OBJECTIVE: Taste is influenced by factors from our environment, psychology, and from our own physiological state. The objective of the study was to determine whether sleep influences our sense of taste or our cravings for food. METHOD: 57 healthy panelists, predominantly of college age, submitted to sleep tracking, and subsequently underwent a series of sensory tests, using basic prototypic tastants as well as real foods. Panelists were also evaluated to quantify food cravings, using both the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire, and the Control of Eating Questionnaire...
February 12, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447445/electronic-exchange-and-correlation-in-van-der-waals-systems-balancing-semilocal-and-nonlocal-energy-contributions
#10
Jan Hermann, Alexandre Tkatchenko
Short-range correlations in motion of electrons in matter are captured well by semilocal exchange-correlation (XC) functionals in density functional theory (DFT), but long-range correlations are neglected in such models and must be treated by van der Waals (vdW) dispersion methods.Whereas the effective range of distances at which fluctuations are correlated is usually explicit in the vdW models, the complementary range of semilocal functionals can be observed only implicitly, requiring an introduction of empirical damping functions to couple the semilocal and nonlocal contributions to the XC energy...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447256/modulation-of-neural-circuits-underlying-temporal-production-by-facial-expressions-of-pain
#11
Daniela Ballotta, Fausta Lui, Carlo Adolfo Porro, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Francesca Benuzzi
According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446962/borderline-personality-features-and-integration-of-positive-and-negative-thoughts-about-significant-others
#12
Kathy R Berenson, Jessica C Johnson, Fanghui Zhao, Olga Nynaes, Tamir Goren
Taking the bad with the good is a necessity of life, and people who readily integrate thoughts of their loved one's flaws with thoughts of their more positive attributes maintain more stable, satisfying relationships. Borderline personality disorder, however, is often characterized by interpersonal perceptions that fluctuate between extremes of good and bad. We used a timed judgment task to examine information processing about significant others in individuals high in borderline personality features relative to healthy individuals and those high in avoidant personality features...
February 15, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445997/human-papillomavirus-related-multiphenotypic-sinonasal-carcinoma-a-case-report-documenting-the-potential-for-very-late-tumor-recurrence
#13
Akeesha A Shah, Eric D Lamarre, Justin A Bishop
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related multiphenotypic sinonasal carcinoma is a peculiar sinonasal tract tumor that demonstrates features of both a surface-derived and salivary gland carcinoma. Implicit in its name, this tumor has a consistent association with high-risk HPV, particularly type 33. It was first described in 2013 under the designation of HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features. However, since its initial description additional cases have emerged which demonstrate a wide morphologic spectrum and relatively indolent clinical behavior...
February 14, 2018: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445617/pathogenic-leptospira-advances-in-understanding-the-molecular-pathogenesis-and-virulence
#14
REVIEW
Ciamak Ghazaei
Leptospirosis is a common zoonotic disease has emerged as a major public health problem, with developing countries bearing disproportionate burdens. Although the diverse range of clinical manifestations of the leptospirosis in humans is widely documented, the mechanisms through which the pathogen causes disease remain undetermined. In addition, leptospirosis is a much-neglected life-threatening disease although it is one of the most important zoonoses occurring in a diverse range of epidemiological distribution...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444275/e-cigarette-advertising-exposure-explicit-and-implicit-harm-perceptions-and-e-cigarette-use-susceptibility-among-non-smoking-young-adults
#15
Pallav Pokhrel, Thaddeus A Herzog, Pebbles Fagan, Jennifer B Unger, Alan W Stacy
Introduction: This study tested whether exposure to e-cigarette advertising increases e-cigarette use susceptibility among non-smoking young adults by promoting explicit and implicit attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a safer and healthier alternative to combustible cigarettes. Methods: Young adult current non-smokers who had never used an e-cigarette (N = 393; Mean age = 22.1, Standard Deviation = 3.9; 66% Women) were randomly assigned to one of the 3 conditions that involved viewing real-world, print e-cigarette ads...
February 10, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440996/is-there-a-canonical-cortical-circuit-for-the-cholinergic-system-anatomical-differences-across-common-model-systems
#16
REVIEW
Jennifer J Coppola, Anita A Disney
Acetylcholine (ACh) is believed to act as a neuromodulator in cortical circuits that support cognition, specifically in processes including learning, memory consolidation, vigilance, arousal and attention. The cholinergic modulation of cortical processes is studied in many model systems including rodents, cats and primates. Further, these studies are performed in cortical areas ranging from the primary visual cortex to the prefrontal cortex and using diverse methodologies. The results of these studies have been combined into singular models of function-a practice based on an implicit assumption that the various model systems are equivalent and interchangeable...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439615/gender-based-violence-against-transgender-people-in-the-united-states-a-call-for-research-and-programming
#17
Andrea L Wirtz, Tonia C Poteat, Mannat Malik, Nancy Glass
Gender-based violence (GBV) is an umbrella term for any harm that is perpetrated against a person's will and that results from power inequalities based on gender roles. Most global estimates of GBV implicitly refer only to the experiences of cisgender, heterosexually identified women, which often comes at the exclusion of transgender and gender nonconforming (trans) populations. Those who perpetrate violence against trans populations often target gender nonconformity, gender expression or identity, and perceived sexual orientation and thus these forms of violence should be considered within broader discussions of GBV...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439586/pulling-back-the-curtain-issues-in-conducting-an-intervention-study-with-transition-aged-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-their-families
#18
Meghan M Burke, Sydney N Waitz-Kudla, Carol Rabideau, Julie Lounds Taylor, Robert M Hodapp
The transition from high school to adulthood is difficult for youth with autism spectrum disorder and their families. Recognizing these challenges, there is a small but emerging body of literature testing interventions to improve the transition process. But there are many challenges in performing intervention research that have yet to be fully addressed. We discuss issues that should be considered when conducting interventions with individuals with autism spectrum disorder to improve the transition to adulthood, drawing from our study of a parent training to facilitate access to adult services during the transition years...
February 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438844/top-down-expectation-effects-of-food-labels-on-motivation
#19
Joost Wegman, Ilke van Loon, Paul A M Smeets, Roshan Cools, Esther Aarts
Labels on food packages inform our beliefs, shaping our expectations of food properties, such as its expected taste and healthiness. These beliefs can influence the processing of caloric rewards beyond objective sensory properties and have the potential to impact decision making. However, no studies, within or beyond the food domain, have assessed how written information, such as food labels, affect implicit motivation to obtain rewards, even though choices in daily life might be strongly driven by implicit motivational biases...
February 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438461/backpack-programs-and-the-crisis-narrative-of-child-hunger-a-critical-review-of-the-rationale-targeting-and-potential-benefits-and-harms-of-an-expanding-but-untested-model-of-practice
#20
Maryah S Fram, Edward A Frongillo
In recent years, school-based food backpack programs (BPPs) have come into national prominence as a response to a perceived crisis of child hunger in America. Distributing bags of free food directly to schoolchildren for their own personal consumption each weekend, BPPs bring together private donors, faith communities, and public schools around an intuitively appealing project: children are hungry, and so we give them food. Perhaps because of their intuitive appeal, BPPs have expanded rapidly, without rigorous evaluation to determine their impacts on children, families, and schools...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
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