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Nadine Ijaz, Heather Boon, Linda Muzzin, Sandy Welsh
Several United Nations bodies have advised countries to actively preserve Traditional Medicine (TM) knowledge and prevent its misappropriation in regulatory structures. To help advance decision-making around this complex regulatory issue, we examine the relationship between risk discourse, epistemology and policy. This study presents a critical, postcolonial analysis of divergent risk discourses elaborated in two contrasting Ontario (Canada) government reports preceding that jurisdiction's regulation of acupuncture, the world's most widely practised TM therapy...
August 24, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Cleve Dionel Mboyi, Carine Maaliki, Amelle Mankou Makaya, Yves Canac, Carine Duhayon, Remi Chauvin
With the view to enhancing the unique coordinating ability of the known phenyl-tetrakis(diisopropylamino)dicyclopropeniophosphine (Ph-DCP), replacement of the phenyl substituent by a tert-butyl substituent was envisaged. Both α-dicationic R-DCP phosphines, with R = Ph and (t)Bu, were prepared in 54%-55% yield by substitution of RPCl2 with two equivalents of bis(diisopropylamino)-dicyclopropenylidene (BAC) and metathesis with NaBF4. This method is implicitly consistent with the representation of R-DCPs as BAC-phosphenium adducts...
October 21, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Sujoy Roy, Brandon C Curry, Behrouz Madahian, Ramin Homayouni
BACKGROUND: The amount of scientific information about MicroRNAs (miRNAs) is growing exponentially, making it difficult for researchers to interpret experimental results. In this study, we present an automated text mining approach using Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) for prioritization, clustering and functional annotation of miRNAs. RESULTS: For approximately 900 human miRNAs indexed in miRBase, text documents were created by concatenating titles and abstracts of MEDLINE citations which refer to the miRNAs...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Hahnbeom Park, Philip Bradley, Per Greisen, Yuan Liu, Vikram Khipple Mulligan, David E Kim, David Baker, Frank DiMaio
Most biomolecular modeling energy functions for structure prediction, sequence design, and molecular docking, have been parameterized using existing macromolecular structural data; this contrasts molecular mechanics force fields which are largely optimized using small-molecule data. In this study, we describe an integrated method that enables optimization of a biomolecular modeling energy function simultaneously against small-molecule thermodynamic data and high-resolution macromolecular structural data. We use this approach to develop a next-generation Rosetta energy function that utilizes a new anisotropic implicit solvation model, and an improved electrostatics and Lennard-Jones model, illustrating how energy functions can be considerably improved in their ability to describe large-scale energy landscapes by incorporating both small-molecule and macromolecule data...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Minna Kirjavainen, Elena V M Lieven, Anna L Theakston
An experimental study was conducted on children aged 2;6-3;0 and 3;6-4;0 investigating the priming effect of two WANT-constructions to establish whether constructional competition contributes to English-speaking children's infinitival to omission errors (e.g., *I want ___ jump now). In two between-participant groups, children either just heard or heard and repeated WANT-to, WANT-X, and control prime sentences after which to-infinitival constructions were elicited. We found that both age groups were primed, but in different ways...
October 20, 2016: Cognitive Science
David M Sidhu, Penny M Pexman
Certain nonwords, like maluma and takete, are associated with roundness and sharpness, respectively. However, this has typically been demonstrated using explicit tasks. We investigated whether this association would be detectable using a more implicit measure-a sequential priming task. We began with a replication of the standard Maluma/Takete effect (Experiments 1a and 1b) before examining whether round and sharp nonword primes facilitated the categorization of congruent shapes (Experiment 2). We found modest evidence of a priming effect in response accuracy...
October 20, 2016: Cognitive Science
Caitlin B O'Hara, Alexandra Keyes, Bethany Renwick, Katrin E Giel, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
In anorexia nervosa (AN), motivational salience is attributed to illness-compatible cues (e.g., underweight and active female bodies) and this is hypothesised to involve dopaminergic reward circuitry. We investigated the effects of reducing dopamine (DA) transmission on the motivational processing of AN-compatible cues in women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15). This involved the acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion (APTD) procedure and a startle eye-blink modulation (SEM) task...
2016: PloS One
Stefan Nygård, Johan Strang
This article addresses the role of asymmetry in the interaction between intellectual fields in Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. By focusing on the spatial and temporal hierarchies implicit in the ways intellectuals from the Nordic countries perceived and made use of marginality and backwardness, the article brings a peripheral perspective to the discussion of transnational intellectual history. This is important as the discussion on transnational history tends to stress notions like reciprocity and hybridity, which reproduce the ideal of a borderless and equal republic of letters, and paints a too harmonious picture of global cultural space...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
Peter J Gawthrop, Edmund J Crampin
Bond graphs can be used to build thermodynamically-compliant hierarchical models of biomolecular systems. As bond graphs have been widely used to model, analyse and synthesise engineering systems, this study suggests that they can play the same rôle in the modelling, analysis and synthesis of biomolecular systems. The particular structure of bond graphs arising from biomolecular systems is established and used to elucidate the relation between thermodynamically closed and open systems. Block diagram representations of the dynamics implied by these bond graphs are used to reveal implicit feedback structures and are linearised to allow the application of control-theoretical methods...
October 2016: IET Systems Biology
Jeffrey N Siegelman, Courtney Woods, Bisan Salhi, Sheryl Heron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Medical Education
Pesia Katan, Shani Kahta, Ayelet Sasson, Rachel Schiff
Graph complexity as measured by topological entropy has been previously shown to affect performance on artificial grammar learning tasks among typically developing children. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of graph complexity on implicit sequential learning among children with developmental dyslexia. Our goal was to determine whether children's performance depends on the complexity level of the grammar system learned. We conducted two artificial grammar learning experiments that compared performance of children with developmental dyslexia with that of age- and reading level-matched controls...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Dyslexia
Sigrid Bosteels, Michel Vandenbroeck, Geert Van Hove
New-born screening programs for congenital disorders and chronic disease are expanding worldwide and children "at risk" are identified by nationwide tracking systems at the earliest possible stage. These practices are never neutral and raise important social and ethical questions. An emergent concern is that a reflexive professionalism should interrogate the ever earlier interference in children's lives. The Flemish community of Belgium was among the first to generalize the screening for hearing loss in young children and is an interesting case to study the public justification of early interventions for families with deaf children...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Aude Giard, Jean-Sébastien Filhol, Franck Jolibois, Florine Cavelier, Dorothée Berthomieu
The determination of pKa values for molecules containing multiple acidic groups in solution is challenging both experimentally and theoretically. We propose a general method to obtain these values by combining a graphical analysis based on a predominance diagram, for amino acids and nicotianamine polyacid with first principle DFT calculations. Implicit and semi-explicit water solvent models were included to account for solvation. This strategy enables the investigation of the protonation states of compounds containing acidic moities in solution depending on the pH domain...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Linda Moniz, Anna L Buczak, Ben Baugher, Erhan Guven, Jean-Paul Chretien
BACKGROUND: Prediction of influenza weeks in advance can be a useful tool in the management of cases and in the early recognition of pandemic influenza seasons. METHODS: This study explores the prediction of influenza-like-illness incidence using both epidemiological and climate data. It uses Lorenz's well-known Method of Analogues, but with two novel improvements. Firstly, it determines internal parameters using the implicit near-neighbor distances in the data, and secondly, it employs climate data (mean dew point) to screen analogue near-neighbors and capture the hidden dynamics of disease spread...
October 19, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Danella Hafeman, Genna Bebko, Michele A Bertocci, Jay C Fournier, Henry W Chase, Lisa Bonar, Susan B Perlman, Michael Travis, Mary Kay Gill, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Jeffrey L Sunshine, Scott K Holland, Robert A Kowatch, Boris Birmaher, David Axelson, Sarah M Horwitz, L Eugene Arnold, Mary A Fristad, Thomas W Frazier, Eric A Youngstrom, Robert L Findling, Mary L Phillips
OBJECTIVE: Both bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present with emotion-regulation deficits, but require different clinical management. We examined how the neurobiological underpinnings of emotion regulation might differentiate youth with BPSD versus ADHD (and healthy controls, HCs), specifically assessing functional connectivity (FxC) of amygdala-prefrontal circuitry during an implicit emotion processing task. METHODS: We scanned a subset of the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) sample, a clinically recruited cohort with elevated behavioral and emotional dysregulation, and age/sex-ratio matched HCs...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
John B Fleming, Michelle Nicole Burns
OBJECTIVE: Internalized homonegativity is linked to psychological distress in sexual minorities and is thus a potential treatment target in this population. Previous studies have shown that evaluative conditioning (EC) can modify self-esteem, another self-directed attitude. The present study aimed to determine if EC deployed over the Internet could modify self-esteem and internalized homonegativity. METHOD: Gay men recruited online (N = 184) were randomly assigned to a control group or an experimental condition...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Luiz A C Galvão, Michelle M Haby, Evelina Chapman, Rachel Clark, Volney Magalhães Câmara, Ronir Raggio Luiz, Francisco Becerra-Posada
Objective To identify reported interventions that facilitate sustainable development and have had a positive impact on health in four areas: sustainable food production; sustainable energy use; sustainable jobs ("decent work"); and prevention of toxic exposure to chemicals. Methods Systematic review methods were used to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations. A comprehensive search was conducted of at least 14 databases and 8 websites for each of the four overviews, using pre-defined protocols, including clear inclusion criteria...
March 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
David R Shanks
Many studies of unconscious processing involve comparing a performance measure (e.g., some assessment of perception or memory) with an awareness measure (such as a verbal report or a forced-choice response) taken either concurrently or separately. Unconscious processing is inferred when above-chance performance is combined with null awareness. Often, however, aggregate awareness is better than chance, and data analysis therefore employs a form of extreme group analysis focusing post hoc on participants, trials, or items where awareness is absent or at chance...
October 17, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Anoeska Agatha Alida van de Moosdijk, Renée van Amerongen
Cell growth and differentiation are often driven by subtle changes in gene expression. Many challenges still exist in detecting these changes, particularly in the context of a complex, developing tissue. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) allows relatively high-throughput evaluation of multiple genes and developmental time points. Proper quantification of gene expression levels by qRT-PCR requires normalization to one or more reference genes. Traditionally, these genes have been selected based on their presumed "housekeeping" function, with the implicit assumption that they are stably expressed over the entire experimental set...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bishnu Thapa, H Bernhard Schlegel
A practical method for calculating the pKa's of selenols in aqueous solution has been developed using density functional theory with the SMD solvation model and up to three explicit water molecules. The pKa's of 30 different organoselenols, 16 with known experimental pKa's, have been calculated using three different functionals (wB97XD, B3LYP, and M06-2X) and two basis sets (6-31+G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p)). Calculations using wB97XD and B3LYP with SMD solvation without explicit waters are found have errors of 3-6 pKa units; the errors with M06-2X are somewhat smaller...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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