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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742499/how-should-novelty-be-valued-in-science
#1
Barak A Cohen
Scientists are under increasing pressure to do "novel" research. Here I explore whether there are risks to overemphasizing novelty when deciding what constitutes good science. I review studies from the philosophy of science to help understand how important an explicit emphasis on novelty might be for scientific progress. I also review studies from the sociology of science to anticipate how emphasizing novelty might impact the structure and function of the scientific community. I conclude that placing too much value on novelty could have counterproductive effects on both the rate of progress in science and the organization of the scientific community...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742392/t-gowler-discovering-generalized-process-models-within-texts
#2
Ahmed Halioui, Petko Valtchev, Abdoulaye Baniré Diallo
Contemporary workflow management systems are driven by explicit process models specifying the interdependencies between tasks. Creating these models is a challenging and time-consuming task. Existing approaches to mining concrete workflows into models tackle design aspects related to the diverging abstraction levels of the tasks. Concrete workflow logs represent tasks and cases of concrete events-partially or totally ordered-grounding hidden multilevel (abstract) semantics and contexts. Relevant generalized events could be rediscovered within these processes...
August 2017: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742353/a-dft-assessment-of-the-environment-polarity-effect-on-polyaniline-water-coupling
#3
Jasmina Nedkova Petrova, Anela N Ivanova, Alia V Tadjer
Crystallization water plays an important role for the self-organization of oligomer chains in conducting polyaniline - emeraldine. In order to quantify the interaction between the emeraldine salt and such a water, models containing a tetramer in bipolaronic or polaronic form, chloride counterions and an explicit water molecule are used. Different initial positions of water with respect to the oligomer chain - tangential and vertical, are considered. Various media are simulated by introducing implicit solvent continuum of decreasing polarity...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742157/angiotensin-ii-system-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-contributes-to-autonomic-dysreflexia-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Kai Wang, Shaoxia Duan, Xueping Wen, Weizhong Wang, Shangping Fang, Dunyi Qi, Xiang Huan, Liwei Wang, Zhenzhou He
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threating complication after spinal cord injury (SCI), characterized by episodic hypertension induced by colon or bladder distension. The objective of this study was to determine the role of impaired baroreflex regulation by the nucleus tractus solitarii(NTS) in the occurrence of AD in a rat model. METHODS: T4 spinal cord transection animal model was used in this study, which included 40 Male rats Colorectal distension (CD) was performed to assess AD and compare the changes of BP, HR, and BRS, six weeks after operation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742125/y-chromosomal-evidence-on-the-origin-of-northern-thai-people
#5
Andrea Brunelli, Jatupol Kampuansai, Mark Seielstad, Khemika Lomthaisong, Daoroong Kangwanpong, Silvia Ghirotto, Wibhu Kutanan
The Khon Mueang represent the major group of people present in today's northern Thailand. While linguistic and genetic data seem to support a shared ancestry between Khon Mueang and other Tai-Kadai speaking people, the possibility of an admixed origin with contribution from local Mon-Khmer population could not be ruled out. Previous studies conducted on northern Thai people did not provide a definitive answer and, in addition, have largely overlooked the distribution of paternal lineages in the area. In this work we aim to provide a comprehensive analysis of Y paternal lineages in northern Thailand and to explicitly model the origin of the Khon Mueang population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742035/fast-low-rank-shared-dictionary-learning-for-image-classification
#6
Tiep Huu Vu, Vishal Monga
Despite the fact that different objects possess distinct class-specific features, they also usually share common patterns. This observation has been exploited partially in a recently proposed dictionary learning framework by separating the particularity and the commonality (COPAR). Inspired by this, we propose a novel method to explicitly and simultaneously learn a set of common patterns as well as class-specific features for classification with more intuitive constraints. Our dictionary learning framework is hence characterized by both a shared dictionary and particular (class-specific) dictionaries...
July 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741600/coverage-based-constraints-for-imrt-optimization
#7
Henning Mescher, Silke Ulrich, Mark Bangert
Radiation therapy treatment planning requires an incorporation of uncertainties in order to guarantee an adequate irradiation of the tumor volumes. In current clinical practice, uncertainties are accounted for implicitly with an expansion of the target volume according to generic margin recipes. Alternatively, it is possible to account for uncertainties by explicit minimization of objectives that describe worst case treatment scenarios, the expectation value of the treatment, or the coverage probability of the target volumes during treatment planning...
July 25, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741055/effects-of-tunable-excitation-in-carotenoids-explained-by-the-vibrational-energy-relaxation-approach
#8
Vytautas Balevičius, Craig N Lincoln, Daniele Viola, Giulio Cerullo, Jürgen Hauer, Darius Abramavicius
Carotenoids are fundamental building blocks of natural light harvesters with convoluted and ultrafast energy deactivation networks. In order to disentangle such complex relaxation dynamics, several studies focused on transient absorption measurements and their dependence on the pump wavelength. However, such findings are inconclusive and sometimes contradictory. In this study, we compare internal conversion dynamics in [Formula: see text]-carotene, pumped at the first, second, and third vibronic progression peak...
July 24, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740821/validating-the-construct-of-aberrant-salience-in-schizophrenia-behavioral-evidence-for-an-automatic-process
#9
Teresa Katthagen, Felix Dammering, Norbert Kathmann, Jakob Kaminski, Henrik Walter, Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf
Suspecting significance behind ordinary events is a common feature in psychosis and it is assumed to occur due to aberrant salience attribution. The Salience Attribution Test (SAT; Roiser et al., 2009) measures aberrant salience as a bias towards one out of two equally reinforced cue features as opposed to adaptive salience towards features indicating high reinforcement. This is the first study to validate the latent constructs involved in salience attribution in patients. Forty-nine schizophrenia patients and forty-four healthy individuals completed the SAT, a novel implicit salience paradigm (ISP), a reversal learning task and a neuropsychological test battery...
December 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740619/should-new-health-technology-be-available-only-for-patients-able-and-willing-to-pay
#10
REVIEW
Piet Calcoen, Albert Boer, Wynand P M M van de Ven
New health technology comes on the market at a rapid pace and - sometimes - at a huge cost. Providing access to new health technology is a serious challenge for many countries with mandatory health insurance. This article analyses access to new health technology in Belgium and the Netherlands, using eight concrete examples as a starting point for comparing the two - neighbouring - countries. Contrary to the Netherlands, out-of-pocket payments for new health technology are widely accepted and practiced in Belgium...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739483/structural-modeling-for-the-open-state-of-an-nmda-receptor
#11
Xiaodong Pang, Huan-Xiang Zhou
NMDA receptors are tetrameric ligand-gated ion channels that are crucial for neurodevelopment and higher order processes such as learning and memory, and have been implicated in numerous neurological disorders. The lack of a structure for the channel open state has greatly hampered the understanding of the normal gating process and mechanisms of disease-associated mutations. Here we report the structural modeling for the open state of an NMDA receptor. Staring from the crystal structure of the closed state, we repacked the pore-lining helices to generate an initial open model...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738443/urethral-injection-therapy-for-urinary-incontinence-in-women
#12
REVIEW
Vivienne Kirchin, Tobias Page, Phil E Keegan, Kofi Om Atiemo, June D Cody, Samuel McClinton, Patricia Aluko
BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence imposes a significant health and economic burden to society. Periurethral or transurethral injection of bulking agents is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used as one the surgical treatments of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in adult women. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of periurethral or transurethral injection therapy on the cure or improvement of urinary incontinence in women. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Trials Register (searched 8 November 2010) and the reference lists of relevant articles...
July 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738288/it-doesn-t-matter-what-you-say-fmri-correlates-of%C3%A2-voice-learning-and-recognition-independent-of%C3%A2-speech-content
#13
Romi Zäske, Bashar Awwad Shiekh Hasan, Pascal Belin
Listeners can recognize newly learned voices from previously unheard utterances, suggesting the acquisition of high-level speech-invariant voice representations during learning. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we investigated the anatomical basis underlying the acquisition of voice representations for unfamiliar speakers independent of speech, and their subsequent recognition among novel voices. Specifically, listeners studied voices of unfamiliar speakers uttering short sentences and subsequently classified studied and novel voices as "old" or "new" in a recognition test...
June 27, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738276/the-impact-of-accelerated-high-frequency-rtms-on-brain-neurochemicals-in-treatment-resistant-depression-insights-from-1-h-mr-spectroscopy
#14
Chris Baeken, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Peter Van Schuerbeek
OBJECTIVE: Although accelerated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) designs seem to be able to alleviate mood over a relatively short period of time, no studies yet examined the cellular effects on neurochemicals with regard to working mechanisms, safety and neural integrity. METHODS: Eighteen right-handed antidepressant-free unipolar treatment resistant depressed (TRD) patients participated in this sham-controlled accelerated high frequency (aHF)-rTMS (1)H MR spectroscopy study applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
July 6, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737684/angular-rate-sensing-with-gyrowheel-using-genetic-algorithm-optimized-neural-networks
#15
Yuyu Zhao, Hui Zhao, Xin Huo, Yu Yao
GyroWheel is an integrated device that can provide three-axis control torques and two-axis angular rate sensing for small spacecrafts. Large tilt angle of its rotor and de-tuned spin rate lead to a complex and non-linear dynamics as well as difficulties in measuring angular rates. In this paper, the problem of angular rate sensing with the GyroWheel is investigated. Firstly, a simplified rate sensing equation is introduced, and the error characteristics of the method are analyzed. According to the analysis results, a rate sensing principle based on torque balance theory is developed, and a practical way to estimate the angular rates within the whole operating range of GyroWheel is provided by using explicit genetic algorithm optimized neural networks...
July 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737672/mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-as-drug-delivery-vehicles-in-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Anna Watermann, Juergen Brieger
Even though cancer treatment has improved over the recent decades, still more specific and effective treatment concepts are mandatory. Surgical removal is not always possible, metastases are challenging and chemo- and radiotherapy can not only have severe side-effects but also resistances may occur. To cope with these challenges more efficient therapies with fewer side-effects are required. One promising approach is the use of drug delivery vehicles. Here, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) are discussed as biodegradable drug carrier to improve efficacy and reduce side-effects...
July 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737661/toward-establishing-core-outcome-domains-for-trials-in-kidney-transplantation-report-of-the-standardized-outcomes-in-nephrology-kidney-transplantation-consensus-workshops
#17
Allison Tong, John Gill, Klemens Budde, Lorna Marson, Peter P Reese, David Rosenbloom, Lionel Rostaing, Germaine Wong, Michelle A Josephson, Timothy L Pruett, Anthony N Warrens, Jonathan C Craig, Benedicte Sautenet, Nicole Evangelidis, Angelique F Ralph, Camilla S Hanson, Jenny I Shen, Kirsten Howard, Klemens Meyer, Ronald D Perrone, Daniel E Weiner, Samuel Fung, Maggie K M Ma, Caren Rose, Jessica Ryan, Ling-Xin Chen, Martin Howell, Nicholas Larkins, Siah Kim, Sobhana Thangaraju, Angela Ju, Jeremy R Chapman
BACKGROUND: Treatment decisions in kidney transplantation requires patients and clinicians to weigh the benefits and harms of a broad range of medical and surgical interventions, but the heterogeneity and lack of patient-relevant outcomes across trials in transplantation makes these trade-offs uncertain, thus, the need for a core outcome set that reflects stakeholder priorities. METHODS: We convened 2 international Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Kidney Transplantation stakeholder consensus workshops in Boston (17 patients/caregivers; 52 health professionals) and Hong Kong (10 patients/caregivers; 45 health professionals)...
August 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737165/local-integrals-of-motion-in-the-two-site-anderson-hubbard-model
#18
Rachel Wortis, Malcolm P Kennett
It has been proposed that the states of fully many-body localized systems can be described in terms of conserved local pseudospins. Due to the multitude of ways to define these, the explicit identification of the optimally local pseudospins in specific systems is non-trivial. Given continuing intense interest in the role of disorder in strongly correlated systems, we consider the disordered Hubbard model. By studying a small system we provide concrete examples of the form of local integrals of motion in the Anderson-Hubbard model...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735879/why-contagious-yawning-does-not-yet-equate-to-empathy
#19
REVIEW
Jorg J M Massen, Andrew C Gallup
Various studies and researchers have proposed a link between contagious yawning and empathy, yet the conceptual basis for the proposed connection is not clear and deserves critical evaluation. Therefore, we systematically examined the available empirical evidence addressing this association; i.e., a critical review of studies on inter-individual differences in contagion and self-reported values of empathy, differences in contagion based on familiarity or sex, and differences in contagion among individuals with psychological disorders, as well as developmental research, and brain imaging and neurophysiological studies...
July 20, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735819/meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-bifidobacterium-preparations-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-pediatric-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-in-china
#20
Hong-Bin Xu, Rui-Hua Jiang, Hong-Bin Sheng
Bifidobacterium preparations are increasingly used for pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in China. The aim of this study was to review existing evidence on the efficacy of Bifidobacterium preparations for the prevention and treatment of pediatric AAD in China. Searches were performed with Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CNKI, and CBM databases. Thirty trials met the inclusion criteria. Of the 30 trials, five Bifidobacterium preparations were included. The preparations were all Bifidobacterium based, in combined with Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Bacillus, Streptococcus or Clostridium strains...
August 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
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