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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166565/hospital-based-physicians-intubation-decisions-and-associated-mental-models-when-managing-a-critically-and-terminally-ill-older-patient
#1
Shannon Haliko, Julie Downs, Deepika Mohan, Robert Arnold, Amber E Barnato
BACKGROUND: Variation in the intensity of acute care treatment at the end of life is influenced more strongly by hospital and provider characteristics than patient preferences. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe physicians' mental models (i.e., thought processes) when encountering a simulated critically and terminally ill older patient, and to compare those models based on whether their treatment plan was patient preference-concordant or preference-discordant. METHODS: Seventy-three hospital-based physicians from 3 academic medical centers engaged in a simulated patient encounter and completed a mental model interview while watching the video recording of their encounter...
November 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166475/proposal-of-a-trigger-tool-to-assess-adverse-events-in-dental-care
#2
Claudia Dolores Trierweiler Sampaio de Oliveira Corrêa, Walter Mendes
The aim of this study was to propose a trigger tool for research of adverse events in outpatient dentistry in Brazil. The tool was elaborated in two stages: (i) to build a preliminary set of triggers, a literature review was conducted to identify the composition of trigger tools used in other areas of health and the principal adverse events found in dentistry; (ii) to validate the preliminarily constructed triggers a panel of experts was organized using the modified Delphi method. Fourteen triggers were elaborated in a tool with explicit criteria to identify potential adverse events in dental care, essential for retrospective patient chart reviews...
November 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166393/implicit-theories-concerning-the-intelligence-of-individuals-with-down-syndrome
#3
Claire Enea-Drapeau, Michèle Carlier, Pascal Huguet
Studies over the past three decades have shown that learning difficulties are not only determined by neurological disorders, but also by motivational and/or socio-cognitive factors Among these factors, implicit theories of intelligence (also referred to as conceptions, mindsets or beliefs about intelligence) are key elements. The belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory), as opposed to malleable (incremental theory), is generally associated with negative teaching practices and poorer student outcomes, yet beliefs about the intelligence of individuals with intellectual disabilities have not received much attention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166386/you-prime-what-you-code-the-faim-model-of-priming-of-pop-out
#4
Wouter Kruijne, Martijn Meeter
Our visual brain makes use of recent experience to interact with the visual world, and efficiently select relevant information. This is exemplified by speeded search when target- and distractor features repeat across trials versus when they switch, a phenomenon referred to as intertrial priming. Here, we present fAIM, a computational model that demonstrates how priming can be explained by a simple feature-weighting mechanism integrated into an established model of bottom-up vision. In fAIM, such modulations in feature gains are widespread and not just restricted to one or a few features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166297/assessing-patients-perceptions-of-safety-culture-in-the-hospital-setting-development-and-initial-evaluation-of-the-patients-perceptions-of-safety-culture-scale
#5
Clara Monaca, Beate Bestmann, Martina Kattein, Daria Langner, Hardy Müller, Tanja Manser
OBJECTIVES: Both, patient satisfaction and hospital safety culture have been recognized as key characteristics of healthcare quality and patient safety. Thus, both characteristics are measured widely to support quality and safety improvement efforts. However, because safety culture surveys focus exclusively on the perspective of hospital staff, the complimentary information to be gained from patients' perceptions of safety culture has received little research attention so far. We aimed to develop a measure explicitly focusing on patients' perceptions of safety culture in the hospital setting and perform an initial evaluation of its measurement properties...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166120/mechanical-response-of-transient-telechelic-networks-with-many-part-stickers
#6
Michelle K Sing, Jorge Ramírez, Bradley D Olsen
A central question in soft matter is understanding how several individual, weak bonds act together to produce collective interactions. Here, gel-forming telechelic polymers with multiple stickers at each chain end are studied through Brownian dynamics simulations to understand how collective interaction of the bonds affects mechanical response of the gels. These polymers are modeled as finitely extensible dumbbells using an explicit tau-leap algorithm and the binding energy of these associations was kept constant regardless of the number of stickers...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166066/manipulation-of-pauli-spin-blockade-in-double-quantum-dot-systems
#7
WenJie Hou, YuanDong Wang, JianHua Wei, YiJing Yan
Pauli spin blockade (PSB) is a significant physical effect in double quantum dot (DQD) systems. In this paper, we start from the fundamental quantum model of the DQD with the electron-electron interaction being considered and then systematically study the PSB effect in DQD by using a recently developed nonperturbative method, the hierarchical equations of motion approach. By checking the current-voltage and nonequilibrium spectral function features, the physical picture of the PSB is explicitly elucidated. Then, various kinds of manipulation of PSBs are discussed, including gate voltage, exchange interaction, and electron spin resonance...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166064/interaction-component-analysis-of-the-effects-of-urea-and-its-alkylated-derivatives-on-the-structure-of-t4-lysozyme
#8
Yu Yamamori, Nobuyuki Matubayasi
The effects of urea and its alkylated derivatives on the structure of T4-lysozyme were analyzed from the standpoint of energetics. Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted with explicit solvent, and the energy-representation method was employed to compute the free energy of transfer of the protein from pure-water solvent to the mixed solvents of water with urea, methylurea, 1,1-dimethylurea, and isopropylurea. Through the decomposition of the transfer free energy into the cosolvent and water contributions, it was observed that the former is partially cancelled by the latter and governs the total free energy of transfer...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166057/a-rigorous-full-dimensional-quantum-dynamics-study-of-tunneling-splitting-of-rovibrational-states-of-vinyl-radical-c2h3
#9
Hua-Gen Yu, Hongwei Song, Minghui Yang
We report a rigorous quantum mechanical study of the rovibrational energy levels of vinyl radical C2H3. The calculations are carried out using a real two-component multi-layer Lanczos algorithm in a set of orthogonal polyspherical coordinates based on a recently developed accurate ab initio potential energy surface of C2H3. All well converged 158 vibrational bands up to 3200 cm(-1) are determined, together with a comparison to previous calculations and experimental results. Results show a remarkable multi-dimensional tunneling effect on the vibrational spectra of the radical...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166036/solid-like-features-in-dense-vapors-near-the-fluid-critical-point
#10
George Ruppeiner, Nathan Dyjack, Abigail McAloon, Jerry Stoops
The phase diagram (pressure versus temperature) of the pure fluid is typically envisioned as being featureless apart from the presence of the liquid-vapor coexistence curve terminating at the critical point. However, a number of recent authors have proposed that this simple picture misses important features, such as the Widom line, the Fisher-Widom line, and the Frenkel line. In our paper, we discuss another way of augmenting the pure fluid phase diagram, lines of zero thermodynamic curvature R = 0 separating regimes of fluid solid-like behavior (R > 0) from gas-like or liquid-like behavior (R < 0)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166002/structure-and-affinity-of-cu-i-bound-to-human-serum-albumin
#11
Madison Sendzik, M Jake Pushie, Ewelina Stefaniak, Kathryn L Haas
Human serum albumin (HSA) is a major Cu carrier in human blood and in cerebrospinal fluid. A major assumption is that Cu bound to HSA is in the Cu(II) oxidation state; thus, interactions between HSA and Cu(II) have been intensely investigated for over four decades. HSA has been reported previously to support the reduction of Cu(II) to the Cu(I) oxidation state in the presence of the weak reductant, ascorbate; however, the interactions between HSA and Cu(I) have not been explicitly investigated. Here, we characterize both the apparent affinity of HSA for Cu(I) using solution competition experiments and the coordination structure of Cu(I) bound to HSA using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and in silico modeling...
November 22, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165929/spatial-population-genomics-of-the-brown-rat-rattus-norvegicus-in-new-york-city
#12
Matthew Combs, Emily E Puckett, Jonathan Richardson, Destiny Mims, Jason Munshi-South
Human commensal species such as rodent pests are often widely distributed across cities and threaten both infrastructure and public health. Spatially-explicit population genomic methods provide insights into movements for cryptic pests that drive evolutionary connectivity across multiple spatial scales. We examined spatial patterns of neutral genome-wide variation in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) across Manhattan, New York City (NYC) using 262 samples and 61,401 SNPs to understand: 1) relatedness among nearby individuals and the extent of spatial genetic structure in a discrete urban landscape; 2) the geographic origin of NYC rats, using a large, previously-published dataset of global rat genotypes; and 3) heterogeneity in gene flow across the city, particularly deviations from isolation-by-distance...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165644/-the-money-can-be-a-motivator-to-me-a-little-but-mostly-pbf-just-helps-me-to-do-better-in-my-job-an-exploration-of-the-motivational-mechanisms-of-performance-based-financing-for-health-workers-in-malawi
#13
Julia Lohmann, Danielle Wilhelm, Christabel Kambala, Stephan Brenner, Adamson S Muula, Manuela De Allegri
Performance-based financing (PBF) is assumed to improve health care delivery by motivating health workers to enhance their work performance. However, the exact motivational mechanisms through which PBF is assumed to produce such changes are poorly understood to date. Although PBF is increasingly recognized as a complex health systems intervention, its motivational effect for individual health workers is still often reduced to financial 'carrots and sticks' in the literature and discourse. Aiming to contribute to the development of a more comprehensive understanding of the motivational mechanisms, we explored how PBF impacted health worker motivation in the context of the Malawian Results-based Financing for Maternal and Newborn Health (RBF4MNH) Initiative...
November 20, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164898/ionic-solution-what-goes-right-and-wrong-with-continuum-solvation-modeling
#14
Changhao Wang, Pengyu Ren, Ray Luo
Solvent-mediated electrostatic interactions were well recognized to be important in the structure and function of molecular systems. Ionic interaction is an important component in electrostatic interactions, especially in highly charged molecules, such as nucleic acids. Here we focus on the quality of the widely used PBSA continuum models in modeling ionic interactions by comparing with both explicit solvent simulations and experiment. In this work, the molality-dependent chemical potentials for sodium chloride (NaCl) electrolyte were first simulated in the SPC/E explicit solvent...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164871/modeling-transport-of-chemotactic-bacteria-in-granular-media-containing-distributed-contaminant-sources
#15
Joanna S T Adadevoh, Sassan Ostvar, Brian D Wood, Roseanne Marie Ford
Chemotaxis has the potential to improve bioremediation strategies by enhancing the transport of pollutant-degrading bacteria to the source of contamination, leading to increased pollutant accessibility and biodegradation. This computational study extends work reported previously in the literature to include predictions of chemotactic bacterial migration in response to multiple localized contaminant sources within porous media. An advection-dispersion model, in which chemotaxis was represented explicitly as an additional advection-like term, was employed to simulate the transport of bacteria within a sand-packed column containing a distribution of chemoattractant sources...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164716/mechanism-matters-the-cause-of-fluctuations-in-boom-bust-populations-governs-optimal-habitat-restoration-strategy
#16
Gina K Himes Boor, Cheryl B Schultz, Elizabeth E Crone, William F Morris
Many populations exhibit boom-bust dynamics in which abundance fluctuates dramatically over time. Past research has focused on identifying whether the cause of fluctuations is primarily exogenous, e.g., environmental stochasticity coupled with weak density dependence, or endogenous, e.g., over-compensatory density dependence. Far fewer studies have addressed whether the mechanism responsible for boom-bust dynamics matters with respect to at-risk species management. Here, we ask whether the best strategy for restoring habitat across a landscape differs under exogenously versus endogenously driven boom-bust dynamics...
November 21, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164617/differential-perturbation-of-the-protrotropic-equilibrium-of-a-biological-photosensitizer-within-bile-salt-aggregates-of-varying-hydrophobicity-a-fluorimetric-investigation
#17
Riya Sett, Nikhil Guchhait
The present work reveals the binding interactions of a credible cancer cell photosensitizer, harmane (HM) with some selected bile salt aggregates of dissimilar hydrophobicity viz. sodium deoxycholate (NaDC), sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium taurocholate (NaTC). The explicit variation of the prototropic equilibrium of the photosensitizer both in the ground and excited state has been utilized to scrutinize the interaction phenomena. Differential modulation in the prototropic equilibrium of HM in the aforesaid aggregates has been explained on the basis of the structural dissimilarities of the bile-salt monomers...
November 22, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163819/exploring-the-model-of-pc12-apoptosis-induced-by-ogsd-r-through-in-vitro-experiments
#18
Yanqing Sun, Wei Zhu, Shengyuan Zhou, Zhiwei Wang, Xiongsheng Chen, Lianshun Jia
Aims: To explicit cell apoptosis trend in PC12 oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/restoration (OGSD/R) model and provide experimental bases for neural cell simulation in ischemia reperfusion injury in vitro. Methods: OGSD/R model was constructed using the passage PC12 cells in vitro. The profile of cell apoptosis was estimated by DAPI staining, Annexin V-FITC and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, as well as the levels of apoptosis-related proteins, including procaspase-3 and caspase-12...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163345/fluid-distribution-pattern-in-adult-onset-congenital-idiopathic-and-secondary-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-implications-for-clinical-care
#19
Shigeki Yamada, Masatsune Ishikawa, Kazuo Yamamoto
Objective: In spite of growing evidence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), a viewpoint about clinical care for idiopathic NPH is still controversial. A continuous divergence of viewpoints might be due to confusing classifications of idiopathic and adult-onset congenital NPH. To elucidate the classification of NPH, we propose that adult-onset congenital NPH should be explicitly distinguished from idiopathic and secondary NPH. Methods: On the basis of conventional CT scan or MRI, idiopathic NPH was defined as narrow sulci at the high convexity in concurrent with enlargement of the ventricles, basal cistern and Sylvian fissure, whereas adult-onset congenital NPH was defined as huge ventricles without high-convexity tightness...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163316/modeling-psychological-contract-violation-using-dual-regime-models-an-event-based-approach
#20
Joeri Hofmans
A good understanding of the dynamics of psychological contract violation requires theories, research methods and statistical models that explicitly recognize that violation feelings follow from an event that violates one's acceptance limits, after which interpretative processes are set into motion, determining the intensity of these violation feelings. Whereas theories-in the form of the dynamic model of the psychological contract-and research methods-in the form of daily diary research and experience sampling research-are available by now, the statistical tools to model such a two-stage process are still lacking...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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