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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906526/statistical-learning-a-powerful-mechanism-that-operates-by-mere-exposure
#1
REVIEW
Richard N Aslin
How do infants learn so rapidly and with little apparent effort? In 1996, Saffran, Aslin, and Newport reported that 8-month-old human infants could learn the underlying temporal structure of a stream of speech syllables after only 2 min of passive listening. This demonstration of what was called statistical learning, involving no instruction, reinforcement, or feedback, led to dozens of confirmations of this powerful mechanism of implicit learning in a variety of modalities, domains, and species. These findings reveal that infants are not nearly as dependent on explicit forms of instruction as we might have assumed from studies of learning in which children or adults are taught facts such as math or problem solving skills...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906471/negotiated-safety-components-context-and-use-an-integrative-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
NataIie M Leblanc, Jason W Mitchell, Joseph P De Santis
AIM: To examine the components and use of negotiated safety in the context of HIV prevention and to identify reported factors associated with the concept. BACKGROUND: There is an emerging interest in dyadic approaches to address HIV transmission. Although there are theoretical foundations for how interpersonal relationships influence individual behaviour, how these dyadic processes influence on health is still not wholly understood. DESIGN: Integrative review of empirical and theoretical literature...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906270/stochastic-model-for-quantum-noise-analysis-in-flat-panel-detectors-for-medical-imaging-applications
#3
Isao Yamada
A one-dimensional stochastic model is proposed to analyze the characteristics of quantum noise in flat-panel detectors (FPD) for medical imaging applications. The number of x-ray photons is modeled as a Poisson process, and explicit expressions for the autocorrelation function and noise power spectrum density (NPSD) are obtained in terms of the exposure dose, blur shape in the capture element, and pixel size. The results from the proposed model are validated with numerical simulations, and it is shown that this model can be used for the analysis of the noise properties of the FPD...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905926/understanding-clinical-and-non-clinical-decisions-under-uncertainty-a-scenario-based-survey
#4
Vlad V Simianu, Margaret A Grounds, Susan L Joslyn, Jared E LeClerc, Anne P Ehlers, Nidhi Agrawal, Rafael Alfonso-Cristancho, Abraham D Flaxman, David R Flum
BACKGROUND: Prospect theory suggests that when faced with an uncertain outcome, people display loss aversion by preferring to risk a greater loss rather than incurring certain, lesser cost. Providing probability information improves decision making towards the economically optimal choice in these situations. Clinicians frequently make decisions when the outcome is uncertain, and loss aversion may influence choices. This study explores the extent to which prospect theory, loss aversion, and probability information in a non-clinical domain explains clinical decision making under uncertainty...
December 1, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905897/cost-and-cost-effectiveness-of-tuberculosis-treatment-shortening-a-model-based-analysis
#5
G B Gomez, D W Dowdy, M L Bastos, A Zwerling, S Sweeney, N Foster, A Trajman, M A Islam, S Kapiga, E Sinanovic, G M Knight, R G White, W A Wells, F G Cobelens, A Vassall
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in treatment success rates for tuberculosis (TB), current six-month regimen duration remains a challenge for many National TB Programmes, health systems, and patients. There is increasing investment in the development of shortened regimens with a number of candidates in phase 3 trials. METHODS: We developed an individual-based decision analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical four-month regimen for first-line treatment of TB, assuming non-inferiority to current regimens of six-month duration...
December 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905545/on-the-ability-of-molecular-dynamics-simulation-and-continuum-electrostatics-to-treat-interfacial-water-molecules-in-protein-protein-complexes
#6
Guillaume Copie, Fabrizio Cleri, Ralf Blossey, Marc F Lensink
Interfacial waters are increasingly appreciated as playing a key role in protein-protein interactions. We report on a study of the prediction of interfacial water positions by both Molecular Dynamics and explicit solvent-continuum electrostatics based on the Dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann Langevin (DPBL) model, for three test cases: (i) the barnase/barstar complex (ii) the complex between the DNase domain of colicin E2 and its cognate Im2 immunity protein and (iii) the highly unusual anti-freeze protein Maxi which contains a large number of waters in its interior...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905492/high-fidelity-computational-simulation-of-thrombus-formation-in-thoratec-heartmate-ii-continuous-flow-ventricular-assist-device
#7
Wei-Tao Wu, Fang Yang, Jingchun Wu, Nadine Aubry, Mehrdad Massoudi, James F Antaki
Continuous flow ventricular assist devices (cfVADs) provide a life-saving therapy for severe heart failure. However, in recent years, the incidence of device-related thrombosis (resulting in stroke, device-exchange surgery or premature death) has been increasing dramatically, which has alarmed both the medical community and the FDA. The objective of this study was to gain improved understanding of the initiation and progression of thrombosis in one of the most commonly used cfVADs, the Thoratec HeartMate II...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905145/the-public-multi-coil-information-pumcin-policy
#8
Christoph Juchem, Robin A de Graaf
PURPOSE: Multi-coil (MC) magnetic field modeling has emerged as a viable alternative to conventional field generation based on spherical harmonic shapes, and an active MC community is forming. Although all MC applications share the same modeling concept, the specific MC designs can largely differ as a result of disparities in region of interest (eg, human versus rodent), intended MR application (eg, B0 shimming versus spatial encoding), or other experimental constraints (eg, available bore space or integration with radiofrequency technology)...
December 1, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903982/m2-like-tumor-associated-macrophages-drive-vasculogenic-mimicry-through-amplification-of-il-6-expression-in-glioma-cells
#9
Lin Zhang, Yangyang Xu, Jintang Sun, Weiliang Chen, Lei Zhao, Chao Ma, Qingjie Wang, Jia Sun, Bin Huang, Yun Zhang, Xingang Li, Xun Qu
Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) has offered a new horizon for understanding tumor angiogenesis, but the mechanisms of VM in glioma progression have not been studied explicitly until now. As a significant component of immune infiltration in tumor microenvironment, macrophages have been demonstrated to play an important role in tumor growth and angiogenesis. However, whether macrophages could play a potential key role in glioma VM is still poorly understood. Herein we reported that both VM and CD163+ cells were associated with WHO grade and reduced patient survival, and VM channel counting was correlated to the number of infiltrated CD163+ cells in glioma specimens...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903922/facilitating-effects-of-emotion-on-the-perception-of-biological-motion-evidence-for-a-happiness-superiority-effect
#10
Hannah Lee, Jejoong Kim
It has been reported that visual perception can be influenced not only by the physical features of a stimulus but also by the emotional valence of the stimulus, even without explicit emotion recognition. Some previous studies reported an anger superiority effect while others found a happiness superiority effect during visual perception. It thus remains unclear as to which emotion is more influential. In the present study, we conducted two experiments using biological motion (BM) stimuli to examine whether emotional valence of the stimuli would affect BM perception; and if so, whether a specific type of emotion is associated with a superiority effect...
November 29, 2016: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902936/how-restful-is-it-with-all-that-noise-comparison-of-interleaved-silent-steady-state-isss-and-conventional-imaging-in-resting-state-fmri
#11
J Andoh, M Ferreira, I R Leppert, R Matsushita, B Pike, R J Zatorre
Resting-state fMRI studies have become very important in cognitive neuroscience because they are able to identify BOLD fluctuations in brain circuits involved in motor, cognitive, or perceptual processes without the use of an explicit task. Such approaches have been fruitful when applied to various disordered populations, or to children or the elderly. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the consequences of the loud acoustic scanner noise associated with conventional fMRI acquisition, which could be an important confounding factor affecting auditory and/or cognitive networks in resting-state fMRI...
November 27, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901304/predicting-occurrence-of-juvenile-shark-habitat-to-improve-conservation-planning
#12
Beverly Z L Oh, Ana M M Sequeira, Mark G Meekan, Jonathan L W Ruppert, Jessica J Meeuwig
Fishing and habitat degradation have increased the extinction risk of sharks, and conservation strategies recognize that survival of juveniles is critical for the effective management of shark populations. Despite the rapid expansion of marine protected areas (MPAs) globally, the paucity of shark-monitoring data on large scales (100s-1000s km) means that the effectiveness of MPAs in halting shark declines remains unclear. Using data collected by baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS) in northwestern Australia, we developed generalized linear models to elucidate the ecological drivers of the occurrence of juvenile shark habitat...
November 30, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901171/role-of-lewis-acid-additives-in-a-palladium-catalyzed-directed-c-h-functionalization-reaction-of-benzohydroxamic-acid-to-isoxazolone
#13
C Athira, Raghavan B Sunoj
Metallic salts as well as protic additives are widely employed in transition metal catalyzed C-H bond functionalization reactions to improve the efficiency of catalytic protocols. In one such example, ZnCl2 and pivalic acid are used as additives in a palladium catalyzed synthesis of isoxazolone from a readily available benzohydroxamic acid under one pot conditions. In this article, we present some important mechanistic insights into the role of ZnCl2 and pivalic acid, gained by using density functional theory (M06) computations...
November 30, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900481/trial-by-trial-switching-between-procedural-and-declarative-categorization-systems
#14
Matthew J Crossley, Jessica L Roeder, Sebastien Helie, F Gregory Ashby
Considerable evidence suggests that human category learning recruits multiple memory systems. A popular assumption is that procedural memory is used to form stimulus-to-response mappings, whereas declarative memory is used to form and test explicit rules about category membership. The multiple systems framework has been successful in motivating and accounting for a broad array of empirical observations over the past 20 years. Even so, only a couple of studies have examined how the different categorization systems interact...
November 30, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899834/evaluation-of-interprofessional-team-disclosure-of-a-medical-error-to-a-simulated-patient
#15
Kelly R Ragucci, Donna H Kern, Sarah P Shrader
Objective. To evaluate the impact of an Interprofessional Communication Skills Workshop on pharmacy student confidence and proficiency in disclosing medical errors to patients. Pharmacy student behavior was also compared to that of other health professions' students on the team. Design. Students from up to four different health professions participated in a simulation as part of an interprofessional team. Teams were evaluated with a validated rubric postsimulation on how well they handled the disclosure of an error to the patient...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899583/xtalkdb-a-database-of-signaling-pathway-crosstalk
#16
Sarah A Sam, Joelle Teel, Allison N Tegge, Aditya Bharadwaj, T M Murali
Analysis of signaling pathways and their crosstalk is a cornerstone of systems biology. Thousands of papers have been published on these topics. Surprisingly, there is no database that carefully and explicitly documents crosstalk between specific pairs of signaling pathways. We have developed XTalkDB (http://www.xtalkdb.org) to fill this very important gap. XTalkDB contains curated information for 650 pairs of pathways from over 1600 publications. In addition, the database reports the molecular components (e...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898976/development-and-validation-of-a-deep-learning-algorithm-for-detection-of-diabetic-retinopathy-in-retinal-fundus-photographs
#17
Varun Gulshan, Lily Peng, Marc Coram, Martin C Stumpe, Derek Wu, Arunachalam Narayanaswamy, Subhashini Venugopalan, Kasumi Widner, Tom Madams, Jorge Cuadros, Ramasamy Kim, Rajiv Raman, Philip C Nelson, Jessica L Mega, Dale R Webster
Importance: Deep learning is a family of computational methods that allow an algorithm to program itself by learning from a large set of examples that demonstrate the desired behavior, removing the need to specify rules explicitly. Application of these methods to medical imaging requires further assessment and validation. Objective: To apply deep learning to create an algorithm for automated detection of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema in retinal fundus photographs...
November 29, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898725/spatially-explicit-models-to-investigate-geographic-patterns-in-the-distribution-of-forensic-strs-application-to-the-north-eastern-mediterranean
#18
Francesco Messina, Andrea Finocchio, Nejat Akar, Aphrodite Loutradis, Emmanuel I Michalodimitrakis, Radim Brdicka, Carla Jodice, Andrea Novelletto
Human forensic STRs used for individual identification have been reported to have little power for inter-population analyses. Several methods have been developed which incorporate information on the spatial distribution of individuals to arrive at a description of the arrangement of diversity. We genotyped at 16 forensic STRs a large population sample obtained from many locations in Italy, Greece and Turkey, i.e. three countries crucial to the understanding of discontinuities at the European/Asian junction and the genetic legacy of ancient migrations, but seldom represented together in previous studies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898705/the-role-of-the-amygdala-in-facial-trustworthiness-processing-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#19
Sara Santos, Inês Almeida, Bárbara Oliveiros, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Faces play a key role in signaling social cues such as signals of trustworthiness. Although several studies identify the amygdala as a core brain region in social cognition, quantitative approaches evaluating its role are scarce. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to assess the role of the amygdala in the processing of facial trustworthiness, by analyzing its amplitude BOLD response polarity to untrustworthy versus trustworthy facial signals under fMRI tasks through a Meta-analysis of effect sizes (MA)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898305/view-aligned-hypergraph-learning-for-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-with-incomplete-multi-modality-data
#20
Mingxia Liu, Jun Zhang, Pew-Thian Yap, Dinggang Shen
Effectively utilizing incomplete multi-modality data for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodrome (i.e., mild cognitive impairment, MCI) remains an active area of research. Several multi-view learning methods have been recently developed for AD/MCI diagnosis by using incomplete multi-modality data, with each view corresponding to a specific modality or a combination of several modalities. However, existing methods usually ignore the underlying coherence among views, which may lead to sub-optimal learning performance...
November 16, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
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