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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931221/modeling-of-us-human-papillomavirus-hpv-seroprevalence-by-age-and-sexual-behavior-indicates-an-increasing-trend-of-hpv-infection-following-the-sexual-revolution
#1
Marc D Ryser, Anne Rositch, Patti E Gravitt
Background: The United States has experienced an increase in the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers that are not screen-detectable. It has been hypothesized, but not directly demonstrated, that this is due to increasing HPV prevalence in the unvaccinated population. Methods: Female self-reported numbers of lifetime sex partners and HPV serology from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to develop mathematical models of sexual partner acquisition and antibody dynamics...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931004/the-logic-of-the-floral-transition-reverse-engineering-the-switch-controlling-the-identity-of-lateral-organs
#2
Jean-Louis Dinh, Etienne Farcot, Charlie Hodgman
Much laboratory work has been carried out to determine the gene regulatory network (GRN) that results in plant cells becoming flowers instead of leaves. However, this also involves the spatial distribution of different cell types, and poses the question of whether alternative networks could produce the same set of observed results. This issue has been addressed here through a survey of the published intercellular distribution of expressed regulatory genes and techniques both developed and applied to Boolean network models...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930815/variability-in-usual-care-mechanical-ventilation-for-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-time-for-a-decision-support-protocol
#3
Christopher J L Newth, Katherine A Sward, Robinder G Khemani, Kent Page, Kathleen L Meert, Joseph A Carcillo, Thomas P Shanley, Frank W Moler, Murray M Pollack, Heidi J Dalton, David L Wessel, John T Berger, Robert A Berg, Rick E Harrison, Richard Holubkov, Allan Doctor, J Michael Dean, Tammara L Jenkins, Carol E Nicholson
OBJECTIVES: Although pediatric intensivists philosophically embrace lung protective ventilation for acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, we hypothesized that ventilator management varies. We assessed ventilator management by evaluating changes to ventilator settings in response to blood gases, pulse oximetry, or end-tidal CO2. We also assessed the potential impact that a pediatric mechanical ventilation protocol adapted from National Heart Lung and Blood Institute acute respiratory distress syndrome network protocols could have on reducing variability by comparing actual changes in ventilator settings to those recommended by the protocol...
September 19, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929911/understanding-the-effects-of-intermittent-shedding-on-the-transmission-of-infectious-diseases-example-of-salmonellosis-in-pigs
#4
Glenn E Lahodny, Raju Gautam, Renata Ivanek
A number of environmentally transmitted infectious diseases are characterized by intermittent infectiousness of infected hosts. However, it is unclear whether intermittent infectiousness must be explicitly accounted for in mathematical models for these diseases or if a simplified modelling approach is acceptable. To address this question we study the transmission of salmonellosis between penned pigs in a grower-finisher facility. The model considers indirect transmission, growth of free-living Salmonella within the environment, and environmental decontamination...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929840/leaders-go-first-creating-and-sustaining-a-culture-of-high-performance
#5
Bonnie S Cochrane
The culture of a healthcare organization plays a critically important role in determining whether strategic plans will be executed effectively and organizational goals will be achieved. A culture of high performance serves as a foundation that supports the implementation of healthcare strategies and enables health leaders to evaluate, select, optimize, and sustain a full portfolio of improvement initiatives linked directly to top priorities and mandates. This article argues that a culture of high performance should become an integral part of all strategic planning and, further, that a strong and explicit leadership commitment, beginning with the board and CEO and extending throughout all leadership levels, is required to implement a successful culture transformation...
September 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929428/studies-on-electrostatic-interactions-within-model-nano-confined-aqueous-environments-of-different-chemical-nature
#6
Joan Manuel Montes de Oca, Cintia A Menéndez, Sebastián R Accordino, David C Malaspina, Gustavo A Appignanesi
We study the potential of mean force for pairs of parallel flat surfaces with attractive electrostatic interactions by employing model systems functionalized with different charged, hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups. We study the way in which the local environment (hydrophobic or hydrophilic moieties) modulates the interaction between the attractive charged groups on the plates by removing or attracting nearby water and thus screening or not the electrostatic interaction. To explicitly account for the role of the solvent and the local hydrophobicity, we also perform studies in vacuo...
September 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929015/the-landscape-of-fear-conceptual-framework-definition-and-review-of-current-applications-and-misuses
#7
Sonny S Bleicher
Landscapes of Fear (LOF), the spatially explicit distribution of perceived predation risk as seen by a population, is increasingly cited in ecological literature and has become a frequently used "buzz-word". With the increase in popularity, it became necessary to clarify the definition for the term, suggest boundaries and propose a common framework for its use. The LOF, as a progeny of the "ecology of fear" conceptual framework, defines fear as the strategic manifestation of the cost-benefit analysis of food and safety tradeoffs...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928680/addressee-identity-and-morphosyntactic-processing-in-basque-allocutive-agreement
#8
Max Wolpert, Simona Mancini, Sendy Caffarra
Information about interlocutor identity is pragmatic in nature and has traditionally been distinguished from explicitly coded linguistic information, including mophosyntax. Study of speaker identity in language processing has questioned this distinction, but addressee identity has been less considered. We used Basque to explore how addressee identity is processed during morphosyntactic analysis. In the familiar register hika, Basque has obligatory allocutive agreement, where verbal morphology represents the gender of a non-argument addressee...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928110/perceptions-of-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-their-physiotherapists-regarding-the-use-of-an-ehealth-intervention
#9
Sigrid Vorrink, Chantal Huisman, Helianthe Kort, Thierry Troosters, Jan-Willem Lammers
BACKGROUND: If eHealth interventions are not used (properly), their potential benefits cannot be fulfilled. User perceptions of eHealth are an important determinant of its successful implementation. This study examined how patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their physiotherapists (PHTs) value an eHealth self-management intervention following a period of use. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the perceptions of COPD patients and their PHTs as eHealth users...
September 19, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927424/requirements-of-health-policy-and-services-journals-for-authors-to-disclose-financial-and-non-financial-conflicts-of-interest-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Assem M Khamis, Maram B Hakoum, Lama Bou-Karroum, Joseph R Habib, Ahmed Ali, Gordon Guyatt, Fadi El-Jardali, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: The requirements of the health policy and services journals for authors to report their financial and non-financial conflicts of interest (COI) are unclear. The present article aims to assess the requirements of health policy and services journals for authors to disclose their financial and non-financial COIs. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of journals listed by the Web of Science under the category of 'Health Policy and Services'. We reviewed the 'Instructions for Authors' on the journals' websites and then simulated the submission of a manuscript to obtain any additional relevant information made available during that step...
September 19, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927372/potentially-inappropriate-medication-use-in-nursing-homes-an-observational-study-using-the-norgep-nh-criteria
#11
Gunhild Nyborg, Mette Brekke, Jørund Straand, Svein Gjelstad, Maria Romøren
BACKGROUND: Frail residents in the nursing home sector call for extra care in prescribing. The Norwegian General Practice Nursing Home (NORGEP-NH) list of 34 explicit criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in nursing homes was developed explicitly for this population. The aim of this study was to employ the NORGEP-NH Criteria to study the extent of potentially inappropriate medication use among nursing home residents and explore possible associated factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational pharmacoepidemiological study from residents in nursing homes in the county of Vestfold, Norway...
September 19, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927355/the-promise-of-qualitative-research-to-inform-theory-to-address-health-equity
#12
Rachel C Shelton, Derek M Griffith, Michelle C Kegler
Most public health researchers and practitioners agree that we need to accelerate our efforts to eliminate health disparities and promote health equity. The past two decades of research have provided a wealth of descriptive studies, both qualitative and quantitative, that describe the size, scale, and scope of health disparities, as well as the key determinants that affect disparities. We need, however, to shift more aggressively to action informed by this research and develop deeper understandings of how to shape multilevel interventions, influenced by theories across multiple levels of the social-ecologic framework...
October 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926752/response-bias-and-response-monitoring-evidence-from-healthy-older-adults-and-patients-with-mild-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Rebecca G Deason, Michelle J Tat, Sean Flannery, Prabhakar S Mithal, Erin P Hussey, Eileen T Crehan, Brandon A Ally, Andrew E Budson
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) often exhibit an abnormally liberal response bias in recognition memory tests, responding "old" more frequently than "new." Investigations have shown patients can to shift to a more conservative response bias when given instructions. We examined if patients with mild AD could alter their response patterns when the ratio of old items is manipulated without explicit instruction. Healthy older adults and AD patients studied lists of words and then were tested in three old/new ratio conditions (30%, 50%, or 70% old items)...
September 16, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926731/-like-the-palm-of-my-hands-motor-imagery-enhances-implicit-and-explicit-visual-recognition-of-one-s-own-hands
#14
Massimiliano Conson, Francesco Volpicella, Francesco De Bellis, Agnese Orefice, Luigi Trojano
A key point in motor imagery literature is that judging hands in palm view recruits sensory-motor information to a higher extent than judging hands in back view, due to the greater biomechanical complexity implied in rotating hands depicted from palm than from back. We took advantage from this solid evidence to test the nature of a phenomenon known as self-advantage, i.e. the advantage in implicitly recognizing self vs. others' hand images. The self-advantage has been actually found when implicitly but not explicitly judging self-hands, likely due to dissociation between implicit and explicit body representations...
September 16, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926712/pyrophosphate-release-in-the-protein-hiv-reverse-transcriptase
#15
Murat Atiş, Kenneth A Johnson, Ron Elber
Enzymatic reactions usually occur in several steps: A step of substrate binding to the surface of the protein, a step of protein re-organization around the substrate and conduction of a chemical reaction, and a step of product release. The release of inorganic phosphate - PPi - from the matrix of the protein HIV reverse transcriptase is investigated computationally. Atomically detailed simulations with explicit solvent are analyzed to obtain the free energy profile, mean first passage time, and detailed molecular mechanisms of PPi escape...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926700/chemical-dynamics-simulations-of-energy-transfer-for-propylbenzene-cation-and-he-collisions
#16
Hyunsik Kim, Biswajit Saha, Subha Pratihar, Moumita Majumder, William Louis Hase
Intermolecular energy transfer (IET) for the vibrationally excited propylbenzene cation (C9H12(+)) in a helium bath was studied with chemical dynamics simulations. The bond energy bond order (BEBO) relationship and electronic structure calculations were used to develop an intramolecular potential C9H12(+). Spin component scaled (SCS) MP2/6-311++G** calculations were used to develop an intermolecular potential for He + C9H12(+). The He + He intermolecular potential was determined from a previous explicitly correlated Gaussian (ECG) electronic structure calculation...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926488/potential-acceptability-of-a-pediatric-ventilator-management-computer-protocol
#17
Katherine A Sward, Christopher J L Newth, Robinder G Khemani, Kent Page, Kathleen L Meert, Joseph A Carcillo, Thomas P Shanley, Frank W Moler, Murray M Pollack, Heidi J Dalton, David L Wessel, John T Berger, Robert A Berg, Rick E Harrison, Allan Doctor, J Michael Dean, Richard Holobkov, Tammara L Jenkins, Carol E Nicholson
OBJECTIVES: To examine issues regarding the granularity (size/scale) and potential acceptability of recommendations in a ventilator management protocol for children with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Survey/questionnaire. SETTING: The eight PICUs in the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-two physicians (attendings and fellows). INTERVENTIONS: None...
September 16, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926253/understanding-the-role-of-dna-topology-in-target-search-dynamics-of-proteins
#18
Anupam Mondal, Arnab Bhattacherjee
A wide range of cellular processes initiates upon recognising and binding of proteins to specific DNA sites. Typically, the recognition process is incredibly fast owing to a complex mechanism that combines different 3D and 1D modes of translocation of the protein. While few studies performed on selected DNA topologies suggested that the DNA topology might alter the balance between these two modes and therefore the target search kinetics, its detail role in target search mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present a discrete-state stochastic approach that allows us to incorporate the topological information of DNA molecule explicitly and predict its role during the process when proteins search for their specific binding sites on DNA...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926232/prediction-errors-of-molecular-machine-learning-models-lower-than-hybrid-dft-error
#19
Felix A Faber, Luke Hutchison, Bing Huang, Justin Gilmer, Samuel S Schoenholz, George E Dahl, Oriol Vinyals, Steven Kearnes, Patrick F Riley, O Anatole von Lilienfeld
We investigate the impact of choosing regres- sors and molecular representations for the construction of fast machine learning (ML) models of thirteen electronic ground-state properties of organic molecules. The performance of each regressor/representation/property combination is assessed using learning curves which report out- of-sample errors as a function of training set size with up to ∼118k distinct molecules. Molecular structures and properties at hybrid density functional theory (DFT) level of theory come from the QM9 database [Ramakrishnan et al, Scientific Data 1 140022 (2014)] and include enthalpies and free energies of atomization , HOMO/LUMO energies and gap, dipole moment, polarizability, zero point vibrational energy, heat capacity and the highest fundamental vibrational frequency...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924142/the-role-of-social-status-and-testosterone-in-human-conspicuous-consumption
#20
Yin Wu, Christoph Eisenegger, Niro Sivanathan, Molly J Crockett, Luke Clark
Conspicuous consumption refers to the phenomenon where individuals purchase goods for signalling social status, rather than for its inherent functional value. This study (n = 166 male participants) investigated how the outcome of a social competition influenced conspicuous consumption, and its association with competition-induced testosterone reactivity. Winning a competition increased both explicit and implicit preferences for higher-status vs. lower-status products, using both natural stimuli (prestigious cars) and laboratory-tagged stimuli of matched value (university T-shirts)...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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