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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814066/mice-expressing-human-erap1-variants-associated-with-ankylosing-spondylitis-have-altered-t-cell-repertoires-and-nk-cell-functions-as-well-as-increased-in-utero-and-perinatal-mortality
#1
David P W Rastall, Fadel S Alyaquob, Patrick O'Connell, Yuliya Pepelyayeva, Douglas Peters, Sarah Godbehere-Roosa, Cristiane Pereira-Hicks, Yasser A Aldhamen, Andrea Amalfitano
Specific variants of endoplasmic reticulum-associated aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) identified by genome-wide association study modify the risk for developing ankylosing spondylitis. We previously confirmed that disease-associated ERAP1 variants have altered enzymatic abilities that can impact upon the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from cells expressing the same ERAP1 variants. To determine if these ERAP1 variants also impacted immune responses in vivo, we generated two strains of transgenic mice expressing human ERAP1 genes containing non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with an increased (ERAP1-High) or decreased (ERAP1-Low) risk for developing autoimmune disease...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814031/evaluation-of-walking-smoothness-using-wearable-robotic-system-curara%C3%A2-for-spinocerebellar-degeneration-patients
#2
Atsushi Tsukahara, Kunihiro Yoshida, Akira Matsushima, Kumiko Ajima, Chika Kuroda, Noriaki Mizukami, Minoru Hashimoto
This paper aimed to verify the effectiveness of the wearable robotic system "curara" for patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) by evaluating walking smoothness. The curara system supports the wearer's gait using a synchronization control method that uses a neural oscillator based on a central pattern generator network. The system reflects the motional intention by adjusting the synchronization gains. This modifies the degree of interactive coordinated motion between the curara and the wearer. As a feasibility study, we evaluated the waking smoothness of 10 patients with SCD using three gain condition settings...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813994/two-single-cases-treated-by-a-new-pseudoelastic-upper-limb-orthosis-for-secondary-dystonia-of-the-young
#3
Lorenzo Garavaglia, Emanuela Pagliano, Maria Teresa Arnoldi, Antonella LoMauro, Riccardo Zanin, Giovanni Baranello, Andrea Aliverti, Simone Pittaccio
The study proposes a new treatment for dystonia based on a dynamic wearable orthosis equipped with metallic materials of non-linear mechanical characteristics. Two boys with upper-limb dystonia were enrolled, as well as six healthy children. Fully-customised devices were made for the patients. They used the orthosis for one month and their performances were evaluated before and after the treatment. The assessment was done with clinical scales (Modified Ashworth Score, Melbourne Upper Limb Assessment, PedsQL), interviews and optoelectronic kinematic analysis...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813968/changes-in-neuromuscular-activity-during-motor-training-with-a-body-machine-interface-after-spinal-cord-injury
#4
C Pierella, A De Luca, E Tasso, F Cervetto, S Gamba, L Losio, E Quinland, A Venegoni, S Mandraccia, I Muller, A Massone, F A Mussa-Ivaldi, M Casadio
Body machine interfaces (BMIs) are used by people with severe motor disabilities to control external devices, but they also offer the opportunity to focus on rehabilitative goals. In this study we introduced in a clinical setting a BMI that was integrated by the therapists in the rehabilitative treatments of 2 spinal cord injured (SCI) subjects for 5 weeks. The BMI mapped the user's residual upper body mobility onto the two coordinates of a cursor on a screen. By controlling the cursor, the user engaged in playing computer games...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813912/transverse-forces-versus-modified-ashworth-scale-for-upper-limb-flexion-extension-in-para-sagittal-plane
#5
Nitin Seth, Denise Johnson, Hussein A Abdullah
Spasticity is a common impairment following an upper motor neuron lesion in conditions such as stroke and brain injury. A clinical issue is how to best quantify and measure spasticity. Recently, research has been performed to develop new methods of spasticity quantification using various systems. This paper follows up on previous work taking a closer look at the role of transversal forces obtained via rehabilitation robot for motions in the para-sagittal plane. Results from 45 healthy individuals and 40 individuals with acquired brain injury demonstrate that although the passive upper motions are vertical, horizontal forces into and away from the individual's body demonstrate a relationship with the Modified Ashworth Scale...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813889/design-of-a-clinically-relevant-upper-limb-exoskeleton-robot-for-stroke-patients-with-spasticity
#6
Dong Jin Lee, Sung Jin Bae, Sung Ho Jang, Pyung Hun Chang
The purpose of this research is to propose a design of a clinically relevant upper-limb (hand, wrist, and elbow) exoskeleton that meets the clinical requirements. At first, the proposed robot was designed to have sufficient torque for passive exercise therapy and spasticity measurement of post-stroke patients with spasticity (grade 3 or lower in Modified Ashworth Scale). Because the therapy of patients with high level spasticity could be laborious for therapists by increased muscle tone, and the patients tend not to get enough rehabilitation treatment...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813882/validation-of-the-efficiency-of-a-robotic-rehabilitation-training-system-for-recovery-of-severe-plegie-hand-motor-function-after-a-stroke
#7
Hirofumi Tanabe, Munehiro Ikuta, Yoshifumi Morita
We have developed a rehabilitation training system called the Useful and Ultimate Rehabilitation System PARKO (UR System PARKO) to promote the recovery of motor function of the severe chronic plegic hand of stroke patients. This system was equipped with two functions to realize two conditions: (1) fixing of all fingers to a hyperextended position and (2) extending the elbow joint while applying resistance load to the fingertips. A clinical test was conducted with two patients to determine the therapeutic effect of the UR System PARKO for severe plegic hand...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813833/an-integrated-gait-rehabilitation-training-based-on-functional-electrical-stimulation-cycling-and-overground-robotic-exoskeleton-in-complete-spinal-cord-injury-patients-preliminary-results
#8
S Mazzoleni, E Battini, A Rustici, G Stampacchia
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an integrated gait rehabilitation training based on Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)-cycling and overground robotic exoskeleton in a group of seven complete spinal cord injury patients on spasticity and patient-robot interaction. They underwent a robot-assisted rehabilitation training based on two phases: n=20 sessions of FES-cycling followed by n= 20 sessions of robot-assisted gait training based on an overground robotic exoskeleton. The following clinical outcome measures were used: Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) on spasticity, Penn Spasm Frequency Scale (PSFS), Spinal Cord Independence Measure Scale (SCIM), NRS on pain and International Spinal Cord Injury Pain Data Set (ISCI)...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813809/development-of-elbow-spasticity-model-for-objective-training-of-spasticity-assessment-of-patients-post-stroke
#9
Jeong-Ho Park, Kwang-Jae Lee, Yong-Soon Yoon, Eun-Ji Son, Ji-Sun Oh, Si Hyun Kang, Heesang Kim, Hyung-Soon Park
Reliable assessment is essential for the management of spasticity, one of the most frequent complication of various neurological diseases. For the spasticity assessment, several clinical tools have been developed and widely used in clinics. The most popular one is modified Ashworth scale (MAS). It has a simple protocol, but is subjective and qualitative. To improve its reliability, quantitative measurement and consistent training would be needed. This study presents an elbow spasticity simulator which mimics spastic response of adult post stroke survivors...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813755/genetics-of-alcoholism
#10
Ena C Zhu, Timothy J Soundy, Yueshan Hu
Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol has the potential to modify an individual's brain and lead to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use leads to 88,000 deaths every year in the U.S. alone and can lead to other health issues including cancers, such as colorectal cancer, and mental health problems. While drinking behavior varies due to environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to the risk of alcoholism. Certain genes affecting alcohol metabolism and neurotransmitters have been found to contribute to or inhibit the risk...
May 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813700/regenerative-medicine-approaches-for-age-related-muscle-loss-and-sarcopenia-a-mini-review
#11
Juan Diego Naranjo, Jenna L Dziki, Stephen F Badylak
Sarcopenia is a complex and multifactorial disease that includes a decrease in the number, structure and physiology of muscle fibers, and age-related muscle mass loss, and is associated with loss of strength, increased frailty, and increased risk for fractures and falls. Treatment options are suboptimal and consist of exercise and nutrition as the cornerstone of therapy. Current treatment principles involve identification and modification of risk factors to prevent the disease, but these efforts are of limited value to the elderly individuals currently affected by sarcopenia...
August 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813684/mimicking-mechanical-response-of-natural-tissues-strain-hardening-induced-by-transient-reticulation-in-lactose-modified-chitosan-chitlac
#12
Michela Cok, Pasquale Sacco, Davide Porrelli, Andrea Travan, Massimiliano Borgogna, Eleonora Marsich, Sergio Paoletti, Ivan Donati
The effect of transient cross-links has been explored on a lactose-modified chitosan, which previously had shown interesting biological features. The presence of galactose side chains and of the polyol spacer resulted particularly appealing for the reticulation by borate ions. The interaction between chitlac and borax was investigated by means of (11)B-NMR while rheology pointed to a marked non-linear behavior depending on the amount of borax added to the system. The presence of limited amount of cross-linking ion led to dilatant behavior when the steady flow curve was measured...
August 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813667/human-gw182-paralogs-are-the-central-organizers-for-rna-mediated-control-of-transcription
#13
Jessica A Hicks, Liande Li, Masayuki Matsui, Yongjun Chu, Oleg Volkov, Krystal C Johnson, David R Corey
In the cytoplasm, small RNAs can control mammalian translation by regulating the stability of mRNA. In the nucleus, small RNAs can also control transcription and splicing. The mechanisms for RNA-mediated nuclear regulation are not understood and remain controversial, hindering the effective application of nuclear RNAi and investigation of its natural regulatory roles. Here, we reveal that the human GW182 paralogs TNRC6A/B/C are central organizing factors critical to RNA-mediated transcriptional activation. Mass spectrometry of purified nuclear lysates followed by experimental validation demonstrates that TNRC6A interacts with proteins involved in protein degradation, RNAi, the CCR4-NOT complex, the mediator complex, and histone-modifying complexes...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813621/improvement-of-an-in-vitro-model-to-assess-delivered-dose-and-particle-size-for-a-vibrating-mesh-nebulizer-during-mechanical-ventilation
#14
Nani Kadrichu, Derek Daniher
BACKGROUND: In an in vitro model of mechanical ventilation with gravity-dependent filter position we observed artificially high delivered doses resulting from liquid droplet collection and precipitation of aerosolized drug. We sequentially modified the model to obtain accurate reproducible measurements of delivered dose and particle size at endotracheal tube exit. METHODS: Stepwise changes in the model included (1) altering the endotracheal tube position to a gravity-independent position, (2) adding fluid traps, (3) humidifying air near the test lung, and (4) simplifying test lung and filters...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813610/poloxamer-decorated-polymer-nanoparticles-for-lung-surfactant-compatibility
#15
Moritz Beck-Broichsitter, Adam Bohr, Christian Arnold Ruge
Lung-delivered polymer nanoparticles provoked dysfunction of the essential lung surfactant system. A steric shielding of the nanoparticle surface with poloxamers could minimize the unwanted interference of polymer nanoparticles with the biophysical function of lung surfactant. The extent of poly(styrene) and poly(lactide) nanoparticle-induced lung surfactant inhibition could be related to the type and content of the applied poloxamer. Escalations of the adsorbed coating layer thickness (>3 nm) as well as concentration (brush- rather than mushroom-like conformation of poly(ethylene glycol), chain-to-chain distance of <5 nm) on the colloidal surface were capable of circumventing bioadverse effects...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813597/synthesis-of-4-azido-n-acetylhexosamine-uridine-diphosphate-donors-clickable-glycosaminoglycans
#16
Xing Zhang, Dixy E Green, Victor L Schultz, Lei Lin, Xiaorui Han, Ruitong Wang, Alexander Yaksic, So Young Kim, Paul L DeAngelis, Robert J Linhardt
Unnatural chemically modified, nucleotide sugars, UDP-4-N3-GlcNAc and UDP-4-N3-GalNAc were synthesized for the first time. These unnatural UDP-sugar products were then tested for incorporation into hyaluronan, heparosan or chondroitin using polysaccharide synthases. The UDP-4-N3-GlcNAc served as a chain termination substrate for hyaluronan or heparosan synthases; a single analog was added to the non-reducing end of the sugar chain and no subsequent elongation was detected. Compared to chemical method to introduce azido groups into polysaccharides, this enzymatic technique provided a "green" approach to access regioselectively azide-functionalized GAGs, which would bring better control of the final structure and composition of these macromolecules...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813596/molecular-imaging-of-p-glycoprotein-in-chemoresistant-tumors-using-a-dual-modality-pet-fluorescence-probe
#17
Mengzhe Wang, Chengqiong Mao, Hui Wang, Xueying Ling, Zhanhong Wu, Zi-Bo Li, Xin Ming
Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) has been considered a primary cause for multidrug resistance in a variety of cancers for three decades. However, clinical translation of Pgp targeted therapeutics has been hindered by lack of patient preselection based on the Pgp presence in tumors. We aim to develop a molecularly targeted probe for imaging tumoral Pgp in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET) and fluorescence, and to provide a tool for preselecting the patients with tumoral Pgp expression. Thus, a Pgp monoclonal antibody 15D3 was chemically modified with IRDye800 (IR800) and DOTA chelator...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813592/3d-printed-phema-materials-for-topographical-and-biochemical-modulation-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-cell-response
#18
Adina Badea, Joselle M McCracken, Emily G Tillmaand, Mikhail Eugene Kandel, Aaron W Oraham, Molly B Mevis, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Gabriel Popescu, Jonathan V Sweedler, Ralph G Nuzzo
Understanding and controlling the interactions occurring between cells and engineered materials are central challenges towards progress in the development of biomedical devices. In this work, we describe materials for direct ink writing (DIW), an extrusion-based type of 3D printing, that embed a custom synthetic protein (RGD-PDL) within the microfilaments of 3D-hydrogel scaffolds to modify these interactions and differentially direct tissue-level organization of complex cell populations in vitro. The RGD-PDL is synthesized by modifying poly-ᴅ-lysine (PDL) to varying extents with peptides containing the integrin-binding motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813554/association-between-purpose-in-life-and-objective-measures-of-physical-function-in-older-adults
#19
Eric S Kim, Ichiro Kawachi, Ying Chen, Laura D Kubzansky
Importance: Higher purpose in life is hypothesized to reduce the likelihood of developing weak grip strength and slow walking speed because purpose has been linked with a range of positive health behaviors and biological processes that are potentially protective against declining physical function. However, the association between purpose in life and objective physical function has not been examined. Objective: To assess whether higher purpose in life among adequately functioning older adults is associated with lower risk of developing weak grip strength and slow walking speed over time...
August 16, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813507/comparison-of-homologous-and-heterologous-prime-boost-vaccine-approaches-using-modified-vaccinia-ankara-and-soluble-protein-to-induce-neutralizing-antibodies-by-the-human-cytomegalovirus-pentamer-complex-in-mice
#20
Flavia Chiuppesi, Felix Wussow, Louise Scharf, Heidi Contreras, Han Gao, Zhuo Meng, Jenny Nguyen, Peter A Barry, Pamela J Bjorkman, Don J Diamond
Since neutralizing antibodies (NAb) targeting the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) pentamer complex (PC) potently block HCMV host cell entry, anti-PC NAb induction is thought to be important for a vaccine formulation to prevent HCMV infection. By developing a vaccine strategy based on soluble PC protein and using a previously generated Modified Vaccinia Ankara vector co-expressing all five PC subunits (MVA-PC), we compared HCMV NAb induction by homologous immunization using prime-boost vaccine regimen employing only PC protein or MVA-PC and heterologous immunization using prime-boost combinations of PC protein and MVA-PC...
2017: PloS One
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