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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101223/modulatory-effect-of-luteolin-on-redox-homeostasis-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-a-mouse-model-of-liver-cancer
#1
Qiang Zhang, Jie Yang, Jun Wang
Liver cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Due to changes in lifestyle and daily exposure to various chemicals, which may lead to chemical intoxication, liver cancer has become a prominent disease in humans. Chemical-induced carcinogenesis in experimental animals has become a reliable model for the investigation of liver cancer-associated biological alterations that may mimic human hepatic cancer. Liver cancer in BALB/c mice was induced by administering diethylnitrosamine (DN) in drinking water for 6 weeks...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100196/exposure-to-hepatitis-c-virus-in-homeless-men-in-central-brazil-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Priscilla Martins Ferreira, Rafael Alves Guimarães, Christiane Moreira Souza, Lara Cristina da Cunha Guimarães, Cleiciane Vieira de Lima Barros, Karlla Antonieta Amorim Caetano, Giovanni Rezza, Lila Spadoni, Sandra Maria Brunini
BACKGROUND: Homeless men are highly vulnerable to acquisition of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) compared to the general population. In Brazil, a country of continental dimensions, the extent of HCV infection in this population remains unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiological profile of exposure to HCV in homeless men in Central Brazil. METHODS: A Cross-sectional study was conducted in 481 men aged over 18 years attending therapeutic communities specialized in the recovery and reintegration of homeless people...
January 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097434/work-related-infections-in-dentistry-risk-perception-and-preventive-measures
#3
Tatjana Ramich, Peter Eickholz, Sabine Wicker
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of (1) the risk perception of work-related infections in dentistry, (2) the vaccination status, (3) knowledge of the blood-borne pathogens and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) as well as (4) use of personal protective equipment (PPE) (gloves, goggles, mask) among the staff and students of the Center of Dentistry and Oral Medicine (ZZMK [Carolinum]) of the Goethe University Frankfurt/Main. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All staff (dentists, dental assistants) and students of the ZZMK with direct contact to patients were asked to anonymously complete a questionnaire...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089783/characterization-of-rat-or-human-hepatocytes-cultured-in-microphysiological-systems-mps-to-identify-hepatotoxicity
#4
Shih-Yu Chang, Jenna L Voellinger, Kirk P Van Ness, Brian Chapron, Rachel M Shaffer, Thomas Neumann, Collin C White, Terrance J Kavanagh, Edward J Kelly, David L Eaton
The liver is the main site for drug and xenobiotics metabolism, including inactivation or bioactivation. In order to improve the predictability of drug safety and efficacy in clinical development, and to facilitate the evaluation of the potential human health effects from exposure to environmental contaminants, there is a critical need to accurately model human organ systems such as the liver in vitro. We are developing a microphysiological system (MPS) based on a new commercial microfluidic platform (Nortis, Inc...
January 12, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089781/genotoxic-effect-and-rat-hepatocyte-death-occurred-after-oxidative-stress-induction-and-antioxidant-gene-downregulation-caused-by-long-term-fluoride-exposure
#5
F D Campos-Pereira, L Lopes-Aguiar, F L Renosto, G A S Nogueira, E F D Costa, R Barbieri Pulz, E C M Silva-Zacarin, C A Oliveira, A A Pigoso, G D C Severi-Aguiar
Studies focusing on possible genotoxic effects of excess fluoride are contradictory and inconclusive. Currently, studies have reported a probable link to oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis induced by fluoride in rat hepatocytes. We developed an in vivo study administering three doses of fluoride by gavage given to rats for 60 day. Micronucleus test was applied to investigate genotoxic potential of fluoride. The TUNEL method determined DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. Biochemical parameters to investigate mitochondrial swelling and oxidative stress...
January 12, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075044/population-impacts-in-white-sucker-catostomus-commersonii-exposed-to-oil-sands-derived-contaminants-in-the-athabasca-river
#6
Collin J Arens, Jennifer C Arens, Natacha S Hogan, Richard J Kavanagh, Fabrice Berrue, Glen J Van Der Kraak, Michael R van den Heuvel
Biological and chemical endpoints were measured in White Sucker collected downstream of Athabasca oil sands developments and compared with those at Calling Lake, a reference location upstream of the Athabasca oil sands deposit. Naphthenic acid concentrations were also measured at 14 sites in the Athabasca River watershed. Concentrations of naphthenic acids were elevated in tributaries adjacent to oil sands mining developments. Tributary naphthenic acid profiles were more similar to aged oil sands process water than samples from the Athabasca River, suggesting an influence of tailings in the tributaries...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070174/the-hcv-treatment-revolution-continues-resistance-considerations-pangenotypic-efficacy-and-advances-in-challenging-populations
#7
Ira M Jacobson
The US Food and Drug Administration has now approved 10 direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the management of hepatitis C virus (HCV). These therapies are combined into 6 regimens that are given for varying durations, with or without ribavirin, depending on the viral genotype, the presence or absence of baseline resistance-associated variants (RAVs), and the patient type. RAVs may be present before exposure to a drug or may become detectable de novo during exposure to a drug. Emerging resistant strains are the most common cause of failure of HCV DAA regimens...
October 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068185/prevalence-of-antibodies-against-coxiella-burnetii-in-korean-native-cattle-dairy-cattle-and-dogs-in-south-korea
#8
Kwang-Soo Lyoo, Doo Kim, Hyung Gwan Jang, Seung-Joon Lee, Mi Yeoun Park, Tae-Wook Hahn
Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic agent and causes coxiellosis, which is a cause of reproductive failure in a range of animal species, including abortion and stillbirth and Q fever, which is most often characterized by an acute flu-like illness, mild pneumonia, and/or hepatitis in humans. While livestock are well recognized worldwide as a source of infection, the zoonotic risk of C. burnetii infection in companion animals such as dogs may be overlooked. For serological diagnosis, indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are generally considered good methods for prevalence surveys of coxiellosis...
January 9, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067990/familial-hepatitis-e-outbreak-linked-to-wild-boar-meat-consumption
#9
A Rivero-Juarez, M Frias, A Martinez-Peinado, M A Risalde, D Rodriguez-Cano, A Camacho, I García-Bocanegra, F Cuenca-Lopez, J C Gomez-Villamandos, A Rivero
An HIV-infected patient was diagnosed with acute hepatitis E infection in our hospital. An epidemiological inquiry was performed to collect demographic, food and animal exposure variables in order to identify the potential route of transmission. The patient reported that his family traditionally hunted wild boar for food. All family members were analysed for hepatitis E virus infection. Additionally, route of transmission by wild boar meat consumption and prevalence of HEV infection among wild boar from the same hunting area were investigated...
January 9, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066880/population-pharmacokinetic-analysis-of-daclatasvir-in-subjects-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#10
Phyllis Chan, Hanbin Li, Li Zhu, Marc Bifano, Timothy Eley, Mayu Osawa, Takayo Ueno, Eric Hughes, Richard Bertz, Tushar Garimella, Malaz AbuTarif
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Daclatasvir is a potent, pangenotypic once-daily hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of chronic HCV infection. The objective of this analysis was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of daclatasvir in subjects with chronic HCV infection. METHODS: A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed to evaluate effects of covariates on daclatasvir pharmacokinetics in subjects with chronic HCV infection (n = 2149 from 11 studies)...
January 9, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062951/the-effect-of-selenium-on-the-cd-induced-apoptosis-via-no-mediated-mitochondrial-apoptosis-pathway-in-chicken-liver
#11
Runxiang Zhang, Ran Yi, Yanju Bi, Lu Xing, Jun Bao, Jianhong Li
Cd-induced apoptosis and the protective effects of Se against Cd-induced injury have been reported in previous studies. However, little is known regarding the effects of Cd-induced apoptosis in hepatic cells and the antagonistic effects of Se on Cd in poultry. In the present study, 128 healthy 31-week-old laying hens were randomly divided into four groups, which were fed basic diets, with the addition of Se (Na2SeO3, 2 mg/kg), Cd (CdCl2, 150 mg/kg), or Se + Cd (150 mg/kg of CdCl2 and 2 mg/kg of Na2SeO3) for 90 days...
January 6, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062358/alterations-in-transcription-and-protein-expressions-of-hcc-related-genes-in-hepg2-cells-caused-by-microcystin-lr
#12
Xiaoyu Li, Xiangyang Zhang, Wenjie Xie, Chune Zhou, Yao Li, Xiuhua Zhang
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most common and toxic hepatotoxin and it could induce human hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via the route of drinking water. The aim of the present study was to determine the expressions of oncogenes c-fos, c-jun, c-myc, c-met, and N-ras and tumor suppressor gene PTEN in HepG2 cells following MC-LR-exposure to understand the possible mechanism of MC-LR-related human primary liver cancer. The results of qPCR and Western blotting showed that MC-LR-exposure at non- or sub-cytotoxic concentrations promoted the expressions of oncogenes c-fos, c-jun, c-myc, c-met, and N-ras while suppressed tumor-suppressor gene PTEN in HepG2 cells at both transcription and protein levels...
January 3, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060860/prevalence-and-incidence-of-hcv-infection-among-prisoners-in-central-brazil
#13
Marco Antonio Moreira Puga, Larissa Melo Bandeira, Mauricio Antonio Pompilio, Julio Croda, Grazielli Rocha de Rezende, Luiz Fernando Paiva Dorisbor, Tayana Serpa Ortiz Tanaka, Gabriela Alves Cesar, Sheila Araújo Teles, Simone Simionatto, Alisson Richard Teixeira Novais, Bruna Nepomuceno, Lisie Souza Castro, Barbara Vieira do Lago, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro
The aim of this multicenter, cross sectional study was to assess the prevalence, incidence and associated risk factors among incarcerated populations from twelve Brazilian prisons. The total of 3,368 individuals from twelve prisons was randomly recruited between March 2013 and March 2014. Participants were interviewed, and provided blood samples which were tested for antibodies to Hepatitis C (HCV ab). One year after the first investigation, a cohort study was conducted with 1,656 inmates who participated the cross sectional study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056844/hepatitis-e-virus-seroprevalence-among-the-general-population-in-a-livestock-dense-area-in-the-netherlands-a-cross-sectional-population-based-serological-survey
#14
Arianne B van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Wim van der Hoek, Floor Borlée, Dick J J Heederik, Sofie H Mooi, Catharina B M Maassen, C Joris Yzermans, Barry Rockx, Lidwien A M Smit, Johan H J Reimerink
BACKGROUND: Recent serological studies indicate that hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in industrialised countries. The increasing trend in the number of autochthonous cases of HEV genotype 3 in Western European countries, stresses the importance to get insight in the exact routes of exposure. Pigs are the main animal reservoir, and zoonotic food-borne transmission of HEV is proven. However, infected pigs can excrete large amounts of virus via their faeces enabling environmental transmission of HEV to humans...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042212/occurrence-of-needlestick-and-injuries-among-health-care-workers-of-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-in-north-india
#15
Varun Goel, Dinesh Kumar, Raghavendra Lingaiah, Sarman Singh
INTRODUCTION: Occupational hazards such as accidental exposure to sharp, cuts, and splashes are common among health-care workers (HCWs). AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the occurrence of self-reported occupational exposures to these hazards and to know the prevalent practices following the exposure. The second aim was to know the baseline antibody levels against hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immediately after these accidents...
January 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039000/moving-into-advanced-nanomaterials-toxicity-of-rutile-tio2-nanoparticles-immobilized-in-nanokaolin-nanocomposites-on-hepg2-cell-line
#16
Maria João Bessa, Carla Costa, Julian Reinosa, Cristiana Pereira, Sónia Fraga, José Fernández, Miguel A Bañares, João Paulo Teixeira
Immobilization of nanoparticles on inorganic supports has been recently developed, resulting in the creation of nanocomposites. Concerning titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs(1)), these have already been developed in conjugation with clays, but so far there are no available toxicological studies on these nanocomposites. The present work intended to evaluate the hepatic toxicity of nanocomposites (C-TiO2(2)), constituted by rutile TiO2 NPs immobilized in nanokaolin (NK(3)) clay, and its individual components...
December 28, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035496/the-role-of-current-and-historical-alcohol-use-in-hepatic-fibrosis-among-hiv-infected-individuals
#17
H Nina Kim, Heidi M Crane, Carla V Rodriguez, Stephen Van Rompaey, Kenneth H Mayer, Katerina Christopoulos, Sonia Napravnik, Geetanjali Chander, Heidi Hutton, Mary E McCaul, Edward R Cachay, Michael J Mugavero, Richard Moore, Elvin Geng, Joseph J Eron, Michael S Saag, Joseph O Merrill, Mari M Kitahata
We examined risk factors for advanced hepatic fibrosis [fibrosis-4 (FIB)-4 >3.25] including both current alcohol use and a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder among HIV-infected patients. Of the 12,849 patients in our study, 2133 (17%) reported current hazardous drinking by AUDIT-C, 2321 (18%) had a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder, 2376 (18%) were co-infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV); 596 (5%) had high FIB-4 scores >3.25 as did 364 (15%) of HIV/HCV coinfected patients. In multivariable analysis, HCV (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6...
December 29, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026013/moderate-hepatic-impairment-does-not-affect-doravirine-pharmacokinetics
#18
Sauzanne Khalilieh, Ka Lai Yee, Rachael Liu, Li Fan, Rosa I Sanchez, Patrice Auger, Ilias Triantafyllou, Daria Stypinski, Kenneth C Lasseter, Thomas Marbury, Marian Iwamoto
Doravirine is a novel, potent, nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor currently in development for HIV-1 infection treatment. As a substrate for CYP3A-mediated metabolism, doravirine could potentially be affected by liver-function changes. As a portion of the HIV-1-infected population has varying degrees of liver impairment, we investigated the effect of moderate hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetic profile and tolerability of single-dose doravirine 100 mg in otherwise healthy subjects. A total of 16 subjects aged 44-64 years took part in the open-label, single-dose trial: 8 with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score, 7-9; 6 men, 2 women) and 8 healthy individuals (mean age and height matched with the impairment group; 6 men, 2 women)...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025872/lamivudine-therapy-during-the-second-vs-the-third-trimester-for-preventing-transmission-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#19
C Q Pan, W Yi, M Liu, G Wan, Y-H Hu, M-F Zhou
There are little data on the timing of initiating lamivudine therapy for preventing transmission of hepatitis B in highly viremic mothers. Between May 2008 and January 2015, we retrospectively enrolled mothers with HBV DNA >6 log10  copies/mL who received lamivudine during pregnancy, and we compared them to untreated mothers. The primary measurement was the vertical transmission rate. The secondary outcomes were the mothers' and infants' safety. Among 249 consecutive mothers enrolled, 66 and 94 received lamivudine during the second and third trimesters, respectively, and 89 were untreated...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013213/environmental-xenoestrogens-super-activate-a-variant-murine-er-beta-in-cholangiocytes
#20
Stephanie K Meyer, Philip M E Probert, Anne K Lakey, Alastair C Leitch, Lynsay I Blake, Paul A Jowsey, Martin P Cooke, Peter G Blain, Matthew C Wright
High systemic levels of oestrogens are cholestatic and primary biliary cholangitis - which is characterised by hepatic ductular inflammation - is thought to be triggered by exposure to xenobiotics such as those around landfill sites. Xenoestrogens may be a component of this chemical trigger. We therefore hypothesised that xenoestrogens are present at higher levels in the proximity of landfill sites. To test this hypothesis, soil samples were collected, extracts prepared and biological oestrogenic activity examined using cell-based reporter gene assays...
December 24, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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