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hepatitis c exposure

Ronnye Rutledge, Lynn Madden, Onyema Ogbuagu, Jaimie P Meyer
Women involved in the criminal justice system (WICJ) are at high risk of acquiring HIV and would benefit from HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) but there are no studies in this population to inform PrEP implementation programs. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of HIV-uninfected, cis-gender women on probation, parole and/or recently released from prison/jail to assess PrEP awareness, eligibility, potential barriers to uptake, and the PrEP care continuum. The 125 WICJ surveyed reported high rates of HIV risk behaviors including recent transactional sex (22...
March 11, 2018: AIDS Care
V Krishnan, N J Patel, J G Mackrell, S A Sweetana, H Bullock, Y L Ma, T H Waterhouse, B C Yaden, J Henck, Q Q Zeng, K Gavardinas, P Jadhav, A Saeed, P Garcia-Losada, D A Robins, C T Benson
We have identified a non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM), termed LY305, that is bioavailable through a transdermal route of administration while highly cleared via hepatic metabolism to limit parent compound exposure in the liver. Selection of this compound and its transdermal formulation was based on the optimization of skin absorption properties using both in vitro and in vivo skin models that supported PBPK modeling for human PK predictions. This molecule is an agonist in perineal muscle while being a weak partial agonist in the androgenic tissues such as prostate...
March 12, 2018: Andrology
Kamiar Alaei, Mohammad Sarwar, Arash Alaei
Blood transfusions are contributing to a higher rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Pakistan. Half of all blood transfusions in Pakistan are not screened for hepatitis C, hepatitis B or HIV. Family members donate blood that is likely not tested due to social stigma attached to HCV. Paid donations are also quite common in the country, especially by people who inject drugs (PWID), which increases the population's exposure to HCV. Most of the population utilizes the private sector for their health needs; this sector has lax regulation due to the lack of oversight by the government or any other regulatory body...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Sarah E Kleinstein, Patrick R Shea, Luisa M Stamm, Mark Sulkowski, David B Goldstein, Susanna Naggie
In the ION-4 trial, hepatitis C virus relapse was rare, occurring only in African American patients, 80% receiving efavirenz for human immunodeficiency virus infection. We observed no indication that CYP2B6 polymorphisms associated with increased plasma efavirenz exposure explained the relapses.
March 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Erik Mogalian, Diana M Brainard, Anu Osinusi, Lisa Moorehead, Bernard Murray, Kah Hiing John Ling, Robert Perry, Craig Curtis, Eric Lawitz, Kenneth Lasseter, Thomas Marbury, Anita Mathias
BACKGROUND: The pharmacokinetics and safety of velpatasvir, a potent pangenotypic hepatitis C virus NS5A inhibitor, were evaluated in two hepatic impairment studies: a phase I study in hepatitis C virus-uninfected subjects and a phase III study (ASTRAL-4) in hepatitis C virus-infected patients. METHODS: In the phase I study, subjects with moderate or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh-Turcotte Class B or C), and demographically matched subjects with normal hepatic function received a single dose of velpatasvir 100 mg...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
A W Singer, K R Reddy, L E Telep, A O Osinusi, D M Brainard, M Buti, A P Chokkalingam
BACKGROUND: Eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection via interferon-based treatment lowers hepatocellular carcinoma risk; some research suggests this effect extends to interferon-free treatment. AIMS: The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to examine the association of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) exposure with risk of incident liver cancer in real-world data. METHODS: From United States administrative claims data through March 31, 2017, we identified 30 183 adult HCV patients exposed to DAAs...
March 7, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Sathej Gopalakrishnan, Sven Mensing, Rajeev M Menon, Jiuhong Zha
BACKGROUND: The clinical development program of the direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combination therapy of paritaprevir (coadministered with ritonavir) and ombitasvir, with and without dasabuvir (3-DAA [3D] and 2-DAA [2D] regimens, respectively) used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection has generated a robust dataset across various dosing regimens and patient populations. OBJECTIVE: The current analysis aimed to characterize the population pharmacokinetics in patients without cirrhosis ('non-cirrhotic') and with compensated cirrhosis ('cirrhotic'), while accounting for differences across hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes (GT) 1, 2, and 4, multiple regimens (3D regimen ± ribavirin for GT1 in global studies, 2D regimen for subgenotype 1b in Japan, 2D regimen + ribavirin for GT2 in Japan, and 2D regimen + ribavirin for GT4), and ethnicities...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Omar T Sims, Pamela A Melton, Shaonin Ji
This study describes clinical characteristics of poor and uninsured patients living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) who received care from a multidisciplinary HCV clinic, reports treatment completion and cure rates, and estimates the cost of HCV medications provided at no cost to uninsured patients. A retrospective chart review was performed and identified 69 uninsured HCV patients who received medical care at Mercy Health Center, a small non-profit community clinic, between January 2008 and March 2015. Three-fourths of the patients were unemployed, a third had multiple HCV exposures, nearly half acquired HCV due to illicit drug use, and more than half had active psychiatric disorders...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Cheng Zhang, Yun Yu, Jun-Feng Yu, Bo-Dong Li, Cheng-Fan Zhou, Xiao-Dong Yang, Xian Wang, Changhao Wu, Tong Shen, Qi-Xing Zhu
Occupational trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure can induce hypersensitivity dermatitis and severe liver injury. Recently, several clinical investigations indicate that viral infection, such as human herpesvirus-6, is associated with hepatic dysfunction in patients with TCE-related generalized skin disorders. However, whether viral infection potentiates TCE-induced liver injury remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the contribution of viral infection to the development of TCE-sensitization-induced liver injury in BALB/c mice...
March 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Timothy D Girard, Jennifer L Thompson, Pratik P Pandharipande, Nathan E Brummel, James C Jackson, Mayur B Patel, Christopher G Hughes, Rameela Chandrasekhar, Brenda T Pun, Leanne M Boehm, Mark R Elstad, Richard B Goodman, Gordon R Bernard, Robert S Dittus, E W Ely
BACKGROUND: Delirium during critical illness results from numerous insults, which might be interconnected and yet individually contribute to long-term cognitive impairment. We sought to describe the prevalence and duration of clinical phenotypes of delirium (ie, phenotypes defined by clinical risk factors) and to understand associations between these clinical phenotypes and severity of subsequent long-term cognitive impairment. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective cohort study, we included adult (≥18 years) medical or surgical ICU patients with respiratory failure, shock, or both as part of two parallel studies: the Bringing to Light the Risk Factors and Incidence of Neuropsychological Dysfunction in ICU Survivors (BRAIN-ICU) study, and the Delirium and Dementia in Veterans Surviving ICU Care (MIND-ICU) study...
March 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Lu Zhao, Mengchen Shi, Lina Zhou, Hengchang Sun, Xiaona Zhang, Lei He, Zeli Tang, Caiqin Wang, Yinjuan Wu, Tingjin Chen, Mei Shang, Xinyi Zhou, Zhipeng Lin, Xuerong Li, Xinbing Yu, Yan Huang
BACKGROUND: Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is the most widespread human liver fluke in East Asia including China and Korea. Clonorchiasis as a neglected tropical zoonosis, leads to serious economic and public health burden in China. There are considerable evidences for an etiological relation between chronic clonorchiasis and liver fibrosis in human beings. Liver fibrosis is a highly conserved and over-protected response to hepatic tissue injury. Immune cells including CD4+ T cell as well as dendritic cell (DC), and pro-fibrogenic cytokines like interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-13 have been identified as vital manipulators in liver fibrogenesis...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Wafaa R Mohamed, Ahmed B M Mehany, Rasha M Hussein
The chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) pesticide induces several human disorders including hepatotoxicity. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a natural antioxidant compound found in plants and animals. The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of ALA against CPF-induced hepatotoxicity and the possible underlying molecular mechanism. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into: Normal rats received only vehicle; ALA group received ALA (10 mg/kg, i.p.); CPF group received CPF (18 mg/kg, s...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Kathy S Xue, Guoqing Qian, Shuhan Lin, Jianjia Su, Lili Tang, Wentzel C A Gelderblom, Ronald T Riley, Timothy D Phillips, Jia-Sheng Wang
Populations consuming aflatoxin (AF) and fumonisin (FN)-contaminated foods may be at increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and developmental disorders; consequently, development of intervention strategies to reduce AF/FN-induced liver disease and adverse health effects in humans could be very useful. Calcium montmorillonite clay (NovaSil) has been shown to absorb AF in vitro, in multiple animal models, as well as in human studies. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether uniform particle size NovaSil (UPSN) possessed an ability to modulate the co-carcinogenic potentials of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) and fumonisin B1 (FB1 ) in F344 rats...
February 26, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Chia-Hao Chang, Jian-Jun Huang, Chun-Yi Yeh, Cheng-Hao Tang, Lie-Yueh Hwang, Tsung-Han Lee
The fluctuation of temperature affects many physiological responses in ectothermic organisms, including feed intake, growth, reproduction, and behavior. Changes in environmental temperatures affect the acquisition of energy, whereas hepatic glycogen plays a central role in energy supply for the homeostasis of the entire body. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycogenolysis, is also an indicator of environmental stress. Here, we examined the effects of salinity on glycogen metabolism in milkfish livers under cold stress...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Parveen Rewri, Madhavi Sharma, D P Vats, Aparna Singhal
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of blood-borne viral infections (triple H: HBV-hepatitis B virus, HCV-hepatitis C virus, and HIV-human immunodeficiency virus) among cataract patients, sought possible risk associations and discuss feasibility of universal preoperative screening. Methods: This prospective, cross-sectional study enrolled consecutive patients of senile cataract. They were screened by immunoassay-based rapid diagnostic card tests for blood-borne viral infections...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Taoyang Chen, Gengsun Qian, Chunsun Fan, Yan Sun, Jinbing Wang, Peixin Lu, Xuefeng Xue, Yan Wu, Qinan Zhang, Yan Jin, Yiqian Wu, Yu Gan, Jianquan Lu, Thomas W Kensler, John D Groopman, Hong Tu
Qidong hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection cohort (QBC) is a prospective community-based study designed to investigate causative factors of primary liver cancer (PLC) in Qidong, China, where both PLC and HBV infection are highly endemic. Residents aged 20-65 years, living in seven townships of Qidong, were surveyed using hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) serum test and invited to participate in QBC from June 1991 to December 1991. A total of 852 and 786 participants were enrolled in HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative sub-cohorts in May 1992, respectively...
2018: Hepatoma Research
Faisal Kordy, Astrid Petrich, Stanley E Read, Ari Bitnun
Background: Exposure to discarded needles or other objects put children at risk for infection with blood-borne pathogens (BBP), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C. Objective: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the epidemiology, management and outcome of children following such exposures in the greater Toronto community setting. Methods: A retrospective study of children <19 years of age who had community-based exposure to objects that could contain BBP between January 2001 and December 2014...
October 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Rajneet K Oberoi, Weihan Zhao, Dilraj S Sidhu, Rolando M Viani, Roger Trinh, Wei Liu
Glecaprevir (GLE) and pibrentasvir (PIB) are direct-acting antivirals coformulated as a combination tablet for once-daily treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different methods of tablet manipulations - cutting in half, grinding into powder, or crushing- on the bioavailability of GLE and PIB relative to whole film-coated bilayer tablets. This was a Phase 1, single-dose, open-label, randomized, five-period, nonfasting, crossover study in 25 healthy adult male and female subjects...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Gopi S Gadupudi, Benjamin A Elser, Fabian A Sandgruber, Xueshu Li, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Larry W Robertson
3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), a dioxin-like PCB, elicits toxicity through a wide array of non-carcinogenic effects, including metabolic syndrome, wasting, and non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD). Previously, we reported decreases in the transcription of several enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, before the early onset of lipid accumulation. Hence, this study was aimed at understanding the impact of resultant decreases gluconeogenic enzymes on growth, weight and metabolism in the liver, upon extended exposure...
February 20, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Carol K L Lam, Peter C Church, Beth Haliburton, Kathryn Chambers, Inez Martincevic, Laura Vresk, Glenda Courtney-Martin, Robert Bandsma, Yaron Avitzur, Paul C Wales, Marialena Mouzaki
Lipid emulsions have been associated with liver injury. Newer mixed emulsions (ML), such as SMOFlipid (Fresenius Kabi, Germany), are thought to be more hepatoprotective than soybean-based emulsions (SL), such as Intralipid (Baxter). Pediatric studies comparing long-term use between the 2 are limited. This study compares the severity of hepatic injury between a prospective cohort of hospitalized children on ML (n = 20) and a historical age- and diagnosis-matched cohort of hospitalized children on SL (n = 20)...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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