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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523579/primary-care-and-hepatology-provider-perceived-barriers-to-and-facilitators-of-hepatitis-c-treatment-candidacy-and-adherence
#1
Shari S Rogal, Rory McCarthy, Andrea Reid, Keri L Rodriguez, Linda Calgaro, Krupa Patel, Molly Daley, Naudia L Jonassaint, Susan L Zickmund
BACKGROUND: Provider perceptions regarding barriers to and facilitators of hepatitis C (HCV) treatment initiation and adherence have not been fully evaluated in the interferon-free treatment era. New treatments have provided opportunities for non-specialists to treat HCV, underscoring the importance of understanding primary care provider (PCP) and specialist perspectives. METHODS: Based on qualitative sampling principles, 12 PCPs and 12 hepatology providers (HPs) from the VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System completed audio-recorded semi-structured interviews...
May 18, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520579/the-use-of-an-acellular-oxygen-carrier-in-a-human-liver-model-of-normothermic-machine-perfusion
#2
Richard W Laing, Ricky H Bhogal, Lorraine Wallace, Yuri Boteon, Desley A H Neil, Amanda Smith, Barney T F Stephenson, Andrea Schlegel, Stefan G Hübscher, Darius F Mirza, Simon C Afford, Hynek Mergental
BACKGROUND: Normothermic machine perfusion of the liver (NMP-L) is a novel technique that preserves liver grafts under near-physiological conditions whilst maintaining their normal metabolic activity. This process requires an adequate oxygen supply, typically delivered by packed red blood cells (RBC). We present the first experience using an acellular hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) Hemopure in a human model of NMP-L. METHODS: Five discarded high-risk human livers were perfused with HBOC-based perfusion fluid and matched to 5 RBC-perfused livers...
May 18, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513969/effect-of-steady-state-faldaprevir-on-pharmacokinetics-of-atorvastatin-or-rosuvastatin-in-healthy-volunteers-a-prospective-open-label-fixed-sequence-crossover-study
#3
Fenglei Huang, Kristell Marzin, Rüdiger Koenen, Klaus Peter Kammerer, Natalja Strelkowa, Mabrouk Elgadi, Anne-Marie Quinson, Sebastian Haertter
Faldaprevir (FDV) is a potent, orally administered inhibitor of hepatitis C virus protease. It inhibits multiple cytochrome P-450 enzymes and multiple membrane transporters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of steady-state faldaprevir on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a single dose of atorvastatin or rosuvastatin. In this single-center, open-label, fixed-sequence crossover study, 33 healthy adult male and female volunteers were given either atorvastatin 10 mg (n = 16) or rosuvastatin 10 mg (n = 17) on day 1...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507984/immunoprevalence-to-six-waterborne-pathogens-in-beachgoers-at-boquer%C3%A3-n-beach-puerto-rico-application-of-a-microsphere-based-salivary-antibody-multiplex-immunoassay
#4
Swinburne A J Augustine, Kaneatra J Simmons, Tarsha N Eason, Clarissa L Curioso, Shannon M Griffin, Timothy J Wade, Alfred Dufour, G Shay Fout, Ann C Grimm, Kevin H Oshima, Elizabeth A Sams, Mary Jean See, Larry J Wymer
Waterborne infectious diseases are a major public health concern worldwide. Few methods have been established that are capable of measuring human exposure to multiple waterborne pathogens simultaneously using non-invasive samples such as saliva. Most current methods measure exposure to only one pathogen at a time, require large volumes of individual samples collected using invasive procedures, and are very labor intensive. In this article, we applied a multiplex bead-based immunoassay capable of measuring IgG antibody responses to six waterborne pathogens simultaneously in human saliva to estimate immunoprevalence in beachgoers at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507824/non-invasive-radiofrequency-field-treatment-to-produce-hepatic-hyperthermia-efficacy-and-safety-in-swine
#5
Jason C Ho, Lam Nguyen, Justin J Law, Matthew J Ware, V Keshishian, N C Lara, Trac Nguyen, Steven A Curley, Stuart J Corr
The Kanzius non-invasive radio-frequency hyperthermia system (KNiRFH) has been investigated as a treatment option for hepatic hyperthermia cancer therapy. The treatment involves exposing the patient to an external high-power RF (13.56 MHz) electric field, whereby the propagating waves penetrate deep into the tumor causing targeted heating based on differential tissue dielectric properties. However, a comprehensive examination of the Kanzius system alongside any associated toxicities and its ability to induce hepatic hyperthermia in larger animal models, such as swine, are the subjects of the work herein...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505368/farnesoid-x-receptor-protects-against-low-dose-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury-through-the-taurocholate-jnk-pathway
#6
Shogo Takahashi, Naoki Tanaka, Srujana Golla, Tatsuki Fukami, Kristopher W Krausz, Marianne A Polunas, Blair C Weig, Yusuke Masuo, Cen Xie, Changtao Jiang, Frank J Gonzalez
Hepatotoxicity is of major concern for humans exposed to industrial chemicals and drugs. Disruption of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a master regulator of bile acid (BA) metabolism, enhanced the sensitivity to liver injury in mice after toxicant exposure, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the interconnection between BA metabolism, FXR, and chemically-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated using metabolomics, Fxr-null mice and hepatocytes, and adenovirus. A single low-dose intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), an inducer of acute hepatitis in mice, resulted in more severe hepatocyte damage and higher induction of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2), in Fxr-null mice...
May 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500083/hepatic-thyroid-signaling-of-heat-stressed-late-pregnant-and-early-lactating-cows
#7
Joachim Weitzel, Thorsten Viergutz, Dirk Albrecht, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Marion Schmicke, Armin Tuchscherer, Franziska Koch, Björn Kuhla
During the transition between late gestation and early lactation dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress due to the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus and the mammary gland. Additional thermal stress as occurring with rising temperatures during the ongoing climate change has further adverse implications on energy intake, metabolism and welfare. The thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated cellular signaling has a pivotal role in regulation of body temperature, energy intake and metabolic adaptation to heat...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499845/exploring-resistance-pathways-for-first-generation-ns3-4a-protease-inhibitors-boceprevir-and-telaprevir-using-bayesian-network-learning
#8
Lize Cuypers, Pieter Libin, Yoeri Schrooten, Kristof Theys, Velia Chiara Di Maio, Valeria Cento, Maja M Lunar, Frederik Nevens, Mario Poljak, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Ann Nowé, Kristel Van Laethem, Anne-Mieke Vandamme
Resistance-associated variants (RAVs) have been shown to influence treatment response to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and first generation NS3/4A protease inhibitors (PIs) in particular. Interpretation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypic drug resistance remains a challenge, especially in patients who previously failed DAA therapy and need to be retreated with a second DAA based regimen. Bayesian network (BN) learning on HCV sequence data from patients treated with DAAs could provide insight in resistance pathways against PIs for HCV subtypes 1a and 1b, in a similar way as applied before for HIV...
May 9, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492419/seroprevalence-of-antibodies-and-antigens-against-hepatitis-a-e-viruses-in-refugees-and-asylum-seekers-in-germany-in-2015
#9
Alexandra Jablonka, Philipp Solbach, Michael Wöbse, Michael P Manns, Reinhold E Schmidt, Heiner Wedemeyer, Markus Cornberg, Georg M N Behrens, Svenja Hardtke
BACKGROUND: Migration because of miscellaneous political crises in countries in the Middle East and Africa is a global challenge for whole Europe from an economic, social, and public health view. There is an urgent need to generate comprehensive, evidence-based data to expedite further screening and vaccination strategies. METHODS: A total of 604 individuals ranging in age from 2 to 68 years who enrolled at a single reception center were tested for the prevalence of serologic markers for hepatitis virus types A, B, C, D, and E (HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV), respectively...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483778/mechanisms-and-predictions-of-drug-drug-interactions-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-3-direct-acting-antiviral-3d-regimen-paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir-and-dasabuvir
#10
Mohamad Shebley, Jinrong Liu, Olga Kavetskaia, Jens Sydor, Sonia M de Morais, Volker Fischer, Marjoleen Jma Nijsen, Daniel Aj Bow
To assess drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential for the 3 direct-acting antiviral (3D) regimen of ombitasvir, dasabuvir and paritaprevir, in vitro studies profiled drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter interactions. Using mechanistic static and dynamic models, DDI potential was predicted for CYP3A, CYP2C8, UGT1A1, OATP1B1/1B3, BCRP and P-gp. Perpetrator static model DDI predictions for metabolizing enzymes were within 2-fold of the clinical observations but for drug transporters, additional PBPK modeling was necessary to achieve the same...
May 8, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483548/evaluation-of-triclosan-in-minnesota-lakes-and-rivers-part-ii-human-health-risk-assessment
#11
Lisa J Yost, Timothy R Barber, P Robinan Gentry, Michael J Bock, Jennifer L Lyndall, Marie C Capdevielle, Brian P Slezak
Triclosan, an antimicrobial compound found in consumer products, has been detected in low concentrations in Minnesota municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. This assessment evaluates potential health risks for exposure of adults and children to triclosan in Minnesota surface water, sediments, and fish. Potential exposures via fish consumption are considered for recreational or subsistence-level consumers. This assessment uses two chronic oral toxicity benchmarks, which bracket other available toxicity values...
May 5, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481460/high-efficacy-of-sofosbuvir-plus-simeprevir-in-a-large-cohort-of-spanish-cirrhotic-patients-infected-with-genotypes-1-and-4
#12
Zoe Mariño, Juan Manuel Pascasio-Acevedo, Adolfo Gallego, Moisés Diago, Carme Baliellas, Rosa Morillas, Martín Prieto, José María Moreno, Gloria Sánchez-Antolín, Mercedes Vergara, Montserrat Forné, Inmaculada Fernández, Maria Ángeles Castro, Sonia Pascual, Alexandra Gómez, Lluis Castells, Jose Luis Montero, Javier Crespo, Jose Luis Calleja, Javier García-Samaniego, Jose Antonio Carrión, Ana Del Carmen Arencibia, Alejandro Blasco, Carmen López-Núñez, Juan José Sánchez-Ruano, Francisco Gea-Rodríguez, Álvaro Giráldez, Joaquín Cabezas, Vanessa Hontangas, Xavier Torras, Jose Castellote, Manuel Romero-Gómez, Juan Turnes, Tomás de Artaza, Isidoro Narváez, Valentín Cuervas-Mons, Xavier Forns
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis C (HCV) therapy with Sofosbuvir(SOF)/ Simeprevir(SMV) in clinical trials and real-world clinical practice, showed high rates of sustained virological response (SVR) in non-cirrhotic genotype(GT)-1 and 4 patients. These results were slightly lower in cirrhotic patients. We investigated real-life effectiveness and safety of SOF/SMV with or without ribavirin(RBV) in a large cohort of cirrhotic patients. METHODS: This collaborative multicentre study included data from 968 patients with cirrhosis infected with HCV-GT1 or 4, treated with SOF/SMV±RBV in 30 centres across Spain between January-2014 and December-2015...
May 8, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480406/possible-regulation-of-ldl-receptor-by-naringenin-in-hepg2-hepatoma-cell-line
#13
Nora A Bawazeer, Hani Choudary, Mazin A Zamzami, Wesam H Abdulaal, Mustafa Zeyadi, Ashwag ALbukhari, Bruce Middleton, Said S Moselhy
BACKGROUND: High plasma concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) plays a significant role in the incidence of atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases (CHD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which citrus flavonoids, naringenin regulate the LDL receptor (LDLr) gene in human liver using the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2 as a model. RESULTS: Time-course transient transfection of HepG2 cells with luciferase reporter-gene constructs incorporating the promoters of SREBP-1a,-1c, -2 and LDLr, revealed that in lipoprotein-deficient medium (LPDM), only SREBP-1a promoter activity was increased significantly after 4h exposure to 200μM naringenin respectively...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475247/exploration-of-potential-mechanisms-of-hcv-resistance-in-exposed-uninfected-intravenous-drug-users
#14
Isaac Thom Shawa, Daniel J Felmlee, Doha Hegazy, David A Sheridan, Matthew E Cramp
A rare outcome following exposure to hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a lack of observable infection as clinically measured by HCV RNA or HCV recognising antibodies. The population who exhibit this trait is termed exposed uninfected (EU). Increasing evidence has refined characterisation of these individuals, distinct from those who become infected but spontaneously clear HCV. Study of the EU population is highly pertinent for the discovery of antiviral mechanisms of resistance that can reveal antiviral therapeutic strategies...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473740/adult-mortality-of-diseases-and-injuries-attributable-to-selected-metabolic-lifestyle-environmental-and-infectious-risk-factors-in-taiwan-a-comparative-risk-assessment
#15
Wei-Cheng Lo, Chu-Chang Ku, Shu-Ti Chiou, Chang-Chuan Chan, Chi-Ling Chen, Mei-Shu Lai, Hsien-Ho Lin
BACKGROUND: To facilitate priority-setting in health policymaking, we compiled the best available information to estimate the adult mortality (>30 years) burden attributable to 13 metabolic, lifestyle, infectious, and environmental risk factors in Taiwan. METHODS: We obtained data on risk factor exposure from nationally representative health surveys, cause-specific mortality from the National Death Registry, and relative risks from epidemiological studies and meta-analyses...
2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470676/acetyl-coa-carboxylase-inhibition-reduces-de-novo-lipogenesis-in-overweight-male-subjects-a-randomized-double-blind-crossover-study
#16
Kathryn Stiede, Wenyan Miao, Heather S Blanchette, Carine Beysen, Geraldine Harriman, H James Harwood, Heather Kelley, Rosana Kapeller, Tess Schmalbach, William F Westlin
NDI-010976, an allosteric inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACC) ACC1 and ACC2, reduces hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and favorably affects steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in animal models of fatty liver disease. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial evaluating the pharmacodynamic effects of a single oral dose of NDI-010976 on hepatic DNL in overweight and/or obese, but otherwise healthy, adult male subjects. Subjects were randomized to receive either NDI-010976 (20, 50, or 200 mg) or matching placebo in Period 1, followed by the alternate treatment in Period 2, and hepatic lipogenesis was stimulated with oral fructose administration...
May 3, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468625/adult-mortality-of-diseases-and-injuries-attributable-to-selected-metabolic-lifestyle-environmental-and-infectious-risk-factors-in-taiwan-a-comparative-risk-assessment
#17
Wei-Cheng Lo, Chu-Chang Ku, Shu-Ti Chiou, Chang-Chuan Chan, Chi-Ling Chen, Mei-Shu Lai, Hsien-Ho Lin
BACKGROUND: To facilitate priority-setting in health policymaking, we compiled the best available information to estimate the adult mortality (>30 years) burden attributable to 13 metabolic, lifestyle, infectious, and environmental risk factors in Taiwan. METHODS: We obtained data on risk factor exposure from nationally representative health surveys, cause-specific mortality from the National Death Registry, and relative risks from epidemiological studies and meta-analyses...
May 3, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466031/profile-and-prevalence-of-hbv-among-hiv-affected-individuals-attending-the-largest-public-hiv-care-center-in-india
#18
Suneeta Koli, C P Girish Kumar, V Selvaraj, R Prabu, C Chandrasekar, A S Valan, J Suria Kumar, K Raja
A large number of people living with HIV/AIDS residing in HBV endemic regions such as in India are highly susceptible to acquire co-infections like HBV but also transmit them to other due to their high risk behaviours. The present study aimed to estimate HBV prevalence and distribution of various HBV serological markers among HIV infected individuals. This cross sectional survey covered HIV infected individuals attending the largest HIV care center in India. Socio-demographic details and blood samples to screen for HBV seromarkers using commercial ELISA kits were collected...
September 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465360/male-sex-associated-with-increased-risk-of-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#19
M Katherine Charles, William O Cooper, Lauren M Jansson, Judith Dudley, James C Slaughter, Stephen W Patrick
BACKGROUND: Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a postnatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. Factors associated with development of the syndrome are poorly understood; however, infant sex may influence the risk of NAS. Our objective was to determine if infant sex was associated with the development or severity of the syndrome in a large population-based cohort. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used vital statistics and prescription, outpatient, and inpatient administrative data for mothers and infants enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program between 2009 and 2011...
May 2, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463878/men-who-have-sex-with-men-starting-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-are-at-risk-of-hcv-infection-evidence-from-the-amsterdam-prep-study
#20
Elske Hoornenborg, Roel C A Achterbergh, Maarten F Schim Van Der Loeff, Udi Davidovich, Arjan Hogewoning, Henry J C de Vries, Janke Schinkel, Maria Prins, Thijs J W van de Laar
OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been recognised as an emerging sexually transmitted infection (STI) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). However, HIV-negative MSM at high risk for HIV might also be at increased risk for HCV. We studied the HCV prevalence in HIV-negative MSM who start pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in Amsterdam. Phylogenetic analysis was used to compare HCV strains obtained from HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM. METHODS: At enrolment in the Amsterdam PrEP (AMPrEP) demonstration project, HIV-negative MSM were tested for the presence of HCV antibodies and HCV RNA...
May 1, 2017: AIDS
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