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hepatitis c exposure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346804/hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infections-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-people-who-inject-drugs-in-lahore-pakistan
#1
Sana Mansha, Muhammad Imran, Amir Miraj Ul Hussain Shah, Muhsin Jamal, Fayyaz Ahmed, Muhammad Atif, Muhammmad Saleem, Sher Zaman Safi, Zareen Fatima, Ahmed Bilal Waqar
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the major cause of the global burden of hepatitis. One of the main routes of transmission for both viruses is through exposure to infected blood, which includes sharing blood-contaminated syringes and needles. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system and results in acquired immune deficiency syndrome and opportunistic infections. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology of HBV and HCV infections among HIV-infected people who inject drugs (PWID)...
March 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346343/lifetime-exposure-to-a-constant-environment-amplifies-the-impact-of-a-fructose-rich-diet-on-glucose-homeostasis-during-pregnancy
#2
Aleida Song, Stuart Astbury, Abha Hoedl, Brent Nielsen, Michael E Symonds, Rhonda C Bell
The need to refine rodent models of human-related disease is now being recognized, in particular the rearing environment that can profoundly modulate metabolic regulation. Most studies on pregnancy and fetal development purchase and transport young females into the research facility, which after a short period of acclimation are investigated (Gen0). We demonstrate that female offspring (Gen1) show an exaggerated hyperinsulinemic response to pregnancy when fed a standard diet and with high fructose intake, which continues throughout pregnancy...
March 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344322/astragaloside-iv-attenuates-free-fatty-acid-induced-er-stress-and-lipid-accumulation-in-hepatocytes-via-ampk-activation
#3
Bing Zhou, Dan-Li Zhou, Xiao-Hong Wei, Rong-Yu Zhong, Jie Xu, Liao Sun
Although the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not completely understood, the increased influx of free fatty acids (FFAs) into the liver and the FFA-induced hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are two crucial pathogenic processes in the initiation and development of NAFLD. In this study we investigated the effects of astragaloside IV (AS-IV), a bioactive compound purified from Astragali Radix, on FFA-induced lipid accumulation in hepatocytes and elucidated the underlying mechanisms...
March 27, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337713/the-potential-role-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-in-lipid-metabolism-and-hypertension
#4
REVIEW
Zhe Huang, Aimin Xu, Bernard M Y Cheung
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 belongs to the FGF superfamily that is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, neural development, angiogenesis, and metabolism. FGF21 requires β-Klotho as a co-receptor. Tissues involved in metabolism such as the liver, adipose tissues, skeletal muscle, and pancreas express FGF21. Starvation increases hepatic expression of FGF21, which then acts centrally to increase hepatic gluconeogenesis. FGF21 also increases fatty acid oxidation. This may be relevant in cold exposure, when expression of FGF21 is induced...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329334/turquoise-i-part-1b-ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir-and-dasabuvir-with-ribavirin-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-hiv-1-coinfected-patients-on-darunavir
#5
David Wyles, Michael Saag, Rolando M Viani, Jacob Lalezari, Oluwatoyin Adeyemi, Laveeza Bhatti, Amit Khatri, Jennifer R King, Yiran B Hu, Roger Trinh, Nancy S Shulman, Peter Ruane
Background.: Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir with dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r + DSV) ± ribavirin (RBV) is approved for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 (GT1) treatment in HIV-1 coinfected patients. In healthy controls, coadministration of OBV/PTV/r + DSV + darunavir (DRV) lowered DRV trough concentration (Ctrough) levels. To assess the clinical significance of this change, TURQUOISE-I, Part 1b, evaluated the efficacy and safety of OBV/PTV/r + DSV + RBV in coinfected patients on stable, DRV-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325251/interferon-induced-thrombotic-microangiopathy-tma-analysis-and-concise-review
#6
REVIEW
Ajay Kundra, Jen Chin Wang
Interferon (IFN) has been associated with development of thrombotic microangiopathy including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). We reviewed literature from the earliest reported association in 1993, to July 2016 and found 68 cases. Analysis of this data shows: (1) Mean age at diagnosis was 47 years (95% CI, 44-50). (2) Majority of cases were seen where IFN was used for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), multiple sclerosis (MS), chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) and one case each for hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and Sezary syndrome...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322704/transmission-of-hepatitis-a-virus-through-combined-liver-small-intestine-pancreas-transplantation
#7
Monique A Foster, Lauren M Weil, Sherry Jin, Thomas Johnson, Tonya R Hayden-Mixson, Yury Khudyakov, Pallavi D Annambhotla, Sridhar V Basavaraju, Saleem Kamili, Jana M Ritter, Noele Nelson, George Mazariegos, Michael Green, Ryan W Himes, David T Kuhar, Matthew J Kuehnert, Jeffrey A Miller, Rachel Wiseman, Anne C Moorman
Although transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) through blood transfusion has been documented, transmission through organ transplantation has not been reported. In August 2015, state health officials in Texas, USA, were notified of 2 home health nurses with HAV infection whose only common exposure was a child who had undergone multi-visceral organ transplantation 9 months earlier. Specimens from the nurses, organ donor, and all organ recipients were tested and medical records reviewed to determine a possible infection source...
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296661/causal-mediation-analysis-of-survival-outcome-with-multiple-mediators
#8
Yen-Tsung Huang, Hwai-I Yang
BACKGROUND: Mediation analyses have been a popular approach to investigate the effect of an exposure on an outcome through a mediator. Mediation models with multiple mediators have been proposed for continuous and dichotomous outcomes. However, development of multi-mediator models for survival outcomes is still limited. METHODS: We present methods for multi-mediator analyses using three survival models: Aalen additive hazard models, Cox proportional hazard models, and semiparametric probit models...
March 14, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295849/efficacy-safety-and-pharmacokinetics-of-simeprevir-daclatasvir-and-ribavirin-in-patients-with-recurrent-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1b-infection-after-orthotopic-liver-transplantation-the-phase-ii-saturn-study
#9
Xavier Forns, Marina Berenguer, Kerstin Herzer, Martina Sterneck, Maria Francesca Donato, Pietro Andreone, Stefano Fagiuoli, Tomasz Cieciura, Magdalena Durlik, Jose Luis Calleja, Zoe Mariño, Umesh Shukla, Thierry Verbinnen, Oliver Lenz, Sivi Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, Monika Peeters, Katrien Janssen, Ronald Kalmeijer, Wolfgang Jessner
BACKGROUND: Recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection following liver transplantation is associated with accelerated progression to graft failure and reduced patient survival. METHODS: The Phase II, open-label SATURN study (NCT01938625) investigated the combination of simeprevir (SMV), daclatasvir (DCV), and ribavirin (RBV) administered for 24 weeks in 35 patients with recurrent HCV genotype (GT) 1b infection after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). RESULTS: High rates of both on-treatment and sustained virologic response 12 weeks after end of treatment (SVR12) were achieved in patients who were either treatment-naïve or had failed post-OLT treatment with peginterferon and RBV...
March 13, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294492/high-prevalence-of-willingness-to-use-direct-acting-antiviral-based-regimens-for-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-infection-among-hiv-hcv-coinfected-people-who-use-drugs
#10
M E Socías, L Ti, H Dong, J Shoveller, T Kerr, J Montaner, M-J Milloy
OBJECTIVES: Despite the high burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related morbidity and mortality among HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs (PWUD), uptake of interferon-based treatments for HCV infection has been negligible among this group. Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies offer an opportunity to expand treatment access among this population. The aim of this study was to explore willingness to use DAA-based regimens among HIV/HCV-coinfected PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. METHODS: Data were drawn from the AIDS Care Cohort to evaluate Exposure to Survival Services (ACCESS), a prospective cohort of HIV-positive PWUD...
March 13, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293122/toxicant-associated-steatohepatitis-%C3%A3-propos-a-case-of-benzene-exposure
#11
Daniel Benharroch, Boris Talalay
An attempted interpretation of recurrent episodes of hepatitis in a girl at ages 6 and 13 years, which were followed by an interval of 35 years of apparent good health, is reported. A subsequent transient incidence of a halothane hypersensitivity reaction at age 48 years led to the disclosure of negative hepatitis A, B and C antigenicity. A tentative diagnosis may be reached if we accept, at its face value, the statement that a toy that the child played with before each hepatitis episode carried a very high benzene content...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291783/oesophageal-heat-exchangers-with-a-diameter-of-11mm-or-14-7mm-are-equally-effective-and-safe-for-targeted-temperature-management
#12
Daniel C Schroeder, Maria Guschlbauer, Alexandra C Maul, Daniel A Cremer, Ingrid Becker, David de la Puente Bethencourt, Peter Paal, Stephan A Padosch, Wolfgang A Wetsch, Thorsten Annecke, Bernd W Böttiger, Anja Sterner-Kock, Holger Herff
BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management (TTM) is widely used in critical care settings for conditions including hepatic encephalopathy, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, meningitis, myocardial infarction, paediatric cardiac arrest, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke and sepsis. Furthermore, TTM is a key treatment for patients after out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest (OHCA). However, the optimal cooling method, which is quick, safe and cost-effective still remains controversial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273633/hepatoprotective-efficacy-of-nigella-sativa-seeds-dietary-supplementation-against-lead-acetate-induced-oxidative-damage-in-rabbit-purification-and-characterization-of-glutathione-peroxidase
#13
Ali H El-Far, Mahdy A Korshom, Abdelwahab A Mandour, Ashraf A El-Bessoumy, Yasser S El-Sayed
Lead (Pb) is a toxic ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induces hepatotoxicity in both animals and humans. The ability of Nigella saliva seeds (NSS) in ameliorating lead acetate (PbAc)-induced hepatic oxidative damage was investigated using a rabbit model. Forty New Zealand rabbits were given feed and water ad libitum. They were allocated randomly into four groups: control; PbAc (5g/L drinking water); NSS (20g/kg diet) and NSS+PbAc groups. After two months, liver samples were collected and analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) contents...
March 3, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261382/efficacy-and-safety-of-telaprevir-and-simeprevir-based-triple-therapies-for-older-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#14
Satoshi Yamagiwa, Toru Ishikawa, Nobuo Waguri, Soichi Sugitani, Hiroto Wakabayashi, Shogo Ohkoshi, Takashi Tsukishiro, Toru Takahashi, Toshiaki Watanabe, Shuji Terai
AIM: To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of telaprevir (TVR)-and simeprevir (SMV)-based triple therapies in elderly patients, specifically patients aged 66 years or older. METHODS: The present study enrolled 112 and 76 Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1b infection who were treated with a 12-wk TVR-based or SMV-based triple therapy, respectively, followed by a dual therapy that included pegylated interferon α and ribavirin (RBV) for 12 wk...
February 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260989/correlation-of-chitinase-3-like-1-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-taiwan
#15
Wayne Shih-Wei Huang, Hung-Yu Lin, Chao-Bin Yeh, Li-You Chen, Ying-Erh Chou, Shun-Fa Yang, Yu-Fan Liu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in Taiwan. Multiple risk factors, such as chronic hepatitis B or C virus infection, carcinogen exposure, cirrhosis, and various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), are considered to contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis. Chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1), a biomarker implicated in inflammation and tissue remodeling, plays a promoting role in angiogenesis, antiapoptosis, and cell proliferation. This study investigated the role of CHI3L1 SNPs in HCC susceptibility and clinicopathology...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258380/clinical-pharmacokinetics-of-dasabuvir
#16
REVIEW
Jennifer R King, Jiuhong Zha, Amit Khatri, Sandeep Dutta, Rajeev M Menon
Dasabuvir is a nonstructural (NS) 5B non-nucleoside inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) used in combination with ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir for the treatment of chronic HCV infection. It is primarily metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8, with a minor contribution from CYP3A. Biotransformation of dasabuvir forms the M1 metabolite, which retains antiviral activity. Dasabuvir exhibits linear pharmacokinetics with a terminal half-life of approximately 5-8 h, allowing for twice-daily dosing. The M1 metabolite of dasabuvir is the major metabolite in plasma and has a half-life similar to that of dasabuvir...
March 4, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253838/predictors-and-incidence-of-sexually-transmitted-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#17
Nicholas A Medland, Eric P F Chow, Catriona S Bradshaw, Timothy H R Read, Joseph J Sasadeusz, Christopher K Fairley
BACKGROUND: Sexual transmission of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in men who have sex with men (MSM) and its interaction with HIV status, sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour is poorly understood. We assessed the incidence and predictors of HCV infection in HIV positive MSM. METHODS: The electronic medical record and laboratory results from HIV positive MSM in care at a large urban public specialist HIV clinic embedded in a sexual health centre in Melbourne Australia were collected...
March 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251667/a-comparison-of-the-pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-enzalutamide-in-subjects-with-hepatic-impairment-and-matched-healthy-subjects
#18
W Krauwinkel, J Noukens, J van Dijk, S Popa, T Ouatas, M de Vries, D Phung, J Gibbons, J Mordenti, L Mateva
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Enzalutamide is an androgen receptor inhibitor approved for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Enzalutamide is highly protein bound and eliminated primarily by hepatic metabolism; therefore, it is important to understand whether enzalutamide pharmacokinetics is altered by hepatic impairment. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic data were obtained from two non-randomized, open-label, single-dose, phase 1 studies conducted in patients with mild (Child-Pugh class A, n = 6) or moderate (Child-Pugh class B, n = 8) hepatic impairment (NCT01901133) or severe (Child-Pugh class C, n = 8) hepatic impairment (NCT02138162) and their corresponding matched healthy controls; data from both studies are presented here...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249726/hepatobiliary-transport-kinetics-of-the-conjugated-bile-acid-tracer-11-c-csar-quantified-in-healthy-humans-and-patients-by-positron-emission-tomography-pet
#19
Nikolaj Worm Ørntoft, Ole Lajord Munk, Kim Frisch, Peter Ott, Susanne Keiding, Michael Sørensen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatobiliary secretion of bile acids is an important liver function. Here, we quantified the hepatic transport kinetics of conjugated bile acids using the bile acid tracer [N-methyl-(11)C]cholylsarcosine ((11)C-CSar) and PET. METHODS: Nine healthy subjects and eight patients with varying degrees of cholestasis were examined with (11)C-CSar PET and measurement of arterial and hepatic venous blood concentrations of (11)C-CSar. RESULTS: Results are presented as median (range)...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249574/reactivation-of-occult-hbv-infection-in-an-hiv-hcv-co-infected-patient-successfully-treated-with-sofosbuvir-ledipasvir-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Gabriele Fabbri, Ilaria Mastrorosa, Alessandra Vergori, Valentina Mazzotta, Carmela Pinnetti, Susanna Grisetti, Mauro Zaccarelli, Adriana Ammassari, Andrea Antinori
BACKGROUND: Reactivation of occult or inactive Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during immunosuppressant treatments is well known and widely described in literature. The same observation has been made in Hepatitis C (HCV)-infected patients previously exposed to HBV and treated with interferon-free DAA treatments. Because of common transmission routes, persons may have been exposed to HCV, HBV and HIV, but few cases have been reported in this scenario to date. Frequency of HBV reactivation in HIV/HCV co-infected patients previously exposed to HBV and treated with DAA remains unclear...
March 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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