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hepatitis c exposure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931062/factors-associated-with-hepatitis-c-prevalence-differ-by-the-stage-of-liver-fibrosis-a-cross-sectional-study-in-the-general-population-in-poland-2012-2016
#1
Magdalena Rosińska, Natalia Parda, Agnieszka Kołakowska, Paulina Godzik, Karolina Zakrzewska, Kazimierz Madaliński, Andrzej Zieliński, Anna Boguradzka, Rafał Gierczyński, Małgorzata Stępień
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is a considerable burden of hepatitis C in Europe related to the lack of prompt diagnosis. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and related risk factors of HCV infections by the stages of liver fibrosis, using non-invasive methods, to understand testing needs in Poland. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012-2016 adopting a stratified random sampling of primary health care units followed by systematic sampling of patients within each unit...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926748/association-between-infection-burden-and-adult-height
#2
Dawson W Hedges, Andrew N Berrett, Lance D Erickson, Bruce L Brown, Shawn D Gale
Although highly heritable, adult height is also associated with numerous environmental factors, including exposure to infection. Particularly in developing regions of the world, infection burden appears to slow growth during childhood. Using a large database representative of the US population, we examined associations between adult height and leg length and an infection-burden index based on past exposure to Toxocara species, Toxoplasmosis gondii, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, herpes simplex virus 1, and herpes simplex virus 2...
September 2, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926404/metabolic-health-across-the-body-mass-index-spectrum-in-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-men
#3
Jordan E Lake, Xiuhong Li, Frank J Palella, Kristine M Erlandson, Dorothy Wiley, Lawrence Kingsley, Lisa P Jacobson, Todd T Brown
OBJECTIVES: In the general population, metabolic health (MH) often declines as body mass index (BMI) increases. However, some obese individuals maintain MH. HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been associated with metabolic disturbances. We hypothesized that HIV-infected (HIV+) men on suppressive ART experience less MH than HIV-uninfected (HIV-) men across all BMI categories. DESIGN/METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis of 1018 HIV+ and 1092 HIV- men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, Poisson regression with robust variance determined associations between HIV serostatus and MH prevalence (defined as meeting 2 of 5 NCEP/ATP III metabolic syndrome criteria), adjusting for age, race, BMI category, smoking and hepatitis C virus infection status...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922657/methods-employed-in-cytofluorometric-assessment-of-eryptosis-the-suicidal-erythrocyte-death
#4
Mohamed Jemaà, Myriam Fezai, Rosi Bissinger, Florian Lang
Suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis contributes to or even accounts for anemia in a wide variety of clinical conditions, such as iron deficiency, dehydration, hyperphosphatemia, vitamin D excess, chronic kidney disease (CKD), hemolytic-uremic syndrome, diabetes, hepatic failure, malignancy, arteriitis, sepsis, fever, malaria, sickle-cell disease, beta-thalassemia, Hb-C and G6PD-deficiency, Wilsons disease, as well as advanced age. Moreover, eryptosis is triggered by a myriad of xenobiotics and endogenous substances including cytotoxic drugs and uremic toxins...
September 1, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922449/needle-syringe-programmes-and-opioid-substitution-therapy-for-preventing-hepatitis-c-transmission-in-people-who-inject-drugs
#5
REVIEW
Lucy Platt, Silvia Minozzi, Jennifer Reed, Peter Vickerman, Holly Hagan, Clare French, Ashly Jordan, Louisa Degenhardt, Vivian Hope, Sharon Hutchinson, Lisa Maher, Norah Palmateer, Avril Taylor, Julie Bruneau, Matthew Hickman
BACKGROUND: Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugsNeedle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) are the primary interventions to reduce hepatitis C (HCV) transmission in people who inject drugs. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of NSP and OST in reducing injecting risk behaviour and increasing evidence for the effectiveness of OST and NSP in reducing HIV acquisition risk, but the evidence on the effectiveness of NSP and OST for preventing HCV acquisition is weak...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921677/clinical-profile-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-a-developing-country-india
#6
Ramit Mahajan, Vandana Midha, Omesh Goyal, Varun Mehta, Vikram Narang, Kirandeep Kaur, Arshdeep Singh, Dharmatma Singh, Rishu Bhanot, Ajit Sood
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology and clinical profile of hepatitis C virus (HCV) varies worldwide and data from developing countries is sparse. AIMS: To study the clinical profile of HCV infection in a developing country in South East Asia (India). METHODS: This observational study assessed patient demographics, viral characteristics, risk factors for virus acquisition and disease characteristics in HCV patients diagnosed between January 2004 and December 2015...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916907/pharmacokinetic-study-of-piracetam-in-focal-cerebral-ischemic-rats
#7
Pankaj Paliwal, Debabrata Dash, Sairam Krishnamurthy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cerebral ischemia affects hepatic enzymes and brain permeability extensively. Piracetam was investigated up to phase III of clinical trials and there is lack of data on brain penetration in cerebral ischemic condition. Thus, knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of piracetam during ischemic condition would aid to improve pharmacotherapeutics in ischemic stroke. METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h in male Wistar rats followed by reperfusion...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902289/exposure-source-prevalence-is-associated-with-gender-in-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-from-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#8
Daniele Blasquez Olmedo, Patrícia Marraccini Precioso, António Lugdero-Correia, Guida da Silva, Angela Maria Guimarães Dos Santos, Luís Cristóvão Pôrto
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. A characterisation of the differences in exposure sources among genders will enable improvements in surveillance actions. METHODS: Exposure data were obtained for 1180 confirmed HCV cases Brazil's mandatory reporting to epidemiological surveillance, which was directed by a reference laboratory in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The Chi-square test (χ2) was used to assess the associations between exposure sources and gender...
September 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901330/a-history-of-obesity-leaves-an-inflammatory-fingerprint-in-liver-and-adipose-tissue
#9
I P Fischer, M Irmler, C W Meyer, S J Sachs, F Neff, M H de Angelis, J Beckers, M H Tschöp, S M Hofmann, S Ussar
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Dieting is a popular yet often ineffective way to lower body weight, as the majority of people regain most of their pre-dieting weights in a relatively short time. The underlying molecular mechanisms driving weight regain and the increased risk for metabolic disease are still incompletely understood. Here we investigate the molecular alterations inherited from a history of obesity. METHODS: In our model, male HFD fed obese C57BL/6J mice, were switched to a low caloric chow diet, resulting in a decline of body weight to that of lean mice...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900843/pressurized-intraperitoneal-aerosol-chemotherapy-pipac-procedure-for-non-resectable-peritoneal-carcinomatosis-with-video
#10
Jean-Baptiste Cazauran, Mohammad Alyami, Antoinette Lasseur, Isabo Gybels, Olivier Glehen, Naoual Bakrin
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is a common evolution of abdominal cancers and is associated with poor prognosis in the absence of aggressive multimodal therapy.1 Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) is a safe and innovative approach, which enhances the effect of chemotherapy 2 without reported renal/hepatic toxicity.3,4 It requires mastery of technical aspects to reduce postoperative morbidity, increase effectiveness, and prevent caregiver chemotherapy exposure...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893448/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-iranian-health-sciences-students-regarding-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infections-a-national-survey
#11
Hamidreza Karimi-Sari, Mohammad Ehsan Bayatpoor, Maryam Aftabi Khotbesara, Motahare Sadat Ebrahimi, Zahra Sattari, Paria Sattari, Narges Saberi Shakib, Hanie Taheri, Sina Abdolrahim Poor Heravi, Mahsa Dinizadeh, Pedram Vahed, Kiyana Shirsavar, Hediye Hosseini, Sara Rashvand, Dorsa Jalaei, Mahdi Azarafraz, Mohebullah Naderi, Mahtab Pourzakaria, Mohammad Firoozbakht, Mohammad Hossein Khosravi, Seyed Moayed Alavian
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization seeks to achieve the goal of viral hepatitis elimination by 2030 and lack of general knowledge about viral hepatitis seems to be a barrier to reaching this goal. This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Iranian health sciences students in 12 Iranian medical sciences universities using a national survey. METHODS: This survey was conducted during the second Hepatitis Awareness Campaign, which was held during the Iranian National Hepatitis Week (October 22-28, 2016)...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891267/needle-syringe-programmes-and-opioid-substitution-therapy-for-preventing-hcv-transmission-among-people-who-inject-drugs-findings-from-a-cochrane-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Lucy Platt, Silvia Minozzi, Jennifer Reed, Peter Vickerman, Holly Hagan, Clare French, Ashly Jordan, Louisa Degenhardt, Vivian Hope, Sharon Hutchinson, Lisa Maher, Norah Palmateer, Avril Taylor, Julie Bruneau, Matthew Hickman
AIMS: To estimate the effects of needle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST), alone or in combination, for preventing acquisition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies measuring concurrent exposure to current OST (within last 6 months) and/or NSP and HCV incidence among PWID. High NSP coverage was defined as regular NSP attendance or ≥100% coverage (receiving sufficient or greater number of needles/syringes per reported injecting frequency)...
September 11, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885693/epidemiological-and-molecular-analysis-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-manicurists-in-central-brazil
#13
Larissa Dos Santos Pereira Cavaretto, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro, Sheila Araujo Teles, Fernanda Queiroz de Souza, Wesley Marcio Cardoso, Grazielli Rocha de Rezende, Tayana Serpa Ortiz Tanaka, Larissa Melo Bandeira, Gabriela Alves Cesar, Marco Antonio Moreira Puga, Bruna Bentos Nepomuceno, Bárbara Vieira do Lago, Sonia Maria Fernandes Fitts
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the serological and molecular prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 514 manicurists/pedicurists and identify the risk factors related with this infection. METHODS: Samples were tested for HBV serological markers, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by ELISA. Anti-HBc-positive samples were tested to investigate occult hepatitis B by PCR. HBsAg-positive samples were genotyped and the viral loads of HBV-DNA positive samples were quantified...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882792/hypothermal-stress-induced-differential-expression-profiles-of-the-immune-response-gene-warm-temperature-acclimation-associated-65-kda-protein-wap65-in-the-liver-of-fresh-water-and-seawater-milkfish-chanos-chanos
#14
Chia-Hao Chang, Jing-Yun Lin, Wan-Yu Lo, Tsung-Han Lee
The milkfish (Chanos chanos), an important aquaculture species, is intolerant to cold environments. Temperature fluctuations in the environment affect the physiological response, behavior, and survival rate of the fish. The warm-temperature-acclimation associated 65-kDa protein (Wap65) of teleosts was identified after heat shock treatment and has two isoforms. Both the isoforms were involved in the induction of immune responses in fish. They showed high degree of sequence conservation with the mammalian hemopexin and had high affinity for heme, which helped in the neutralization of free-heme and its transport to the liver...
September 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882640/toxicity-of-the-main-electronic-cigarette-components-propylene-glycol-glycerin-and-nicotine-in-sprague-dawley-rats-in-a-90-day-oecd-inhalation-study-complemented-by-molecular-endpoints
#15
Blaine Phillips, Bjoern Titz, Ulrike Kogel, Danilal Sharma, Patrice Leroy, Yang Xiang, Grégory Vuillaume, Stefan Lebrun, Davide Sciuscio, Jenny Ho, Catherine Nury, Emmanuel Guedj, Ashraf Elamin, Marco Esposito, Subash Krishnan, Walter K Schlage, Emilija Veljkovic, Nikolai V Ivanov, Florian Martin, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck
While the toxicity of the main constituents of electronic cigarette (ECIG) liquids, nicotine, propylene glycol (PG), and vegetable glycerin (VG), has been assessed individually in separate studies, limited data on the inhalation toxicity of them is available when in mixtures. In this 90-day subchronic inhalation study, Sprague-Dawley rats were nose-only exposed to filtered air, nebulized vehicle (saline), or three concentrations of PG/VG mixtures, with and without nicotine. Standard toxicological endpoints were complemented by molecular analyses using transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics...
September 5, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879722/novel-and-simple-approach-to-estimating-the-actual-incidence-of-blood-and-body-fluid-exposure
#16
Nori Yoshioka, Matsuo Deguchi, Hideharu Hagiya, Masanori Kagita, Satomi Yukawa, Hiroko Tsukamoto, Hisao Yoshida, Norihisa Yamamoto, Yukihiro Akeda, Yoshiko Nabetani, Ikuhiro Maeda, Yoh Hidaka, Kazunori Tomono
BACKGROUND: There is no current way to determine the actual blood and body fluid exposure (BBFE) incidence in hospitals. We propose a simple, reliable, and widely available method for the accurate estimation of BBFE. METHODS: Data for BBFE for healthcare workers between 2006 and 2015 at Osaka University Hospital were retrospectively extracted from the electronic records. Annual positivity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody in the source individuals and overall patient population were calculated over time...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878766/chronic-exposure-to-malaria-is-associated-with-inhibitory-and-activation-markers-on-atypical-memory-b-cells-and-marginal-zone-like-b-cells
#17
Itziar Ubillos, Joseph J Campo, Pilar Requena, Maria Ome-Kaius, Sarah Hanieh, Honor Rose, Paula Samol, Diana Barrios, Alfons Jiménez, Azucena Bardají, Ivo Mueller, Clara Menéndez, Stephen Rogerson, Gemma Moncunill, Carlota Dobaño
In persistent infections that are accompanied by chronic immune activation, such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and malaria, there is an increased frequency of a phenotypically distinct subset of memory B cells lacking the classic memory marker CD27 and showing a reduced capacity to produce antibodies. However, critical knowledge gaps remain on specific B cell changes and immune adaptation in chronic infections. We hypothesized that expansion of atypical memory B cells (aMBCs) and reduction of activated peripheral marginal zone (MZ)-like B cells in constantly exposed individuals might be accompanied by phenotypic changes that would confer a tolerogenic profile, helping to establish tolerance to infections...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875397/boceprevir-and-antiretroviral-pharmacokinetic-interactions-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-persons-aids-clinical-trials-group-study-a5309s
#18
Jennifer J Kiser, Darlene Lu, Susan L Rosenkranz, Gene D Morse, Robin DiFrancesco, Kenneth E Sherman, Adeel A Butt
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of drug interactions between the hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitor boceprevir (BOC) and antiretroviral (ARV) agents in persons with HIV/HCV co-infection. METHODS: Participants taking two nucleos(t)ide analogs with either efavirenz, raltegravir, or ritonavir-boosted atazanavir, darunavir, or lopinavir underwent intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) sampling for ARV 2 weeks before (week 2) and 2 weeks after initiating BOC (week 6) and for BOC at week 6...
September 5, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865865/managing-sharps-injuries-and-other-occupational-exposures-to-hiv-hbv-and-hcv-in-the-dermatology-office
#19
REVIEW
Jerry D Brewer, Dirk M Elston, Allison T Vidimos, Stacey A Rizza, Stanley J Miller
Dermatologists and their staff are at risk for needlestick injuries and exposures to body fluids. Despite the availability of treatment to reduce the risk of blood-borne infection, many exposures go unreported. This paper identifies current recommendations and the specific details for response to occupational exposures to HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus in the dermatology office. Issues surrounding each virus are discussed individually, and a summary step-by-step algorithm of how to proceed in the event of an occupational exposure is presented...
August 30, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858702/large-scale-projects-in-the-amazon-and-human-exposure-to-mercury-the-case-study-of-the-tucuru%C3%A3-dam
#20
Gabriela P F Arrifano, Rosa C Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, María Jiménez-Moreno, Vanesa Ramírez-Mateos, Núbia F S da Silva, José Rogério Souza-Monteiro, Marcus Augusto-Oliveira, Ricardo S O Paraense, Barbarella M Macchi, José Luiz M do Nascimento, Maria Elena Crespo-Lopez
The Tucuruí Dam is one of the largest dams ever built in the Amazon. The area is not highly influenced by gold mining as a source of mercury contamination. Still, we recently noted that one of the most consumed fishes (Cichla sp.) is possibly contaminated with methylmercury. Therefore, this work evaluated the mercury content in the human population living near the Tucuruí Dam. Strict exclusion/inclusion criteria were applied for the selection of participants avoiding those with altered hepatic and/or renal functions...
August 28, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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