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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934247/the-extent-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-determines-the-severity-of-cerebral-injury-and-neurobehavioural-deficits-in-rodents
#1
Crystal A Ruff, Stuart D Faulkner, Prakasham Rumajogee, Stephanie Beldick, Warren Foltz, Jennifer Corrigan, Alfred Basilious, Shangjun Jiang, Shanojan Thiyagalingam, Jerome Y Yager, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder and spastic diplegic injury is its most frequent subtype. CP results in substantial neuromotor and cognitive impairments that have significant socioeconomic impact. Despite this, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and etiology remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, there is a need for clinically relevant injury models, which a) reflect the heterogeneity of the condition and b) can be used to evaluate new translational therapies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934194/arginine-vasopressin-ameliorates-spatial-learning-impairments-in-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-via-v1a-receptor-and-autophagy-signaling-partially
#2
C Yang, X Zhang, J Gao, M Wang, Z Yang
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is a major factor contributing to neurological disorders and cognitive decline. Autophagy activation is believed to provide both beneficial and detrimental roles during hypoxic/ischemic cellular injury. Although arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been strongly involved in many behaviors, especially in learning and memory, the effects of AVP on CCH and their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, to investigate whether there was neuroprotective effects of AVP on CCH through V1a receptor (an AVP receptor) signaling, permanent bilateral carotid arteries occlusion (two vessel occlusion, 2VO) was used to establish a rat model of CCH, and hypertonic saline (5...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933591/suppression-of-chrn-endocytosis-by-carbonic-anhydrase-car3-in-the-pathogenesis-of-myasthenia-gravis
#3
Ailian Du, Shiqian Huang, Xiaonan Zhao, Kuan Feng, Shuangyan Zhang, Jiefang Huang, Xiang Miao, Fulvio Baggi, Rennolds S Ostrom, Yanyun Zhang, Xiangjun Chen, Congfeng Xu
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction manifested as fatigable muscle weakness, which is typically caused by pathogenic autoantibodies against postsynaptic CHRN/AChR (cholinergic receptor nicotinic) in the endplate of skeletal muscle. Our previous studies have identified CA3 (carbonic anhydrase 3) as a specific protein insufficient in skeletal muscle from myasthenia gravis patients. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of how CA3 insufficiency might contribute to myasthenia gravis...
September 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931876/evidence-that-ca3-is-underling-the-comorbidity-between-pain-and-depression-and-the-co-curation-by-wu-tou-decoction-in-neuropathic-pain
#4
Chunyan Zhu, Qionghong Xu, Chao Wang, Zhiyun Mao, Na Lin
In neuropathic pain (NP), the atrophy of hippocampus contributes to the comorbidity between pain, depression and the cognitive deficits. However, the exact mechanism underling the comorbidity, the effective control of the degenerations in hippocampus and the remission of the accompanied depressive symptoms are still lacking. Wu-Tou decoction (WTD) has been prescribed for inflammatory pain for thousands of years. In this study, we manifested the effects of WTD on the pain, depression and anxiety co-curative symptoms of NP...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921856/disruption-of-perineuronal-nets-increases-the-frequency-of-sharp-wave-ripple-events
#5
ZhiYong Sun, P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Adam Caccavano, Megan Allen, Jason Balmuth, Stefano Vicini, Jian-Young Wu, Katherine Conant
Hippocampal sharp wave ripples (SWRs) represent irregularly occurring synchronous neuronal population events that are observed during phases of rest and slow wave sleep. SWR activity that follows learning involves sequential replay of training-associated neuronal assemblies and is critical for systems level memory consolidation. SWRs are initiated by CA2 or CA3 pyramidal cells and require initial excitation of CA1 pyramidal cells as well as participation of parvalbumin (PV) expressing fast spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921679/maternal-immune-activation-leads-to-increased-nnos-immunoreactivity-in-the-brain-of-postnatal-day-2-rat-offspring
#6
Jiaxian Zhang, Yu Jing, Hu Zhang, David K Bilkey, Ping Liu
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is a key arginine metabolising enzyme in the brain, and nNOS-derived nitric oxide plays an important role in regulating glutamatergic neurotransmission. Nitric oxide and its related molecules are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and human genetic studies have identified schizophrenia risk genes encoding nNOS. The present study systematically investigated how maternal immune activation (MIA; a risk factor for schizophrenia) induced by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid affected nNOS-immunoreactivity in the brain of the resulting male and female offspring at the age of postnatal day (PND) 2...
September 16, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920103/existence-of-brain-5-ht1a-5-ht2a-isoreceptor-complexes-with-antagonistic-allosteric-receptor-receptor-interactions-regulating-5-ht1a-receptor-recognition
#7
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Xiang Li, Alexander O Tarakanov, David Savelli, Manuel Narváez, Kirill Shumilov, Yuniesky Andrade-Talavera, Antonio Jimenez-Beristain, Bartosz Pomierny, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Riccardo Cuppini, Patrizia Ambrogini, Maria Lindskog, Kjell Fuxe
Studies on serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors have established that disturbances in the ascending 5-HT neuron systems and their 5-HT receptor subtypes and collateral networks to the forebrain contribute to the etiology of major depression and are targets for treatment. The therapeutic action of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors is of proven effectiveness, but the mechanisms underlying their effect are still unclear. There are many 5-HT subtypes involved; some need to be blocked (e.g., 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7), whereas others need to be activated (e...
August 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915964/decreased-use-of-spatial-pattern-separation-in-contemporary-lifestyles-may-contribute-to-hippocampal-atrophy-and-diminish-mental-health
#8
Lindy Birkel
The spatial pattern separation process has not yet been proposed as a pivotal neural activity affecting hippocampal volume, a metric of mental health. The dentate gyrus/CA3 region is increasingly implicated in hippocampal atrophy, its putative role in spatial pattern separation appears to be impaired in mental health disorders, and performance on a task indicative of pattern separation correlates with dentate gyrus/CA3 volume. Spatial pattern separation is thought to utilize the heightened neural plasticity of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus to distinguish highly similar aspects of scene so that these remain distinct in memory rather than lost...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912554/oxytocin-stimulates-hippocampal-neurogenesis-via-oxytocin-receptor-expressed-in-ca3-pyramidal-neurons
#9
Yu-Ting Lin, Chien-Chung Chen, Chiung-Chun Huang, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Kuei-Sen Hsu
In addition to the regulation of social and emotional behaviors, the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin has been shown to stimulate neurogenesis in adult dentate gyrus; however, the mechanisms underlying the action of oxytocin are still unclear. Taking advantage of the conditional knockout mouse model, we show here that endogenous oxytocin signaling functions in a non-cell autonomous manner to regulate survival and maturation of newly generated dentate granule cells in adult mouse hippocampus via oxytocin receptors expressed in CA3 pyramidal neurons...
September 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912154/inhibition-of-p25-cdk5-attenuates-tauopathy-in-mouse-and-ipsc-models-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#10
Jinsoo Seo, Oleg Kritskiy, L Ashley Watson, Scarlett J Barker, Dilip Dey, Waseem K Raja, Yuan-Ta Lin, Tak Ko, Sukhee Cho, Jay Penney, M Catarina Silva, Steven D Sheridan, Diane Lucente, James F Gusella, Bradford C Dickerson, Stephen J Haggarty, Li-Huei Tsai
Increased p25, a proteolytic fragment of the regulatory subunit p35, is known to induce aberrant activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), which is associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we showed that replacing endogenous p35 with the non-cleavable mutant p35 (Δp35) attenuated amyloidosis and improved cognitive function in a familial AD mouse model. Here, to address the role of p25/Cdk5 in tauopathy, we generated double transgenic mice by crossing mice overexpressing mutant human tau (P301S) with Δp35KI mice...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910337/mouse-repeated-electroconvulsive-seizure-ecs-does-not-reverse-social-stress-effects-but-does-induce-behavioral-and-hippocampal-changes-relevant-to-electroconvulsive-therapy-ect-side-effects-in-the-treatment-of-depression
#11
Erin M van Buel, Hannes Sigrist, Erich Seifritz, Lianne Fikse, Fokko J Bosker, Robert A Schoevers, Hans C Klein, Christopher R Pryce, Ulrich Lm Eisel
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, but can have negative side effects including amnesia. The mechanisms of action underlying both the antidepressant and side effects of ECT are not well understood. An equivalent manipulation that is conducted in experimental animals is electroconvulsive seizure (ECS). Rodent studies have provided valuable insights into potential mechanisms underlying the antidepressant and side effects of ECT. However, relatively few studies have investigated the effects of ECS in animal models with a depression-relevant manipulation such as chronic stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902436/neuroprotective-effect-of-amantadine-on-corticosterone-induced-abnormal-glutamatergic-synaptic-transmission-of-ca3-ca1-pathway-in-rat-s-hippocampal-slices
#12
Xi Xiao, Hui Zhang, Hui Wang, Qun Li, Tao Zhang
Depression is a psychiatric disorder and chronic stress, leading to altered glucocorticoid secretion patterns, is one of the factors that induce depression. Our previous study showed that amantadine significantly attenuated the impairments of synaptic plasticity and cognitive function a rat model of CUS. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism. In the present study, the whole-cell patch-clamp technique was applied to examine the protection effect of amantadine on the hippocampus CA3-CA1 pathway...
September 13, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893669/mismatch-novelty-exploration-training-enhances-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-a-tool-for-cognitive-stimulation
#13
M F Aidil-Carvalho, A J S Carmo, J A Ribeiro, D Cunha-Reis
Memory formation relies on experience-dependent changes in synaptic strength such as long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic activity, that in turn depend on previous learning experiences through metaplasticity. Novelty detection is a particularly important cognitive stimulus in this respect, and mismatch novelty has been associated with the activation of the hippocampal CA1 area in human studies. A single exposure a new location of known objects in a familiar environment, a behavioural mismatch novelty paradigm, is known to favour the expression of LTD in hippocampal CA3 to CA1 synaptic transmission in vivo, through short-term metaplasticity...
September 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890046/effect-of-multiple-neonatal-sevoflurane-exposures-on-hippocampal-apolipoprotein-e%C3%A2-levels-and-learning-and-memory-abilities
#14
Junli Jiang, Chunchun Tang, Juanjuan Ren, Chao Zhang, Liang Dong, Zhaoqiong Zhu
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane anesthesia is widely used in pediatric patients. In this study, we investigated whether early multiple exposures to sevoflurane induced cognitive dysfunction by altering the hippocampal expression of ApoE later in development. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 2.6% sevoflurane at postnatal day 7 (P7), P14, and P21 for 2 h. The ability of learning and memory was assessed using the Morris water maze at P37 and P97. The hippocampal volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at P37 and P97...
August 31, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889966/safety-evaluation-of-supratherapeutic-dose-of-maytenus-ilicifolia-mart-ex-reissek-extracts-on-fertility-and-neurobehavioral-status-of-male-and-pregnant-rats
#15
Assis Ecker, Carla Giane Loss, Stephen A Adefegha, Aline Augusti Boligon, Silvane Souza Roman
Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek is a plant commonly used in folklore medicine in the management of gastric diseases in South America. This study explores the effects of a supratherapeutic dose of aqueous and ethanol extracts of M. ilicifolia (1360 mg/kg) on fertility and neurobehavioral status in male and pregnant rats. A battery of sensory-motor developmental endpoints was carried out to assess impairments on pups of dams orally treated with the aqueous extract of M. ilicifolia during the organogenesis period of pregnancy (GD 9 through GD 14)...
September 7, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888226/modulation-of-hippocampal-neuronal-activity-by-so-ochim-tang-gamibang-in-mice-subjected-to-chronic-restraint-stress
#16
Hwa Chul Shin, Jae Ho Lee, Ki Joong Kim, Hyun Jin Shin, Jeong June Choi, Chan Yong Lee, Uk Namgung, In Chul Jung
BACKGROUND: So-ochim-tang-gamibang (SOCG) is a decoction formula which has been used to improve mental activity in traditional Korean medicine. The present study was performed to evaluate whether the treatment of SOCG was involved in activating hippocampal neurons in mice which were subjected to chronic restraint stress (CRS). METHODS: Mice were subjected to CRS for 2 weeks to induce depressive-like behaviors. SOCG was orally administered for the same period. mRNA expression in the hippocampus was analyzed by RT-PCR...
September 9, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887184/chronic-fluoxetine-administration-enhances-synaptic-plasticity-and-increases-functional-dynamics-in-hippocampal-ca3-ca1-synapses
#17
Popova Dina, Eero Castren, Tomi Taira
Recent studies demonstrate that chronic administration of the widely used antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX) promotes neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity in the adult hippocampus, cortex and amygdala. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects and how are they related to the clinical antidepressant efficacy are still poorly understood. We show here that chronic FLX administration decreases hippocampus-associated neophobia in naïve mice. In parallel, electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal CA3-CA1 circuitry revealed that the FLX treatment resulted in increased short- and long-term plasticity likely attributed to changes in presynaptic function...
September 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887132/structure-and-diversity-of-human-dendritic-spines-evidenced-by-a-new-three-dimensional-reconstruction-procedure-for-golgi-staining-and-light-microscopy
#18
Roman Reberger, Aline Dall'Oglio, Claudio R Jung, Alberto A Rasia-Filho
BACKGROUND: Different approaches aim to unravel detailed morphological features of neural cells. Dendritic spines are multifunctional units that reflect cellular connectivity, synaptic strength and plasticity. NEW METHOD: A novel three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction procedure is introduced for visualization of dendritic spines from human postmortem brain tissue using brightfield microscopy. The segmentation model was based on thresholding the intensity values of the dendrite spine image along 'z' stacks...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886753/depletion-of-adult-neurogenesis-exacerbates-cognitive-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease-by-compromising-hippocampal-inhibition
#19
Carolyn Hollands, Matthew Kyle Tobin, Michael Hsu, Kianna Musaraca, Tzong-Shiue Yu, Rachana Mishra, Steven G Kernie, Orly Lazarov
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanism underlying progressive memory loss in Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood. Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is a dynamic process that continuously changes the dentate gyrus and is important for hippocampal plasticity, learning and memory. However, whether impairments in neurogenesis affect the hippocampal circuitry in a way that leads to memory deficits characteristic of Alzheimer's disease is unknown. Controversial results in that regard were reported in transgenic mouse models of amyloidosis...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876357/phosphate-solubilization-by-endophytic-bacteria-isolated-from-banana-trees
#20
Amanda D M Matos, Izabela C P Gomes, Silvia Nietsche, Adelica A Xavier, Wellington S Gomes, José A Dos Santos, Marlon C T Pereira
Forty isolates of endophytic bacteria isolated from banana tree roots were assessed as to their capacity to solubilize phosphate in a solid culture medium supplemented with different inorganic and one organic source of phosphorus. The amount of phosphorus (P) in each liquid medium was quantified, and an indirect assessment of acid phosphatase activity was performed. All assays had a fully randomized design, with three repetitions. Approximately 67.5% of the 40 isolates assessed in solid medium solubilized phosphorus from tricalcium phosphate and 7...
September 4, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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