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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342999/hippocampal-ca3-dentate-gyrus-volume-uniquely-linked-to-improvement-in-associative-memory-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#1
Ana M Daugherty, Robert Flinn, Noa Ofen
Associative memory develops into adulthood and critically depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a complex structure composed of subfields that are functionally-distinct, and anterior-posterior divisions along the length of the hippocampal horizontal axis that may also differ by cognitive correlates. Although each of these aspects has been considered independently, here we evaluate their relative contributions as correlates of age-related improvement in memory. Volumes of hippocampal subfields (subiculum, CA1-2, CA3-dentate gyrus) and anterior-posterior divisions (hippocampal head, body, tail) were manually segmented from high-resolution proton density-weighted images in a sample of healthy participants (age 8-25 years)...
March 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342259/age-related-impairments-in-discriminating-perceptually-similar-objects-parallel-those-observed-in-humans
#2
Sarah A Johnson, Sean M Turner, Lindsay A Santacroce, Katelyn N Carty, Leila Shafiq, Jennifer L Bizon, Andrew P Maurer, Sara N Burke
The ability to accurately remember distinct episodes is supported by high-level sensory discrimination. Performance on mnemonic similarity tasks, which test high-level discrimination, declines with advancing age in humans and these deficits have been linked to altered activity in hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus. Lesion studies in animal models, however, point to the perirhinal cortex as a brain region critical for sensory discriminations that serve memory. Reconciliation of the contributions of different regions within the cortical-hippocampal circuit requires the development of a discrimination paradigm comparable to the human mnemonic similarity task that can be used in rodents...
March 25, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341233/neonatal-reflexes-and-behavior-in-hypertensive-rats-of-isiah-strain
#3
Diana S Ragaeva, Maria A Tikhonova, Olga M Petrova, Tatjana N Igonina, Irina N Rozkova, Eugeny Yu Brusentsev, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Sergey Ya Amstislavsky
Hypertension is one of the most common diseases in humans, and there is a special concern on the consequences of maternal hypertensive conditions for the health of newborns. An inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension (ISIAH) rat strain has been selected but only a few studies have addressed behavior in these rats. Body weight, neurodevelopmental reflexes, and neuronal density in the hippocampus were compared in ISIAH and normotensive WAG rats during their suckling period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), adult rat performance in the open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM), and novel object recognition (NOR) tests were evaluated at the age of 12-14weeks old...
March 21, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334103/neuronal-and-peripheral-pentraxins-modify-glutamate-release-and-may-interact-in-blood-brain-barrier-failure
#4
Damian M Cummings, Tiffanie A Benway, Hinze Ho, Angelo Tedoldi, Monica M Fernandes Freitas, Lion Shahab, Christina E Murray, Angela Richard-Loendt, Sebastian Brandner, Tammaryn Lashley, Dervis A Salih, Frances A Edwards
Neuronal pentraxin 1 (NPTX1) has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, being present in and around dystrophic neurons in plaques, affecting glutamatergic transmission postsynaptically and mediating effects of amyloidβ. Here, we confirm the presence of NPTX1 around plaques in postmortem Alzheimer's disease brain and report that acutely applied human NPTX1 increases paired-pulse ratio at mouse CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses, indicating a decrease in glutamate release. In contrast, chronic exposure to NPTX1, NPTX2, or NPTX receptor decreases paired-pulse ratio, mimicking some of the earliest changes in mice expressing familial Alzheimer's disease genes...
February 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331203/the-role-of-axonal-kv1-channels-in-ca3-pyramidal-cell-excitability
#5
Sylvain Rama, Mickael Zbili, Aurélie Fékété, Mónica Tapia, Maria José Benitez, Norah Boumedine, Juan José Garrido, Dominique Debanne
Axonal ion channels control spike initiation and propagation along the axon and determine action potential waveform. We show here that functional suppression of axonal Kv1 channels with local puff of dendrotoxin (DTx), laser or mechanical axotomy significantly increased excitability measured in the cell body. Importantly, the functional effect of DTx puffing or axotomy was not limited to the axon initial segment but was also seen on axon collaterals. In contrast, no effects were observed when DTx was puffed on single apical dendrites or after single dendrotomy...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324222/bdnf-mrna-splice-variants-differentially-impact-ca1-and-ca3-dendrite-complexity-and-spine-morphology-in-the-hippocampus
#6
Kristen R Maynard, John W Hobbs, Mahima Sukumar, Alisha S Kardian, Dennisse V Jimenez, Robert J Schloesser, Keri Martinowich
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an activity-dependent neurotrophin critical for neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus. BDNF is encoded by multiple transcripts with alternative 5' untranslated regions (5'UTRS) that display activity-induced targeting to distinct subcellular compartments. While individual Bdnf 5'UTR transcripts influence dendrite morphology in cultured hippocampal neurons, it is unknown whether Bdnf splice variants impact dendrite arborization in functional classes of neurons in the intact hippocampus...
March 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323446/leguminosae-native-nodulating-bacteria-from-a-gold-mine-as-contaminated-soil-multi-resistance-to-trace-elements-and-possible-role-in-plant-growth-and-mineral-nutrition
#7
Wesley de M Rangel, Silvia M de Oliveira Longatti, Paulo A A Ferreira, Daiane S Bonaldi, Amanda A Guimarães, Sofie Thijs, Nele Weyens, Jaco Vangronsveld, Fatima M S Moreira
Efficient N2-fixing Leguminosae nodulating bacteria resistant to As may facilitate plant growth on As-contaminated sites. In order to identify bacteria possessing these features, 24 strains were isolated from nodules of the trap species Crotalaria spectabilis (12) and Stizolobium aterrimum (12) growing on an As-contaminated gold mine site. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that most of the strains belonged to the group of α-Proteobacteria, being representatives of the genera Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, Inquilinus, Labrys, Bosea, Starkeya and Methylobacterium...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321182/sparse-and-specific-coding-during-information-transmission-between-co-cultured-dentate-gyrus-and-ca3-hippocampal-networks
#8
Daniele Poli, Srikanth Thiagarajan, Thomas B DeMarse, Bruce C Wheeler, Gregory J Brewer
To better understand encoding and decoding of stimulus information in two specific hippocampal sub-regions, we isolated and co-cultured rat primary dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons within a two-chamber device with axonal connectivity via micro-tunnels. We tested the hypothesis that, in these engineered networks, decoding performance of stimulus site information would be more accurate when stimuli and information flow occur in anatomically correct feed-forward DG to CA3 vs. CA3 back to DG. In particular, we characterized the neural code of these sub-regions by measuring sparseness and uniqueness of the responses evoked by specific paired-pulse stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321180/multiple-kinases-involved-in-the-nicotinic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-in-the-rat-hippocampal-ca3-area
#9
JianGang Wang, XiaoLong He, Fangli Guo, XiangLin Cheng, Yali Wang, XiaoFang Wang, ZhiWei Feng, Martin Vreugdenhil, ChengBiao Lu
Neuronal synchronization at gamma band frequency (20-80 Hz, γ oscillations) is closely associated with higher brain function, such as learning, memory and attention. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are highly expressed in the hippocampus, and modulate hippocampal γ oscillations, but the intracellular mechanism underlying such modulation remains elusive. We explored multiple kinases by which nicotine can modulate γ oscillations induced by kainate in rat hippocampal area CA3 in vitro. We found that inhibitors of cyclic AMP dependent kinase (protein kinase A, PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) receptors, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK), each individually could prevent the γ oscillation-enhancing effect of 1 μM nicotine, whereas none of them affected baseline γ oscillation strength...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319408/turmeric-extract-inhibits-apoptosis-of-hippocampal-neurons-of-trimethyltin-exposed-rats
#10
S Yuliani, S Widyarini, Mustofa, G Partadiredja
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to reveal the possible antiapoptotic effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) on the hippocampal neurons of rats exposed to trimethyltin (TMT). BACKGROUND: Oxidative damage in the hippocampus can induce the apoptosis of neurons associated with the pathogenesis of dementiaMETHODS. The ethanolic turmeric extract and a citicoline (as positive control) solution were administered to the TMT-exposed rats for 28 days. The body weights of rats were recorded once a week...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317853/terbium-ion-doping-in-ca3co4o9-a-step-towards-high-performance-thermoelectric-materials
#11
Shrikant Saini, Haritha Sree Yaddanapudi, Kun Tian, Yinong Yin, David Magginetti, Ashutosh Tiwari
The potential of thermoelectric materials to generate electricity from the waste heat can play a key role in achieving a global sustainable energy future. In order to proceed in this direction, it is essential to have thermoelectric materials that are environmentally friendly and exhibit high figure of merit, ZT. Oxide thermoelectric materials are considered ideal for such applications. High thermoelectric performance has been reported in single crystals of Ca3Co4O9. However, for large scale applications single crystals are not suitable and it is essential to develop high-performance polycrystalline thermoelectric materials...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306235/gcib-tof-sims-high-resolution-imaging-of-cardiolipin-speciation-in-the-brain-identification-of-molecular-losses-after-traumatic-injury
#12
Hua Tian, Louis J Sparvero, Andrew A Amoscato, Anna Bloom, Hulya Bayir, Valerian E Kagan, Nicholas Winograd
Gas cluster ion beam secondary ion mass spectrometry (GCIB-SIMS) has shown the full potential of mapping intact lipids in biological systems with better than 10 µm lateral resolution. This study investigated further the capability of GCIB-SIMS in imaging high-mass signals from intact cardiolipin (CL) and gangliosides in normal brain and the effect of a controlled cortical impact model (CCI) of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on their distribution. A combination of enzymatic and chemical treatments was employed to suppress the signals from the most abundant phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)) and enhance the signals from the low abundance CLs and gangliosides to allow their GCIB-SIMS detection at 8 and 16 µm spatial resolution...
March 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302213/-effects-of-embryonic-lead-exposure-on-motor-function-and-balance-ability-in-offspring-rats-and-possible-mechanisms
#13
Jian-Ping Zhou, Fan Wang, Xue-Ying Wang, Yong-Sheng Jiang, Xiao-Qing Yi
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of embryonic lead exposure on motor function and balance ability in offspring rats and the possible mechanisms. METHODS: An animal model of embryonic lead exposure was prepared with the use of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats freely drinking 0.1% (low-dose group, LG) or 0.2% (high-dose group, HG) lead acetate solution. A normal control group (NG) was also set. The male offspring rats of these pregnant rats were included in the study, consisting of 12 rats in the NG group, 10 rats in the LG group, and 9 rats in the HG group...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292834/functional-connectivity-of-multiple-brain-regions-required-for-the-consolidation-of-social-recognition-memory
#14
Toshiyuki Tanimizu, Justin W Kenney, Emiko Okano, Kazune Kadoma, Paul W Frankland, Satoshi Kida
Social recognition memory is an essential and basic component of social behavior to discriminate familiar and novel animals/humans. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for social recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of social recognition memory at the molecular and anatomic levels remain unknown. Here, we show a brain network necessary for the generation of social recognition memory in mice. A mouse genetic study showed that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription is required for the formation of social recognition memory...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279355/entorhinal-ca3-dual-input-control-of-spike-timing-in-the-hippocampus-by-theta-gamma-coupling
#15
Antonio Fernández-Ruiz, Azahara Oliva, Gergő A Nagy, Andrew P Maurer, Antal Berényi, György Buzsáki
Theta-gamma phase coupling and spike timing within theta oscillations are prominent features of the hippocampus and are often related to navigation and memory. However, the mechanisms that give rise to these relationships are not well understood. Using high spatial resolution electrophysiology, we investigated the influence of CA3 and entorhinal inputs on the timing of CA1 neurons. The theta-phase preference and excitatory strength of the afferent CA3 and entorhinal inputs effectively timed the principal neuron activity, as well as regulated distinct CA1 interneuron populations in multiple tasks and behavioral states...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274820/histamine-induces-kcnq-channel-dependent-gamma-oscillations-in-rat-hippocampus-via-activation-of-the-h1-receptor
#16
Richard Andersson, Dagmar Galter, Daniela Papadia, André Fisahn
Histamine is an aminergic neurotransmitter, which regulates wakefulness, arousal and attention in the central nervous system. Histamine receptors have been the target of efforts to develop pro-cognitive drugs to treat disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Cognitive functions including attention are closely associated with gamma oscillations, a rhythmical electrical activity pattern in the 30-80 Hz range, which depends on the synchronized activity of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory fast-spiking interneurons...
March 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269741/preparation-of-orthophosphate-glasses-in-the-mgo-cao-sio2-nb2o5-p2o5-system
#17
Sungho Lee, Kyosuke Ueda, Takayuki Narushima, Takayoshi Nakano, Toshihiro Kasuga
BACKGROUND: Niobia/magnesia-containing orthophosphate invert glasses were successfully prepared in our earlier work. Orthophosphate groups in the glasses were cross-linked by tetrahedral niobia (NbO4) and magnesia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to prepare calcium orthophosphate invert glasses containing magnesia and niobia, incorporating silica, and to evaluate their structures and releasing behaviors. METHOD: The glasses were prepared by melt-quenching, and their structures and ion-releasing behaviors were evaluated...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268901/a-flexible-parylene-probe-for-in-vivo-recordings-from-multiple-subregions-of-the-rat-hippocampus
#18
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman, Min-Chi Hsiao, Kee Scholten, Ellis Meng, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song
The hippocampus is crucial to the formation of long-term memory and declarative memory. It is divided into three sub-fields the CA1, the CA3 and the DG. To understand the neuronal circuitry within the hippocampus and to study the role of the hippocampus in memory function requires the collection of neural activities from multiple subregions of the hippocampus simultaneously. Micro-wire electrode arrays are commonly used as an interface with neural systems. However, recording from multiple deep brain regions with curved anatomical structures such as the thin cell body layers of the hippocampus requires the micro-wires to be arranged into a highly accurate, complex layout that is difficult to fabricated manually...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268639/decoding-memory-features-from-hippocampal-spiking-activities-using-sparse-classification-models
#19
Dong Song, Robert E Hampson, Brian S Robinson, Vasilis Z Marmarelis, Sam A Deadwyler, Theodore W Berger
To understand how memory information is encoded in the hippocampus, we build classification models to decode memory features from hippocampal CA3 and CA1 spatio-temporal patterns of spikes recorded from epilepsy patients performing a memory-dependent delayed match-to-sample task. The classification model consists of a set of B-spline basis functions for extracting memory features from the spike patterns, and a sparse logistic regression classifier for generating binary categorical output of memory features...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267433/hemi-ovariectomies-promote-a-decrease-in-the-dendritic-lengths-of-ca1-and-ca3-neurons-a-dimorphic-effect-of-the-cerebral-hemispheres
#20
Dolores Adriana Bravo Durán, Adriana Berenice Silva Gómez, Ana Coral Gutiérrez Rosas, Angélica Trujillo
Certain structures of the central nervous system (CNS) are morphologically and functionally related to the ovaries. Ovariectomy has been used to study the functional role of the ovaries in the CNS, as well as the role of the CNS on the reproductive system. In the present study, the effects of left and right hemi-ovariectomy on the morphology of pyramidal neurons from the CA1 and CA3 regions of the ventral hippocampus were studied. During the estrus phase, female Long-Evans rats underwent either left and right hemi-ovariectomies or left and right sham surgeries...
March 3, 2017: Brain Research
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