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Xiaoyong Huang, Shaoying Wang, Bin Li, Qi Sun, Heng Guo
In this work, we reported on high-brightness Eu3+ -activated Ca3 Lu(AlO)3 (BO3 )4 (CLAB) red-emitting phosphors. Under 397 nm excitation, the CLAB:Eu3+ phosphors showed intense red emissions at around 621 nm with CIE coordinates of (0.657, 0.343). The optimal doping concentration of Eu3+ ions was found to be 30 mol. %, and the CLAB:0.3Eu3+ sample possessed high-color purity of 93% and ultra-high internal quantum efficiency as great as 98.5%. Importantly, the CLAB:0.3Eu3+ also had good thermal stability. Finally, a white-light-emitting diode (WLED) lamp with good color-rendering index was fabricated by using a 365 nm ultraviolet chip and the phosphor blends of CLAB:0...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Yun Zhou, Bjørnar Hassel, Tore Eid, Niels Christian Danbolt
The excitatory amino acid transporter type 2 (EAAT2) represents the major mechanism for removal of extracellular glutamate. In the hippocampus, there is some EAAT2 in axon-terminals, whereas most of the protein is found in astroglia. The functional importance of the neuronal EAAT2 is unknown, and it is debated whether EAAT2 expressing nerve terminals are present in other parts of the brain. Here we selectively deleted the EAAT2 gene in neurons (by crossing EAAT2-flox mice with synapsin 1-Cre mice in the C57B6 background)...
March 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Nannan Guo, Marta E Soden, Charlotte Herber, Michael TaeWoo Kim, Antoine Besnard, Paoyan Lin, Xiang Ma, Constance L Cepko, Larry S Zweifel, Amar Sahay
Memories become less precise and generalized over time as memory traces reorganize in hippocampal-cortical networks. Increased time-dependent loss of memory precision is characterized by an overgeneralization of fear in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or age-related cognitive impairments. In the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), memories are thought to be encoded by so-called 'engram-bearing' dentate granule cells (eDGCs). Here we show, using rodents, that contextual fear conditioning increases connectivity between eDGCs and inhibitory interneurons (INs) in the downstream hippocampal CA3 region...
March 12, 2018: Nature Medicine
Ji-Kyung Choi, Grewo Lim, Iris Y Chen, Bruce G Jenkins
Methamphetamine (meth), and other psychostimulants such as cocaine, present a persistent problem for society with chronic users being highly prone to relapse. We show, in a chronic methamphetamine administration model, that discontinuation of drug for more than a week produces much larger changes in overall meth-induced brain connectivity and cerebral blood volume (CBV) response than changes that occur immediately following meth administration. Areas showing the largest changes were hippocampal, limbic striatum and sensorimotor cortical regions as well as brain stem areas including the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg) and pontine nuclei - regions known to be important in mediating reinstatement of drug-taking after abstinence...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Vera Flasbeck, Erika Atucha, Nozomu H Nakamura, Motoharu Yoshida, Magdalena M Sauvage
For the past decades, CA3 was considered as a single functional entity. However, strong differences between the proximal (close to the dentate gyrus) and the distal (close to CA2) parts of CA3 in terms of connectivity patterns, gene expression and electrophysiological properties suggest that it is not the case. We recently showed that proximal CA3 (together with distal CA1) preferentially deals with non-spatial information [1]. In contrast to proximal CA3, distal CA3 mainly receives and predominantly projects to spatially tuned areas...
March 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Zachariah M Reagh, Jessica A Noche, Nicholas J Tustison, Derek Delisle, Elizabeth A Murray, Michael A Yassa
The entorhinal cortex (EC) is among the earliest brain areas to deteriorate in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the extent to which functional properties of the EC are altered in the aging brain, even in the absence of clinical symptoms, is not understood. Recent human fMRI studies have identified a functional dissociation within the EC, similar to what is found in rodents. Here, we used high-resolution fMRI to identify a specific hypoactivity in the anterolateral EC (alEC) commensurate with major behavioral deficits on an object pattern separation task in asymptomatic older adults...
March 7, 2018: Neuron
Mehdi Borjkhani, Fariba Bahrami, Mahyar Janahmadi
According to a broad range of research, opioids consumption can lead to pathological memory formation. Experimental observations suggested that hippocampal glutamatergic synapses play an indispensable role in forming such a pathological memory. It has been suggested that memory formation at the synaptic level is developed through LTP induction. Here, we attempt to computationally indicate how morphine induces pathological LTP at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses. Then, based on simulations, we will suggest how one can prevent this type of pathological LTP...
2018: PloS One
A Borreca, V Latina, V Corsetti, S Middei, S Piccinin, F Della Valle, R Bussani, M Ammassari-Teule, R Nisticò, P Calissano, G Amadoro
The NH2 tau 26-44 aa (i.e., NH2 htau) is the minimal biologically active moiety of longer 20-22-kDa NH2 -truncated form of human tau-a neurotoxic fragment mapping between 26 and 230 amino acids of full-length protein (htau40)-which is detectable in presynaptic terminals and peripheral CSF from patients suffering from AD and other non-AD neurodegenerative diseases. Nevertheless, whether its exogenous administration in healthy nontransgenic mice is able to elicit a neuropathological phenotype resembling human tauopathies has not been yet investigated...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Stephanie Hartmann, Fang Zheng, Michele Constanze Kyncl, Sandra Karch, Kerstin Voelkl, Benedikt Zott, Carla D'Avanzo, Selene Lomoio, Giuseppina Tesco, Doo Yeon Kim, Christian Alzheimer, Tobias Huth
β-Secretase BACE1 is deemed a major culprit in Alzheimer's disease, but accumulating evidence indicates that there is more to the enzyme than driving the amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein. For example, BACE1 has emerged as an important regulator of neuronal activity through proteolytic and, most unexpectedly, also through non-proteolytic interactions with several ion channels. Here, we identify and characterize the voltage-gated K+ channel 3.4 as a new and functionally relevant interaction partner of BACE1...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Bence Kutus, Csilla Dudás, Gábor Peintler, István Pálinkó, Pál Sipos
The calcium sugar carboxylate interactions in hyperalkaline solutions are of relevance in radioactive waste repositories and in certain industrial processes. The complex formation between L-gulonate and Ca2+ ions was studied in strongly alkaline medium at 25 °C and 1 M ionic strength and was compared with previous results reported for D-gluconate and D-heptagluconate. The deprotonation of the ligand was confirmed by potentiometric and13 C NMR spectroscopic measurements. Pronounced pH effects were seen in the presence of Ca2+ indicating strong complex formation...
February 23, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Gunes Unal, Michael G Crump, Tim J Viney, Tímea Éltes, Linda Katona, Thomas Klausberger, Peter Somogyi
Medial septal GABAergic neurons of the basal forebrain innervate the hippocampus and related cortical areas, contributing to the coordination of network activity, such as theta oscillations and sharp wave-ripple events, via a preferential innervation of GABAergic interneurons. Individual medial septal neurons display diverse activity patterns, which may be related to their termination in different cortical areas and/or to the different types of innervated interneurons. To test these hypotheses, we extracellularly recorded and juxtacellularly labeled single medial septal neurons in anesthetized rats in vivo during hippocampal theta and ripple oscillations, traced their axons to distant cortical target areas, and analyzed their postsynaptic interneurons...
March 3, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Hongsheng Huang, Xiaoqin Feng, Tianbao Chen, Ying Xiong, Feng Zhang
Novel Ca2 B2 O5 ·H2 O:Eu3+ nanotubes, constructed with nanobelts, were prepared using a hydrothermal method. The Ca3 (BO3 )2 :Eu3+ nanobelts with a thickness of about 100 nm were made for the first time using a two-step hydrothermal process with Ca2 B2 O5 ·H2 O:Eu3+ as the precursor. The samples were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, thermogravimetry differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The relationship between Ca3 (BO3 )2 :Eu3+ and Ca2 B2 O5 ·H2 O:Eu3+ was also studied...
March 2, 2018: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Xu Chu, Shuhu Zhou, Ran Sun, Lin Wang, Chunye Xing, Ruqing Liang, Qingxia Kong
Patients with diabetes mellitus are easy to experience diabetic encephalopathy (DE) and other cognition dysfunction, whereas the neural alterations in developing this disease are unknown yet. Chrysophanol (CHR) is one of traditional Chinese medicine which was reported to show protective effects in cognition dysfunction and inflammatory in previously studies. In this current study, whether CHR protects learning and memory dysfunctions induced by diabetes disease or not and underlying mechanisms were studied...
March 1, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Amy E Perkins, Michelle K Piazza, Terrence Deak
Aging is associated with a substantial decline in the expression of social behavior, as well as increased neuroinflammation. Since immune activation and subsequent increased expression of cytokines can suppress social behavior in young rodents, we examined age and sex differences in microglia within brain regions critical to social behavior regulation (PVN, BNST, and MEA) as well as in the hippocampus. Adult (3-month) and aged (18-month) male and female F344 (N = 26, n = 5-8/group) rats were perfused and Iba-1 immunopositive microglia were assessed using unbiased stereology and optical density...
February 26, 2018: Neuroscience
Heather Nichol, Bénédicte Amilhon, Frédéric Manseau, Saishree Badrinarayanan, Sylvain Williams
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha2 subunit (Chrna2) is a specific marker for oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) interneurons in the dorsal CA1 region of the hippocampus. It was recently shown using a Chrna2-cre mice line that OLM interneurons can modulate entorhinal cortex and CA3 inputs and may therefore have an important role in gating, encoding, and recall of memory. In this study, we have used a combination of electrophysiology and optogenetics using Chrna2-cre mice to determine the role of Chrna2 interneurons in the subiculum area, the main output region of the hippocampus...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Soheila Samiee, Maxime Lévesque, Massimo Avoli, Sylvain Baillet
Polyrhythmic coupling of oscillatory components in electrophysiological signals results from the interactions between neuronal sub-populations within and between cell assemblies. Since the mechanisms underlying epileptic disorders should affect such interactions, abnormal level of cross-frequency coupling is expected to provide a signal marker of epileptogenesis. We measured phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), a form of cross-frequency coupling between neural oscillations, in a rodent model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy...
February 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Andrea Kwakowsky, Beatriz Calvo-Flores Guzmán, Madhavi Pandya, Clinton Turner, Henry J Waldvogel, Richard L Faull
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA type A receptors (GABAA Rs) are severely affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the distribution and subunit composition of GABAA Rs in the AD brain are not well understood. This is the first comprehensive study to show brain region- and cell layer-specific alterations in the expression of the GABAA R subunits α1-3, α5, β1-3 and γ2 in the human AD hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus (STG)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Pingping Zhu, Jialing Li, Liting Zhang, Zhanrong Liang, Bin Tang, Wei-Ping Liao, Yong-Hong Yi, Tao Su
Kv1.1, a Shaker homologue potassium channel, plays a critical role in homeostatic regulation of neuronal excitability. Aberrations in the functional properties of Kv1.1 have been implicated in several neurological disorders featured by neuronal hyperexcitability. Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is characterized by hyperexcitability in neural network and intrinsic membrane properties. The Kv1.1 channel provides an intriguing mechanistic candidate for FXS. We investigated the development-related expression pattern of the Kv1...
February 23, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Xinyuan Yu, Tao Xu, Shu Ou, Jinxian Yuan, Jing Deng, Rong Li, Juan Yang, Xi Liu, Qi Li, Yangmei Chen
Endophilin A1 is a member of the endophilin A family and is primarily expressed in the central nervous system. Endophilin A1 can mediate neuronal excitability by regulating neuronal synaptic plasticity, which indicates that the protein may be involved in epilepsy. However, to date, its role in epilepsy remains unclear. To explore the role of endophilin A1 in epilepsy, we aimed to investigate the expression patterns of endophilin A1 in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled epileptic mouse model and to conduct behavioral and electrophysiological analyses after lentivirus-mediated knockdown of endophilin A1 in the hippocampus of epileptic mice...
February 23, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Carolina Tecuatl, Gabriel Herrrera-López, Alejandro Martín-Ávila, Bocheng Yin, Stephen Weber, Germán Barrionuevo, Emilio J Galván
The selective vulnerability of hippocampal area CA1 to ischemia-induced injury is a well-known phenomenon. However, the cellular mechanisms that confer resistance to area CA3 against ischemic damage remain elusive. Here, we show that oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD-RP), an in vitro model that mimic the pathological conditions of the ischemic stroke, increases the phosphorylation level of Tropomyosin-receptor-kinase B (TrkB) in area CA3. Slices preincubated with Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) exhibited reduced depression of the electrical activity triggered by OGD-RP...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
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