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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168009/dietary-lipophilic-iron-accelerates-regional-brain-iron-load-in-c57bl6-mice
#1
Douglas G Peters, Carson J Purnell, Michael P Haaf, Qing X Yang, James R Connor, Mark D Meadowcroft
Impaired brain iron homeostatic mechanisms, independent of pathological hallmarks, are harmful to the brain because excess free iron can cause DNA, protein, and lipid damage via oxidative stress. The goal of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal effect of chronic iron overload and deficiency in the vertebrate brain. Ten-week-old C57BL6 male mice were randomly assigned to one of four unique dietary regiments for 1 year: iron-deficient, normal iron, and two different concentrations of lipophilic iron diet containing 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoyl ferrocene (TMHF)...
November 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167315/a-novel-yap1-inhibitor-targets-cscs-enriched-radiation-resistant-cells-and-exerts-strong-antitumor-activity-in-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#2
Shumei Song, Min Xie, Ailing W Scott, Jiankang Jin, Lang Ma, Xiaochuan Dong, Heath D Skinner, Randy L Johnson, Sheng Ding, Jaffer A Ajani
Mounting evidence suggests that the Hippo co-activator Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is a major mediator of cancer stem cell (CSC) properties, tumor progression, and therapy resistance as well as often a terminal node of many oncogenic pathways. Thus, targeting YAP1 may be a novel therapeutic strategy for many types of tumors with high YAP1 expression, including esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). However, effective YAP1 inhibitors are currently lacking. Here, we identify a small molecule (CA3) that not only has remarkable inhibitory activity on YAP1/Tead transcriptional activity but also demonstrates strong inhibitory effects on EAC cell growth especially on YAP1 high expressing EAC cells both in vitro and in vivo...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165718/a-phi-class-glutathione-s-transferase-gene-for-verticillium-wilt-resistance-in-gossypium-arboreum-identified-in-a-genome-wide-association-study
#3
Qian Gong, Zhaoen Yang, Eryong Chen, Gaofei Sun, Shoupu He, Hamama Islam Butt, Chaojun Zhang, Xueyan Zhang, Zuoren Yang, Xiongming Du, Fuguang Li
Verticillium wilt disease is one of the most destructive biotic stresses faced by cotton plants. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 215 Chinese Gossypium arboreum accessions inoculated as seedlings with Verticillium dahliae to identify candidate loci involved in wilt resistance. We identified 309 loci that had a significant association with Verticillium wilt resistance and Log (P) values greater than 5.0; the highest signal appeared on Ca3 in a 74 Kb haplotype block. Five genes were also located within this haplotype block...
November 20, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164458/phosphorus-speciation-and-release-kinetics-of-swine-manure-biochar-under-various-pyrolysis-temperatures
#4
Xinqiang Liang, Yi Jin, Miaomiao He, Christophe Niyungeko, Jin Zhang, Chunlong Liu, Guangming Tian, Yuji Arai
Converting swine manure to biochar is an effective way to recycle valuable nutrients, but there are few reports on its feasibility as a phosphorus (P) source. The objective of this study was to clarify the unique nature, including P speciation, of manure biochar products under various pyrolysis temperatures. We used solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance and P K-edge X-ray adsorption near-edge spectroscopy (P XANES) to characterize P species in swine manure biochar. For every 100 °C increment starting from 300 °C, the P content in manure biochar increased by 2...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162383/inhibition-of-ampar-endocytosis-alleviates-pentobarbital-induced-spatial-memory-deficits-and-synaptic-depression
#5
Wei Wang, Tao Tan, Yanzhi Yu, Zhilin Huang, Yehong Du, Huili Han, Zhifang Dong
Our previous study has shown that pentobarbital causes memory deficits and impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity. The Tat-GluA23Y peptide (GluA23Y) prevents activity-dependent α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis. It enables early-phase long-term potentiation (LTP) to proceed to late-phase LTP allowing short-term memory to convert to long-term memory. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential effects of GluA23Y on pentobarbital-induced memory deficits through behavioral and electrophysiological paradigms...
November 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155282/seizure-liability-assessments-using-the-hippocampal-tissue-slice-comparison-of-non-clinical-species
#6
Michael V Accardi, Hai Huang, Simon Authier
INTRODUCTION: Traditionally, rat hippocampal tissue slice models are used as an in vitro electrophysiology assay to assess seizurogenic potential in early drug development despite non-clinical species-specific differences noted during in vivo seizure studies. METHODS: Hippocampal tissue slices were acutely isolated from rats, minipigs, dogs and nonhuman primates (NHP). Population spikes (PS) were evoked through stimulation of the CA3 Schaffer collateral pathway and recorded using in vitro electrophysiological techniques via an extracellular electrode placed within the CA1 stratum pyramidale cell body layer...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155005/effects-of-genetic-and-environmental-risk-for-schizophrenia-on-hippocampal-activity-and-psychosis-like-behavior-in-mice
#7
Daniel Scott, Carol A Tamminga
Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness most notably characterized by psychotic symptoms. In humans, psychotic disorders are associated with specific hippocampal pathology. However, animal model systems for psychosis often lack this pathology, and have been weak in providing a representation of psychosis. We utilized a double-risk model system combining genetic risk with environmental stress. We hypothesized these factors will induce hippocampal subfield pathology consistent with human findings, as well as behavioral phenotypes relevant to psychosis...
November 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150085/pinocembrin-alleviates-cognition-deficits-by-inhibiting-inflammation-in-diabetic-mice
#8
Bing Pei, Jian Sun
Diabetic encephalopathy (DE) is one of the most common diabetic complications in diabetes mellitus and is characterized by cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation. It has been reported that hyperglycemia can induce hippocampal and cortical neuronal damage, which can result in severe spatial learning and memory impairment. Pinocembrin (Pino) has been widely used in the therapy of cancer and other diseases due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-viral activities...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149630/age-related-vulnerability-of-pattern-separation-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#9
Aurélia Cès, Thibaut Burg, Karine Herbeaux, Céline Héraud, Jean-Bastien Bott, Ayikoe Guy Mensah-Nyagan, Chantal Mathis
Aging is associated with impaired performance in behavioral pattern separation (PS) tasks based on similarities in object features and in object location. These deficits have been attributed to functional alterations in the dentate gyrus (DG)-CA3 region. Animal studies suggested a role of adult-born DG neurons in PS performance. The present study investigated the effect of aging in C57BL/6J mice performing PS tasks based on either object features or object location. At the age of 18 months or more, performance was severely impaired in both tasks...
October 25, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149481/neuroprotective-effects-of-melatonin-on-amphetamine-induced-dopaminergic-fiber-degeneration-in-the-hippocampus-of-postnatal-rats
#10
Tanawan Leeboonngam, Ratchadaporn Pramong, Kwankanit Sae-Ung, Piyarat Govitrapong, Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito
Chronic amphetamine (AMPH) abuse leads to damage of the hippocampus, the brain area associated with learning and memory process. Previous results have shown that AMPH-induced dopamine neurotransmitter release, reactive oxygen species formation and degenerative protein aggregation lead to neuronal death. Melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, plays a role as a neuroprotective agent. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the protective effect of melatonin on AMPH-induced hippocampal damage in the postnatal rat acts through the dopaminergic pathway...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129776/glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-and-neurotransmitters-signaling-in-epilepsy-an-insight-review
#11
REVIEW
Prashant Koshal, Sumit Jamwal, Puneet Kumar
Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent neurological disorder affecting more than 50 million people worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested that an imbalance in glutamatergic (excitatory) and GABAergic (inhibitory) neurotransmitter system is one of the dominating pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence and progression of seizures. Further, this alteration in GABAergic and glutamatergic system disrupts the delicate balance of other neurotransmitters system in the brain. Emerging strides have documented the protective role of GLP-1 signaling on altered neurotransmitters signaling in Epilepsy and associated co-morbidities...
November 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128414/mapping-of-the-prenatal-and-postnatal-methamphetamine-effects-on-d1-like-dopamine-m1-and-m2-muscarinic-receptors-in-rat-central-nervous-system
#12
Vladimir Farar, Paulina Valuskova, Maria Sevcikova, Jaromir Myslivecek, Romana Slamberova
Methamphetamine (MA) is worldwide known drug with high potential for addiction that causes dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin release. MA is also able to increase acetylcholine levels in adult rodents. The aim of this study was to map changes in D1-like dopamine receptors (DR), M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors (MR), and the total number of MR (M1-M5 MR) in the CNS of rats exposed to MA prenatally and in adulthood. Rat mothers were exposed to MA (5mg/kg s.c.) or saline during the entire gestation period and their male offspring were administered in adulthood with single MA (1mg/kg) or saline injection...
November 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123180/the-gliadin-peptide-31-43-exacerbates-kainate-neurotoxicity-in-epilepsy-models
#13
Elisabetta Gerace, Francesco Resta, Elisa Landucci, Daniela Renzi, Alessio Masi, Domenico E Pellegrini-Giampietro, Antonio Calabrò, Guido Mannaioni
Many neurological disorders of gluten-related diseases (GRD), not directly referable to the gastrointestinal tract, have been reported in association with celiac disease (CD), including ataxia, neuropathy and epilepsy. In particular, people with epilepsy diagnosed with CD seems to be characterized by intractable seizure. In these patients, gluten restriction diet has resulted in a reduction of both seizure frequency and antiepileptic medication. Many hypotheses have been suggested, however, molecular mechanisms that associates GRD and epileptogenesis are yet unknown...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118914/the-neuroprotective-effects-of-remifentanil-on-isoflurane-induced-apoptosis-in-the-neonatal-rat-brain
#14
Bo Pan, Shaoqiang Huang, Shen Sun, Tingting Wang
Remifentanil is one of the most frequently prescribed opioids used in combination with inhalation anesthetics in clinical practice, but the effects of such combinations on the developing rat brain are unknown. In our study, we investigated first the potential neurotoxic effects of remifentanil on the developing brain and then the effects of remifentanil on isoflurane-induced apoptosis in the neonatal rat brain following exposure to a nociceptive stimulus. In the first experiment, postnatal day (P) 7 rats were randomly exposed to 30% oxygen, 1...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116174/activation-of-g-protein-gated-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-kir3-girk-channels-rescues-hippocampal-functions-in-a-mouse-model-of-early-amyloid-%C3%AE-pathology
#15
Irene Sánchez-Rodríguez, Sara Temprano-Carazo, Alberto Nájera, Souhail Djebari, Javier Yajeya, Agnès Gruart, José M Delgado-García, Lydia Jiménez-Díaz, Juan D Navarro-López
The hippocampus plays a critical role in learning and memory. Its correct performance relies on excitatory/inhibitory synaptic transmission balance. In early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuronal hyperexcitability leads to network dysfunction observed in cortical regions such as the hippocampus. G-protein-gated potassium (GirK) channels induce neurons to hyperpolarize, contribute to the resting membrane potential and could compensate any excesses of excitation. Here, we have studied the relationship between GirK channels and hippocampal function in a mouse model of early AD pathology...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115458/effects-of-long%C3%A2-term-scopolamine-treatment-on-cognitive-deficits-and-calcium-binding-proteins-immunoreactivities-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#16
Ji Hyeon Ahn, Bai Hui Chen, Bing Chun Yan, Joon Ha Park, Il Jun Kang, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jeong Hwi Cho, Bich-Na Shin, Jae-Chul Lee, Yong Hwan Jeon, Seongkweon Hong, Young Joo Lee, Soo Young Choi, Moo-Ho Won
GABAergic projections terminate on numerous hippocampal interneurons containing calcium binding proteins (CBPs), including calbindin D‑28k (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV). Memory deficits and expression levels of CB, CR, and PV were examined in the hippocampal subregions following systemic scopolamine (Scop; 1 mg/kg) treatment for 4 weeks in mice. Scop treatment induced significant memory deficits from 1 week after Scop treatment. CB, CR and PV immunoreactivities distributions were in hippocampal subregions [CA1 and CA3 regions, and the dentate gyrus (DG)]...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114861/kappa-opioid-receptors-regulate-hippocampal-synaptic-homeostasis-and-epileptogenesis
#17
Bridget N Queenan, Raymond L Dunn, Victor R Santos, Yang Feng, Megan N Huizenga, Robert J Hammack, Stefano Vicini, Patrick A Forcelli, Daniel T S Pak
OBJECTIVE: Homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) serves as a gain control mechanism at central nervous system (CNS) synapses, including those between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3. Improper circuit control of DG-CA3 synapses is hypothesized to underlie epileptogenesis. Here, we sought to (1) identify compounds that preferentially modulate DG-CA3 synapses in primary neuronal culture and (2) determine if these compounds would delay or prevent epileptogenesis in vivo. METHODS: We previously developed and validated an in vitro assay to visualize the behavior of DG-CA3 synapses and predict functional changes...
November 8, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113959/age-related-epigenetic-changes-in-hippocampal-subregions-of-four-animal-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Roy Lardenoije, Daniël L A van den Hove, Monique Havermans, Anne van Casteren, Kevin X Le, Roberta Palmour, Cynthia A Lemere, Bart P F Rutten
Both aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with widespread epigenetic changes, with most evidence suggesting global hypomethylation in AD. It is, however, unclear how these age-related epigenetic changes are linked to molecular aberrations as expressed in animal models of AD. Here, we investigated age-related changes of epigenetic markers of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in a range of animal models of AD, and their correlations with amyloid plaque load. Three transgenic mouse models, including the J20, APP/PS1dE9 and 3xTg-AD models, as well as Caribbean vervets (a non-transgenic non-human primate model of AD) were investigated...
November 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107714/nonspatial-sequence-coding-varies-along-the-ca1-transverse-axis
#19
Chi-Wing Ng, Gabriel A Elias, Judith S A Asem, Timothy A Allen, Norbert J Fortin
The hippocampus plays a critical role in the memory for sequences of events, a defining feature of episodic memory. To shed light on the fundamental mechanisms supporting this capacity, we recently recorded neural activity in CA1 as rats performed a nonspatial odor sequence memory task. Our main finding was that, while the animals' location and behavior remained constant, a proportion of CA1 neurons fired differentially to odors depending on whether they were presented in or out of sequence (sequence cells)...
October 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107707/time-of-day-but-not-aging-regulates-5-ht7-receptor-binding-sites-in-the-hamster-hippocampus
#20
Marilyn J Duncan, J Tyler Smith, Kathleen M Franklin
Activation of 5-HT7 receptors influences memory as well as circadian rhythms and other processes. This study investigated the regulation of the 5-HT7 receptors in the hippocampus, a likely substrate for the effects of 5-HT7 receptor compounds on memory. Because endogenous serotonin release is higher during the active phase, and chronic treatment with a serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor down-regulates 5-HT7 receptors, we hypothesized that 5-HT7 receptors exhibit 24-h variations. We also hypothesized that aging decreases 5-HT7 receptors in the hippocampus, as it does in the dorsal raphe nucleus, a brain site for serotonergic resetting of circadian rhythms...
October 28, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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