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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725178/different-forms-of-ampa-receptor-mediated-ltp-and-their-correlation-to-the-spatial-working-memory-formation
#1
Derya R Shimshek, Thorsten Bus, Bettina Schupp, Vidar Jensen, Verena Marx, Liliana E Layer, Georg Köhr, Rolf Sprengel
Spatial working memory (SWM) and the classical, tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA3/CA1 synapses are dependent on L-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors (AMPARs) containing GluA1 subunits as demonstrated by knockout mice lacking GluA1. In GluA1 knockout mice LTP and SWM deficits could be partially recovered by transgenic re-installation of full-length GluA1 in principle forebrain neurons. Here we partially restored hippocampal LTP in GluA1-deficient mice by forebrain-specific depletion of the GluA2 gene, by the activation of a hypomorphic GluA2(Q) allele and by transgenic expression of PDZ-site truncated GFP-GluA1(TG)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722103/decreased-levels-of-active-upa-and-klk8-assessed-by-111-in-mica-401-binding-correlate-with-the-seizure-burden-in-an-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Stephan Missault, Lore Peeters, Halima Amhaoul, David Thomae, Annemie Van Eetveldt, Barbara Favier, Anagha Thakur, Jeroen Van Soom, Asla Pitkänen, Koen Augustyns, Jurgen Joossens, Steven Staelens, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere
OBJECTIVE: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and kallikrein-related peptidase 8 (KLK8) are serine proteases that contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling after brain injury. They can be labelled with the novel radiotracer [(111) In]MICA-401. As the first step in exploring the applicability of [(111) In]MICA-401 in tracing the mechanisms of postinjury ECM reorganization in vivo, we performed in vitro and ex vivo studies, assessing [(111) In]MICA-401 distribution in the brain in two animal models: kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KASE) and controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
July 19, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720484/long-term-enzyme-replacement-therapy-improves-neurocognitive-functioning-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-in-immune-tolerant-alpha-mannosidosis-mice
#3
Stijn Stroobants, Markus Damme, Ann Van der Jeugd, Ben Vermaercke, Claes Andersson, Jens Fogh, Paul Saftig, Judith Blanz, Rudi D'Hooge
Alpha-mannosidosis is a glycoproteinosis caused by deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-mannosidase (LAMAN), which markedly affects neurons of the central nervous system (CNS), and causes pathognomonic intellectual dysfunction in the clinical condition. Cognitive improvement consequently remains a major therapeutic objective in research on this devastating genetic error. Immune-tolerant LAMAN knockout mice were developed to evaluate the effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) by prolonged administration of recombinant human enzyme...
July 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716963/chemokine-ccl2-ccr2-signaling-induces-neuronal-cell-death-via-stat3-activation-and-il-1%C3%AE-production-after-status-epilepticus
#4
Dai-Shi Tian, Jiyun Peng, Madhuvika Murugan, Lijie Feng, Jun-Li Liu, Ukpong B Eyo, Li-Jun Zhou, Rochelle Mogilevsky, Wei Wang, Long-Jun Wu
Elevated levels of chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) and its receptor CCR2 have been reported in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and in experimental seizures. However, the functional significance and molecular mechanism underlying CCL2-CCR2 signaling in epileptic brain remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the upregulated CCL2 was mainly expressed in hippocampal neurons and activated microglia from mice 1d after kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures. Taking advantage of CX3CR1(GFP/+):CCR2(RFP/+) double transgenic mice, we demonstrated that CCL2-CCR2 signaling participated in resident microglial activation and blood-derived monocyte infiltration...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714144/cerebellins-are-differentially-expressed-in-selective-subsets-of-neurons-throughout-the-brain
#5
Erica Seigneur, Thomas C Südhof
Cerebellins are secreted hexameric proteins that form tripartite complexes with the presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules neurexins or 'deleted-in-colorectal-cancer' (DCC), and the postsynaptic glutamate-receptor-related proteins GluD1 and GluD2. These tripartite complexes are thought to regulate synapses. However, cerebellins are expressed in multiple isoforms whose relative distributions and overall functions are not understood. Three of the four cerebellins, Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4, autonomously assemble into homohexamers, whereas the Cbln3 requires Cbln1 for assembly and secretion...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713251/age-related-changes-in-lateral-entorhinal-and-ca3-neuron-allocation-predict-poor-performance-on-object-discrimination
#6
Andrew P Maurer, Sarah A Johnson, Abbi R Hernandez, Jordan Reasor, Daniela M Cossio, Kaeli E Fertal, Jack M Mizell, Katelyn N Lubke, Benjamin J Clark, Sara N Burke
Age-related memory deficits correlate with dysfunction in the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus, which includes both hyperactivity and overly rigid activity patterns. While changes in intrinsic membrane currents and interneuron alterations are involved in this process, it is not known whether alterations in afferent input to CA3 also contribute. Neurons in layer II of the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) project directly to CA3 through the perforant path, but no data are available regarding the effects of advanced age on LEC activity and whether these activity patterns update in response to environmental change...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709992/time-dependent-evolution-of-seizures-in-a-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Charles Behr, Maxime Lévesque, Thomas Stroh, Massimo Avoli
Low-voltage fast (LVF) and hypersynchronous (HYP) - onset seizures occur in the EEG obtained with depth electrodes from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients and animal models. In epileptic rats analyzed up to approximately two weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), these patterns are associated with specific high-frequency oscillation (HFO) content: ripples (80-200Hz) or fast-ripples (250-500Hz) predominate in LVF or HYP seizures, respectively. To establish whether these features change over the course of the disease, we recorded the EEG from the hippocampal CA3 subfield, subiculum, entorhinal cortex and dentate gyrus in two groups of pilocarpine-treated rats: the "early stage group" (n=8) was analyzed from day 3 to 20 post-SE while the "late stage group" (n=7) was studied from day 27 to 53 post-SE...
July 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707031/silencing-of-p2x7r-by-rna-interference-in-the-hippocampus-can-attenuate-morphological-and-behavioral-impact-of-pilocarpine-induced-epilepsy
#8
Rebeca Padrão Amorim, Michelle Gasparetti Leão Araújo, Jorge Valero, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Vinicius Davila Bitencourt Pascoal, João Oliveira Malva, Maria José da Silva Fernandes
Cell signaling mediated by P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) has been suggested to be involved in epileptogenesis, via modulation of intracellular calcium levels, excitotoxicity, activation of inflammatory cascades, and cell death, among other mechanisms. These processes have been described to be involved in pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) and contribute to hyperexcitability, resulting in spontaneous and recurrent seizures. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of P2X7R in epileptogenesis in vivo using RNA interference (RNAi) to inhibit the expression of this receptor...
July 13, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702493/data-on-the-effect-of-sex-on-the-size-cellular-content-and-neuronal-density-of-the-developing-brain-in-mice-exposed-to-isoflurane-and-carbon-monoxide
#9
Li Wang, Aili Wang, William W Supplee, Kayla Koffler, Ying Cheng, Zenaide M N Quezado, Richard J Levy
The data presented here detail the changes in size, cellular content, and neuronal density of the developing brain over time with respect to sex in C57Bl/6 mice following neonatal exposure to isoflurane, carbon monoxide, or their combination. Specifically, brain weight- and brain volume-to-body weight ratios are presented, representative immunoblots of whole brain cell-specific protein content are depicted, and quantification of the number of neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex and CA3 region of the hippocampus are shown...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701925/postsynaptic-gaba-b-receptors-contribute-to-the-termination-of-giant-depolarizing-potentials-in-ca3-neonatal-rat-hippocampus
#10
Ilgam Khalilov, Marat Minlebaev, Marat Mukhtarov, Elvira Juzekaeva, Roustem Khazipov
During development, hippocampal CA3 network generates recurrent population bursts, so-called Giant Depolarizing Potentials (GDPs). GDPs are characterized by synchronous depolarization and firing of CA3 pyramidal cells followed by afterhyperpolarization (GDP-AHP). Here, we explored the properties of GDP-AHP in CA3 pyramidal cells using gramicidin perforated patch clamp recordings from neonatal rat hippocampal slices. We found that GDP-AHP occurs independently of whether CA3 pyramidal cells fire action potentials (APs) or remain silent during GDPs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697972/neuroprotection-of-edaravone-on-the-hippocampus-of-kainate-induced-epilepsy-rats-through-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#11
Zhiguang Liu, Chengzhi Yang, Xinyan Meng, Zaili Li, Cunling Lv, Peiwei Cao
Epilepsy is a severe and chronic neurological disease. Edaravone is an effective free radical scavenger and has been reported to prevent neuronal loss induced by Kainate (KA). However, the molecular mechanisms by which edaravone inhibits KA-induced neuron injury remain elusive. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups. For KA treatment, Kainate (4 μg/kg) were administrated in the right hippocampus CA3 region with sereotactic technique. And for edaravone treatment, the rats were intraperitoneal injection with edaravone (10 mg kg (- 1) d (- 1))...
July 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696588/feedforward-inhibition-is-randomly-wired-from-individual-granule-cells-onto-ca3-pyramidal-cells
#12
Máté Neubrandt, Viktor János Oláh, János Brunner, János Szabadics
Feedforward inhibition (FFI) between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 sparsifies and shapes memory- and spatial navigation-related activities. However, our understanding of this prototypical FFI circuit lacks essential details, as the wiring of FFI is not yet mapped between individual DG granule cells (GCs) and CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs). Importantly, theoretically opposite network contributions are possible depending on whether the directly excited PCs are differently inhibited than the non-excited PCs. Therefore, to better understand FFI wiring schemes, we compared the prevalence of disynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic events (diIPSCs) between pairs of individually recorded GC axons or somas and PCs, some of which were connected by monosynaptic excitation, while others were not...
July 11, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692872/changes-in-the-content-of-fatty-acids-in-ca1-and-ca3-areas-of-the-hippocampus-of-krushinsky-molodkina-rats-after-single-and-fivefold-audiogenic-seizures
#13
Tatyana Savina, Alexander Aripovsky, Tatyana Kulagina
Audiogenic seizures (AS) are generalized seizures evoked by high frequency sounds. Since the hippocampus is involved in the generation and maintenance of seizures, the effect of AS on the composition and content of fatty acids in the CA1 and CA3 hippocampal areas of AS-susceptible Krushinsky-Molodkina (KM) rats on days 1, 3, and 14 after single and fivefold seizures were examined. The total content of all fatty acids in field СА1 was found to be lower compared with the control at all times of observation after both a single seizure or fivefold seizures...
June 24, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692012/evidence-of-hippocampal-structural-alterations-in-gulf-war-veterans-with-predicted-exposure-to-the-khamisiyah-plume
#14
Linda L Chao, Morgan R Raymond, Cynthia K Leo, Linda R Abadjian
OBJECTIVES: To replicate and expand our previous findings of smaller hippocampal volumes in Gulf War (GW) veterans with predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume. METHODS: Total hippocampal and hippocampal subfield volumes were quantified from 3 Tesla magnetic resonance images in 113 GW veterans, 62 of whom had predicted exposure as per the Department of Defense exposure models. RESULTS: Veterans with predicted exposure had smaller total hippocampal and CA3/dentate gyrus volumes compared with unexposed veterans, even after accounting for potentially confounding genetic and clinical variables...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687122/evaluation-of-ex-vivo-9-4t-mri-in-post-surgical-specimens-from-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#15
Benjamin Y M Kwan, Fateme Salehi, Ryan Kope, Donald H Lee, Manas Sharma, Robert Hammond, Jorge G Burneo, David Steven, Terry Peters, Ali R Khan
PURPOSE: This study evaluates hippocampal pathology through usage of ultra-high field 9.4T ex-vivo imaging of resected surgical specimens in patients who have undergone temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. METHOD AND MATERIALS: This is a retrospective interpretation of prospectively acquired data. MRI scanning of resected surgical specimens from patients who have undergone temporal lobe epilepsy surgery was performed on a 9.4T small bore Varian MR magnet. Structural images employed a balanced steady-state free precession sequence (TrueFISP)...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686594/cannabinoids-disrupt-memory-encoding-by-functionally-isolating-hippocampal-ca1-from-ca3
#16
Roman A Sandler, Dustin Fetterhoff, Robert E Hampson, Sam A Deadwyler, Vasilis Z Marmarelis
Much of the research on cannabinoids (CBs) has focused on their effects at the molecular and synaptic level. However, the effects of CBs on the dynamics of neural circuits remains poorly understood. This study aims to disentangle the effects of CBs on the functional dynamics of the hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapse by using data-driven nonparametric modeling. Multi-unit activity was recorded from rats doing an working memory task in control sessions and under the influence of exogenously administered tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary CB found in marijuana...
July 7, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685385/exclusive-activation-of-caspase-3-in-mossy-fibers-and-altered-dynamics-of-autophagy-markers-in-the-mice-hippocampus-upon-status-epilepticus-induced-by-kainic-acid
#17
A Rami, A Benz
Epileptic seizures are generally associated with pathological changes in the hippocampus such as astrogliosis, mossy fiber sprouting, and neuronal damage. However, more than 30% of temporal lobe epilepsy in humans shows neither neuronal damage nor mossy fiber sprouting despite chronic epileptic seizures. A similar situation exists in certain commonly used strains of mice, specifically C57BL/6 and BALB/c, which exhibit epileptic seizures, but no neuronal damage upon kainic acid administration. This suggests that intrinsic factors may influence the pathological manifestations of epilepsy...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680963/neto1-guides-development-of-glutamatergic-connectivity-in-the-hippocampus-by-regulating-axonal-kainate-receptors
#18
Ester Orav, Tsvetomira Atanasova, Alexandra Shintyapina, Sebnem Kesaf, Michela Kokko, Juha Partanen, Tomi Taira, Sari E Lauri
Kainate-type glutamate receptors (KARs) are highly expressed in the developing brain, where they are tonically activated to modulate synaptic transmission, network excitability and synaptogenesis. NETO proteins are auxiliary subunits that regulate biophysical properties of KARs; however, their functions in the immature brain are not known. Here, we show that NETO1 guides the development of the rodent hippocampal CA3-CA1 circuitry via regulating axonal KARs. NETO deficiency reduced axonal targeting of most KAR subunits in hippocampal neurons in a subtype independent manner...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674254/caffeine-increases-hippocampal-sharp-waves-in-vitro
#19
Yusuke Watanabe, Yuji Ikegaya
Caffeine promotes memory consolidation. Memory consolidation is thought to depend at least in part on hippocampal sharp waves (SWs). In the present study, we investigated the effect of bath-application of caffeine in spontaneously occurring SWs in mouse acute hippocampal slices. Caffeine induced an about 100% increase in the event frequency of SWs at concentrations of 60 and 200 µM. The effect of caffeine was reversible after washout of caffeine and was mimicked by an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, but not by an A2A receptor antagonist...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673977/lgi1-tunes-intrinsic-excitability-by-regulating-the-density-of-axonal-kv1-channels
#20
Michael Seagar, Michael Russier, Olivier Caillard, Yves Maulet, Laure Fronzaroli-Molinieres, Marina De San Feliciano, Norah Boumedine-Guignon, Léa Rodriguez, Mickael Zbili, Fabrice Usseglio, Christine Formisano-Tréziny, Fahamoe Youssouf, Marion Sangiardi, Morgane Boillot, Stéphanie Baulac, María José Benitez, Juan-José Garrido, Dominique Debanne, Oussama El Far
Autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features results from mutations in leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1), a soluble glycoprotein secreted by neurons. Animal models of LGI1 depletion display spontaneous seizures, however, the function of LGI1 and the mechanisms by which deficiency leads to epilepsy are unknown. We investigated the effects of pure recombinant LGI1 and genetic depletion on intrinsic excitability, in the absence of synaptic input, in hippocampal CA3 neurons, a classical focus for epileptogenesis...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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