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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919294/heantos-4-a-natural-plant-extract-used-in-the-treatment-of-drug-addiction-modulates-t-type-calcium-channels-and-thalamocortical-burst-firing
#1
Stuart M Cain, Soyon Ahn, Esperanza Garcia, Yiming Zhang, Zeina Waheed, John R Tyson, Yi Yang, Tran Van Sung, Anthony G Phillips, Terrance P Snutch
Heantos-4 is a refined combination of plant extracts currently approved to treat opiate addiction in Vietnam. In addition to its beneficial effects on withdrawal and prevention of relapse, reports of sedation during clinical treatment suggest that arousal networks in the brain may be recruited during Heantos administration. T-type calcium channels are implicated in the generation of sleep rhythms and in this study we examined whether a Heantos-4 extraction modulates T-type calcium channel currents generated by the Cav3...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913590/control-of-spike-transfer-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-in-vivo-by-gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition
#2
Stefano Zucca, Marilena Griguoli, Meryl Malézieux, Noëlle Grosjean, Mario Carta, Christophe Mulle
: Despite extensive studies in hippocampal slices and incentive from computational theories, the synaptic mechanisms underlying information transfer at mossy fiber (mf) connections between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in vivo are still elusive. Here we used an optogenetic approach in mice to selectively target and control the activity of DG granule cells (GCs) while performing whole cell and juxtacellular recordings of CA3 neurons in vivo In CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), mf-CA3 synaptic responses consisted predominantly of an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) at low stimulation frequency (0...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911261/targeted-deletion-of-akap7-in-dentate-granule-cells-impairs-spatial-discrimination
#3
Brian W Jones, Jennifer Deem, Thomas J Younts, Michael Weisenhaus, Christina A Sanford, Margaret C Slack, Jenesa Chin, Daniela Nachmanson, Alex McKennon, Pablo E Castillo, G Stanley McKnight
Protein Kinase A (PKA) mediates synaptic plasticity and is widely implicated in learning and memory. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is thought to be responsible for processing and encoding distinct contextual associations in response to highly similar inputs. The mossy fiber (MF) axons of the dentate granule cells convey strong excitatory drive to CA3 pyramidal neurons and express presynaptic, PKA-dependent forms of plasticity. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for the PKA anchoring protein, AKAP7, in mouse MF axons and terminals...
December 2, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910835/two-cubic-phases-in-kimzeyite-garnet-from-the-type-locality-magnet-cove-arkansas
#4
Sytle M Antao, Laura A Cruickshank
The crystal structure of an optically anisotropic kimzeyite garnet from Magnet Cove, Arkansas, USA, where it was first discovered, was refined with the Rietveld method, cubic space group, Ia\overline 3 d, and monochromatic [λ = 0.41422 (2) Å] synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data. The Rietveld refinement reduced χ(2) and overall R(F(2)) values are 1.840 and 0.0647, respectively. The sample, with the general garnet formula ([8])X3([6])Y2([4])Z3([4])O12, contains an intergrowth of two cubic phases that occur initially as oscillatory growth zoning, and patchy intergrowths arise later from fluid-enhanced dissolution and re-precipitation...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907826/extent-of-mossy-fiber-sprouting-in-patients-with-mesiotemporal-lobe-epilepsy-correlates-with-neuronal-cell-loss-and-granule-cell-dispersion
#5
Barbara Schmeiser, Josef Zentner, Marco Prinz, Armin Brandt, Thomas M Freiman
OBJECTIVE: The most frequent finding in temporal lobe epilepsy is hippocampal sclerosis, characterized by selective cell loss of hippocampal subregions CA1 and CA4 as well as mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) towards the supragranular region and granule cell dispersion. Although selective cell loss is well described, its impact on mossy fiber sprouting and granule cell dispersion remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a single center series, we examined 319 human hippocampal specimens, collected in a 15-years period...
November 22, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900598/oxidative-stress-mediated-hippocampal-neuron-apoptosis-participated-in-carbon-disulfide-induced-rats-cognitive-dysfunction
#6
Shuo Wang, Gleniece Irving, Lulu Jiang, Hui Wang, Ming Li, Xujing Wang, Wenting Han, Yongpeng Xu, Yilin Yang, Tao Zeng, Fuyong Song, Xiulan Zhao, Keqin Xie
Occupational exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) exhibits central nervous systems toxicity. But the mechanism is unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between the CNS damage and cognitive dysfunction caused by CS2, and eventually reveal the possible oxidative-related mechanism of hippocampus pathological changes in CS2 exposed rats. Male Wistar rats were administrated with CS2 at dosage of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg for consecutive 20 days, respectively. Cognitive performances were evaluated by Morris water maze tests...
November 29, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893880/protective-prevention-effects-on-the-association-of-poverty-with-brain-development
#7
Gene H Brody, Joshua C Gray, Tianyi Yu, Allen W Barton, Steven R H Beach, Adrianna Galván, James MacKillop, Michael Windle, Edith Chen, Gregory E Miller, Lawrence H Sweet
Importance: This study was designed to determine whether a preventive intervention focused on enhancing supportive parenting could ameliorate the association between exposure to poverty and brain development in low socioeconomic status African American individuals from the rural South. Objective: To determine whether participation in an efficacious prevention program designed to enhance supportive parenting for rural African American children will ameliorate the association between living in poverty and reduced hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in adulthood...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891071/chronic-progressive-neurodegeneration-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-prion-disease
#8
Nina Fainstein, Dvir Dori, Kati Frid, Alexa T Fritz, Ilona Shapiro, Ruth Gabizon, Tamir Ben-Hur
Neurodegenerative diseases present pathologically with progressive structural destruction of neurons and accumulation of mis-folded proteins specific for each condition leading to brain atrophy and functional disability. Many animal models exert deposition of pathogenic proteins without an accompanying neurodegeneration pattern. The lack of a comprehensive model hinders efforts to develop treatment. We performed longitudinal quantification of cellular, neuronal and synaptic density, as well as of neurogenesis in brains of mice mimicking for genetic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease as compared to age-matched wild-type mice...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889579/protective-effects-of-high-tryptophan-diet-on-aging-induced-passive-avoidance-impairment-and-hippocampal-apoptosis
#9
Giuseppe Musumeci, Paola Castrogiovanni, Marta Anna Szychlinska, Rosa Imbesi, Carla Loreto, Sergio Castorina, Salvatore Giunta
In our previous work we have shown that L-Tryptophan (TrP) enriched diet prevents the age-induced decline of hippocampal Serotonin (5-HT) production. Considering that loss or reduction in 5-HT neurotransmission may contribute to age-related cognitive decline, here we have investigated the effect of such diet on passive avoidance (PA) behavior, cell death, pro- and anti- apoptotic molecules (BAX, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3) and an important transcription factor involved in synaptic plasticity and memory (CREB). The increase in 5-HT neurotransmission in the Hippocampus (Hp) of aged rats was induced by 1 month of high TrP administration...
November 23, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887995/chronic-stress-and-hippocampal-dendritic-complexity-methodological-and-functional-considerations
#10
REVIEW
Cheryl D Conrad, J Bryce Ortiz, Jessica M Judd
The current understanding of how chronic stress impacts hippocampal dendritic arbor complexity and the subsequent relationship to hippocampal-dependent spatial memory is reviewed. A surge in reports investigating hippocampal dendritic morphology is occurring, but with wide variations in methodological detail being reported. Consequently, this review systematically outlines the basic neuroanatomy of relevant hippocampal features to help clarify how chronic stress or glucocorticoids impact hippocampal dendritic complexity and how these changes occur in parallel with spatial cognition...
November 22, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886171/transduction-of-group-i-mglur-mediated-synaptic-plasticity-by-%C3%AE-arrestin2-signalling
#11
Andrew G Eng, Daniel A Kelver, Tristan P Hedrick, Geoffrey T Swanson
Conventional signalling by the group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluR1 and mGluR5, occurs through G-protein coupling, but evidence suggests they might also utilize other, non-canonical effector pathways. Here we test whether group I mGluRs require β-arrestin signalling during specific forms of plasticity at hippocampal excitatory synapses. We find that genetic ablation of β-arrestin2, but not β-arrestin1, results in deficits in plasticity mediated by mGlu1 receptors in CA3 pyramidal neurons and by mGlu5 receptors in CA1 pyramidal neurons...
November 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886057/age-related-modulations-of-aqp4-and-caveolin-1-in-the-hippocampus-predispose-the-toxic-effect-of-phoneutria-nigriventer-spider-venom
#12
Edilene S Soares, Leila M Stávale, Monique C P Mendonça, Andressa Coope, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
We have previously demonstrated that Phoneutria nigriventer venom (PNV) causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, swelling of astrocytes end-feet and fluid permeation into brain interstitium in rats. Caveolae and water channels respond to BBB alterations by co-participation in shear stress response and edema formation/resolution. Herein, we showed post-natal developmental-related changes of two BBB-associated transporter proteins: the endothelial caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the major scaffolding protein from caveolae frame, and the astroglial aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel protein expressed in astrocytic peri-vascular end-feet processes, in the hippocampus of rats intraperitoneally-administered PNV...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876394/postnatal-irradiation-induced-hippocampal-neuropathology-cognitive-impairment-and-aging
#13
REVIEW
Feng Ru Tang, Weng Keong Loke, Boo Cheong Khoo
Irradiation of the brain in early human life may set abnormal developmental events into motion that last a lifetime, leading to a poor quality of life for affected individuals. While the effect of irradiation at different early developmental stages on the late human life has not been investigated systematically, animal experimental studies suggest that acute postnatal irradiation with ⩾0.1Gy may significantly reduce neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and endotheliogenesis in cerebral vessels and induce cognitive impairment and aging...
November 19, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873537/brain-region-specific-effects-of-immobilization-stress-on-cholinesterases-in-mice
#14
Paulina Valuskova, Vladimir Farar, Katerina Janisova, Katarina Ondicova, Boris Mravec, Richard Kvetnansky, Jaromir Myslivecek
Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) variant AChER expression increases with acute stress, and this persists for an extended period, although the timing, strain and laterality differences, have not been explored previously. Acute stress transiently increases acetylcholine release, which in turn may increase activity of cholinesterases. Also the AChE gene contains a glucocorticoid response element (GRE), and stress-inducible AChE transcription and activity changes are linked to increased glucocorticoid levels. Corticotropin-releasing hormone knockout (CRH-KO) mice have basal glucocorticoid levels similar to wild type (WT) mice, but much lower levels during stress...
December 6, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872583/ablation-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-subtype-3-impairs-hippocampal-neuron-excitability-in-vitro-and-spatial-working-memory-in-vivo
#15
Daniela Weth-Malsch, Michiel Langeslag, Dimitra Beroukas, Luca Zangrandi, Iris Kastenberger, Serena Quarta, Philipp Malsch, Theodora Kalpachidou, Christoph Schwarzer, Richard L Proia, Rainer V Haberberger, Michaela Kress
Understanding the role of the bioactive lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) within the central nervous system has recently gained more and more attention, as it has been connected to major diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Even though much data about the functions of the five S1P receptors has been collected for other organ systems, we still lack a complete understanding for their specific roles, in particular within the brain. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to further elucidate the role of S1P receptor subtype 3 (S1P3) in vivo and in vitro with a special focus on the hippocampus...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872368/complementary-learning-systems-within-the-hippocampus-a-neural-network-modelling-approach-to-reconciling-episodic-memory-with-statistical-learning
#16
Anna C Schapiro, Nicholas B Turk-Browne, Matthew M Botvinick, Kenneth A Norman
A growing literature suggests that the hippocampus is critical for the rapid extraction of regularities from the environment. Although this fits with the known role of the hippocampus in rapid learning, it seems at odds with the idea that the hippocampus specializes in memorizing individual episodes. In particular, the Complementary Learning Systems theory argues that there is a computational trade-off between learning the specifics of individual experiences and regularities that hold across those experiences...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870399/sex-differences-in-hippocampal-area-ca3-pyramidal-cells
#17
REVIEW
Helen E Scharfman, Neil J MacLusky
Numerous studies have demonstrated differences between males and females in hippocampal structure, function, and plasticity. There also are many studies about the different predisposition of a males and females for disorders where the hippocampus plays an important role. Many of these reports focus on area CA1, but other subfields are also very important, and unlikely to be the same as area CA1 based on what is known. Here we review basic studies of male and female structure, function, and plasticity of area CA3 pyramidal cells of adult rats...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863445/dissociable-profiles-of-generalization-discrimination-in-the-human-hippocampus-during-associative-retrieval
#18
Natalie G De Shetler, Jesse Rissman
When encountering stimuli that vary slightly from previous experiences, neural signals within the CA3 and dentate gyrus (CA3 DG) hippocampal subfields are thought to facilitate mnemonic discrimination, whereas CA1 may be less sensitive to minor stimulus changes, allowing for generalization across similar events. Studies have also posited a critical role for CA1 in the comparison of events to memory-derived expectations, but the degree to which these processes are impacted by explicit retrieval demands is yet unclear...
November 18, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862708/the-role-of-ca3-ls-vta-loop-in-the-formation-of-conditioned-place-preference-induced-by-context-associated-reward-memory-for-morphine
#19
Jin-Xiang Jiang, Huan Liu, Zhen-Zhen Huang, Yue Cui, Xue-Qin Zhang, Xiao-Long Zhang, Yu Cui, Wen-Jun Xin
Addiction-related behaviors, such as conditioned place preference (CPP), require animals to remember an association between environmental cue and drug treatment, and exposure to environmental cue is one of the key contributing factors to relapse. However, how central neural circuit participates in the formation of CPP induced by stimulus of morphine-paired environment remains unknown. In the present study, we found that reexposure to morphine-paired environment significantly increased the activity of hippocampal CA3 neurons, increased the excitability of GABAergic neurons and expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65/67 in the caudal lateral septum (LSc) and decreased the activity of GABAergic neurons and GAD65/67 expression in ventral tegmental area (VTA), leading to activation (disinhibition) of dopaminergic neurons...
November 11, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861538/development-and-validation-of-a-new-mouse-model-to-investigate-the-role-of-sv2a-in-epilepsy
#20
Catherine Menten-Dedoyart, Maria Elisa Serrano Navacerrada, Odile Bartholome, Judit Sánchez Gil, Virginie Neirinckx, Sabine Wislet, Guillaume Becker, Alain Plenevaux, Priscilla Van den Ackerveken, Bernard Rogister
SV2A is a glycoprotein present in the membranes of most synaptic vesicles. Although it has been highly conserved throughout evolution, its physiological role remains largely unknown. Nevertheless, Levetiracetam, a very effective anti-epileptic drug, has been recently demonstrated to bind to SV2A. At present, our understanding of the normal function of SV2A and its possible involvement in diseases like epilepsy is limited. With this study, we sought to develop a relevant model enabling analysis of SV2A's role in the occurrence or progression of epilepsy...
2016: PloS One
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