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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341323/test-retest-reliability-and-longitudinal-analysis-of-automated-hippocampal-subregion-volumes-in-healthy-ageing-and-alzheimer-s-disease-populations
#1
Amanda Worker, Danai Dima, Anna Combes, William R Crum, Johannes Streffer, Steven Einstein, Mitul A Mehta, Gareth J Barker, Steve C R Williams, Owen O'daly
The hippocampal formation is a complex brain structure that is important in cognitive processes such as memory, mood, reward processing and other executive functions. Histological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the hippocampal region in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in neurodegenerative diseases. This highly plastic limbic region is made up of several subregions that are believed to have different functional roles. Therefore, there is a growing interest in imaging the subregions of the hippocampal formation rather than modelling the hippocampus as a homogenous structure, driving the development of new automated analysis tools...
January 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338620/diminished-dentate-gyrus-filtering-of-cortical-input-leads-to-enhanced-area-ca3-excitability-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Kaitlin Folweiler, Sandy Samuel, Hannah Metheny, Akiva S Cohen
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) disrupts hippocampal function and can lead to long-lasting episodic memory impairments. The encoding of episodic memories relies on spatial information processing within the hippocampus. As the primary entry point for spatial information into hippocampus, the dentate gyrus is thought to function as a physiological gate, or filter, of afferent excitation before reaching downstream area CA3. While injury has previously been shown to alter dentate gyrus network excitability, it is unknown whether mTBI affects dentate gyrus output to area CA3...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338380/transplantation-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-reveals-structural-and-functional-improvements-in-the-spastic-han-wistar-rat-model-of-ataxia
#3
Ruslan L Nuryyev, Toni L Uhlendorf, Wesley Tierney, Suren Zatikyan, Oleg Kopyov, Alex Kopyov, Jessica Ochoa, William Van Trigt, Cindy S Malone, Randy W Cohen
The use of regenerative medicine to treat nervous system disorders like ataxia has been proposed to either replace or support degenerating neurons. In this study, we assessed the ability of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to repair and restore the function of dying neurons within the spastic Han-Wistar rat (sHW), a model of ataxia. The sHW rat suffers from neurodegeneration of specific neurons, including cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells leading to the observed symptoms of forelimb tremor, hind-leg rigidity, gait abnormality, motor incoordination, and a shortened life span...
November 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337045/increased-dendritic-length-in-ca1-and-ca3-hippocampal-neurons-during-the-metestrus-phase-in-wistar-rats
#4
Anayeli López Mendoza, Dolores Adriana Bravo Durán, Adriana Berenice Silva Gómez
Studies have shown that changes in ovarian hormone concentrations promote natural fluctuations in the density of dendritic spines of hippocampal neurons in female Sprague-Dawley rats, without changes in dendritic length, throughout the estrous cycle. However, it is still unknown whether these fluctuations are present in other rat strains. Due to our interest in Wistar, the objective of the present study was to determine if there is natural dendritic remodeling in the female Wistar rat throughout the estrous cycle...
January 11, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335604/dentate-network-activity-is-necessary-for-spatial-working-memory-by-supporting-ca3-sharp-wave-ripple-generation-and-prospective-firing-of-ca3-neurons
#5
Takuya Sasaki, Verónica C Piatti, Ernie Hwaun, Siavash Ahmadi, John E Lisman, Stefan Leutgeb, Jill K Leutgeb
Complex spatial working memory tasks have been shown to require both hippocampal sharp-wave ripple (SWR) activity and dentate gyrus (DG) neuronal activity. We therefore asked whether DG inputs to CA3 contribute to spatial working memory by promoting SWR generation. Recordings from DG and CA3 while rats performed a dentate-dependent working memory task on an eight-arm radial maze revealed that the activity of dentate neurons and the incidence rate of SWRs both increased during reward consumption. We then found reduced reward-related CA3 SWR generation without direct input from dentate granule neurons...
January 15, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335356/single-bursts-of-individual-granule-cells-functionally-rearrange-feed-forward-inhibition
#6
Máté Neubrandt, Viktor János Oláh, János Brunner, Endre Marosi, Ivan Soltesz, János Szabadics
The sparse single spike activity of dentate gyrus granule cells (DG GCs) is punctuated by occasional brief bursts of 3 to 7 action potentials. It is well-known that such presynaptic bursts in individual mossy fibers (MFs; axons of granule cells) are often able to discharge postsynaptic CA3 pyramidal cells due to powerful short-term facilitation. However, what happens in the CA3 network after the passage of a brief MF burst, before the arrival of the next burst or solitary spike, is not understood. Because MFs innervate significantly more CA3 interneurons than pyramidal cells, we focused on unitary MF responses in identified interneurons in the seconds-long post-burst period, using paired recordings in rat hippocampal slices...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332092/early-life-stress-activates-glial-cells-in-the-hippocampus-but-attenuates-cytokine-secretion-in-response-to-an-immune-challenge-in-rat-pups
#7
Luis Miguel Saavedra, Bertha Fenton Navarro, Luz Torner
OBJECTIVE: Early life stress (ELS) increases the vulnerability to developing psychopathological disorders in adulthood that are accompanied by brain inflammatory processes. However, it is not known how a combined double hit (stress and immune) at an early age affects the response of the neuroimmune system. Here we investigated the effect of periodic maternal separation (MS) followed by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on glial cells in the CA3 region and hilus of the hippocampus and on cytokine release on postnatal day (PN) 15...
January 13, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323756/juvenile-taiep-rats-have-shorter-dendritic-trees-in-the-dorsal-field-of-the-hippocampus-without-spatial-learning-disabilities
#8
Adriana B Silva, Dolores A Bravo-Duran, Jose R Eguibar, Carmen Cortes
Myelin mutant taiep rats show a progressive demyelination in the central nervous system due to an abnormal accumulation of microtubules in the cytoplasm and the processes on their oligodendrocytes. Demyelination is associated with electrophysiological alterations and the mutant had a progressive astrocytosis. The illness is associated with change in cytokine levels and in the expression of different nitric oxide synthase and concomitantly lipoperoxidation in several areas of the brain. However, until now there has been no detailed anatomical analysis of neurons in this mutant...
January 11, 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322008/inhibitory-effects-of-tabernaemontana-divaricata-root-extract-on-oxidative-stress-and-neuronal-loss-induced-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-25-35-peptide-in-mice
#9
Onrawee Khongsombat, Walika Nakdook, Kornkanok Ingkaninan
In Alzheimer's disease, there are numerous amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss in several brain areas. Oxidative stress is involved in the mechanisms of Aβ-peptide induced neurotoxicity by the generation of free radical oxidative stress that may lead to neurodegeneration. Tabernaemontana divaricata has various medical properties in Thai folklore medicine including prevent forgetfulness or improve memory. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of T. divaricata root extract (TDE) on Aβ25-35 peptides induced neuronal loss and oxidative stress in mice...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320740/plexina2-forward-signaling-through-rap1-gtpases-regulates-dentate-gyrus-development-and-schizophrenia-like-behaviors
#10
Xiao-Feng Zhao, Rafi Kohen, Rachel Parent, Yuntao Duan, Grace L Fisher, Matthew J Korn, Lingchao Ji, Guoqiang Wan, Jing Jin, Andreas W Püschel, David F Dolan, Jack M Parent, Gabriel Corfas, Geoffrey G Murphy, Roman J Giger
Dentate gyrus (DG) development requires specification of granule cell (GC) progenitors in the hippocampal neuroepithelium, as well as their proliferation and migration into the primordial DG. We identify the Plexin family members Plxna2 and Plxna4 as important regulators of DG development. Distribution of immature GCs is regulated by Sema5A signaling through PlxnA2 and requires a functional PlxnA2 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain and Rap1 small GTPases. In adult Plxna2-/- but not Plxna2-GAP-deficient mice, the dentate GC layer is severely malformed, neurogenesis is compromised, and mossy fibers form aberrant synaptic boutons within CA3...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317612/gamma-oscillatory-activity-in-vitro-a-model-system-to-assess-pathophysiological-mechanisms-of-comorbidity-between-autism-and-epilepsy
#11
D Subramanian, E Pralong, R T Daniel, A G Chacko, R Stoop, K S Babu
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and temporal lobe epilepsy exhibit remarkable comorbidity, but for reasons not clearly understood. To reveal a common pathophysiological mechanism, we here describe and characterize an in vitro epileptiform activity in the rat hippocampus that exhibits common features with in vivo activity in rodent ASD models. We discovered the development of this activity in the CA1 region of horizontal slices after prolonged interictal-like epileptiform activity in the CA3 region that was provoked by incubation in high potassium artificial cerebrospinal fluid...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313521/field-induced-magnetic-phase-transitions-and-memory-effect-in-bilayer-ruthenate-ca-sub-3-sub-ru-sub-2-sub-o-sub-7-sub-with-fe-substitution
#12
Mengze Zhu, Tao Hong, Jin Peng, Tao Zou, Zhiqiang Mao, Xianglin Ke
Bilayer ruthenate Ca3(Ru1-xFex)2O7 (x = 0.05) exhibits an incommensurate magnetic soliton lattice driven by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Here we report complex field-induced magnetic phase transitions and memory effect in this system via single-crystal neutron diffraction and magnetotransport measurements. We observe first-order incommensurate-to-commensurate magnetic transitions upon applying the magnetic field both along and perpendicular to the propagation axis of the incommensurate spin structure...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312826/heteroassociative-storage-of-hippocampal-pattern-sequences-in-the-ca3-subregion
#13
Raphael Y de Camargo, Renan S Recio, Marcelo B Reyes
Background: Recent research suggests that the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus has properties of both autoassociative network, due to its ability to complete partial cues, tolerate noise, and store associations between memories, and heteroassociative one, due to its ability to store and retrieve sequences of patterns. Although there are several computational models of the CA3 as an autoassociative network, more detailed evaluations of its heteroassociative properties are missing. Methods: We developed a model of the CA3 subregion containing 10,000 integrate-and-fire neurons with both recurrent excitatory and inhibitory connections, and which exhibits coupled oscillations in the gamma and theta ranges...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311476/ectopic-mossy-fiber-pathfinding-in-the-hippocampus-caused-the-abnormal-neuronal-transmission-in-the-mouse-models-of-psychiatric-disease
#14
Soichiro Nakahara, Mitsuyuki Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Ito, Katsunori Tajinda
Appropriate axonal pathfinding is a necessary step for the function of neuronal circuits. The mossy fibers (MFs) in the hippocampus of CaMKIIα heterozygous knockout (CaMKIIα-hKO) psychiatric model mice project onto not only the stratum lucidum but also the stratum oriens region in the CA3, which is a projection pattern distinct from that in normal mice. Thus, we examined the electrophysiological properties of the MF-CA3 connection in this mutant mouse on field recordings and found a lower synaptic connection...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306758/altered-expression-of-gaba-a-receptor-subunits-in-the-hippocampus-of-ptz-kindled-rats
#15
Janusz Szyndler, Piotr Maciejak, Karolina Kołosowska, Natalia Chmielewska, Anna Skórzewska, Patrycja Daszczuk, Adam Płaźnik
BACKGROUND: Changes in the expression of the GABA-A receptor subunits involved in phasic and tonic inhibition have been studied in a wide spectrum of animal models of epilepsy. However, there is no exhaustive data regarding the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model of epilepsy. METHODS: The aim of our study was to analyse the hippocampal changes in the expression of GABA-A receptor subunits involved in phasic (α1, γ2) or tonic (α4 and δ) inhibition in rats subjected to the PTZ kindling using immunohistochemistry method as well as in animals subjected to a single injection of a subconvulsive (30 mg/kg) or convulsive (55 mg/kg) dose of PTZ...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288747/magnesium-sulfate-attenuates-brain-edema-by-lowering-aqp4-expression-and-inhibits-glia-mediated-neuroinflammation-in-a-rodent-model-of-eclampsia
#16
Xiaolan Li, Huishu Liu, Yuanyuan Yang
Eclampsia is characterized by high morbidity and mortality wordwide. Magnesium sulfate ( MgSO4 ) is used frequently as a prophylaxis for eclamptic seizure in clinical settings. However, the underlying mechanism is less studied, we have previously demonstrated that MgSO4 pretreatment decreases eclampsia-like seizure threshold. Here, we further evaluated the hypothesis that MgSO4 exert neuroprotective actions in eclampsia-like rats model by ameliorating neuroinflammation and brain edema. In this study, the eclampsia-like model was established by administering lipopolysaccharide plus pentylenetetrazol in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats...
December 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287786/leptin-treatment-prevents-long-term-abnormalities-in-cognition-seizure-threshold-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-sprouting-and-znt3-cb-d28k-expression-in-a-rat-developmental-twist-seizure-model
#17
Hong Ni, Su-Hong Chen, Li-Li Li, Mei-Fang Jin
The mechanism of linking neonatal seizures with long-term brain damage is unclear, and there is no effective drug to block this long-term pathological process. Recently, the fat-derived hormone leptin has been appreciated for its neuroprotective function in neurodegenerative processes, although less is known about the effects of leptin on neonatal seizure-induced brain damage. Here, we developed a "twist" seizure model by coupling pilocarpine-induced neonatal status epilepticus (SE) with later exposure to penicillin to test whether leptin treatment immediately after neonatal SE would exert neuroprotective effects on cognition, seizure threshold and hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting, as well if leptin had any influence on the expression of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) and calcium homeostasis-related CB-D28k in the hippocampus...
December 26, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279390/locus-coeruleus-input-to-hippocampal-ca3-drives-single-trial-learning-of-a-novel-context
#18
Akiko Wagatsuma, Teruhiro Okuyama, Chen Sun, Lillian M Smith, Kuniya Abe, Susumu Tonegawa
The memory for a new episode is formed immediately upon experience and can last up to a lifetime. It has been shown that the hippocampal network plays a fundamental role in the rapid acquisition of a memory of a one-time experience, in which the novelty component of the experience promotes the prompt formation of the memory. However, it remains unclear which neural circuits convey the novelty signal to the hippocampus for the single-trial learning. Here, we show that during encoding neuromodulatory input from locus coeruleus (LC) to CA3, but not CA1 or to the dentate gyrus, is necessary to facilitate novel contextual learning...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279308/conditional-deletion-of-hippocampal-ca2-ca3a-oxytocin-receptors-impairs-the-persistence-of-long-term-social-recognition-memory-in-mice
#19
Yu-Ting Lin, Tsan-Yu Hsieh, Tsung-Chih Tsai, Chien-Chung Chen, Chiung-Chun Huang, Kuei-Sen Hsu
Oxytocin (OXT) receptors (OXTRs) are prominently expressed in hippocampal CA2 and CA3 pyramidal neurons, but little is known about its physiological function. As the functional necessity of hippocampal CA2 for social memory processing, we tested whether CA2 OXTRs may contribute to long-term social recognition memory (SRM) formation. Here, we found that conditional deletion of Oxtr from forebrain (Oxtr-/-) or CA2/CA3a-restricted excitatory neurons in adult male mice impaired the persistence of long-term SRM but had no effect on sociability and preference for social novelty...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278027/environmental-enrichment-improved-cognitive-deficits-more-in-peri-adolescent-than-in-adult-rats-after-postnatal-monosodium-glutamate-treatment
#20
S Madhavadas, S Subramanian, B M Kutty
Exposure to enriched environment (EE) is known to promote sensory, cognitive, and motor stimulation with intensified levels of novelty and complexity. In this study, we investigated the positive regulatory effect of short-term exposure to EE on establishing functional recovery in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. Unless treated, MSG rats exhibited peripheral insulin resistance, cognitive deficits, and a reduction in the total hippocampal volume with decreased neuron count in the DG, CA3, and CA1 subfields...
December 1, 2017: Physiology International
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