keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

CA3

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636875/effects-of-prenatal-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-and-maternal-stress-on-postnatal-morphological-development-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-rats
#1
Ewa Jakubowska-Dogru, Birsen Elibol, Ilknur Dursun, Sinan Yürüker
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse negatively affecting human health and it is known as a potent teratogen responsible for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Searching for the potential morphological correlates of these effects, in this study, we compared the course of developmental changes in the morphology of principal hippocampal neurons in fetal-alcohol (A group), intubated control (IC group), and intact control male rats (C group) over a protracted period of the first two postnatal months...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634464/anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-co-ultrapealut-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-dementia
#2
Rosalba Siracusa, Daniela Impellizzeri, Marika Cordaro, Rosalia Crupi, Emanuela Esposito, Stefania Petrosino, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Vascular dementia (VaD), the second most common cause of cognitive impairment in the population, is a disease that results from reduction in regional cerebral blood flow and involves oxidative stress and inflammation. Co-ultramicronized PEALut (co-ultra PEALut) is a new compound with beneficial effects, which include anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, co-ultraPEALut has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629541/stress-and-loss-of-adult-neurogenesis-differentially-reduce-hippocampal-volume
#3
Timothy J Schoenfeld, Hayley C McCausland, H Douglas Morris, Varun Padmanaban, Heather A Cameron
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal volume loss is a hallmark of clinical depression. Chronic stress produces volume loss in the hippocampus in humans and atrophy of CA3 pyramidal cells and suppression of adult neurogenesis in rodents. METHODS: To investigate the relationship between decreased adult neurogenesis and stress-induced changes in hippocampal structure and volume, we compared the effects of chronic unpredictable restraint stress and inhibition of neurogenesis in a rat pharmacogenetic model...
May 22, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629384/involvement-of-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-and-glutamate-transporter-glt-1-in-antidepressant-like-effects-of-xiao-yao-san-on-chronically-stressed-mice
#4
Xiu-Fang Ding, Yue-Hua Li, Jia-Xu Chen, Long-Ji Sun, Hai-Yan Jiao, Xin-Xin Wang, Yan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Xiao Yao San (XYS) is an herbal prescription which is used in the treatment of depression for thousands of years from Song dynasty in China (960-1127 A.D.), and is the bestselling and most popular herb formula for treating major depression. This study aimed to assess the chronic antidepressant effects of XYS and fluoxetine in depressed mice induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and its association with  alterations in glutamate/glutamine cycle and glutamate transporters...
June 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627883/mechanism-of-vanadium-leaching-during-surface-weathering-of-basic-oxygen-furnace-steel-slag-blocks-a-%C3%A2%C2%B5xanes-and-sem-study
#5
Andrew James Hobson, Douglas I Stewart, Andrew William Bray, Robert J G Mortimer, William Matthew Mayes, Michael Rogerson, Ian T Burke
Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking slag is enriched in potentially toxic V which may become mobilised in high pH leachate during weathering. BOF slag was weathered under aerated and air-excluded conditions for 6 months prior to SEM/EDS and µXANES analysis to determine V host phases and speciation in both primary and secondary phases. Leached blocks show development of an altered region in which free lime and dicalcium silicate phases were absent and Ca-Si-H was precipitated (CaCO3 was also present under aerated conditions)...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625390/dopamine-protects-cerebral-autoregulation-and-prevents-hippocampal-necrosis-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-block-of-erk-mapk-in-juvenile-pigs
#6
Victor Curvello, Hugh Hekierski, Philip Pastor, Monica S Vavilala, William M Armstead
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to morbidity in children, and more boys experience TBI. Cerebral autoregulation is impaired after TBI, contributing to poor outcome. Cerebral Perfusion Pressure (CPP) is often normalized by use of vasoactive agents to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP). In prior studies of newborn and juvenile pigs, vasoactive agent choice influenced outcome after TBI as a function of age and sex, with none protecting cerebral autoregulation in both ages and sexes. Dopamine (DA) prevents impairment of cerebral autoregulation in male and female newborn pigs via inhibition of upregulation of ERK mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) after fluid percussion injury (FPI)...
June 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624573/plasticity-of-intrinsic-firing-response-gain-in-principal-hippocampal-neurons-following-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#7
Idit Tamir, Moshe Daninos, Yoel Yaari
OBJECTIVE: In experimental models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), brain neurons manifest multiple changes in intrinsic excitability that contribute to neuronal network hyperexcitability. We have investigated whether the intrinsic firing response gain, quantified by the slope of the function relating the number of evoked spikes (Ns) to input excitatory current intensity (I), is modified in principal rat hippocampal neurons in the pilocarpine-status epilepticus (SE) model of TLE. METHODS: Intracellular recordings were made in CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) and dentate granule cells (GCs) in acute hippocampal slices obtained 7-36 days after pilocarpine-SE...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612259/apoptosis-following-cortical-spreading-depression-in-juvenile-rats
#8
Ali Jahanbazi Jahan-Abad, Leila Alizadeh, Sajad Sahab Negah, Parastoo Barati, Maryam Khaleghi Ghadiri, Sven G Meuth, Stjepana Kovac, Ali Gorji
Repetitive cortical spreading depression (CSD) can lead to cell death in immature brain tissue. Caspases are involved in neuronal cell death in several CSD-related neurological disorders, such as stroke and epilepsy. Yet, whether repetitive CSD itself can induce caspase activation in adult or juvenile tissue remains unknown. Inducing repetitive CSD in somatosensory cortices of juvenile and adult rats in vivo, we thus aimed to investigate the effect of repetitive CSD on the expression caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-12 in different brain regions using immunohistochemistry and western blotting techniques...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611378/identification-of-postsynaptic-phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-pip2-roles-for-synaptic-plasticity-using-chemically-induced-dimerization
#9
Su-Jeong Kim, Min-Jae Jeong, Hee-Jung Jo, Jung Hoon Jung, Bong-Kiun Kaang, Yun-Beom Choi, Joung-Hun Kim
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), one of the key phospholipids, directly interacts with several membrane and cytosolic proteins at neuronal plasma membranes, leading to changes in neuronal properties including the feature and surface expression of ionotropic receptors. Although PIP2 is also concentrated at the dendritic spines, little is known about the direct physiological functions of PIP2 at postsynaptic as opposed to presynaptic sites. Most previous studies used genetic and pharmacological methods to modulate enzymes that alter PIP2 levels, making it difficult to delineate time- or region-specific roles of PIP2...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606628/hippocampal-and-cerebellar-histological-changes-and-their-behavioural-repercussions-caused-by-brain-ischaemic-hypoxia-experimentally-induced-by-sodium-nitrite
#10
Mara Cláudia Ribeiro, Thiago Dos Santos Bezerra, Aluízio Carlos Soares, Raphael Boechat-Ramos, Fabiana Pirani Carneiro, Leonora Maciel de Souza Vianna, Lilian Rosana Ferreira Faro, Mônica Valero da Silva, Matheus Papa Vieira, Isabelle de Oliveira Monteiro, Vania Moraes Ferreira
INTRODUCTION: Brain ischaemic hypoxia can produce severe neurological damage that leads to behavioural disorders. This research analysed the hippocampal and cerebellar histological alterations caused by brain ischaemic hypoxia experimentally induced by sodium nitrite (NaNO2) and possible direct repercussions of this hypoxia on behaviour. METHODOLOGY: An experimental study was carried out by administering 60mg/kg NaNO2 to 10 Wistar rats at 3 months of age for 15 consecutive days...
June 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606482/the-neuron-astrocyte-microglia-triad-in-ca3-after-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-the-rat-protective-effect-of-dipyridamole
#11
Daniele Lana, Filippo Ugolini, Alessia Melani, Daniele Nosi, Felicita Pedata, Maria Grazia Giovannini
We investigated the quantitative and morphofunctional alterations of neuron-astrocyte-microglia triads in CA3 hippocampus, in comparison to CA1, after 2 Vessel Occlusion (2VO) and the protective effect of dipyridamole. We evaluated 3 experimental groups: sham-operated rats (sham, n=15), 2VO-operated rats treated with vehicle (2VO-vehicle, n=15), and 2VO-operated rats treated with dipyridamole from day 0 to day 7 (2VO-dipyridamole, n=15), 90days after 2VO. We analyzed Stratum Pyramidalis (SP), Stratum Lucidum (SL) and Stratum Radiatum (SR) of CA3...
June 9, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605704/4-5-dichloro-2-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one-dcoit-modifies-synaptic-transmission-in-hippocampal-ca3-neurons-of-rats
#12
Masahito Wakita, Kiyomitsu Shoudai, Yasuo Oyama, Norio Akaike
4,5-Dichloro-2-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) is an alternative to organotin antifoulants, such as tributyltin and triphenyltin. Since DCOIT is found in harbors, bays, and coastal areas worldwide, this chemical compound may have some impacts on ecosystems. To determine whether DCOIT possesses neurotoxic activity by modifying synaptic transmission, we examined the effects of DCOIT on synaptic transmission in a 'synaptic bouton' preparation of rat brain. DCOIT at concentrations of 0.03-1 μM increased the amplitudes of evoked synaptic currents mediated by GABA and glutamate, while it reduced the amplitudes of these currents at 3-10 μM...
May 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603025/the-ampa-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator-s-47445-rescues-in%C3%A2-vivo-ca3-ca1-long-term-potentiation-and-structural-synaptic-changes-in-old-mice
#13
Albert Giralt, María Ángeles Gómez-Climent, Rafael Alcalá, Sylvie Bretin, Daniel Bertrand, José María Delgado-García, Esther Pérez-Navarro, Jordi Alberch, Agnès Gruart
Positive allosteric modulators of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) are small molecules that decrease deactivation of AMPARs via an allosteric site. These molecules keep the receptor in an active state. Interestingly, this type of modulator has been proposed for treating cognitive decline in ageing, dementias, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). S 47445 (8-cyclopropyl-3-[2-(3-fluorophenyl)ethyl]-7,8-dihydro-3H-[1,3]oxazino[6,5-g][1,2,3]benzotriazine-4,9-dione) is a novel AMPAR positive allosteric modulator (AMPA-PAM)...
June 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603024/functional-research-and-molecular-mechanism-of-kainic-acid-induced-denitrosylation-of-thioredoxin-1-in-rat-hippocampus
#14
Hongning Yang, Ningjun Zhao, Lanxin Lv, Xianliang Yan, Shuqun Hu, Tie Xu
Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) has long been recognized as a redox regulator, and is implicated in the inhibition of cell apoptosis. Trx1 is essential for the maintenance of the S-nitrosylation of molecules in cells. The S-nitrosylation of Trx1 is essential for the physiological function such as preservation of the redox regulatory activity. The mechanisms underlying Trx1 denitrosylation induced by kainate acid (KA) injection still remain uncharacterized. Our results showed that the S-nitrosylation levels of Trx1 were decreased subsequent to KA injection and that the glutamate receptor 6 (GluR6) antagonist NS102 could inhibit the denitrosylation of Trx1...
June 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597539/developmental-effects-of-antipsychotic-drugs-on-serotonin-receptor-subtypes
#15
Yong Kee Choi, Matthew P Gardner, Frank I Tarazi
Antipsychotic medications are increasingly prescribed to pediatric and adolescent patients with psychotic diseases in spite of limited knowledge on the long-term effects of dissimilar antipsychotic drugs on developing brain. In this study, we quantified the levels of two major serotonin 5-HT1A , and 5-HT2A receptors in brain regions of developing rats after 3 weeks of treatment with typical (fluphenazine) and atypical (clozapine and olanzapine) antipsychotics, and compared to similarly treated adult rats treated with olanzapine, risperidone and quetiapine examined in previous studies...
June 8, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596993/segmenting-subregions-of-the-human-hippocampus-on-structural-magnetic-resonance-image-scans-an-illustrated-tutorial
#16
Marshall A Dalton, Peter Zeidman, Daniel N Barry, Elaine Williams, Eleanor A Maguire
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus plays a central role in cognition, and understanding the specific contributions of its subregions will likely be key to explaining its wide-ranging functions. However, delineating substructures within the human hippocampus in vivo from magnetic resonance image scans is fraught with difficulties. To our knowledge, the extant literature contains only brief descriptions of segmentation procedures used to delineate hippocampal subregions in magnetic resonance imaging/functional magnetic resonance imaging studies...
2017: Brain and neuroscience advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595792/various-ketogenic-diets-can-differently-support-brain-resistance-against-experimentally-evoked-seizures-and-seizure-induced-elemental-anomalies-of-hippocampal-formation
#17
J Chwiej, A Patulska, A Skoczen, K Matusiak, K Janeczko, M Ciarach, R Simon, Z Setkowicz
In this paper the influence of two different ketogenic diets (KDs) on the seizure-evoked elemental anomalies of hippocampal formation was examined. To achieve this purpose normal and pilocarpine treated rats previously fed with one of the two high fat and carbohydrate restricted diets were compared with animals on standard laboratory diet. The ketogenic ratios of the examined KDs were equal to 5:1 (KD1) and 9:1 (KD2). KD1 and standard diet fed animals presented similar patterns of seizure-evoked elemental changes in hippocampal formation...
July 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587896/development-of-a-histologically-validated-segmentation-protocol-for-the-hippocampal-body
#18
Trevor A Steve, Clarissa L Yasuda, Roland Coras, Mohjevan Lail, Ingmar Blumcke, Daniel J Livy, Nikolai Malykhin, Donald W Gross
BACKGROUND: Recent findings have demonstrated that hippocampal subfields can be selectively affected in different disease states, which has led to efforts to segment the human hippocampus with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, no studies have examined the histological accuracy of subfield segmentation protocols. The presence of MRI-visible anatomical landmarks with known correspondence to histology represents a fundamental prerequisite for in vivo hippocampal subfield segmentation...
June 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587862/brain-networks-activated-to-form-object-recognition-memory
#19
Toshiyuki Tanimizu, Kyohei Kono, Satoshi Kida
Object recognition memory allows discrimination of familiar and novel objects. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for object recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of object recognition (OR) memory at the anatomic level remain unknown. Here, we analyzed the brain network for the generation of OR memory in mice by measuring the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos. We found that c-fos expression was induced in the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3 regions), insular cortex (IC), perirhinal cortex (PRh), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) when OR memory was generated, suggesting that gene expression in these brain regions contributes to the formation of OR memory...
June 3, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587054/later-life-changes-in-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-behavioral-functions-after-low-dose-prenatal-irradiation-at-early-organogenesis-stage
#20
Ramya Ganapathi, Kailash Manda
PURPOSE: To investigate long-term changes in behavioral functions of mice after exposure to low-dose prenatal radiation at an early organogenesis stage. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were irradiated (20 cGy) at postcoitus day 5.5. The male and female offspring were subjected to different behavioral assays for affective, motor, and cognitive functions at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Behavioral functions were further correlated with the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and immature neurons in hippocampal dentate gyrus...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
keyword
keyword
38301
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"