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Oleg I Korablev, Yurii Dobrolensky, Nadezhda Evdokimova, Anna A Fedorova, Ruslan O Kuzmin, Sergei N Mantsevich, Edward A Cloutis, John Carter, Francois Poulet, Jessica Flahaut, Andrew Griffiths, Matthew Gunn, Nicole Schmitz, Javier Martín-Torres, Maria-Paz Zorzano, Daniil S Rodionov, Jorge L Vago, Alexander V Stepanov, Andrei Yu Titov, Nikita A Vyazovetsky, Alexander Yu Trokhimovskiy, Alexander G Sapgir, Yurii K Kalinnikov, Yurii S Ivanov, Alexei A Shapkin, Andrei Yu Ivanov
ISEM (Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars) is a pencil-beam infrared spectrometer that will measure reflected solar radiation in the near infrared range for context assessment of the surface mineralogy in the vicinity of the ExoMars rover. The instrument will be accommodated on the mast of the rover and will be operated together with the panoramic camera (PanCam), high-resolution camera (HRC). ISEM will study the mineralogical and petrographic composition of the martian surface in the vicinity of the rover, and in combination with the other remote sensing instruments, it will aid in the selection of potential targets for close-up investigations and drilling sites...
June 2017: Astrobiology
N Hempelmann, V Hejny, J Pretz, E Stephenson, W Augustyniak, Z Bagdasarian, M Bai, L Barion, M Berz, S Chekmenev, G Ciullo, S Dymov, F-J Etzkorn, D Eversmann, M Gaisser, R Gebel, K Grigoryev, D Grzonka, G Guidoboni, T Hanraths, D Heberling, J Hetzel, F Hinder, A Kacharava, V Kamerdzhiev, I Keshelashvili, I Koop, A Kulikov, A Lehrach, P Lenisa, N Lomidze, B Lorentz, P Maanen, G Macharashvili, A Magiera, D Mchedlishvili, S Mey, F Müller, A Nass, N N Nikolaev, A Pesce, D Prasuhn, F Rathmann, M Rosenthal, A Saleev, V Schmidt, Y Semertzidis, V Shmakova, A Silenko, J Slim, H Soltner, A Stahl, R Stassen, H Stockhorst, H Ströher, M Tabidze, G Tagliente, R Talman, P Thörngren Engblom, F Trinkel, Yu Uzikov, Yu Valdau, E Valetov, A Vassiliev, C Weidemann, A Wrońska, P Wüstner, P Zuprański, M Żurek
This Letter reports the successful use of feedback from a spin polarization measurement to the revolution frequency of a 0.97  GeV/c bunched and polarized deuteron beam in the Cooler Synchrotron (COSY) storage ring in order to control both the precession rate (≈121  kHz) and the phase of the horizontal polarization component. Real time synchronization with a radio frequency (rf) solenoid made possible the rotation of the polarization out of the horizontal plane, yielding a demonstration of the feedback method to manipulate the polarization...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Joe Y Chang, Vivek Verma, Ming Li, Wencheng Zhang, Ritsuko Komaki, Charles Lu, Pamela K Allen, Zhongxing Liao, James Welsh, Steven H Lin, Daniel Gomez, Melenda Jeter, Michael O'Reilly, Ronald X Zhu, Xiaodong Zhang, Heng Li, Radhe Mohan, John V Heymach, Ara A Vaporciyan, Stephen Hahn, James D Cox
Importance: Proton beam radiotherapy (PBT) has the potential to reduce toxic effects in the definitive management of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but long-term prospective data are lacking. Objective: To report the final (5-year) results of a prospective study evaluating concurrent chemotherapy and high-dose PBT to treat unresectable stage III NSCLC. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this open-label, single-group assignment study, with median follow-up of 27...
July 20, 2017: JAMA Oncology
Xiaoli Yang, Chengqi Lyu, Derong Zou
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the rate, location, and characteristics of bifid mandibular canals (BMCs) in the population of the Shanghai area using cone beam computed tomography to avoid complications during surgical procedures. METHODS: Two hundred eighty patients were recruited for this study, and the presence and morphology of BMCs were evaluated. RESULTS: The occurrence rate of BMCs in the Shanghai area was relatively high compared with that in other populations, reaching 31...
July 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Andrew J Wroe, Grant McAuley, Anthony V Teran, Jeannie Wong, Marco Petasecca, Michael Lerch, James M Slater, Anatoly B Rozenfeld
As technology continues to develop, external beam radiation therapy is being employed, with increased conformity, to treat smaller targets. As this occurs, the dosimetry methods and tools employed to quantify these fields for treatment also have to evolve to provide increased spatial resolution. The team at the University of Wollongong has developed a pixelated silicon detector prototype known as the dose magnifying glass (DMG) for real-time small-field metrology. This device has been tested in photon fields and IMRT...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
A Embriaco, V E Bellinzona, A Fontana, A Rotondi
PURPOSE: We investigate the possibility to improve the accuracy of the lateral dose profile for (4)He beams with a novel approach, by extending an already validated model for proton beams to heavier ions. METHODS: The full Molière theory for the Coulomb multiple scattering is applied to the case of (4)He beams, with a complete separation of the electromagnetic and of the nuclear contributions in the calculation of the total dose. The latter is described with only three free parameters...
July 14, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
Andrew M Hernandez, John M Boone
PURPOSE: To design volume-specific breast phantoms from breast CT (bCT) data sets and estimate the associated normalized mean glandular dose coefficients for breast CT using Monte Carlo methods. METHODS: A large cohort of bCT data sets (N=215) was used to evaluate breast volume into quintiles (plus the top 5%). The average radius profile was then determined for each of the six volume-specific groups and used to both fabricate physical phantoms and generate mathematical phantoms (V1-V6; "V" denotes classification by volume)...
July 17, 2017: Medical Physics
A Embriaco, E V Bellinzona, A Fontana, A Rotondi
We consider the evaluation of lateral spread distributions of charged particle beams at therapeutic energies, due to an absorber in the form of a homogeneous slab or of a stack. We show that the Molière theory has the same degree of flexibility as the Fermi-Eyges, but is much more accurate and does not present particular computing difficulties with the energy loss formula we have employed. It is also shown that the non-Gaussian shape of the projected one dimensional (1D) distributions is not a complication for passing from the projected to the spatial two-dimensional (2D) distribution, if one assumes circular symmetry...
July 17, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Yujiao Qin, Stephen J Gardner, Joshua Kim, Yimei Huang, Ning Wen, Anthony Doemer, Indrin J Chetty
PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of a commercial plastic scintillator detector (PSD) for small-field stereotactic patient-specific quality assurance (QA) measurements using flattening-filter-free beam. METHODS: A total of ten spherical targets (volume range: [0.03cc-2cc]) were planned with two techniques: (1) Dynamic Conformal Arc (DCA-10 plans), and (2) Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT-10 plans). All plans were generated using Varian Eclipse treatment planning system, and AcurosXB v...
July 17, 2017: Medical Physics
Аlla V Маrchenko, Іgor V Gunas, Tetyana O Petrushanko, Oksana А Serebrennikova, Yulia Yu Trofimenko
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, in world literature appeared research, which focuses on the study of relationships craniotypes with odonto-metric indicators, size, shape of the dental arches and occlusion. However, most of the experts focus on the study of individual features of the structure of the teeth-jaw system in people with different types of faces and aspects of sexual dimorphism and ethnic characteristics. Studies containing information about cranio-typological variability of the roots of teeth we did not encounter...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Ivón Oramas Polo, William Souza Santos, Patrícia de Lara Antonio, Linda V E Caldas
This paper aims to show how the variance reduction technique "Geometry splitting/Russian roulette" improves the statistical error and reduces uncertainties in the determination of the absorbed dose rate in tissue using an extrapolation chamber for beta radiation. The results show that the use of this technique can increase the number of events in the chamber cavity leading to a closer approximation of simulation result with the physical problem. There was a good agreement among the experimental measurements, the certificate of manufacture and the simulation results of the absorbed dose rate values and uncertainties...
June 20, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Alexander V Tschulakow, Klaus Dittmann, Stephan M Huber, Dominik Klumpp, Benjamin Stegen, Ulrich Schraermeyer, H Peter Rodemann, Sylvie Julien-Schraermeyer
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy (RT) is used to treat retinoblastoma (Rb), the most frequent ocular tumour in children. Besides eradicating the tumour, RT can cause severe side effects including secondary malignancies. This study aimed to define whether the radioprotector ortho-phospho-L-tyrosine (pTyr) prevents RT-induced side effects and affects local tumour control in a xenograft and a genetic orthotopic Rb mouse model. METHODS: B6;129-Rb1tm3Tyj/J (Rb(+/-)) and Y79-Rb cell-xenografted nude mice were fractionated external beam irradiated (15 fractions of 5Gy 6MV photons during 3weeks) with or without pTyr pre-treatment (100mg/kg BW, 16h prior to each irradiation)...
July 12, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Séverine Rossomme, Marco Marinelli, Gianluca Verona-Rinati, Francesco Romano, G A Pablo Cirrone, Andrzej Kacperek, Stefaan Vynckier, Hugo Palmans
PURPOSE: In this work, the LET-dependence of the response of synthetic diamond detectors is investigated in different particle beams. METHOD: Measurements were performed in three non-modulated particle beams (proton, carbon and oxygen). The response of five synthetic diamond detectors was compared to the response of a Markus or an Advanced Markus ionization chamber. The synthetic diamond detectors were used with their axis parallel to the beam axis and without any bias voltage...
July 15, 2017: Medical Physics
D Brick, V Engemaier, Y Guo, M Grossmann, G Li, D Grimm, O G Schmidt, M Schubert, V E Gusev, M Hettich, T Dekorsy
We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study of the acoustic phonon modes in rolled-up multilayers with thickness of the layers in the nanometre and diameters in the micrometre range. We compare our results to planar, unrolled multilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy. For the planar multilayers the experimentally obtained acoustic modes exhibit properties of a superlattice and match well to calculations obtained by the Rytov model. The rolled-up superlattice tubes show intriguing differences compared to the planar structures which can be attributed to the imperfect adhesion between individual tube windings...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
M Buxhuku, V Hansen, J Gjønnes
The Rotation Electron Diffraction Technique, recently developed at the University of Stockholm, has been used to acquire three-dimensional electron diffraction data. A mathematical expression to calculate the excitation errors, sg, is suggested by considering the diffraction geometry and the rotation axis. In order to plot the rocking curves, diffraction patterns taken from CoP3 cubic structure (a=7.708Å, space group Im3¯) are used as examples. Intensities of some reflections are derived by Multigauge software during the beam tilt series...
June 20, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Katsuyuki Kusuzaki, Takao Matsubara, Hiroaki Murata, Mariantonia Logozzi, Elisabetta Iessi, Rossella Di Raimo, Fabrizio Carta, Claudiu T Supuran, Stefano Fais
Photodynamic molecules represent an alternative approach for cancer therapy for their property (i) to be photo-reactive; (ii) to be not-toxic for target cells in absence of light; (iii) to accumulate specifically into tumour tissues; (iv) to be activable by a light beam only at the tumour site and (v) to exert cytotoxic activity against tumour cells. However, to date their clinical use is limited by the side effects elicited by systemic administration. Extracellular vesicles are endogenous nanosized-carriers that have been recently introduced as a natural delivery system for therapeutic molecules...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
E D Fredrickson, E V Belova, D J Battaglia, R E Bell, N A Crocker, D S Darrow, A Diallo, S P Gerhardt, N N Gorelenkov, B P LeBlanc, M Podestà, Nstx-U Team
In this Letter we present data from experiments on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade, where it is shown for the first time that small amounts of high pitch-angle beam ions can strongly suppress the counterpropagating global Alfvén eigenmodes (GAE). GAE have been implicated in the redistribution of fast ions and modification of the electron power balance in previous experiments on NSTX. The ability to predict the stability of Alfvén modes, and developing methods to control them, is important for fusion reactors like the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor, which are heated by a large population of nonthermal, super-Alfvénic ions consisting of fusion generated α's and beam ions injected for current profile control...
June 30, 2017: Physical Review Letters
G A Mesyats, N S Ginzburg, A A Golovanov, G G Denisov, I V Romanchenko, V V Rostov, K A Sharypov, V G Shpak, S A Shunailov, M R Ulmaskulov, M I Yalandin, I V Zotova
For the first time, we demonstrate experimentally the possibility of Cherenkov superradiant generation with a phase imposed by an ultrashort seed microwave pulse. The phases of seed and initiated Ka-band microwave pulses were correlated with the accuracy of 0.5-0.7 rad for the power ratio down to -35  dB. Characteristics of such a process were determined in the frame of a basic theoretical model that describes both spontaneous and stimulated emission of an electron beam moving in corrugated waveguides...
June 30, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Bastian C Krüger, G Barratt Park, Sven Meyer, Roman J V Wagner, Alec M Wodtke, Tim Schäfer
Nonreactive surface scattering of atoms, molecules and clusters can be almost universally described by two mechanisms: trapping-desorption and direct-scattering. A hard cube model with an attractive square well provides a zeroth order description of the branching ratio between these two mechanisms as a function of the incidence energy. However, the trapping process is likely to be enhanced by excitation of internal degrees of freedom during the collision. In this molecular beam surface scattering study, we characterize formaldehyde/Au(111) scattering using angle resolved time-of-flight techniques...
July 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
V A Chirayath, V Callewaert, A J Fairchild, M D Chrysler, R W Gladen, A D Mcdonald, S K Imam, K Shastry, A R Koymen, R Saniz, B Barbiellini, K Rajeshwar, B Partoens, A H Weiss
Auger processes involving the filling of holes in the valence band are thought to make important contributions to the low-energy photoelectron and secondary electron spectrum from many solids. However, measurements of the energy spectrum and the efficiency with which electrons are emitted in this process remain elusive due to a large unrelated background resulting from primary beam-induced secondary electrons. Here, we report the direct measurement of the energy spectra of electrons emitted from single layer graphene as a result of the decay of deep holes in the valence band...
July 13, 2017: Nature Communications
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