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Naoki Nakamura, Hidehiro Hojo, Kazuya Inoue, Kenji Hotta, Sadamoto Zenda, Hiromi Baba, Masakatsu Onozawa, Atsushi Motegi, Masaki Nakamura, Yuichi Kibe, Tetsuo Akimoto
This study aimed to examine late radiological changes after proton beam therapy (PBT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to clarify correlations between mass-like radiological changes and patient characteristics. CT scans of patients who underwent passive scattering PBT for T1-2N0M0 NSCLC were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were considered eligible if follow-up CT was performed for at least 2 years, with no definite evidence of local recurrence. The following five periods were defined: (i) 6-12 months, (ii) 12-24 months, (iii) 24-36 months, (iv) 36-48 months and (v) 48-60 months after PBT...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
María Pilar Chantada-Vázquez, Jorge Moreda-Piñeiro, Alicia Cantarero-Roldán, Pilar Bermejo-Barrera, Antonio Moreda-Piñeiro
A novel approach for serum analysis by dried matrix spot (DMS) technique is proposed. The methodology consists of sampling filter paper discs (2.7 mm in diameter) containing the large amount of serum retained after a single spotting. Several oxidizers (sodium chlorate, sodium azide, acetic acid, formic acid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumm chloride/bromide) were tested (oxidizers premixed with the sample before spotting, and papers previously soaked in concentrated additive/oxidizer solutions). Direct multi-element determination (Al, Be, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, Se, V, and Zn) in dried serum spots at very low levels was therefore assessed by laser ablation (LA) coupled with inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
Shichao Yue, Junling Wu, Qiang Zhang, Ke Zhang, Michael D Weir, Satoshi Imazato, Yuxing Bai, Hockin H K Xu
OBJECTIVES: Secondary caries at the tooth-restoration margins is a primary reason for restoration failure. Cracks at the margins lead to leakage which can trap bacteria, producing acids to cause caries. To date, there has been no report on developing an adhesive resin that has self-healing, antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop the first self-healing adhesive with antimicrobial and remineralizing capabilities, and (2) investigate the effects of incorporating microcapsules, dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) for the first time...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
G Bastarrika, I J González de la Huebra Rodríguez, M Calvo-Imirizaldu, V M Suárez Vega, A Alonso-Burgos
OBJECTIVE: Advances in clinical applications of computed tomography have been accompanied by improvements in advanced post-processing tools. In addition to multiplanar reconstructions, curved planar reconstructions, maximum intensity projections, and volumetric reconstructions, very recently kinematic reconstruction has been developed. This new technique, based on mathematical models that simulate the propagation of light beams through a volume of data, makes it possible to obtain very realistic three dimensional images...
May 17, 2018: Radiología
Jonathon Van Schelt, Daniel Smith, Nicholas Fong, Dolla Toomeh, Patricia A Sponseller, Derek W Brown, Meghan W Macomber, Nina A Mayr, Shilpen Patel, Adam Shulman, G V Subrahmanyam, K Govindarajan, Eric C Ford
PURPOSE: We propose a novel compensator-based IMRT system designed to provide a simple, reliable, and cost-effective adjunct technology, with the goal of expanding global access to advanced radiotherapy techniques. The system would employ easily-reusable tungsten bead compensators that operate independent of a gantry (e.g. mounted in a ring around the patient). Thereby the system can be retrofitted to existing linac and cobalt teletherapy units. This study explores the quality of treatment plans from the proposed system and the dependence on associated design parameters...
May 19, 2018: Medical Physics
D J Hartley, F G Kondev, R Orford, J A Clark, G Savard, A D Ayangeakaa, S Bottoni, F Buchinger, M T Burkey, M P Carpenter, P Copp, D A Gorelov, K Hicks, C R Hoffman, C Hu, R V F Janssens, J W Klimes, T Lauritsen, J Sethi, D Seweryniak, K S Sharma, H Zhang, S Zhu, Y Zhu
The structure of deformed neutron-rich nuclei in the rare-earth region is of significant interest for both the astrophysics and nuclear structure fields. At present, a complete explanation for the observed peak in the elemental abundances at A∼160 eludes astrophysicists, and models depend on accurate quantities, such as masses, lifetimes, and branching ratios of deformed neutron-rich nuclei in this region. Unusual nuclear structure effects are also observed, such as the unexpectedly low energies of the first 2^{+} levels in some even-even nuclei at N=98...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Maria Timofeeva, Lukas Lang, Flavia Timpu, Claude Renaut, Alexei Bouravleuv, Igor V Shtrom, George Cirlin, Rachel Grange
Nonradiating electromagnetic configurations in nanostructures open new horizons for applications due to two essential features: lack of energy losses and invisibility to the propagating electromagnetic field. Such radiationless configurations form a basis for new types of nanophotonic devices, where a strong electromagnetic field confinement can be achieved together with lossless interactions between nearby components. In our work, we present a new design of free-standing disk nanoantennas with nonradiating current distributions for the optical near-infrared range...
May 17, 2018: Nano Letters
Caspar Haverkamp, George Sarau, Mikhail N Polyakov, Ivo Utke, Marcos V Puydinger Dos Santos, Silke Christiansen, Katja Höflich
A fluorine free copper precursor, Cu(tbaoac)2 with the chemical sum formula CuC16 O6 H26 is introduced for focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). FEBID with 15 keV and 7 nA results in deposits with an atomic composition of Cu:O:C of approximately 1:1:2. Transmission electron microscopy proved that pure copper nanocrystals with sizes of up to around 15 nm were dispersed inside the carbonaceous matrix. Raman investigations revealed a high degree of amorphization of the carbonaceous matrix and showed hints for partial copper oxidation taking place selectively on the surfaces of the deposits...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Annamaria Didona, Valentina Lancellotta, Claudio Zucchetti, Bianca Moira Panizza, Alessandro Frattegiani, Martina Iacco, Anna Concetta Di Pilato, Simonetta Saldi, Cynthia Aristei
Background: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) improves dose distribution in head and neck (HN) radiation therapy. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), a new form of IMRT, delivers radiation in single or multiple arcs, varying dose rates (VDR-VMAT) and gantry speeds, has gained considerable attention. Constant dose rate VMAT (CDR-VMAT) associated with a fixed gantry speed does not require a dedicated linear accelerator like VDR-VMAT. The present study explored the feasibility, efficiency and delivery accuracy of CDR-VMAT, by comparing it with IMRT and VDR-VMAT in treatment planning for HN cancer...
May 2018: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Noritaka Masaki, Shigetoshi Okazaki
The recent development of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) has facilitated the irradiation of a mid-infrared laser beam that is specifically absorbed by a target molecular bond. Aiming for a selective delivery of laser energy to a specific absorption at 1,738 cm-1 by the ester bonds of triacylglycerol (TAG), a QCL beam with a wavenumber of 1,710 cm-1 was irradiated to 3T3-L1 adipocytes and preadipocytes. Neutral red staining, and FITC-labeled annexin V and ethidium homodimer-III assays revealed the occurrence of adipocyte-specific cell death 24 h after QCL irradiation...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
A Revel, F M Marqués, O Sorlin, T Aumann, C Caesar, M Holl, V Panin, M Vandebrouck, F Wamers, H Alvarez-Pol, L Atar, V Avdeichikov, S Beceiro-Novo, D Bemmerer, J Benlliure, C A Bertulani, J M Boillos, K Boretzky, M J G Borge, M Caamaño, E Casarejos, W N Catford, J Cederkäll, M Chartier, L Chulkov, D Cortina-Gil, E Cravo, R Crespo, U Datta Pramanik, P Díaz Fernández, I Dillmann, Z Elekes, J Enders, O Ershova, A Estradé, F Farinon, L M Fraile, M Freer, D Galaviz, H Geissel, R Gernhäuser, P Golubev, K Göbel, J Hagdahl, T Heftrich, M Heil, M Heine, A Heinz, A Henriques, A Ignatov, H T Johansson, B Jonson, J Kahlbow, N Kalantar-Nayestanaki, R Kanungo, A Kelic-Heil, A Knyazev, T Kröll, N Kurz, M Labiche, C Langer, T Le Bleis, R Lemmon, S Lindberg, J Machado, J Marganiec, A Movsesyan, E Nacher, M Najafi, T Nilsson, C Nociforo, S Paschalis, A Perea, M Petri, S Pietri, R Plag, R Reifarth, G Ribeiro, C Rigollet, M Röder, D Rossi, D Savran, H Scheit, H Simon, I Syndikus, J T Taylor, O Tengblad, R Thies, Y Togano, P Velho, V Volkov, A Wagner, H Weick, C Wheldon, G Wilson, J S Winfield, P Woods, D Yakorev, M Zhukov, A Zilges, K Zuber
The emission of neutron pairs from the neutron-rich N=12 isotones ^{18}C and ^{20}O has been studied by high-energy nucleon knockout from ^{19}N and ^{21}O secondary beams, populating unbound states of the two isotones up to 15 MeV above their two-neutron emission thresholds. The analysis of triple fragment-n-n correlations shows that the decay ^{19}N(-1p)^{18}C^{*}→^{16}C+n+n is clearly dominated by direct pair emission. The two-neutron correlation strength, the largest ever observed, suggests the predominance of a ^{14}C core surrounded by four valence neutrons arranged in strongly correlated pairs...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
E Fiorina, V Ferrero, F Pennazio, G Baroni, G Battistoni, N Belcari, P Cerello, N Camarlinghi, M Ciocca, A Del Guerra, M Donetti, A Ferrari, S Giordanengo, G Giraudo, A Mairani, M Morrocchi, C Peroni, A Rivetti, M D Da Rocha Rolo, S Rossi, V Rosso, P Sala, G Sportelli, S Tampellini, F Valvo, R Wheadon, M G Bisogni
Hadrontherapy is a method for treating cancer with very targeted dose distributions and enhanced radiobiological effects. To fully exploit these advantages, in vivo range monitoring systems are required. These devices measure, preferably during the treatment, the secondary radiation generated by the beam-tissue interactions. However, since correlation of the secondary radiation distribution with the dose is not straightforward, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are very important for treatment quality assessment...
May 7, 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Galia Pozina, Azat R Gubaydullin, Maxim I Mitrofanov, Mikhail A Kaliteevski, Iaroslav V Levitskii, Gleb V Voznyuk, Evgeniy E Tatarinov, Vadim P Evtikhiev, Sergey N Rodin, Vasily N Kaliteevskiy, Leonid S Chechurin
We have developed a method to fabricate GaN planar nanowires and cavities by combination of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) patterning of the substrate followed by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE). The method includes depositing a silicon nitride mask on a sapphire substrate, etching of the trenches in the mask by FIB with a diameter of 40 nm with subsequent MOVPE growth of GaN within trenches. It was observed that the growth rate of GaN is substantially increased due to enhanced bulk diffusion of the growth precursor therefore the model for analysis of the growth rate was developed...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Robert G Bristow, Brian Alexander, Michael Baumann, Scott V Bratman, J Martin Brown, Kevin Camphausen, Peter Choyke, Deborah Citrin, Joseph N Contessa, Adam Dicker, David G Kirsch, Mechthild Krause, Quynh-Thu Le, Michael Milosevic, Zachary S Morris, Jann N Sarkaria, Paul M Sondel, Phuoc T Tran, George D Wilson, Henning Willers, Rebecca K S Wong, Paul M Harari
The practice of radiation oncology is primarily based on precise technical delivery of highly conformal, image-guided external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. However, systematic research efforts are being made to facilitate individualised radiation dose prescriptions on the basis of gene-expressssion profiles that reflect the radiosensitivity of tumour and normal tissue. This advance in precision radiotherapy should complement those benefits made in precision cancer medicine that use molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapies...
May 2018: Lancet Oncology
T André, I A Andriyash, A Loulergue, M Labat, E Roussel, A Ghaith, M Khojoyan, C Thaury, M Valléau, F Briquez, F Marteau, K Tavakoli, P N'Gotta, Y Dietrich, G Lambert, V Malka, C Benabderrahmane, J Vétéran, L Chapuis, T El Ajjouri, M Sebdaoui, N Hubert, O Marcouillé, P Berteaud, N Leclercq, M El Ajjouri, P Rommeluère, F Bouvet, J -P Duval, C Kitegi, F Blache, B Mahieu, S Corde, J Gautier, K Ta Phuoc, J P Goddet, A Lestrade, C Herbeaux, C Évain, C Szwaj, S Bielawski, A Tafzi, P Rousseau, S Smartsev, F Polack, D Dennetière, C Bourassin-Bouchet, C De Oliveira, M -E Couprie
The original version of this Article contained an error in the last sentence of the first paragraph of the Introduction and incorrectly read 'A proper electron beam control is one of the main challenges towards the Graal of developing a compact alternative of X-ray free-electron lasers by coupling LWFA gigaelectron-volts per centimetre acceleration gradient with undulators in the amplification regime in equation 11, nx(n-β) x β: n the two times and beta the two times should be bold since they are vectorsin Eq...
May 2, 2018: Nature Communications
M Portelli, A Militi, A Lo Giudice, R Lo Giudice, R Fastuca, I Ielo, V Mongelli, G Lo Giudice, A Martintoni, M Manuelli, A Lucchese, R Nucera
Considering the diagnostic capability offered by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), nowadays orthodontists often use this exam for treatment planning, especially in cases of impacted teeth, maxillary ipoplasia, orthognathic surgery etc. The aim of this study was to compare the radiation doses related to a conventional CBCT setting and that of a low dose protocol, usable in orthodontic practice. The absorbed organ doses were measured using an anthropomorphic phantom loaded with thermo-luminescent dosimeters related to sensitive organs (brain, bone marrow, salivary glands, thyroid, esophagus, oral mucosa, extrathoracic airways, lymph nodes)...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
T H M van de Ven, C A de Meijere, R M van der Horst, M van Kampen, V Y Banine, J Beckers
Retarding field energy analyzers (RFEAs) are used routinely for the measurement of ion energy distribution functions. By contrast, their ability to measure ion flux densities has been considered unreliable because of lack of knowledge about the effective transmission of the RFEA grids. In this work, we simulate the ion trajectories through a three-gridded RFEA using the simulation software SIMION. Using idealized test cases, it is shown that at high ion energy (i.e., >100 eV) the transmission is equal to the optical transmission rather than the product of the individual grid transparencies...
April 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Lihui Liu, Guobiao Cai, Fengyi You, Xiang Ren, Hongru Zheng, Bijiao He
A thermostatic E × B probe is designed to protect the probe body from the thermal effect of the plasma plume that has a significant influence on the resolution of the probe for high-power electric thrusters. An active cooling system, which consists of a cooling panel and carbon fiber felts combined with a recycling system of liquid coolants or an open-type system of gas coolants, is employed to realize the protection of the probe. The threshold for the design parameters for the active cooling system is estimated by deriving the energy transfer of the plasma plume-probe body interaction and the energy taken away by the coolants, and the design details are explained...
April 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Jinkwan Kwoen, Bongyong Jang, Joohang Lee, Takeo Kageyama, Katsuyuki Watanabe, Yasuhiko Arakawa
Directly grown III-V quantum dot (QD) laser on on-axis Si (001) is a good candidate for achieving monolithically integrated Si photonics light source. Nowadays, laser structures containing high quality InAs / GaAs QD are generally grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). However, the buffer layer between the on-axis Si (001) substrate and the laser structure are usually grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In this paper, we demonstrate all MBE grown high-quality InAs/GaAs QD lasers on on-axis Si (001) substrates without using patterning and intermediate layers of foreign material...
April 30, 2018: Optics Express
G P Miroshnichenko, A V Kozubov, A A Gaidash, A V Gleim, D B Horoshko
We consider a subcarrier wave quantum key distribution (QKD) system, where quantum encoding is carried out at weak sidebands generated around a coherent optical beam as a result of electro-optical phase modulation. We study security of two protocols, B92 and BB84, against one of the most powerful attacks for this class of systems, the collective beam-splitting attack. Our analysis includes the case of high modulation index, where the sidebands are essentially multimode. We demonstrate numerically and experimentally that a subcarrier wave QKD system with realistic parameters is capable of distributing cryptographic keys over large distances in presence of collective attacks...
April 30, 2018: Optics Express
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