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Brian J Piper, Michael J Suarez, John P Piserchio, Dipam T Shah, Olapeju M Simoyan, Kenneth L McCall, Clare E Desrosiers, Stephanie D Nichols
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is rapidly evolving and new tools are needed to combat drug abuse. The Maine Diversion Alert Program (DAP) is an informational resource that facilitates communication about drug arrests between the criminal justice and healthcare fields. The objectives of this report were to: (1) describe the illegal and prescription pharmaceuticals reported to the DAP; (2) determine if the drugs implicated in arrests changed from the first to latter half of 2016; (3) identify the demographic and other characteristics of arrestees; and (4) outline the strengths and limitations of the DAP for other areas considering implementing similar programs...
February 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Louise Wingård, Heidi Taipale, Johan Reutfors, Anna Westerlund, Robert Bodén, Jari Tiihonen, Antti Tanskanen, Morten Andersen
OBJECTIVES: Increasing evidence points to the harmful effects of long-term benzodiazepine treatment. Our objective was to study the incidence of, and predictors for, long-term use of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs in bipolar disorder. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study, using data from Swedish national registers. Swedish residents aged 18-75 years with a recorded diagnosis of bipolar disorder or mania between July 2006 and December 2012, and no history of benzodiazepine/Z-drug use in the past year, were included...
February 16, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Emilie Jouanjus, Grégory Guernec, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre
Diversion of prescription drugs is difficult to assess in quality and quantity. This study aimed to characterize diversion of prescription drugs in France through a comparative analysis of falsified prescriptions collected during three periods from 2001 to 2012. The data recorded in a national program which records all falsified prescriptions presented to community pharmacies were studied. Included data regarded: subjects, prescription forms and drugs. Description of the dataset in 3 periods (2001-2004, 2005-2008, and 2009-2012) was completed with clustering analyses to characterize profiles of prescriptions and subjects associated with the most reported drugs...
February 13, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Matteo Moretti, Luisa Andrello, Silvia Visonà, Claudia Vignali, Angelo Groppi, Francesca Freni, Antonio Osculati, Luca Tajana, Luca Morini
The study aims the development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for the identification and quantification of benzodiazepines and zolpidem in nails as alternative keratinized matrix to hair in long-term monitoring of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs. Both fingernail and toenail samples (1-2 mm) were collected by clipping the excess overhang of the nail from volunteers and from postmortem cases. They were washed twice with organic solvents, dried under nitrogen stream, pulverized, immersed in a methanol solution (internal standard: diazepam-D5) and sonicated up to two hours...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Ahmad Said, Alexandra Halalau
A 39-year-old woman with a history of chronic back pain due to spinal haemangiomas, multiple malignancies and depression was brought by Emergency medical servicesS to the emergency centre (EC) after being found unresponsive on the bathroom floor. The patient had an exacerbation of her back pain the previous day for which she admitted to taking double her usual dose of oxycodone, in addition to alprazolam, lorazepam, diphenhydramine and a glass of wine. She reported that she lost consciousness and was down for over 8 hours...
January 24, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Suling Zhang, Weixuan Yao, Defeng Fu, Chunxiao Zhang, Hongting Zhao
In this study, an alternative method for synthesizing magnetic cobalt adeninate metal-organic frameworks was developed, and the synthesized materials were examined for their potential application for separating and enriching benzodiazepines from complex samples. Benzodiazepines, widely used as hypnotics, muscle relaxants, sedatives, and anxiolytics, are a class of drugs that require being accurately detected and monitored. Results showed that Fe3 O4 nanoparticles could be well anchored onto the external surface of cobalt adeninate metal-organic frameworks by using amino-silane as a linkage...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Valérie Baillif-Couniou, Christophe Bartoli, Caroline Sastre, Marjorie Chèze, Marc Deveaux, Georges Léonetti, Anne-Laure Pélissier-Alicot
Attempted murder by repeated poisoning is quite rare. The authors describe the case of a 62-year-old man who was admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for neurological disturbances complicated by inhalation pneumopathy. He presented a loss of consciousness while his wife was visiting him at the ICU (H0). Forty-eight hours later (H48), police officers apprehended the patient's wife pouring a liquid into his fruit salad at the hospital. Toxicological analyses of a blood sample and the infusion equipment (H0), as well as the fruit salad and its container (H48), confirmed the attempted poisoning with cyamemazine (H0) and hydrochloric acid (H48)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Robert Kronstrand, Malin Forsman, Markus Roman
Liquid chromatographic methods coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry are increasingly used to identify compounds in various matrices including hair but there are few recommendations regarding the parameters and their criteria to identify a compound. In this study we present a method for the identification and quantification of a range of drugs and discuss the parameters used to identify a compound with high resolution mass spectrometry. Drugs were extracted from hair by incubation in a buffer:solvent mixture at 37°C during 18h...
February 2018: Forensic Science International
Marzieh Karimian Amroabadi, Asghar Taheri-Kafrani, Leily Heidarpoor Saremi, Ali Asghar Rastegari
The interaction between apo-human serum transferrin (Apo-hTf) and alprazolam was investigated using various spectroscopic techniques. The drug quenched the fluorescence intensity of Apo-hTf and the mechanism behind the quenching was static. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS) that obtained from tryptophan fluorescence study revealed that the interactions between alprazolam and Apo-hTf were spontaneous. Collectively, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding most likely played major roles in Apo-hTf/alprazolam interactions...
March 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Christopher J Plescia, Peter Manu
CLINICAL FEATURES: We present a case of a middle-aged man admitted to an inpatient detoxification facility for withdrawal of intranasal heroin, alprazolam, and ethanol. The patient was placed on methadone and chlordiazepoxide tapers. Ondansetron and trazodone were prescribed as needed for symptom control. On the third hospital day, the patient was found unresponsive with blood glucose of 40 mg/dL. He had no history of glucose dysregulation. The patient was pronounced dead shortly thereafter...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
Tatiana Paschoalin-Maurin, Tayllon Dos Anjos-Garcia, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Renato Leonardo de Freitas, Jade Pissamiglio Cysne Coimbra, Carlos Júlio Laure, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
Using an innovative approach to study the neural bases of psychiatric disorders, this study investigated the behavioral, morphological and pharmacological bases of panic attack-induced responses in a prey-versus-coral snake paradigm. Mesocricetus auratus was chronically treated with intraperitoneal administration of the selective serotonin uptake inhibitor paroxetine or the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)/benzodiazepine receptor agonist alprazolam at three different doses and were then confronted with a venomous coral snake (Micrurus frontalis, Reptilia, Elapidae)...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Gabriella Ambrosio, Xavier de la Torre, Monica Mazzarino, Maria K Parr, Francesco Botrè
The potential consequences of drug-drug interaction on the strategies adopted by anti-doping laboratories to report an adverse analytical finding for morphine were investigated. We evaluated in vitro the effects of 14 drugs on the principal metabolic pathways of morphine. The selected drugs are among those most commonly used by the athletes, none of them presently included in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List. The non-prohibited drugs included 4 antifungals (fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and miconazole), 6 benzodiazepines (alprazolam, bromazepam, clonazepam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, and triazolam), and 4 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and nimesulide)...
November 24, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Ziyad Alrabiah, Mohamed N Al-Arifi, Sultan M Alghadeer, Syed Wajid, Ali AlQahtani, Naif Almotari, AbdAllh AlHwerani, Salmeen D Babelghaith
Background: Community pharmacists (CPs) are the most accessible health care provider to the public, and they have huge duties to improve medication use especially among the pregnant women in their community. The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge of CPs about the medication safety during pregnancy. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional survey was carried out over practicing community pharmacists in a capital of Saudi Arabia (SA). Pharmacists were asked about the safety of each medicine during pregnancy...
November 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Kerri A Schoedel, Armel Stockis, Edward M Sellers
BACKGROUND: Brivaracetam is a new antiepileptic drug indicated for adjunctive treatment of focal seizures in adults at a dose of 50-200mg/day taken in two equal doses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abuse potential of brivaracetam compared with alprazolam (positive control), placebo, and levetiracetam. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, triple-dummy, crossover study in healthy male and female recreational central nervous system (CNS) depressant users aged 18-55years, who could distinguish between the subjective effects of alprazolam 2mg and placebo...
November 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Simona Pichini, Renata Solimini, Paolo Berretta, Roberta Pacifici, Francesco Paolo Busardò
Illicit fentanyl and its analogues are very dangerous synthetic opioids, with high abuse potential and severe adverse effects including coma and death. They are used as adulterants in street heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine, or as heroin substitutes sold to unaware users with a high risk of overdoses. Fentanyl and its analogues have also been identified in counterfeit medicinal products, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, and alprazolam tablets, or as components of speedball mixtures together with cocaine or other stimulants...
February 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Ailton Spiacci, Heloisa H Vilela-Costa, Ana Beatriz Sant'Ana, Gabriel Gripp Fernandes, Alana Tercino Frias, Glauber S Ferreira da Silva, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Hélio Zangrossi
Exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2 or hypoxia has been widely used in psychiatric research as a panic provoking stimulus. However, the use of these respiratory challenges to model panic-like responses in experimental animals has been less straightforward. Little data is available, from behavioral and endocrine perspectives, to support the conclusion that a marked aversive situation, such as that experienced during panic attacks, was evoked in these animals. We here compared the behavioral responses of male CB57BL/6 mice during exposure to 20% CO2 or 7% O2 and its consequence on plasma levels of corticosterone...
October 28, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Maren Cecilie Strand, Jørg Mørland, Lars Slørdal, Bettina Riedel, Cato Innerdal, Trond Aamo, Grete Mathisrud, Vigdis Vindenes
AIMS: Norway has introduced legal concentration limits in blood for 28 non-alcohol drugs in driving under the influence cases. As of 2016 this legislation also regulates the assessment of combined effects of multiple benzodiazepines and opioids. We herein describe the employed methodology for the equivalence tables for concentrations of benzodiazepines/z-hypnotics and opioids implemented in the Norwegian Road Traffic Act. METHODS: Legislative limits corresponding to impairment at blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0...
December 2017: Forensic Science International
Tayyar Alp Ozkan, Sefik Koprulu, Ayhan Karakose, Ozdal Dillioglugil, Ibrahim Cevik
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of pre-operative alprazolam medication on anxiety and pain in flexible cystoscopy for bladder cancer follow-up. METHODS: A total of 86 male patients who had flexible cystoscopy for bladder cancer follow-up at 6th and 9th months were included in the study. A visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used. The 6th (VAS-1)and 9th (VAS-2) month pain scores and 6th month STAI score (STAI-1) and, 9th month STAI score before (STAI-2a) and after alprazolam (0...
November 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Kenneth R Kaufman, Melissa Coluccio, Kartik Sivaraaman, Miriam Campeas
BACKGROUND: Optimal anti-epileptic drug (AED) treatment maximises therapeutic response and minimises adverse effects (AEs). Key to therapeutic AED treatment is adherence. Non-adherence is often related to severity of AEs. Frequently, patients do not spontaneously report, and clinicians do not specifically query, critical AEs that lead to non-adherence, including sexual dysfunction. Sexual dysfunction prevalence in patients with epilepsy ranges from 40 to 70%, often related to AEDs, epilepsy or mood states...
September 2017: BJPsych Open
Anna E Austin, Scott K Proescholdbell, Kathleen E Creppage, Alex Asbun
BACKGROUND: Drug overdose mortality is a major public health concern in the United States, with prescription opioids contributing substantially to recent increases in drug overdose deaths. Compared to unintentional drug overdose deaths, relatively little data describes intentional self-inflicted drug overdose deaths (i.e., suicide by drug overdose). The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of self-inflicted drug overdose deaths, overall and in comparison to unintentional drug overdose deaths...
October 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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