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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067201/false-negative-on-a-proven-involuntary-intoxication-in-two-children-with-lorazepam
#1
Catherine Feliu, Hélène Guillemin, Claire Gozalo, Aurélie Fouley, Hélène Marty, Hervé Millart, Zoubir Djerada
Children aged between 1 to 4 years are the most at risk of unintentional poisonings. Benzodiazepines are the most medicine often cause of the poisoning. Among the twenty-two most prescribed benzodiazepines in France, lorazepam ranks fifth behind zolpidem, alprazolam, bromazepam and zopiclone. However the automated assay currently available does not allow to detect and/or to quantify lorazepam. The alternative to the immunoassay is the liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). This technique, highly sensitive and specific, requires a pre-treatment phase and a good technical proficiency, justifying specialized staff...
January 9, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067180/dispensing-patterns-of-anxiolytics-and-sedative-hypnotics-a-feasibility-study-comparing-datasets-from-a-developed-and-developing-country-australia-and-south-africa
#2
Therése Kairuz, Ilse Truter, Laurence Rossato, Alex Pudmenzky
BACKGROUND: Dispensing patterns reflect drug usage trends. Benzodiazepines are known as drugs with potential for misuse, and frequent dispensing may be a surrogate marker of misuse. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to obtain a comparative snapshot of anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic dispensing in a developing country and a developed country, to determine whether further research about benzodiazepines is warranted. METHOD: A cross-national, cross-sectional retrospective drug utilisation study was conducted on benzodiazepines and z-drugs...
January 9, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017287/-retrospective-study-of-the-assessment-and-management-of-benzodiazepine-withdrawal-syndrome-in-hospital-between-2000-and-2015
#3
A Martin-Kleisch, A-A Zulfiqar
INTRODUCTION: Benzodiazepines are prescribed in many indications and are provider of adverse effects in case of abrupt withdrawal or poorly framed. Withdrawal rules are established by the High Authority for Health. METHODS: To evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, we performed a retrospective single-center study at the University Hospital of Reims, between January 2000 and May 2015, in patients with a withdrawal syndrome following hospital coding...
December 22, 2016: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996932/drugs-most-frequently-involved-in-drug-overdose-deaths-united-states-2010-2014
#4
Margaret Warner, James P Trinidad, Brigham A Bastian, Arialdi M Minino, Holly Hedegaard
Objectives-This report identifies the specific drugs most frequently involved in drug overdose deaths in the United States from 2010 through 2014. Methods-The 2010-2014 National Vital Statistics System mortality files were linked to electronic files containing literal text information from death certificates. Drug overdose was defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision underlying cause-of-death codes X40-X44 (unintentional), X60-X64 (suicide), X85 (homicide), and Y10-Y14 (undetermined intent)...
December 2016: National Vital Statistics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994412/a-comparative-study-to-assess-the-effect-of-oral-alprazolam-as-premedication-on-vital-parameters-of-patients-during-surgical-removal-of-impacted-mandibular-third-molars
#5
Sanjay Joshi, Arsalan Shakil Ahmed Ansari, Sima Mazumdar, Sidra Ansari
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate and monitor the changes in vital parameters of patients during surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars. METHODS: This was an in vivo study conducted in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Terna Dental College. Sixty patients were randomly selected. Thirty patients were given a preoperative single dose of oral tablet alprazolam 0.5 mg as premedication (test group), whereas the other thirty were treated without any premedication (control group)...
October 2016: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992663/persistence-of-alprazolam-in-river-water-according-to-forced-and-non-forced-degradation-assays-adsorption-to-sediment-and-long-term-degradation-products
#6
Juan J Jiménez, María I Sánchez, Beatriz E Muñoz, Rafael Pardo
Alprazolam is a pharmaceutical compound that it is detected in surface waters. Some degradation studies in aqueous solutions and pharmaceutical products are available, but there is not reliable information about its stability in river water. Here, assays have been conducted under forced biological, photochemical and thermal conditions, and non-forced conditions, to estimate the fate of alprazolam in river water and know its degradation products. The forced assays indicated that the biological and photochemical degradation of alprazolam was negligible, only the heating at 70 °C for a long time affected it scarcely...
December 19, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979928/lc-ms-ms-method-for-analysis-of-benzodiazepines-in-wastewater-during-football-games-iv
#7
Brandon Stamper, Waseem Gul, Murrell Godfrey, Shahbaz W Gul, Mahmoud A ElSohly
Continuing our studies for the analyses of drugs of abuse in municipal wastewater, a method was developed for the analysis of benzodiazepines in wastewater samples using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Ten benzodiazepines and metabolites were analyzed (structures were found), including alprazolam, α-OH-alprazolam (the primary urinary metabolite of alprazolam), chlordiazepoxide, flurazepam, 2-OH-ethylflurazepam (the primary urinary metabolite of flurazepam), 7-NH2-flunitrazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, temazepam and α-OH-triazolam (the primary urinary metabolite of triazolam) (representative chromatograms were found)...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928707/effect-of-zuogui-pill-on-monoamine-neurotransmitters-and-sex-hormones-in-climacteric-rats-with-panic-attack
#8
Xiao-Yu Li, Xiao-Yun Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of Chinese medicine prescription Zuogui Pill (, ZGP) on monoamine neurotransmitters and sex hormones in climacteric rats with induced panic attacks. METHODS: Forty-eight climacteric female rats were randomized into 6 groups with 8 rats in each group: the control group, the model group, the low-, medium- and high-dose ZGP groups and the alprazolam group. Rats in the low-, medium- and high-dose ZGP groups were administered 4.725, 9...
December 7, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922194/pharmacodynamic-response-profiles-of-anxiolytic-and-sedative-drugs
#9
Xia Chen, Freerk Broeyer, Marieke de Kam, Joke Baas, Adam Cohen, Joop van Gerven
INTRODUCTION: Centrally-acting acutely anxiolytic drugs, like benzodiazepines, barbiturates and gabapentinoids, affect various central nervous system (CNS) functions, which reflect not only their anxiolytic effects but also neuropsychological side-effects. To validate the pharmacodynamic biomarkers for GABA-ergic anxiolytics, this study determined the pharmacodynamics of two anxiolytics and a non-anxiolytic control and linked them to their anxiolytic and sedative effects, during an anxiety-challenge study day...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900070/potentially-inappropriate-medications-by-beers-criteria-in-older-outpatients-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#10
Yeon-Jung Lim, Ha-Yeon Kim, Jaekyung Choi, Ji Sun Lee, Ah-Leum Ahn, Eun-Jung Oh, Dong-Yung Cho, Hyuk-Jung Kweon
BACKGROUND: Prescription of inappropriate medicine to elderly patients is a major public health care concern. The Beers criteria have been commonly employed as a screening tool to identify the use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). The present study investigated the prevalence of PIM use according to the Beers criteria as well as factors related to PIM use. METHODS: Data obtained from a retrospective survey included 25,810 outpatients aged ≥65 years from a university medical center in Seoul, Korea...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881622/stability-of-21-cocaine-opioid-and-benzodiazepine-drug-analytes-in-spiked-meconium-at-three-temperatures
#11
Fang Wu, Stephanie J Marin, Gwendolyn A McMillin
In this study, the stability of 21 cocaine, opioid and benzodiazepine analytes in spiked meconium was investigated at three storage temperatures: 4°C, room temperature (RT), and 37°C (body temperature). The drugs/metabolites included were hydrocodone, hydromorphone, codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), oxycodone, oxymorphone, cocaine, cocaethylene, benzoylecgonine, m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine, diazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, nordiazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, alprazolam, alpha-hydroxyalprazolam, clonazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam, midazolam, alpha-hydroxymidazolam and zolpidem...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866243/monitoring-of-adherence-to-headache-treatments-by-means-of-hair-analysis
#12
Anna Ferrari, Manuela Licata, Cecilia Rustichelli, Carlo Baraldi, Daniele Vandelli, Filippo Marchesi, Federica Palazzoli, Patrizia Verri, Enrico Silingardi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of hair analysis to monitor medication adherence in headache patients undergoing chronic therapy. For this purpose, the following parameters were analyzed: the detection rate of 23 therapeutic drugs in headache patients' hair, the degree of agreement between the self-reported drug and the drug found in hair, and whether the levels found in hair reflected the drug intake reported by the patients. METHODS: The study included 93 patients suffering from primary headaches declaring their daily intake of at least one of the following drugs during the 3 months before the hair sampling: alprazolam, amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, clonazepam, delorazepam, diazepam, duloxetine, fluoxetine, flurazepam, levomepromazine, levosulpiride, lorazepam, lormetazepam, mirtazapine, paroxetine, quetiapine, sertraline, topiramate, trazodone, triazolam, venlafaxine, and zolpidem...
November 20, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856134/alprazolam-in-fatal-overdose-following-regulatory-rescheduling-a-response-to-deacon-et-al
#13
Belinda Lloyd, Jeremy Dwyer, Lyndal Bugeja, Audrey Jamieson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807907/trends-in-incident-use-of-benzodiazepines-and-z-drugs-in-france-from-2006-to-2012-a-population-based-study
#14
Anne Bénard-Laribière, Pernelle Noize, Elodie Pambrun, Fabienne Bazin, Hélène Verdoux, Marie Tournier, Bernard Bégaud, Antoine Pariente
PURPOSE: To study trends in incident use of benzodiazepines in France between 2006 and 2012. METHODS: A cross-sectional study repeated yearly was conducted using data from the French national healthcare insurance system. New benzodiazepine users were defined as users without any benzodiazepine dispensing in the year prior to the first dispensing of benzodiazepine in each year. Relative changes in incidence of use were calculated with the year 2006 as reference; confidence intervals for changes were estimated using the bootstrap method...
November 3, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798077/a-fatality-related-to-the-synthetic-opioid-u-47700-postmortem-concentration-distribution
#15
Iain M McIntyre, Ray D Gary, Sandra Joseph, Robert Stabley
In this case report, we present an evaluation of the distribution of postmortem concentrations of 3,4-dichloro-N-[2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methylbenzamide (U-47700) in a fatality attributed principally to the drug. A man who had a history of drug abuse was found unresponsive and not breathing on his bed. Drug paraphernalia, indicating drug insufflation, was located in the decedent's room. Toxicology screening tests in peripheral blood initially identified U-47700 using an alkaline drug screen with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following solid-phase extraction...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779482/influence-of-premedication-with-alprazolam-on-the-occurence-of-obstructive-apneas-a-prospective-randomized-double-blind-study
#16
E Deflandre, V Bonhomme, A-C Courtois, S Degey, R Poirrier, J-F Brichant
Postoperative development or worsening of obstructive sleep apnea is a potential complication of anesthesia. The objective of this study was to study the effects of a premedication with alprazolam on the occurrence of apneas during the immediate postoperative period. Fifty ASA 1 - 2 patients undergoing a colonoscopy were recruited. Patients with a history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were excluded. Recruited patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: in Group A, they received 0.5 mg of alprazolam orally one hour before the procedure; and in Group C, they received placebo...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737792/effects-of-alprazolam-and-cannabinoid-related-compounds-in-an-animal-model-of-panic-attack
#17
Luara A Batista, Andrea S Haibara, Luiz C Schenberg, Fabricio A Moreira
Selective stimulation of carotid chemoreceptors by intravenous infusion of low doses of potassium cyanide (KCN) produces short-lasting escape responses that have been proposed as a model of panic attack. In turn, preclinical studies suggest that facilitation of the endocannabinoid system attenuate panic-like responses. Here, we compared the effects of cannabinoid-related compounds to those of alprazolam, a clinically effective panicolytic, on the duration of the escape reaction induced by intravenous infusion of KCN (80μg) in rats...
October 11, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725022/inappropriate-medicine-prescribing-in-older-south-africans-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-medicine-claims-data
#18
J A Van Heerden, J R Burger, J J Gerber
BACKGROUND: Prescribing for older patients is a well-recognised problem, and inappropriate items are prescribed frequently. Several tools and criteria are available to promote rational prescribing in older patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs) in older South African patients. METHODS: A retrospective drug utilisation review was conducted using medicine claims data over a 1-year period...
September 9, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691935/combination-therapy-with-fluoxetine-and-alprazolam-to-control-anxiety-in-a-hand-reared-snow-leopard-uncia-uncia
#19
Holly J Holman
A captive hand-reared adult male snow leopard ( Uncia uncia ) was treated for anxiety associated with taunting from visitors, the presence of large crowds, and introduction to a female for breeding. Behaviors included shaking, chewing on tail, panting, panicking, and bouncing off the viewing glass, pacing, and avoidance of the female. Combination therapy of oral fluoxetine and alprazolam were administered initially to minimize anxious behaviors while the fluoxetine achieved therapeutic levels. The alprazolam was tapered completely and was only used episodically on two occasions...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660452/prescription-patterns-of-benzodiazepines-in-the-lebanese-adult-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Wijdan H Ramadan, Ghada M El Khoury, Mary E Deeb, Marwan Sheikh-Taha
This study assessed the profile of benzodiazepine (BDZ) users in Lebanon. Adult patients visiting the pharmacies with prescriptions of BDZs were included in the study. Seven hundred and eighty-six current BDZ users were included, of whom 54.2% were females. Twenty-three percent reported being alcohol consumers and were mostly males. The two most commonly used BDZs were alprazolam (34.6%) and bromazepam (33.6%). The indication for use was mainly anxiety (44.4%), insomnia (22.5%), and depression (15.9%). The prescribing physicians were primarily psychiatrists (43...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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