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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120973/acute-intoxications-and-fatalities-from-illicit-fentanyl-and-analogues-an-update
#1
Simona Pichini, Renata Solimini, Paolo Berretta, Roberta Pacifici, Francesco Paolo Busardò
Illicit fentanyl and its analogues are very dangerous synthetic opioids, with high abuse potential and severe adverse effects including coma and death. They are used as adulterants in street heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine, or as heroin substitutes sold to unaware users with a high risk of overdoses. Fentanyl and its analogues have also been identified in counterfeit medicinal products, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, and alprazolam tablets, or as components of speedball mixtures together with cocaine or other stimulants...
November 8, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111406/panic-like-escape-response-elicited-in-mice-by-exposure-to-co2-but-not-hypoxia
#2
Ailton Spiacci, Heloisa H Vilela-Costa, Ana Beatriz Sant'Ana, Gabriel Gripp Fernandes, Alana Tercino Frias, Glauber S Ferreira da Silva, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Hélio Zangrossi
Exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2 or hypoxia has been widely used in psychiatric research as a panic provoking stimulus. However, the use of these respiratory challenges to model panic-like responses in experimental animals has been less straightforward. Little data is available, from behavioral and endocrine perspectives, to support the conclusion that a marked aversive situation, such as that experienced during panic attacks, was evoked in these animals. We here compared the behavioral responses of male CB57BL/6 mice during exposure to 20% CO2 or 7% O2 and its consequence on plasma levels of corticosterone...
October 28, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101905/conversion-factors-for-assessment-of-driving-impairment-after-exposure-to-multiple-benzodiazepines-z-hypnotics-or-opioids
#3
Maren Cecilie Strand, Jørg Mørland, Lars Slørdal, Bettina Riedel, Cato Innerdal, Trond Aamo, Grete Mathisrud, Vigdis Vindenes
AIMS: Norway has introduced legal concentration limits in blood for 28 non-alcohol drugs in driving under the influence cases. As of 2016 this legislation also regulates the assessment of combined effects of multiple benzodiazepines and opioids. We herein describe the employed methodology for the equivalence tables for concentrations of benzodiazepines/z-hypnotics and opioids implemented in the Norwegian Road Traffic Act. METHODS: Legislative limits corresponding to impairment at blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0...
October 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099383/does-using-alprazolam-during-outpatient-flexible-cystoscopy-decrease-anxiety-and-pain
#4
Tayyar Alp Ozkan, Sefik Koprulu, Ayhan Karakose, Ozdal Dillioglugil, Ibrahim Cevik
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of pre-operative alprazolam medication on anxiety and pain in flexible cystoscopy for bladder cancer follow-up. METHODS: A total of 86 male patients who had flexible cystoscopy for bladder cancer follow-up at 6th and 9th months were included in the study. A visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used. The 6th (VAS-1)and 9th (VAS-2) month pain scores and 6th month STAI score (STAI-1) and, 9th month STAI score before (STAI-2a) and after alprazolam (0...
November 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034101/lamotrigine-induced-sexual-dysfunction-and-non-adherence-case-analysis-with-literature-review
#5
Kenneth R Kaufman, Melissa Coluccio, Kartik Sivaraaman, Miriam Campeas
BACKGROUND: Optimal anti-epileptic drug (AED) treatment maximises therapeutic response and minimises adverse effects (AEs). Key to therapeutic AED treatment is adherence. Non-adherence is often related to severity of AEs. Frequently, patients do not spontaneously report, and clinicians do not specifically query, critical AEs that lead to non-adherence, including sexual dysfunction. Sexual dysfunction prevalence in patients with epilepsy ranges from 40 to 70%, often related to AEDs, epilepsy or mood states...
September 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032024/characteristics-of-self-inflicted-drug-overdose-deaths-in-north-carolina
#6
Anna E Austin, Scott K Proescholdbell, Kathleen E Creppage, Alex Asbun
BACKGROUND: Drug overdose mortality is a major public health concern in the United States, with prescription opioids contributing substantially to recent increases in drug overdose deaths. Compared to unintentional drug overdose deaths, relatively little data describes intentional self-inflicted drug overdose deaths (i.e., suicide by drug overdose). The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of self-inflicted drug overdose deaths, overall and in comparison to unintentional drug overdose deaths...
October 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022858/formulation-and-characterization-of-alprazolam-loaded-nanoliposomes-screening-of-process-variables-and-optimizing-characteristics-using-rsm
#7
Seyed Hesamoddin Hashemi, Majid Montazer, Nasser Naghdi, Tayebeh Toliyat
This research study aimed to develop a novel sustained release formulation of alprazolam that can also be used for transdermal delivery. This was carried out, for the first time, through encapsulation of alprazolam in nanoliposomes using ethanol injection. In order to obtain the best formulation, four process variables, including the solvent/nonsolvent volume ratio, phospholipid concentration, alprazolam concentration, and cholesterol content were considered as key factors. Response surface methodology (RSM) and a central composite design (CCD) model were used to investigate the effect of these factors on vesicle size (VS) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) as the major properties of nanoliposomes...
October 12, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951362/-depression-and-anxiety-caused-by-pegylated-interferon-treatment-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-the-therapeutic-effects-of-escitalopram-and-alprazolam
#8
Cheng-Guang Hu, Guo-Sheng Yuan, Hua-Ping Huang, Jun-Wei Liu, Yu-Chen Zhou, Yan-Yu Ren, Yuan Li, Wen-Juan Tan, Mei-Lei Su, Yuan-Ping Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of depression and anxiety caused by pegylated interferon α (PegIFN-α) treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and assess the efficacy of intervention with escitalopram and alprazolam. METHODS: A total of 165 CHB patients receiving PegIFN-α-based treatment for 12 weeks were assessed for moderate to severe depression and anxiety using Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7)]...
September 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942593/psychoactive-drugs-occurrence-in-aquatic-environment-analytical-methods-and-ecotoxicity-a-review
#9
Deivisson Lopes Cunha, Frederico Goytacazes de Araujo, Marcia Marques
This review focused on seven psychoactive drugs being six benzodiazepines (alprazolam, bromazepam, clonazepam, diazepam, lorazepam, and oxazepam) and one antidepressant (citalopram) widely consumed by modern society and detected in different aqueous matrices (drinking water, surface water, groundwater, seawater, estuary water, influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants). The review included 219 selected scientific papers from which 1642 data/entries were obtained, each entry corresponding to one target compound in one aqueous matrix...
November 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926353/randomized-double-blind-placebo-and-active-comparator-controlled-crossover-study-evaluating-the-abuse-potential-of-the-antiepileptic-drug-lacosamide-in-healthy-recreational-drug-users
#10
Kerri A Schoedel, Jens-Otto Andreas, Pamela Doty, Klaus Eckhardt, Edward M Sellers
PURPOSE: This phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active comparator-controlled crossover study assessed the abuse potential of the antiepileptic drug, lacosamide. METHODS: After a qualification phase, 38 healthy, recreational central nervous system-depressant users were randomized to treatment sequences comprising single oral therapeutic (200 mg) and supratherapeutic (800 mg) doses of lacosamide, alprazolam (1.5 and 3 mg), and placebo. Subjective effects were assessed for 24 hours following each dose using a range of scales, with a 5- to 9-day washout between treatments...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917695/the-impact-of-gabaergic-drugs-on-tms-induced-brain-oscillations-in-human-motor-cortex
#11
Isabella Premoli, Til O Bergmann, Matteo Fecchio, Mario Rosanova, Andrea Biondi, Paolo Belardinelli, Ulf Ziemann
Brain responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as measured with electroencephalography (EEG) have so far been assessed either by TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs), mostly reflecting phase-locked neuronal activity, or time-frequency-representations (TFRs), reflecting oscillatory power arising from a mixture of both evoked (i.e., phase-locked) and induced (i.e., non-phase-locked) responses. Single-pulse TMS of the human primary motor cortex induces a specific pattern of oscillatory changes, characterized by an early (30-200 ms after TMS) synchronization in the α- and β-bands over the stimulated sensorimotor cortex and adjacent lateral frontal cortex, followed by a late (200-400 ms) α- and β-desynchronization over the stimulated and contralateral sensorimotor cortex...
September 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888755/an-atmospheric-pressure-chemical-ionisation-liquid-chromatographic-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-analysis-of-benzodiazepines-in-urine
#12
S Dunlop, K Hayes, P Leavy, D Cusack, R Maguire
The objective of this work was to establish an analytical method for the analysis of 7 Benzodiazepines (diazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, nordiazepam, desalkylflurazepam, alprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam) in urine specimens taken from drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. The specimen, calibrator and control preparation involved hydrolysis of conjugated benzodiazepines using β-glucuronidase in sodium acetate buffer, with incubation at 60°C for 2h. Specimens were then centrifuged, before being diluted 1 in 5 (total dilution 1 in 10), with 10% acetonitrile in water...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867392/effects-of-alprazolam-treatment-on-anxiety-like-behavior-induced-by-color-stimulation-in-adult-zebrafish
#13
Mateusz Pieróg, Leszek Guz, Urszula Doboszewska, Ewa Poleszak, Piotr Wlaź
It has been reported that the use of certain stimuli can lead to anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish. Moreover, visual stimulation of zebrafish is becoming a popular tool. Here we evaluated the effects of six colors combinations and alprazolam, a benzodiazepine which is widely used in the treatment of anxiety disorders, on the behavior of adult zebrafish in a two-chambered apparatus, which chambers were illuminated by red/yellow, green/blue, red/green, green/yellow, red/blue and blue/yellow light. The following parameters were measured: time spent in the zone, number of entries to the zone, time of freezing, distance traveled and average speed in the zone...
August 31, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866222/detection-of-alprazolam-with-a-lab-on-paper-economical-device-integrated-with-urchin-like-ag-pd-shell-nano-hybrids
#14
Jagriti Narang, Nitesh Malhotra, Chaitali Singhal, Ashish Mathur, Anoop Krishna Pn, C S Pundir
We present results of the studies relating to fabrication of a microfluidic biosensor chip based on urchin like Ag@ Pd shell nano-hybrids that is capable of sensing alprazolam through electrochemical detection. Using this chip we demonstrate, with high reliability and in a time efficient manner, the detection of alprazolam present in buffer solutions at clinically relevant concentrations. Methylene blue (MB) was also doped as redox transition substance for sensing alprazolam. Nano-hybrids modified EμPAD showed wide linear range 1-300ng/ml and low detection limit of 0...
November 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863347/deletion-of-dlk2-increases-the-vulnerability-to-anxiety-like-behaviors-and-impairs-the-anxiolytic-action-of-alprazolam
#15
Francisco Navarrete, María S García-Gutiérrez, Jorge Laborda, Jorge Manzanares
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the non-canonical DLK2 NOTCH ligand in the regulation of emotional behavior. To this aim, anxiety and depressive-like behaviors were examined in Dlk2 knock-out (Dlk2(-/-)) and its corresponding wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, relative gene expression analyses of corticotropin releasing hormone (Crh) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) in the hippocampus (HIPP), and the transcription factors Hes1, Hes5 and Hey1 in the PVN, HIPP and amygdala (AMY) were carried out in Dlk2(-/-) and WT mice under basal conditions and after exposure to restraint stress...
August 29, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853697/analysis-of-inappropriate-medication-use-and-drug-interactions-in-older-people-in-south-korea%C3%A2
#16
Hyunah Kim, Hun-Sung Kim, Hyerang Ko, Jia Choi, Nam Cho
OBJECTIVES: Medication use in older people has been increasing as the incidence of chronic diseases increases worldwide. The objective of this study was to assess potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) to improve the rational use of medications in this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this large, cross-sectional study, data on older people from a regional community obtained during health examinations in 2013 - 2014 were analyzed...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841781/non-medical-use-of-psychoactive-prescription-drugs-is-associated-with-fatal-poisoning
#17
Jari Haukka, Pirkko Kriikku, Claudia Mariottini, Timo Partonen, Ilkka Ojanperä
AIMS: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and predictors of non-medical substance use, and to assess the association between non-medical substance use and fatal poisoning or history of drug abuse in Finland. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study of all medico-legally investigated death cases in Finland. The post-mortem toxicology database was linked together with the register on reimbursed prescription medicines. PARTICIPANTS/CASES: All post-mortem cases between 2011 and 2013 positive for one or more of the following drugs: oxycodone, fentanyl, tramadol, clonazepam, gabapentin, pregabalin, tizanidine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, alprazolam, zolpidem, mirtazapine, and bupropion, n=2974...
August 25, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838469/the-unpredictive-brain-under-threat-a-neurocomputational-account-of-anxious-hypervigilance
#18
Brian R Cornwell, Marta I Garrido, Cassie Overstreet, Daniel S Pine, Christian Grillon
BACKGROUND: Anxious hypervigilance is marked by sensitized sensory-perceptual processes and attentional biases to potential danger cues in the environment. How this is realized at the neurocomputational level is unknown but could clarify the brain mechanisms disrupted in psychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Predictive coding, instantiated by dynamic causal models, provides a promising framework to ground these state-related changes in the dynamic interactions of reciprocally connected brain areas...
September 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830119/confirmation-of-carfentanil-u-47700-and-other-synthetic-opioids-in-a-human-performance-case-by-lc-ms-ms
#19
Joshua Seither, Lisa Reidy
Recently, it has been documented that there has been a rise in synthetic opioid abuse. Synthetic opioids are compounds that were created to act as agonists for the opioid receptors. Like synthetic cannabinoids, most of these compounds were created by research groups or pharmaceutical companies in an attempt to find compounds that have medicinal use. Synthetic opioids have severe health implications when abused that can include hospitalization and death. Due to the high potency and the low dose required to produce the desired effects for these compounds, it was hypothesized that they may not be detectable in human performance case samples...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777203/a-review-of-alprazolam-use-misuse-and-withdrawal
#20
Nassima Ait-Daoud, Allan Scott Hamby, Sana Sharma, Derek Blevins
: Alprazolam is one of the most widely prescribed benzodiazepines for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder. Its clinical use has been a point of contention as most addiction specialists consider it to be highly addictive, given its unique psychodynamic properties which limit its clinical usefulness, whereas many primary care physicians continue to prescribe it for longer periods than recommended. Clinical research data has not fully shed light on its "abuse liability," yet it is one of the most frequently prescribed benzodiazepines...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
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