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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741917/a-systematic-review-of-pharmacologic-treatments-for-school-refusal-behavior
#1
Amalia Londono Tobon, Margot O Reed, Jerome H Taylor, Michael H Bloch
OBJECTIVE: School refusal is an important pediatric problem with significant negative short- and long-term outcomes. Specific psychosocial treatments appear effective in reducing school refusal, but many children do not respond to these treatments. Although systematic reviews have examined the efficacy of psychological interventions for school refusal, no systematic reviews on pharmacological interventions exist. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Embase for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-experimental pharmacologic trials in children and adolescents with school refusal reported in English or Spanish until July 1, 2017...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727969/contamination-profiles-mass-loadings-and-sewage-epidemiology-of-neuropsychiatric-and-illicit-drugs-in-wastewater-and-river-waters-from-a-community-in-the-midwestern-united-states
#2
Allie J Skees, Katelyn S Foppe, Bommanna Loganathan, Bikram Subedi
In this study, residues of the neuropsychiatric and illicit drugs including stimulants, opioids, hallucinogens, antischizophrenics, sedatives, and antidepressants were determined in influent and effluent samples from a small wastewater treatment plant, a receiving creek, and river waters in the Four Rivers region of the Midwestern United States. Nineteen neuropsychiatric drugs, eight illicit drugs, and three metabolites of illicit drugs were detected and quantitated in the water samples using HPLC-MS/MS. Residual concentrations of the drugs varied from below the detection limit to sub-μg/L levels...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726630/trends-in-the-long-term-use-of-benzodiazepine-anxiolytics-and-hypnotics-a-national-register-study-for-2006-to-2014
#3
Terhi Kurko, Leena K Saastamoinen, Annamari Tuulio-Henriksson, Tero Taiminen, Jari Tiihonen, Marja Airaksinen, Jarmo Hietala
PURPOSE: Long-term benzodiazepine (BZD) treatment continues to be a debated topic. Because individual BZDs have different clinical profiles, we assessed the nationwide trends of long-term BZD use at active substance level during years 2006 to 2014. METHODS: This study covered all reimbursed BZD purchases (n = 408 572-521 823 annually) for adults recorded in the Finnish Prescription Register. We assessed long-term use (annual cumulative purchase of ≥180 defined daily doses) in general, and at active substance level with the most commonly used BZD anxiolytics (oxazepam, diazepam, alprazolam, and clonazepam for nonepilepsy indications) and hypnotics (zopiclone, zolpidem, and temazepam) included...
May 4, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720564/evidence-that-sedative-effects-of-benzodiazepines-involve-unexpected-gaba-a-receptor-subtypes-quantitative-observation-studies-in-rhesus-monkeys
#4
Angela N Duke, Zhiqiang Meng, Donna M Platt, John R Atack, Gerard R Dawson, David S Reynolds, V V N Phani Babu Tiruveedhula, Guanguan Li, Michael Rajesh Stephen, Werner Sieghart, James M Cook, James K Rowlett
Using non-human primates, we introduced a new set of behavioral categories for observable sedative effects based on pediatric anesthesiology classifications. We examined the effects of alprazolam and diazepam (non-selective benzodiazepines), zolpidem (preferential binding to α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptors), HZ-166 (8-ethynyl-6-(2'-pyridine)-4H-2,5,10b-triaza-benzo[e]azulene-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; functionally selective for α2 and α3 subunit-containing GABAA receptors), MRK-696 (7-cyclobutyl-6-(2-methyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-2-ylmethoxy)-3-(2-flurophenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo(4,3-b)pyridazine; no selectivity but partial intrinsic activity), and TPA023B (6,2'-difluro-5'-(3-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)imidazo(1,2-b((1,2,4)triazin-7-yl)(1,1'-biphenyl)-2-carbonitrile; selectivity for α2, α3, α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors) using quantitative behavioral observation techniques in rhesus monkeys...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717425/removal-of-pharmaceutically-active-compounds-from-synthetic-and-real-aqueous-mixtures-and-simultaneous-disinfection-by-supported-tio-2-uv-a-h-2-o-2-uv-a-and-tio-2-h-2-o-2-uv-a-processes
#5
Morgana Bosio, Suéllen Satyro, João Paulo Bassin, Enrico Saggioro, Márcia Dezotti
Pharmaceutically active compounds are carried into aquatic bodies along with domestic sewage, industrial and agricultural wastewater discharges. Psychotropic drugs, which can be toxic to the biota, have been detected in natural waters in different parts of the world. Conventional water treatments, such as activated sludge, do not properly remove these recalcitrant substances, so the development of processes able to eliminate these compounds becomes very important. Advanced oxidation processes are considered clean technologies, capable of achieving high rates of organic compounds degradation, and can be an efficient alternative to conventional treatments...
May 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663724/recognizing-drug-facilitated-crimes-detection-and-quantification-of-benzodiazepines-in-beverages-using-fast-liquid-liquid-extraction-with-low-temperature-partitioning-and-paper-spray-mass-spectrometry
#6
Camila de Paula, Marina Jurisch, Evandro Piccin, Rodinei Augusti
A novel methodology using liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning (LLE-LTP) and paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) was developed to identify and quantify benzodiazepines in beverages. Four types of alcoholic beverages usually consumed in parties and bars were spiked with five distinct benzodiazepines (diazepam, alprazolam, bromazepam, clonazepam and cloxazolam) simulating a drug facilitated crime occurrence. The direct PS-MS analysis of the spiked beverages revealed a remarkable matrix effect with an unclear detection of protonated benzodiazepines...
April 16, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659874/carfentanil-in-impaired-driving-cases-and-the-importance-of-drug-seizure-data
#7
Nicholas B Tiscione, Ilene Alford
Drug seizures containing carfentanil continue to increase in Palm Beach County, FL, USA despite international efforts to control the distribution of the drug. The analysis of drug seizures from the county in 2016 and 2017 demonstrated that carfentanil was the most commonly identified fentanyl analog and was most often detected in combination with heroin, fentanyl, furanyl fentanyl and/or other fentanyl analogs. Carfentanil is an ultra-potent opioid requiring a method with adequate sensitivity for detection in blood specimens from impairment cases...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584496/evaluating-drugged-driving-effects-of-exemplar-pain-and-anxiety-medications
#8
Timothy L Brown, Gary Milavetz, Gary Gaffney, Andrew Spurgin
OBJECTIVE: Distracted and drug-influenced driving presents a major risk for traffic safety morbidity and mortality. As part of an ongoing research program, we examined the effects of a commonly prescribed combination of medications for pain relief: alprazolam, a benzodiazepine, and a hydrocodone preparation, a combination opiate and acetaminophen, on a simulated driving protocol. METHODS: Utilizing a within-subjects design, we recruited 8 healthy experienced drivers without major physical and psychological histories...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453006/illicit-and-prescription-drug-misuse-as-reported-to-the-maine-diversion-alert-program
#9
Brian J Piper, Michael J Suarez, John P Piserchio, Dipam T Shah, Olapeju M Simoyan, Kenneth L McCall, Clare E Desrosiers, Stephanie D Nichols
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is rapidly evolving and new tools are needed to combat drug abuse. The Maine Diversion Alert Program (DAP) is an informational resource that facilitates communication about drug arrests between the criminal justice and healthcare fields. The objectives of this report were to: (1) describe the illegal and prescription pharmaceuticals reported to the DAP; (2) determine if the drugs implicated in arrests changed from the first to latter half of 2016; (3) identify the demographic and other characteristics of arrestees; and (4) outline the strengths and limitations of the DAP for other areas considering implementing similar programs...
April 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450954/initiation-and-long-term-use-of-benzodiazepines-and-z-drugs-in-bipolar-disorder
#10
Louise Wingård, Heidi Taipale, Johan Reutfors, Anna Westerlund, Robert Bodén, Jari Tiihonen, Antti Tanskanen, Morten Andersen
OBJECTIVES: Increasing evidence points to the harmful effects of long-term benzodiazepine treatment. Our objective was to study the incidence of, and predictors for, long-term use of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs in bipolar disorder. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study, using data from Swedish national registers. Swedish residents aged 18-75 years with a recorded diagnosis of bipolar disorder or mania between July 2006 and December 2012, and no history of benzodiazepine/Z-drug use in the past year, were included...
February 16, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436015/medical-prescriptions-falsified-by-the-patients-a-12-year-national-monitoring-to-assess-prescription-drug-diversion
#11
Emilie Jouanjus, Grégory Guernec, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre
Diversion of prescription drugs is difficult to assess in quality and quantity. This study aimed to characterize diversion of prescription drugs in France through a comparative analysis of falsified prescriptions collected during three periods from 2001 to 2012. The data recorded in a national program which records all falsified prescriptions presented to community pharmacies were studied. Included data regarded: subjects, prescription forms, and drugs. Description of the dataset in three periods (2001-2004, 2005-2008, and 2009-2012) was completed with clustering analyses to characterize profiles of prescriptions and subjects associated with the most reported drugs...
February 13, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414005/evaluation-of-benzodiazepines-and-zolpidem-in-nails-and-their-stability-after-prolonged-exposure-to-chlorinated-water
#12
Matteo Moretti, Luisa Andrello, Silvia Visonà, Claudia Vignali, Angelo Groppi, Francesca Freni, Antonio Osculati, Luca Tajana, Luca Morini
The study aims the development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for the identification and quantification of benzodiazepines and zolpidem in nails as alternative keratinized matrix to hair in long-term monitoring of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs. Both fingernail and toenail samples (1-2 mm) were collected by clipping the excess overhang of the nail from volunteers and from postmortem cases. They were washed twice with organic solvents, dried under nitrogen stream, pulverized, immersed in a methanol solution (internal standard: diazepam-D5) and sonicated up to two hours...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367223/the-curse-of-relieving-pain
#13
Ahmad Said, Alexandra Halalau
A 39-year-old woman with a history of chronic back pain due to spinal haemangiomas, multiple malignancies and depression was brought by Emergency medical servicesS to the emergency centre (EC) after being found unresponsive on the bathroom floor. The patient had an exacerbation of her back pain the previous day for which she admitted to taking double her usual dose of oxycodone, in addition to alprazolam, lorazepam, diphenhydramine and a glass of wine. She reported that she lost consciousness and was down for over 8 hours...
January 24, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356344/fabrication-of-magnetic-zinc-adeninate-metal-organic-frameworks-for-the-extraction-of-benzodiazepines-from-urine-and-wastewater
#14
Suling Zhang, Weixuan Yao, Defeng Fu, Chunxiao Zhang, Hongting Zhao
In this study, an alternative method for synthesizing magnetic cobalt adeninate metal-organic frameworks was developed, and the synthesized materials were examined for their potential application for separating and enriching benzodiazepines from complex samples. Benzodiazepines, widely used as hypnotics, muscle relaxants, sedatives, and anxiolytics, are a class of drugs that require accurate detection and monitoring. Results showed that Fe3 O4 nanoparticles could be well anchored onto the external surface of cobalt adeninate metal-organic frameworks by using amino-silane as a linkage...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331713/repeated-attempted-homicide-by-administration-of-drugs-documented-by-hair-analysis
#15
Valérie Baillif-Couniou, Christophe Bartoli, Caroline Sastre, Marjorie Chèze, Marc Deveaux, Georges Léonetti, Anne-Laure Pélissier-Alicot
Attempted murder by repeated poisoning is quite rare. The authors describe the case of a 62-year-old man who was admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for neurological disturbances complicated by inhalation pneumopathy. He presented a loss of consciousness while his wife was visiting him at the ICU (H0). Forty-eight hours later (H48), police officers apprehended the patient's wife pouring a liquid into his fruit salad at the hospital. Toxicological analyses of a blood sample and the infusion equipment (H0), as well as the fruit salad and its container (H48), confirmed the attempted poisoning with cyamemazine (H0) and hydrochloric acid (H48)...
February 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241093/quantitative-analysis-of-drugs-in-hair-by-uhplc-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#16
Robert Kronstrand, Malin Forsman, Markus Roman
Liquid chromatographic methods coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry are increasingly used to identify compounds in various matrices including hair but there are few recommendations regarding the parameters and their criteria to identify a compound. In this study we present a method for the identification and quantification of a range of drugs and discuss the parameters used to identify a compound with high resolution mass spectrometry. Drugs were extracted from hair by incubation in a buffer:solvent mixture at 37°C during 18h...
February 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199122/spectroscopic-studies-of-the-interaction-between-alprazolam-and-apo-human-serum-transferrin-as-a-drug-carrier-protein
#17
Marzieh Karimian Amroabadi, Asghar Taheri-Kafrani, Leily Heidarpoor Saremi, Ali Asghar Rastegari
The interaction between apo-human serum transferrin (Apo-hTf) and alprazolam was investigated using various spectroscopic techniques. The drug quenched the fluorescence intensity of Apo-hTf and the mechanism behind the quenching was static. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS) that obtained from tryptophan fluorescence study revealed that the interactions between alprazolam and Apo-hTf were spontaneous. Collectively, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding most likely played major roles in Apo-hTf/alprazolam interactions...
March 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189312/hypoglycemia-and-sudden-death-during-treatment-with-methadone-for-opiate-detoxification
#18
Christopher J Plescia, Peter Manu
CLINICAL FEATURES: We present a case of a middle-aged man admitted to an inpatient detoxification facility for withdrawal of intranasal heroin, alprazolam, and ethanol. The patient was placed on methadone and chlordiazepoxide tapers. Ondansetron and trazodone were prescribed as needed for symptom control. On the third hospital day, the patient was found unresponsive with blood glucose of 40 mg/dL. He had no history of glucose dysregulation. The patient was pronounced dead shortly thereafter...
March 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183829/the-rodent-versus-wild-snake-paradigm-as-a-model-for-studying-anxiety-and-panic-like-behaviors-face-construct-and-predictive-validities
#19
Tatiana Paschoalin-Maurin, Tayllon Dos Anjos-Garcia, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Renato Leonardo de Freitas, Jade Pissamiglio Cysne Coimbra, Carlos Júlio Laure, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
Using an innovative approach to study the neural bases of psychiatric disorders, this study investigated the behavioral, morphological and pharmacological bases of panic attack-induced responses in a prey-versus-coral snake paradigm. Mesocricetus auratus was chronically treated with intraperitoneal administration of the selective serotonin uptake inhibitor paroxetine or the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)/benzodiazepine receptor agonist alprazolam at three different doses and were then confronted with a venomous coral snake (Micrurus frontalis, Reptilia, Elapidae)...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172026/effect-of-non-prohibited-drugs-on-the-phase-ii-metabolic-profile-of-morphine-an-in-vitro-investigation-for-doping-control-purposes
#20
Gabriella Ambrosio, Xavier de la Torre, Monica Mazzarino, Maria K Parr, Francesco Botrè
The potential consequences of drug-drug interaction on the strategies adopted by anti-doping laboratories to report an adverse analytical finding for morphine were investigated. We evaluated in vitro the effects of 14 drugs on the principal metabolic pathways of morphine. The selected drugs are among those most commonly used by the athletes, none of them presently included in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List. The non-prohibited drugs included 4 antifungals (fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and miconazole), 6 benzodiazepines (alprazolam, bromazepam, clonazepam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, and triazolam), and 4 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and nimesulide)...
November 24, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
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