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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926353/randomized-double-blind-placebo-and-active-comparator-controlled-crossover-study-evaluating-the-abuse-potential-of-the-antiepileptic-drug-lacosamide-in-healthy-recreational-drug-users
#1
Kerri A Schoedel, Jens-Otto Andreas, Pamela Doty, Klaus Eckhardt, Edward M Sellers
PURPOSE: This phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active comparator-controlled crossover study assessed the abuse potential of the antiepileptic drug, lacosamide. METHODS: After a qualification phase, 38 healthy, recreational central nervous system-depressant users were randomized to treatment sequences comprising single oral therapeutic (200 mg) and supratherapeutic (800 mg) doses of lacosamide, alprazolam (1.5 and 3 mg), and placebo. Subjective effects were assessed for 24 hours following each dose using a range of scales, with a 5- to 9-day washout between treatments...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917695/the-impact-of-gabaergic-drugs-on-tms-induced-brain-oscillations-in-human-motor-cortex
#2
Isabella Premoli, Til O Bergmann, Matteo Fecchio, Mario Rosanova, Andrea Biondi, Paolo Belardinelli, Ulf Ziemann
Brain responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as measured with electroencephalography (EEG) have so far been assessed either by TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs), mostly reflecting phase-locked neuronal activity, or time-frequency-representations (TFRs), reflecting oscillatory power arising from a mixture of both evoked (i.e., phase-locked) and induced (i.e., non-phase-locked) responses. Single-pulse TMS of the human primary motor cortex induces a specific pattern of oscillatory changes, characterized by an early (30-200 ms after TMS) synchronization in the α- and β-bands over the stimulated sensorimotor cortex and adjacent lateral frontal cortex, followed by a late (200-400 ms) α- and β-desynchronization over the stimulated and contralateral sensorimotor cortex...
September 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888755/an-atmospheric-pressure-chemical-ionisation-liquid-chromatographic-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-analysis-of-benzodiazepines-in-urine
#3
S Dunlop, K Hayes, P Leavy, D Cusack, R Maguire
The objective of this work was to establish an analytical method for the analysis of 7 Benzodiazepines (diazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, nordiazepam, desalkylflurazepam, alprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam) in urine specimens taken from drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. The specimen, calibrator and control preparation involved hydrolysis of conjugated benzodiazepines using β-glucuronidase in sodium acetate buffer, with incubation at 60°C for 2h. Specimens were then centrifuged, before being diluted 1 in 5 (total dilution 1 in 10), with 10% acetonitrile in water...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867392/effects-of-alprazolam-treatment-on-anxiety-like-behavior-induced-by-color-stimulation-in-adult-zebrafish
#4
Mateusz Pieróg, Leszek Guz, Urszula Doboszewska, Ewa Poleszak, Piotr Wlaź
It has been reported that the use of certain stimuli can lead to anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish. Moreover, visual stimulation of zebrafish is becoming a popular tool. Here we evaluated the effects of six colors combinations and alprazolam, a benzodiazepine which is widely used in the treatment of anxiety disorders, on the behavior of adult zebrafish in a two-chambered apparatus, which chambers were illuminated by red/yellow, green/blue, red/green, green/yellow, red/blue and blue/yellow light. The following parameters were measured: time spent in the zone, number of entries to the zone, time of freezing, distance traveled and average speed in the zone...
August 31, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866222/detection-of-alprazolam-with-a-lab-on-paper-economical-device-integrated-with-urchin-like-ag-pd-shell-nano-hybrids
#5
Jagriti Narang, Nitesh Malhotra, Chaitali Singhal, Ashish Mathur, Anoop Krishna Pn, C S Pundir
We present results of the studies relating to fabrication of a microfluidic biosensor chip based on urchin like Ag@ Pd shell nano-hybrids that is capable of sensing alprazolam through electrochemical detection. Using this chip we demonstrate, with high reliability and in a time efficient manner, the detection of alprazolam present in buffer solutions at clinically relevant concentrations. Methylene blue (MB) was also doped as redox transition substance for sensing alprazolam. Nano-hybrids modified EμPAD showed wide linear range 1-300ng/ml and low detection limit of 0...
November 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863347/deletion-of-dlk2-increases-the-vulnerability-to-anxiety-like-behaviors-and-impairs-the-anxiolytic-action-of-alprazolam
#6
Francisco Navarrete, María S García-Gutiérrez, Jorge Laborda, Jorge Manzanares
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the non-canonical DLK2 NOTCH ligand in the regulation of emotional behavior. To this aim, anxiety and depressive-like behaviors were examined in Dlk2 knock-out (Dlk2(-/-)) and its corresponding wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, relative gene expression analyses of corticotropin releasing hormone (Crh) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) in the hippocampus (HIPP), and the transcription factors Hes1, Hes5 and Hey1 in the PVN, HIPP and amygdala (AMY) were carried out in Dlk2(-/-) and WT mice under basal conditions and after exposure to restraint stress...
August 29, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853697/analysis-of-inappropriate-medication-use-and-drug-interactions-in-older-people-in-south-korea%C3%A2
#7
Hyunah Kim, Hun-Sung Kim, Hyerang Ko, Jia Choi, Nam Cho
OBJECTIVES: Medication use in older people has been increasing as the incidence of chronic diseases increases worldwide. The objective of this study was to assess potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) to improve the rational use of medications in this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this large, cross-sectional study, data on older people from a regional community obtained during health examinations in 2013 - 2014 were analyzed...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841781/non-medical-use-of-psychoactive-prescription-drugs-is-associated-with-fatal-poisoning
#8
Jari Haukka, Pirkko Kriikku, Claudia Mariottini, Timo Partonen, Ilkka Ojanperä
AIMS: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and predictors of non-medical substance use, and to assess the association between non-medical substance use and fatal poisoning or history of drug abuse in Finland. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study of all medico-legally investigated death cases in Finland. The post-mortem toxicology database was linked together with the register on reimbursed prescription medicines. PARTICIPANTS/CASES: All post-mortem cases between 2011 and 2013 positive for one or more of the following drugs: oxycodone, fentanyl, tramadol, clonazepam, gabapentin, pregabalin, tizanidine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, alprazolam, zolpidem, mirtazapine, and bupropion, n=2974...
August 25, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838469/the-unpredictive-brain-under-threat-a-neurocomputational-account-of-anxious-hypervigilance
#9
Brian R Cornwell, Marta I Garrido, Cassie Overstreet, Daniel S Pine, Christian Grillon
BACKGROUND: Anxious hypervigilance is marked by sensitized sensory-perceptual processes and attentional biases to potential danger cues in the environment. How this is realized at the neurocomputational level is unknown but could clarify the brain mechanisms disrupted in psychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Predictive coding, instantiated by dynamic causal models, provides a promising framework to ground these state-related changes in the dynamic interactions of reciprocally connected brain areas...
September 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830119/confirmation-of-carfentanil-u-47700-and-other-synthetic-opioids-in-a-human-performance-case-by-lc-ms-ms
#10
Joshua Seither, Lisa Reidy
Recently, it has been documented that there has been a rise in synthetic opioid abuse. Synthetic opioids are compounds that were created to act as agonists for the opioid receptors. Like synthetic cannabinoids, most of these compounds were created by research groups or pharmaceutical companies in an attempt to find compounds that have medicinal use. Synthetic opioids have severe health implications when abused that can include hospitalization and death. Due to the high potency and the low dose required to produce the desired effects for these compounds, it was hypothesized that they may not be detectable in human performance case samples...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777203/a-review-of-alprazolam-use-misuse-and-withdrawal
#11
Nassima Ait-Daoud, Allan Scott Hamby, Sana Sharma, Derek Blevins
: Alprazolam is one of the most widely prescribed benzodiazepines for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder. Its clinical use has been a point of contention as most addiction specialists consider it to be highly addictive, given its unique psychodynamic properties which limit its clinical usefulness, whereas many primary care physicians continue to prescribe it for longer periods than recommended. Clinical research data has not fully shed light on its "abuse liability," yet it is one of the most frequently prescribed benzodiazepines...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739777/establishment-of-a-comprehensive-drug-overdose-fatality-surveillance-system-in-kentucky-to-inform-drug-overdose-prevention-policies-interventions-and-best-practices
#12
Sarah L Hargrove, Terry L Bunn, Svetla Slavova, Dana Quesinberry, Tracey Corey, William Ralston, Michael D Singleton, Van Ingram
BACKGROUND: According to the National Center for Health Statistics, Kentucky had the third highest drug overdose fatality rate in the nation in 2015 at 29.9 drug overdose fatalities per 100 000 population. OBJECTIVE: The elevated drug overdose fatality rate necessitated the development and implementation of a comprehensive multisource drug overdose fatality surveillance system (DOFSS). METHODS: DOFSS stakeholder work group members and data sources were identified, and memorandums of understanding were established...
July 24, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638826/anxiolytics-sedatives-and-hypnotics-prescribed-by-dentists-in-brazil-in-2010
#13
Patrícia Azevedo Lino, Maria Auxiliadora Parreiras Martins, Maria Elisa de Souza E Silva, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de Abreu
OBJECTIVE: To describe dental prescriptions for anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics for Brazilian outpatients in 2010. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using data on the use of anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics from the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, Brazil, 2010. For each prescription, prescribed drugs and the prescribed amount were identified. Prescribed medications were classified according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code. We calculated the number of Defined Daily Doses (DDD) for anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics by code, their mean DDD, and DDD per inhabitant per year...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596511/effect-of-alprazolam-on-redox-status-in-renal-transplantation-donors-and-recipients
#14
Meltem Güner Can, Özgen Ilgaz Koçyiğit, Uğur Aksu, Ali Özer, Fevzi Toraman
BACKGROUND Benzodiazepines are the most popular premedication drugs thought to act through the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex and alprazolam is one of the most potent benzodiazepines that have a quick onset. While there is a growing body of evidence supporting alprazolam in the amelioration of redox status in animals, no study has been performed concerning its antioxidant activity in humans. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of alprazolam on redox status. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was a four-group randomized controlled trial...
June 9, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582697/increases-in-self-reported-fentanyl-use-among-a-population-entering-drug-treatment-the-need-for-systematic-surveillance-of-illicitly-manufactured-opioids
#15
Theodore J Cicero, Matthew S Ellis, Zachary A Kasper
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Recent reports indicate a sharp increase in fentanyl-related overdose deaths across the United States, much of which is likely related to the introduction of cheap, illicitly manufactured fentanyl derivatives. In this study, we sought to estimate the magnitude of illicit fentanyl use from 2012 to 2016 using a national opioid abuse surveillance system. METHODS: The study program surveyed 10,900 individuals entering substance abuse treatment for opioid use disorder, with participants asked to endorse past month 'use to get high' of fentanyl drugs, stratified by identifiable (i...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580580/illicit-drug-delivery-via-administration-of-human-blood
#16
Laura M Labay, Charles A Catanese
The physiological, psychological, and social consequences associated with illicit drug use are well documented. In addition to the effects directly related to the drug(s), the delivery mechanism can precipitate other serious health conditions. A case is reported where an individual stopped by law enforcement was discovered to be in possession of a vial containing a red-colored fluid, which the person stated was blood and contained fentanyl. Analysis by headspace GC, ELISA, and LC-TOF/MS screening in with mass spectral confirmation revealed the presence of several substances, including ethanol, methamphetamine, amphetamine, MDA, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine, morphine, alprazolam, delta-9 THC, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and norpseudoephedrine; serology testing verified the fluid was consistent with human blood...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557789/stability-of-alprazolam-atropine-sulfate-glutamine-levofloxacin-metoprolol-tartrate-nitrofurantoin-ondansetron-hydrochloride-oxandrolone-pregabaline-and-riboflavin-in-syrspend-sf-ph4-oral-suspensions
#17
Anderson O Ferreira, Hudson C Polonini, Sharlene Loures da Silva, Victor Augusto Cerqueira de Melo, Laura de Andrade, Marcos Antônio Fernandes Brandão
The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of 10 commonly used active pharmaceutical ingredients compounded in oral suspensions using an internationally used suspending vehicle (SyrSpend SF PH4): alprazolam 1.0 mg/mL, atropine sulfate 0.1 mg/mL, glutamine 250.0 mg/mL, levofloxacin 50.0 mg/mL, metoprolol tartrate 10.0 mg/mL, nitrofurantoin 2.0 mg/mL, ondansetron hydrochloride 0.8 mg/mL, oxandrolone 3.0 mg/mL, pregabaline 20.0 mg/mL, riboflavin 10.0 mg/mL. All suspensions were stored at both controlled refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) and controlled room temperature (20°C to 25°C)...
May 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543168/a-new-tool-to-tackle-the-opioid-epidemic-description-utility-and-results-from-the-maine-diversion-alert-program
#18
Brian J Piper, Clare E Desrosiers, Harriet C Fisher, Kenneth L McCall, Stephanie D Nichols
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The opioid epidemic continues to impact the United States, and new strategies are needed to combat this epidemic. The objective of this study was to analyze 2015 drug arrest data from Maine's Diversion Alert (DA) program (diversionalert.org), compare arrest data between the first quarters of 2015 and 2016, and provide an analysis of the sex differences in the arrests as well as information about DA use. STUDY DESIGN: This was a population-based descriptive study using data from the Maine DA program...
May 19, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476275/beliefs-about-the-consequences-of-using-benzodiazepines-among-persons-with-opioid-use-disorder
#19
Michael D Stein, Bradley J Anderson, Shannon R Kenney, Genie L Bailey
BACKGROUND: Patients admitted to addiction treatment programs report high rates of concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine (BZD) use. This combination places individuals at high risk for accidental overdose and other serious consequences. However, little is known about the beliefs opioid users have about the consequences of BZD use. METHODS: We surveyed consecutive persons initiating inpatient opioid detoxification (N=476; 95.0% enrollment) and identified 245 who reported BZD use in the past 30days and/or had a positive toxicology...
June 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455844/open-probe-fast-gc-ms-combining-ambient-sampling-ultra-fast-separation-and-in-vacuum-ionization-for-real-time-analysis
#20
Uri Keshet, Tal Alon, Alexander B Fialkov, Aviv Amirav
An Open Probe inlet was combined with a low thermal mass ultra-fast gas chromatograph (GC), in-vacuum electron eonization (EI) ion source and a mass spectrometer (MS) of GC-MS for obtaining real time analysis with separation. The Open Probe enables ambient sampling via sample vaporization in an oven that is open to room air and the ultra-fast GC provides ~30 s separation while if no separation is required it can act as a transfer line with 2-3 s sample transfer time. Sample analysis is as simple as touching the sample, pushing the sample holder into the open probe oven and getting the results in 30 s...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
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