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docosahexaenoic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934766/new-zealand-women-have-suboptimal-intakes-of-long-chain-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-pregnancy-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Michele Eickstaedt, Kathryn L Beck, Cathryn A Conlon
AIM: To investigate dietary intakes and food sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids in New Zealand pregnant women. METHOD: Women (n=596) 16 years plus in trimester three of pregnancy completed an online food frequency questionnaire validated for omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. RESULTS: Estimated median [25th, 75th percentile] intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were: 1,300 [790, 2,120] mg/d alpha-linolenic acid (adequate intake 1,000mg/d); 220 [120, 520] mg/d total long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (adequate intake 115mg/d); and 110 [50, 250] mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (recommended 200mg/d)...
September 22, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932392/galectin-3-a-marker-of-cardiac-remodeling-is-inversely-related-to-serum-levels-of-marine-omega-3-fatty-acids-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
K Laake, I Seljeflot, E B Schmidt, P Myhre, A Tveit, J Norseth, H Arnesen, S Solheim
OBJECTIVE: Marine polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may have cardioprotective effects and beneficial influence on the fibrotic process. We evaluated the associations between serum marine n-3 PUFA and selected biomarkers of fibrosis and cardiac remodeling in elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction. SETTING: From the ongoing OMega-3 fatty acids in Elderly patients with Myocardial Infarction (OMEMI) trial, 299 patients were investigated. Soluble ST2 (sST2), Galectin-3 (Gal-3) and the serum content of major marine n-3 and n-6 PUFA were analyzed 2-8 weeks after the index acute myocardial infarction...
January 2017: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931587/maternal-choline-supplementation-modulates-placental-nutrient-transport-and-metabolism-in-late-gestation-of-mouse-pregnancy
#3
Sze Ting Cecilia Kwan, Julia H King, Jian Yan, Zhen Wang, Xinyin Jiang, Jason S Hutzler, Hallie R Klein, J Thomas Brenna, Mark S Roberson, Marie A Caudill
Background: Fetal growth is dependent on placental nutrient supply, which is influenced by placental perfusion and transporter abundance. Previous research indicates that adequate choline nutrition during pregnancy improves placental vascular development, supporting the hypothesis that choline may affect placental nutrient transport.Objective: The present study sought to determine the impact of maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on placental nutrient transporter abundance and nutrient metabolism during late gestation...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930161/changes-in-bioavailability-of-omega-3-dha-through-alpha-tocopheryl-phosphate-mixture-tpm-after-oral-administration-in-rats
#4
Roksan Libinaki, Paul D Gavin
Benefits of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplements are hindered by their poor solubility and bioavailability. This study investigated the bioavailability of various formulations of Omega-3 and tocopheryl phosphate mixture (TPM), following oral administration in rats, and assessed whether TPM could improve the oral absorption of DHA. The rats were administered with a high (265.7 mg/kg) or low dose (88.6 mg/kg) of DHA. TPM was examined at 1:0.1 w/w (low TPM dose) and 1:0.5 w/w (high TPM dose). Over 24 h, the DHA plasma concentration followed a TPM dose-dependent relationship, reflected in the higher mean Cmax values (78...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928524/volatiles-formation-in-gelled-emulsions-enriched-in-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-storage-type-of-oil-and-antioxidant
#5
Lucía Gayoso, Candelaria Poyato, María Isabel Calvo, Rita Yolanda Cavero, Diana Ansorena, Iciar Astiasarán
Gelled emulsions with carrageenan are a novel type of emulsion that could be used as a carrier of unsaturated fatty acids in functional foods formulations. Lipid degradation through volatile compounds was studied in gelled emulsions which were high in polyunsaturated oils (sunflower or algae oil) after 49 days of storage. Aqueous Lavandula latifolia extract was tested as a natural antioxidant. Analysis of the complete volatile profile of the samples resulted in a total of 40 compounds, classified in alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes, ketones, acids, alcohols, furans, terpenes and aromatic hydrocarbons...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926949/influence-of-freeze-drying-and-oven-drying-post-blanching-on-the-nutrient-composition-of-the-edible-insect-ruspolia-differens
#6
Forkwa Tengweh Fombong, Mik Van Der Borght, Jozef Vanden Broeck
The longhorn grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Serville), plays an important role as a food source across Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is consumed as a delicacy in both rural and urban areas. The effect of two drying methods (freeze-drying and oven-drying), employed after blanching, on the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of the two most common morphs was determined. Ruspolia differens grasshoppers were harvested in Uganda and Kenya from wild swarms during the rainy periods of November-December 2016...
September 16, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926072/a-study-of-synthetic-approaches-to-2-acyl-dha-lysophosphatidic-acid
#7
Yoshinori Yamamoto, Toshimasa Itoh, Keiko Yamamoto
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a chemical mediator with a very simple glycerophospholipid structure. 1-Acyl LPA and 2-acyl LPA are biosynthesized in vivo. Unlike 1-acyl LPA, the biological function of 2-acyl LPA has been hardly elucidated and even organic synthesis of 2-acyl LPA had not been established. We suppressed acyl migration by formation of a salt with a phosphate group in order to synthesize 2-acyl LPA condensed with docosahexaenoic acid.
September 19, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924088/docosapentaenoic-acid-22-5n-3-downregulates-mrna-expression-of-pro-inflammatory-factors-inlps-activated-murine-macrophage-like-raw264-7-cells
#8
Yanzhu Tian, Ami Katsuki, Donato Romanazzi, Matthew R Miller, Serean L Adams, Kazuo Miyashita, Masashi Hosokawa
Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3, n-3 DPA) is a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) found in fish oil, and has been reported to have health benefits. This study investigated conversion of n-3 DPA, and examined the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 DPA on activated macrophages. Murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells were incubated in culture media containing n-3 DPA for 72 h. The level of n-3 DPA in the fatty acid composition of the total lipid fraction increased in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were higher in treated cells than in control cells...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924085/an-improved-enzymatic-indirect-method-for-simultaneous-determinations-of-3-mcpd-esters-and-glycidyl-esters-in-fish-oils
#9
Kinuko Miyazaki, Kazuo Koyama
The enzymatic indirect method for simultaneous determinations of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPD-Es) and glycidyl fatty acid esters (Gly-Es) make use of lipase from Candida cylindracea (previously referred to as C. rugosa). Because of low substrate specificity of the lipase for esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), fish oils high in PUFAs are currently excluded from the range of application of the method. The objective of this study was to make the enzymatic indirect method applicable to fats and oils containing PUFAs...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923590/isoprostanes-neuroprostanes-and-phytoprostanes-an-overview-of-25years-of-research-in-chemistry-and-biology
#10
REVIEW
Jean-Marie Galano, Yiu Yiu Lee, Camille Oger, Claire Vigor, Joseph Vercauteren, Thierry Durand, Martin Giera, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee
Since the beginning of the 1990's diverse types of metabolites originating from polyunsaturated fatty acids, formed under autooxidative conditions were discovered. Known as prostaglandin isomers (or isoprostanoids) originating from arachidonic acid, neuroprostanes from docosahexaenoic acid, and phytoprostanes from α-linolenic acid proved to be prevalent in biology. The syntheses of these compounds by organic chemists and the development of sophisticated mass spectrometry methods has boosted our understanding of the isoprostanoid biology...
September 15, 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919754/preparation-of-coffee-oil-algae-oil-based-nanoemulsions-and-the-study-of-their-inhibition-effect-on-uva-induced-skin-damage-in-mice-and-melanoma-cell-growth
#11
Chu-Ching Yang, Chi-Feng Hung, Bing-Huei Chen
Coffee grounds, a waste by-product generated after making coffee, contains approximately 15% coffee oil which can be used as a raw material in cosmetics. Algae oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been demonstrated to possess anticancer and anti-inflammation functions. The objectives of this study were to develop a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the determination of fatty acids in coffee oil and algae oil and prepare a nanoemulsion for studying its inhibition effect on ultraviolet A-induced skin damage in mice and growth of melanoma cells B16-F10...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918747/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-enhance-dexamethasone-sensitivity-in-multiple-myeloma-cells-by-the-p53-mir-34a-bcl-2-axis
#12
Xianping Dai, Mengshun Li, Feng Geng
Dexamethasone is widely used in multiple myeloma (MM) for its cytotoxic effects on lymphoid cells. However, many MM patients are resistant to dexamethasone, although some can benefit from dexamethasone treatment. In this study, we noted that ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) enhanced the dexamethasone sensitivity of MM cells by inducing cell apoptosis. q-PCR analysis revealed that miR-34a could be significantly induced by PUFAs in U266 and primary MM cells. Transfection with miR-34a antagonist or miR-34a agomir could restore or suppress the dexamethasone sensitivity in U266 cells...
July 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918543/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-decreased-lipid-accumulation-via-inducing-adipocytes-apoptosis-of-grass-carp-ctenopharygodon-idella
#13
Ai Jin, Cai-Xia Lei, Jing-Jing Tian, Jian Sun, Hong Ji
The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism of by which docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibit the accumulation of adipose tissue lipid in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). We therefore designed two semi-purified diets, namely DHA-free (control) and DHA-supplemented, and fed them to grass carp (22.19 ± 1.76 g) for 3 and 6 weeks. DHA supplementation led to a significantly lower intraperitoneal fat index (IPFI) than that in the control group by reducing the number of adipocytes but significantly higher adipocyte size (P < 0...
September 17, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917610/low-dose-dha-induced-astrocyte-proliferation-can-be-attenuated-by-insufficient-expression-of-blbp-in-vitro
#14
Haoming Li, Qingqing Yang, Xiao Han, Xuefeng Tan, Jianbing Qin, Guohua Jin
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is involved in a wide range of cellular processes in human cells. Brain lipid binding protein (BLBP) exhibits a high affinity for n-3 PUFAs, especially DHA, but the precise functional contributions of DHA and BLBP in astrocytes are not clear. We analyzed cell viability and the ratio of Ki67 positive cells after manipulating DHA and/or BLBP levels in cultured astrocytes, and found that low-dose DHA stimulated proliferation of astrocytes, whereas this proliferative effect could be attenuated by downregulation of BLBP...
September 13, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917506/the-plasmalogen-precursor-analog-ppi-1011-reduces-the-development-of-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesias-in-de-novo-mptp-monkeys
#15
Mélanie Bourque, Laurent Grégoire, Thérèse Di Paolo
The gold standard therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD), L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), induces dyskinesias in the majority of patients after years of treatment. Ethanolamine plasmalogens (PlsEtn) play critical roles in membrane structure mediated functions and as a storage depot of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid. We previously showed that a PlsEtn precursor PPI-1011 reduced already established L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID) in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesioned monkeys as a PD model...
September 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915388/epa-and-dha-but-not-ala-have-antidepressant-effects-with-17%C3%AE-estradiol-injection-via-regulation-of-a-neurobiological-system-in-ovariectomized-rats
#16
Jeong-Eun Choi, Yongsoon Park
Our previous studies found that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and estrogen had synergistic antidepressant-like effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that three major n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), individually had antidepressant effects combined with 17β-estradiol-3-benzoate (E) through a neurobiological pathway in ovariectomized rats. Rats were fed a modified American Institute of Nutrition-93G diet with 0% n-3 PUFAs and 1% ALA, EPA and DHA relative to total energy intake for 12 weeks and were injected with corn oil or E every 4 days during the last 3 weeks...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915231/postnatal-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-associated-with-larger-preterm-brain-tissue-volumes-and-better-outcomes
#17
Daphne Kamino, Colin Studholme, Mengyuan Liu, Vann Chau, Steven P Miller, Anne Synnes, Elizabeth E Rogers, A James Barkovich, Donna M Ferriero, Rollin Brant, Emily W Y Tam
BACKGROUND: Human studies investigating the link between postnatal polyunsaturated fatty acids and preterm brain growth are limited, despite emerging evidence of potential effects on outcomes. METHODS: Sixty preterm neonates <32 weeks gestational age with MRI scanning at near-birth and near-term age were assessed for brain tissue volumes including cortical grey matter, white matter, deep grey matter, cerebellum, brainstem and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. Red blood cell fatty acid content was evaluated within 1 week of each MRI scan...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912452/endogenous-%C3%AF-3-fatty-acid-production-by-fat-1-transgene-and-topically-applied-docosahexaenoic-acid-protect-against-uvb-induced-mouse-skin-carcinogenesis
#18
Hye-Won Yum, Jin Park, Hyun-Jung Park, Jun Wan Shin, Yong-Yeon Cho, Su-Jung Kim, Jing X Kang, Young-Joon Surh
The present study was intended to explore the effects of endogenously produced ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin inflammation and photocarcinogenesis using hairless fat-1 transgenic mice harboring ω-3 desaturase gene capable of converting ω-6 to ω-3 PUFAs. Upon exposure to UVB irradiation, fat-1 transgenic mice exhibited a significantly reduced epidermal hyperplasia, oxidative skin damage, and photocarcinogenesis as compared to wild type mice. The transcription factor, Nrf2 is a master regulator of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant gene expression...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912100/influence-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-bovine-luteal-cell-plasma-membrane-dynamics
#19
Michele R Plewes, Patrick D Burns, Richard M Hyslop, B George Barisas
Fish oil is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids which disrupt lipid microdomain structure and affect mobility of the prostaglandin F2α (FP) receptor in bovine luteal cells. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of individual omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on 1) membrane fatty acid composition, 2) lipid microdomain structure, and 3) lateral mobility of the FP receptor in bovine luteal cells. Ovaries were collected from a local abattoir (n=5/experiment)...
September 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911809/taxonomy-ecology-and-biotechnological-applications-of-thraustochytrids-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Loris Fossier Marchan, Kim J Lee Chang, Peter D Nichols, Wilfrid J Mitchell, Jane L Polglase, Tony Gutierrez
Thraustochytrids were first discovered in 1934, and since the 1960's they have been increasingly studied for their beneficial and deleterious effects. This review aims to provide an enhanced understanding of these protists with a particular emphasis on their taxonomy, ecology and biotechnology applications. Over the years, thraustochytrid taxonomy has improved with the development of modern molecular techniques and new biochemical markers, resulting in the isolation and description of new strains. In the present work, the taxonomic history of thraustochytrids is reviewed, while providing an up-to-date classification of these organisms...
September 11, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
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