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docosahexaenoic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331711/omega-3-supplements-reduce-self-reported-physical-aggression-in-healthy-adults
#1
Laurent Bègue, Ap Zaalberg, Rébecca Shankland, Aaron Duke, Julie Jacquet, Perla Kaliman, Lucie Pennel, Marc Chanove, Philippe Arvers, Brad J Bushman
There is emerging evidence that Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplements can decrease aggression. However, experimental studies with adults from non-specific populations are scarce. We hypothesized that Omega-3 supplements would decrease self-reported aggression among non-clinical participants. In a double-blind randomized trial, two groups of participants (N = 194) aged 18-45 from the general population followed a 6-weeks treatment with 638mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 772mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) per day or the equivalent quantity of copra oil (placebo)...
December 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331380/eicosapentaenoic-acid-inhibits-oxidation-of-high-density-lipoprotein-particles-in-a-manner-distinct-from-docosahexaenoic-acid
#2
Samuel C R Sherratt, R Preston Mason
The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces oxidation of ApoB-containing particles in vitro and in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. EPA may produce these effects through a potent antioxidant mechanism, which may facilitate LDL clearance and slow plaque progression. We hypothesize that EPA antioxidant effects may extend to ApoA-containing particles like HDL, potentially preserving certain atheroprotective functions. HDL was isolated from human plasma and incubated at 37 °C in the absence (vehicle) or presence of EPA and/or DHA; 5...
January 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329795/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-adipose-tissue-biology
#3
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky
This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface; and (ii) the characteristic features of "healthy adipocytes" in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328808/effective-prevention-of-oxidative-deterioration-of-fish-oil-focus-on-flavor-deterioration
#4
Kazuo Miyashita, Mariko Uemura, Masashi Hosokawa
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), both abundant in fish oil, are known to have significant biochemical and physiological effects primarily linked to the improvement of human health, especially cardiovascular and brain health. However, the incorporation of fish oil into foods and beverages is often challenging, as fish oil is very easily oxidized and can cause undesirable flavors. This review discusses this rapid formation of the fishy and metallic off-flavors, focusing especially on an early stage of fish oil oxidation...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326315/plasma-n-3-and-n-6-fatty-acids-are-differentially-related-to-carotid-plaque-and-its-progression-mesa-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#5
Brian T Steffen, Weihua Guan, James H Stein, Mathew C Tattersall, Joel D Kaufman, Veit Sandfort, Moyses Szklo, Michael Y Tsai
OBJECTIVE: ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) have long been considered healthful dietary components, yet recent clinical trials have questioned their cardiovascular benefits. By contrast, the ω-6 (n-6) FAs have been considered harmful, proatherogenic macronutrients, despite an absence of empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis. We aimed to determine whether plasma n-3 and n-6 FAs are related to risk of carotid plaque and its progression in 3327 participants of the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis)...
January 11, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321393/-n-3-fatty-acids-and-the-maintenance-of-neuronal-functions
#6
Michio Hashimoto
The functions of n-3 fatty acids are known to be diverse, and they play roles in cardiovascular and neuronal systems and in lipid metabolism. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is the most abundant n-3 fatty acid in the brain, is essential for the maintenance of brain functions throughout the human lifespan. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that reduced n-3 fatty acid intake is closely associated with the onset of mental and neurological diseases such as brain developmental disorders, depression, and Alzheimer's disease...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321392/-the-role-of-brain-n-3-fatty-acids-gpr40-ffar1-signaling-in-pain
#7
Kazuo Nakamoto, Shogo Tokuyama
G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40)/free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) 1 is activated by long-chain fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Its receptor is expressed predominantly in the central nervous system (CNS) and in β-cells in the pancreatic Islets. We have already demonstrated that the intracerebroventricular administration of DHA or GW9508, a GPR40/FFAR1 agonist, suppresses formalin-induced pain behavior. It also attenuates complete Freund's adjuvant-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, suggesting that these effects occur by increasing β-endorphin release from propiomelanocortin neurons...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319730/effect-of-different-commercial-fat-sources-on-brain-liver-and-blood-lipid-profiles-of-rats-in-growth-phase
#8
Michel Cardoso de Angelis-Pereira, Maria de Fátima Píccolo Barcelos, Juciane de Abreu Ribeiro Pereira, Rafaela Corrêa Pereira, Raimundo Vicente de Souza
PURPOSE: To investigate the fatty acid content of different fat sources and evaluate the effect of them on plasma and hepatic lipids and on the fatty acid profile of the brain tissue of Wistar rats. METHODS: Thirty male albino Wistar rats received for 59 days, the following diets: diet added of margarine with low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); diet added of margarine with high content of PUFA; diet added of butter; diet added of hydrogenated vegetable fat; diet added of soybean oil...
December 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317615/biotransformation-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-to-bioactive-hepoxilins-and-trioxilins-by-microbial-enzymes
#9
Jung-Ung An, Yong-Seok Song, Kyoung-Rok Kim, Yoon-Joo Ko, Do-Young Yoon, Deok-Kun Oh
Hepoxilins (HXs) and trioxilins (TrXs) are involved in physiological processes such as inflammation, insulin secretion and pain perception in human. They are metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, formed by 12-lipoxygenase (LOX) and epoxide hydrolase (EH) expressed by mammalian cells. Here, we identify ten types of HXs and TrXs, produced by the prokaryote Myxococcus xanthus, of which six types are new, namely, HXB5, HXD3, HXE3, TrXB5, TrXD3 and TrXE3...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316682/effect-of-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-oxylipins-in-a-routine-clinical-setting
#10
Christoph Schmöcker, Ingrid W Zhang, Stefanie Kiesler, Ursula Kassner, Annika I Ostermann, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Nils H Schebb, Karsten-H Weylandt
Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) is the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), especially in Western diet. A high omega-6/omega-3 ratio in Western diets is implicated in the development of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes. Studies in animal models and in humans have demonstrated beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA (n-3 PUFA) in a variety of diseases, including cardiac arrhythmias and inflammatory diseases, as well as breast and colon cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of n-3 PUFA are still not well understood...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316447/circulating-metabolites-and-general-cognitive-ability-and-dementia-evidence-from-11-cohort-studies
#11
Sven J van der Lee, Charlotte E Teunissen, René Pool, Martin J Shipley, Alexander Teumer, Vincent Chouraki, Debora Melo van Lent, Juho Tynkkynen, Krista Fischer, Jussi Hernesniemi, Andres Metspalu, Archana Singh-Manoux, Aswin Verhoeven, Gonneke Willemsen, Francien A de Leeuw, Holger Wagner, Jenny van Dongen, Johannes Hertel, Kathrin Budde, Ko Willems van Dijk, Leonie Weinhold, M Arfan Ikram, Maik Pietzner, Markus Perola, Michael Wagner, Nele Friedrich, P E Slagboom, Philip Scheltens, Qiong Yang, Robert E Gertzen, Sarah Egert, Shuo Li, Thomas Hankemeier, Catharine E M van Beijsterveldt, Vasan Ramachandran, Wolfgang Maier, Carel F W Peeters, Hans Jörgen Grabe, Alfredo Ramirez, Sudha Seshadri, Toomas Haller, Mika Kivimäki, Veikko Salomaa, Ayşe Demirkan, Dorret Boomsma, Wiesje M van der Flier, Najaf Amin, Cornelia M van Duijn
INTRODUCTION: Identifying circulating metabolites that are associated with cognition and dementia may improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of dementia and provide crucial readouts for preventive and therapeutic interventions. METHODS: We studied 299 metabolites in relation to cognition (general cognitive ability) in two discovery cohorts (N total = 5658). Metabolites significantly associated with cognition after adjusting for multiple testing were replicated in four independent cohorts (N total = 6652), and the associations with dementia and Alzheimer's disease (N = 25,872) and lifestyle factors (N = 5168) were examined...
January 6, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312832/lipid-raft-localization-of-tlr2-and-its-co-receptors-is-independent-of-membrane-lipid-composition
#12
Christine Hellwing, Axel Schoeniger, Claudia Roessler, Anja Leimert, Julia Schumann
Background: Toll like receptors (TLRs) are an important and evolutionary conserved class of pattern recognition receptors associated with innate immunity. The recognition of Gram-positive cell wall constituents strongly depends on TLR2. In order to be functional, TLR2 predominantly forms a heterodimer with TLR1 or TLR6 within specialized membrane microdomains, the lipid rafts. The membrane lipid composition and the physicochemical properties of lipid rafts are subject to modification by exogenous fatty acids...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310688/effect-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-coronary-high-intensity-plaques-detected-with-non-contrast-t1-weighted-imaging-the-aquamarine-epa-dha-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Kazuhiro Nakao, Teruo Noguchi, Yasuhide Asaumi, Yoshiaki Morita, Tomoaki Kanaya, Masashi Fujino, Hayato Hosoda, Shuichi Yoneda, Shoji Kawakami, Toshiyuki Nagai, Kensaku Nishihira, Takahiro Nakashima, Reon Kumasaka, Tetsuo Arakawa, Fumiyuki Otsuka, Michio Nakanishi, Yu Kataoka, Yoshio Tahara, Yoichi Goto, Haruko Yamamoto, Toshimitsu Hamasaki, Satoshi Yasuda
BACKGROUND: Despite the success of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy in reducing atherosclerotic cardiovascular events, a residual risk for cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) remains. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are promising anti-atherosclerosis agents that might reduce the residual CAD risk. Non-contrast T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) less invasively identifies high-risk coronary plaques as high-intensity signals...
January 8, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306361/steroid-hormone-concentrations-and-body-mass-are-differently-affected-by-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-the-oestrous-cycle-in-guinea-pigs
#14
Matthias Nemeth, Bernard Wallner, Carina Siutz, Elisabeth Pschernig, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Eva Millesi
Reproductive functions in female mammals can be significantly affected by the actions of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on steroid hormone secretion rates. Nevertheless, the effects of plasma free PUFAs on the oestrous cycle have seldom been considered. Therefore, in the present study, the diet of domestic guinea pigs was supplemented with high concentrations of different PUFAs and the effects of altered plasma PUFA patterns on steroid hormone concentrations, measured non-invasively, and body mass during oestrus and dioestrus were analysed...
January 8, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306138/spatial-and-length-dependent-variation-of-the-risks-and-benefits-of-consuming-walleye-sander-vitreus
#15
Ursula Strandberg, Satyendra P Bhavsar, Tarn Preet Parmar, Michael T Arts
Restricted fish consumption due to elevated contaminant levels may limit the intake of essential omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) acids. We analyzed lake- and length-specific mercury and EPA+DHA contents in Walleye (Sander vitreus; Mitchell 1818) from 20 waterbodies in Ontario, Canada, and used this information to calculate the theoretical intake of EPA+DHA when the consumption advisories are followed. The stringent consumption advisory resulted in decreased EPA+DHA intake regardless of the EPA+DHA content in Walleye...
January 2, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305860/rvd1-inhibits-tnf%C3%AE-induced-c-myc-expression-in-normal-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-destabilizes-hyper-expressed-c-myc-in-colon-cancer-cells
#16
Xiancai Zhong, Ha-Na Lee, Young-Joon Surh
Inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are persistent disorders that lead to development of colitis-associated cancer (CAC). Seeking the resolution of colitis has been addressed as a new therapeutic strategy to CAC. Resolvin D1 (RvD1) is an endogenous lipid mediator that is generated from docosahexaenoic acid during the resolution of inflammation. Although the pro-resolving effects of RvDs have been extensively investigated and well defined, the role for RvD1 in CAC remains largely unknown...
January 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305832/all-n-3-pufa-are-not-the-same-md-simulations-reveal-differences-in-membrane-organization-for-epa-dha-and-dpa
#17
Xiaoling Leng, Jacob J Kinnun, Andres T Cavazos, Samuel W Canner, Saame Raza Shaikh, Scott E Feller, Stephen R Wassall
Eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5), docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6) and docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5) acids are omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) obtained from dietary consumption of fish oils that potentially alleviate the symptoms of a range of chronic diseases. We focus here on the plasma membrane as a site of action and investigate how they affect molecular organization when taken up into a phospholipid. All atom MD simulations were performed to compare 1-stearoyl-2-eicosapentaenoylphosphatylcholine (EPA-PC, 18:0-20:5PC), 1-stearoyl-2-docosahexaenoylphosphatylcholine (DHA-PC, 18:0-22:6PC), 1-stearoyl-2-docosapentaenoylphosphatylcholine (DPA-PC, 18:0-22:5PC) and, as a monounsaturated control, 1-stearoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (OA-PC, 18:0-18:1PC) bilayers...
January 3, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305120/brain-docosahexaenoic-acid-uptake-and-metabolism
#18
REVIEW
R J Scott Lacombe, Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, Richard P Bazinet
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain where it serves to regulate several important processes and, in addition, serves as a precursor to bioactive mediators. Given that the capacity of the brain to synthesize DHA locally is appreciably low, the uptake of DHA from circulating lipid pools is essential to maintaining homeostatic levels. Although, several plasma pools have been proposed to supply the brain with DHA, recent evidence suggests non-esterified-DHA and lysophosphatidylcholine-DHA are the primary sources...
January 2, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304057/long-chain-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-dietary-intake-is-positively-associated-with-bone-mineral-density-in-normal-and-osteopenic-spanish-women
#19
Jesus Lavado-García, Raul Roncero-Martin, Jose M Moran, Maria Pedrera-Canal, Ignacio Aliaga, Olga Leal-Hernandez, Sergio Rico-Martin, Maria L Canal-Macias
The regular consumption of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCO3-PUFAs) results in general health benefits. The intake of LCO3-PUFAs has been reported to contribute to bone metabolism. We aimed to investigate the relationships between dietary intakes of LCO3-PUFAs and bone mineral density (BMD) in Spanish women aged 20-79 years old. A total of 1865 female subjects (20-79 years old) were enrolled, and lumbar (L2, L3, L3 and total spine), hip (femoral neck (FN), femoral trochanter (FT) and Ward's triangle (WT)) bone mineral density (BMD) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302857/combination-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-valproic-acid-in-treatment-of-borderline-personality-disorder-a-follow-up-study
#20
Paola Bozzatello, Paola Rocca, Silvio Bellino
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Some evidence of efficacy has been found for omega-3 fatty acids in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In a previous 12-week randomized trial we assessed the efficacy of the combination of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with valproic acid, in comparison with valproic acid monotherapy, in 43 BPD outpatients. Combined therapy was superior to valproic acid monotherapy (the control group) in the treatment of some BPD symptoms: impulsive-behavioral dyscontrol, outbursts of anger, and self-harm...
January 5, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
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