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Anterograde tunnelization

Gregor Bieri, Aaron D Gitler, Michel Brahic
Intra-neuronal protein aggregates made of fibrillar alpha-synuclein (α-syn) are the hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). With time, these aggregates spread through the brain following axonal projections. Understanding the mechanism of this spread is central to the study of the progressive nature of PD. Here we review data relevant to the uptake, transport and release of α-syn fibrils. We summarize several cell surface receptors that regulate the uptake of α-syn fibrils by neurons. The aggregates are then transported along axons, both in the anterograde and retrograde direction...
January 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Maarten R Fechner, Marijn Hameeteman, René R W J van der Hulst, Bas B G M Franssen
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common peripheral nerve disease, often requiring surgical intervention. After the first description of endoscopic carpal tunnel release 20 years ago, several endoscopic techniques have been described. The endoscopic procedure seems to have a better outcome in terms of time to return to work. A feared complication of endoscopic carpal tunnel release is injury to the median nerve or branches of the median nerve. We developed a new guiding cannula with raised borders, which will prevent accidental injury to the median nerve...
March 2013: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
L M F Doyle, B L Roberts
The eel, Anguilla anguilla, as with other fish species, recovers well from spinal cord injury. We assessed the quality of locomotion of spinally transected eels from measurements made from video recordings of individuals swimming at different speeds in a water tunnel. Following transection of the spinal cord just caudal to the anus, the animals displayed higher tail beat frequencies and lower tail beat amplitudes than before surgery, owing to the loss of power in this region. Swimming performance then progressively recovered, appearing normal within 1 month of surgery...
October 2004: European Journal of Neuroscience
R E Swensson, A Murillo-Olivas, W Elias, R Bender, P O Daily, D J Sahn
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare but important cause of congestive heart failure in infancy and of sudden death at all ages. Diagnosis is often missed when based solely on physical examination and noninvasive methods. A 4 year old patient is presented in whom mitral regurgitation was noted by a referring physician and an anomalous left coronary artery was found by Doppler color flow mapping upon referral and verified at cardiac catheterization. Doppler color flow mapping was also used intraoperatively using a gas-sterilized transducer to further clarify the hemodynamics and assess the surgical result...
March 1988: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
L B Dahlin, J Sjöstrand, W G McLean
Effects of experimental compression at different pressures on retrograde axonal transport were studied in rabbit vagus nerve. Proteins in the sensory neurones were radiolabelled by injection of [3H]leucine into the nodose ganglion. Sixteen hours after labelling, a small compression chamber and/or ligatures were applied around the cervical part of the vagus nerve for 8 h. Compression of the vagus nerve at 20, 30 and 200 mm Hg pressure induced a graded inhibition of both retrograde and anterograde transport of the radiolabelled proteins...
December 1986: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
J L Wilson, M M Henson, O W Henson
The course, distribution and termination of single efferent fibers to the cochlea has been described in only a few animals and relatively few fibers have been studied with knowledge of their ipsilateral or contralateral origin. In order to examine the efferent fibers in the mouse, the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) was iontophoretically injected into one side of the brain stem near the location of known efferent nuclei. Examination of surface preparations of the cochlea revealed detailed information for both the lateral olivocochlear (LOC) and medial olivocochlear (MOC) systems...
September 1991: Hearing Research
L B Dahlin
The microanatomy of the neuron and the peripheral nerve, which is a composite tissue, should be considered when discussing the pathophysiology of nerve compression injuries. Acute and chronic compression of peripheral nerve can induce changes in intraneural microcirculation and nerve fiber structure, increase vascular permeability with subsequent edema formation, and impair anterograde and retrograde axonal transport, which all contribute to the clinical symptoms and deterioration of nerve function. Morphologic and functional changes in the nerve cell bodies can be observed after compression which may be due to inhibition of axonal transport...
January 1991: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
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