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striatum epilepsy

Doodipala Samba Reddy, Aamir Bhimani, Ramkumar Kuruba, Min Jung Park, Farida Sohrabji
This Review describes the current status of poststroke epilepsy (PSE) with an emphasis on poststroke epileptogenesis modeling for testing new therapeutic agents. Stroke is a leading cause of epilepsy in an aging population. Late-onset "epileptic" seizures have been reported in up to 30% cases after stroke. Nevertheless, the overall prevalence of PSE is 2-4%. Rodent models of stroke have contributed to our understanding of the relationship between seizures and the underlying ischemic damage to neurons. To understand whether acutely generated stroke events lead to a chronic phenotype more closely resembling PSE with recurrent seizures, a limited variety of approaches emerged in early 2000s...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Lin Zhang, Hua Li, Peiwei Hong, Xiaoyi Zou
PURPOSE: We sought to systematically review and perform a meta-analysis of the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings regarding juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). METHODS: We searched for studies in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase electronic databases. Two authors collected articles and extracted data independently. A meta-analysis was performed for diverse metabolites in different brain areas. The mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to compare continuous variables...
March 2016: Epilepsy Research
Mangor Pedersen, Evan K Curwood, David N Vaughan, Amir H Omidvarnia, Graeme D Jackson
Individuals with focal epilepsy have heterogeneous sites of seizure origin. However, there may be brain regions that are common to most cases of intractable focal epilepsy. In this study, we aim to identify these using multivariate analysis of task-free functional MRI. Fourteen subjects with extratemporal focal epilepsy and 14 healthy controls were included in the study. Task-free functional MRI data were used to calculate voxel-wise regional connectivity with regional homogeneity (ReHo) and weighted degree centrality (DCw), in addition to regional activity using fraction of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF)...
April 2016: Brain Connectivity
D Malfait, A Tucholka, S Mendizabal, J Tremblay, C Poulin, M Oskoui, M Srour, L Carmant, P Major, S Lippé
INTRODUCTION: Children with benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BECTS) often have language problems. Abnormal epileptic activity is found in central and temporal brain regions, which are involved in reading and semantic and syntactic comprehension. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined reading networks in BECTS children with a new sentence reading comprehension task involving semantic and syntactic processing. METHOD: Fifteen children with BECTS (age=11y 1m ± 16 m; 12 boys) and 18 healthy controls (age=11 y 8m ± 20 m; 11 boys) performed an fMRI reading comprehension task in which they read a pair of syntactically complex sentences and decided whether the target sentence (the second sentence in the pair) was true or false with respect to the first sentence...
November 2015: Epilepsy Research
Mangor Pedersen, Evan K Curwood, John S Archer, David F Abbott, Graeme D Jackson
OBJECTIVE: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and the similar but less tightly defined Lennox-Gastaut phenotype, describe patients with severe epilepsy, generalized epileptic discharges, and variable intellectual disability. Our previous functional neuroimaging studies suggest that abnormal diffuse association network activity underlies the epileptic discharges of this clinical phenotype. Herein we use a data-driven multivariate approach to determine the spatial changes in local and global networks of patients with severe epilepsy of the Lennox-Gastaut phenotype...
November 2015: Epilepsia
Takuya Kawanai, Atsuki Taruta, Aya Inoue, Ryo Watanabe, Yukio Ago, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Shigeru Hasebe, Yasuhiro Ooi, Kazuhiro Takuma, Toshio Matsuda
Previous studies have shown that inhibitors of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) attenuate seizure activity in drug-induced epilepsy models, but the role of NCX in epilepsy is not fully understood. The present study examined the effects of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling on the mRNA expression of NCX isoforms (NCX1, NCX2 and NCX3) in mouse brain. Chronic administration of PTZ at 40mg/kg resulted in kindling seizure development. It caused decreases in the mRNA levels of NCX1 and NCX2, but not NCX3, in the hippocampus...
September 2015: Epilepsy Research
Ann M Hemmerle, Rebecca Ahlbrand, Stefanie L Bronson, Kerstin H Lundgren, Neil M Richtand, Kim B Seroogy
Maternal immune activation (MIA) is an environmental risk factor for schizophrenia, and may contribute to other developmental disorders including autism and epilepsy. Activation of pro-inflammatory cytokine systems by injection of the synthetic double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (Poly I:C) mediates important neurochemical and behavioral corollaries of MIA, which have relevance to deficits observed in schizophrenia. We examined the consequences of MIA on forebrain expression of neuregulin-1 (NRG-1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and their receptors, ErbB4 and trkB, respectively, genes associated with schizophrenia...
October 2015: Schizophrenia Research
Cheng Luo, Yaodan Zhang, Weifang Cao, Yue Huang, Fei Yang, Jianjun Wang, Shipeng Tu, Xiaoming Wang, Dezhong Yao
Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECT) is the most common form of childhood idiopathic focal epilepsy syndrome. We investigated quantitative evidence regarding brain morphology and functional connectivity features to provide insight into the neuroanatomical foundation of this disorder, using high resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting state functional MRI in 21 patients with BECT and in 20 healthy children. The functional connectivity analysis, seeded at the regions with altered gray-matter (GM) volume in voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis, was further performed...
September 2015: International Journal of Neural Systems
T M Schwarzkopf, K Koch, J Klein
Triheptanoin, an oily substance, consists of glycerol bound to three molecules of heptanoic acid, a C7 odd-chain fatty acid. A triheptanoin-rich diet has anaplerotic effects because heptanoate metabolism yields succinate which delivers substrates to the Krebs cycle. While previous studies on the effects of triheptanoin focused on metabolic disorders and epilepsy, we investigated triheptanoin's effect on ischemic stroke. Mice were fed a triheptanoin-enriched diet for 14days; controls received soybean oil. Only mice fed triheptanoin had measurable quantities of odd-numbered fatty acids in the plasma and brain...
August 6, 2015: Neuroscience
K Yu Sarkisova, M A Kulikov, V S Kudrin, I S Midzyanovskaya, L M Birioukova
Behavior in the light-dark choice, open field, sucrose consumption/preference and forced swimming tests, monoamines and their metabolites content in 5 brain structures (prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus), and density of D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area were studied in WAG/Rij rats at age of 36 days, 3 and 6 months. It has been found that with age, as far as spike-wave discharges aggravate, behavioral symptoms of depression (enhanced immobility in the forced swimming test, reduced sucrose consumption/preference) as well as a hypo-function of the mesolimbic dopaminergic brain system increase in WAG/Rij rats...
November 2014: Zhurnal Vyssheĭ Nervnoĭ Deiatelnosti Imeni I P Pavlova
Túlio Cezar de Souza Bernardino, Antonio Lúcio Teixeira, Aline Silva Miranda, Patrícia Maia Guidine, Gustavo Rezende, Maria Carolina Doretto, Gabriel Perfeito Castro, Luciana Drummond, Márcio Flávio Dutra Moraes, Pedro Augusto Lopes Tito, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Helton José Reis
Increasing body of evidence suggests that inflammatory and neurotrophic factors might be important for epileptogenesis. Most animal studies demonstrated altered levels of these mediators in drug-induced models of seizures and epilepsy. In the present study, we investigated the production of cytokines and a neurotrophin in the brain of Wistar Audiogenic Rats (WAR), a genetic model of epilepsy, stimulated with high-intensity sound. Four hours after stimulation, animals were decapitated and the hippocampus, inferior colliculus, striatum and cortex were removed for evaluation of the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
June 15, 2015: Neuroscience Letters
A Eugene Pekary, Albert Sattin, Robert L Lloyd
Major depression is the largest single healthcare burden with treatments of slow onset and often limited efficacy. Ketamine, a NMDA antagonist used extensively as a pediatric and veterinary anesthetic, has recently been shown to be a rapid acting antidepressant, making it a potential lifesaver for suicidal patients. Side effects and risk of abuse limit the chronic use of ketamine. More complete understanding of the neurobiochemical mechanisms of ketamine should lead to safer alternatives. Some of the physiological and pharmacological actions of ketamine are consistent with increased synthesis and release of TRH (pGlu-His-Pro-NH2), and TRH-like peptides (pGlu-X-Pro-NH2) where "X" can be any amino acid residue...
July 2015: Peptides
Samuel Vandresen-Filho, Wagner Carbolin Martins, Daniela Bohn Bertoldo, Gianni Mancini, Andreza Fabro De Bem, Carla Inês Tasca
Quinolinic acid (QA) is a NMDA receptor agonist implicated in pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases and epilepsy. Time-course responses of different brain regions after QA i.c.v. infusion are not known. We aimed to investigate the time-course effects of QA infusion on oxidative stress-related parameters on different brain regions. In cerebral cortex, QA infusion promoted an early (1 h) decrease of NPSH levels and GR activity followed by a later increase in ROS production (8 h) and TBARS detection (24-72 h)...
August 2015: Neurological Sciences
Jin Yong Chung, Ji Won Lee, Choon Ho Ryu, Hye Kyung Min, Yeo Jin Yoon, Mi Jung Lim, Cheol Hyoung Park
Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) is well known as a therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease (PD). MAO-B inhibitors retain antiparkinsonism abilities to improve motor function and prevent neuronal loss by decreasing dopamine metabolism and oxidative stress in the brain. From the study to find novel antiparkinsonism drugs that can inhibit MAO-B activity, neuronal loss, and behavioral deficits in the mouse model of PD, we identified that 1-[2-(4-benzyloxyphenoxy)ethyl]imidazole (BPEI) or safinamide strongly and selectively inhibited MAO-B activities in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 of BPEI and safinamide for MAO-B were 0...
August 2015: Journal of Neuroscience Research
E A Fedosova, K Iu Sarkisova, V S Kudrin, V B Narkevich, P M Klodt, A S Bazian
The first spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in WAG/Rij rats begin to appear at age of 2-3 months and are fully manifested by 5-6 months. Occurrence of SWDs in the EEG is the main indicator of absence epilepsy. Extensive absence epilepsy in 5-6 months-old WAG/Rij rats is accompanied by decreases in dopamine and its metabolites concentrations in the meso-cortico-limbic and nigro-striatal dopaminergic brain systems, resulting in the expression of depression-like behavioral symptoms. In 36 day-old WAG/Rij rats, SWDs are not manifested, deficiency of dopamine is not revealed, and symptoms of depression-like behavior are not expressed...
September 2014: Zhurnal Vyssheĭ Nervnoĭ Deiatelnosti Imeni I P Pavlova
Cornelius J H M Klemann, Gerard J M Martens, Geert Poelmans, Jasper E Visser
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic (DA) neuron death in the substantia nigra (SN) and subsequent striatal adaptations. Mice treated with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidine (MPTP) are widely used as a model for PD. To assess the validity of the MPTP mouse model for PD pathogenesis, we here identify the biological processes that are dysregulated in both human PD and MPTP-treated mice. Gene enrichment analysis of published differentially expressed messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in the SN of PD patients and MPTP-treated mice revealed an enrichment of gene categories related to motor dysfunction and neurodegeneration...
April 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Mohammad Ahmad, Gasem M Abu-Taweel, Ahmad E Aboshaiqah, Jamaan S Ajarem
The present data indicate that status epilepticus (SE) induced in adult rats is associated with cognitive dysfunctions and cerebral oxidative stress (OS). This has been demonstrated using lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pc) model of SE. OS occurring in hippocampus and striatum of mature brain following SE is apparently due to both the increased free radicals production and the limited antioxidant defense. Pronounced alterations were noticed in the enzymatic, glutathione-S transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as in the nonenzymatic; thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GST), indices of OS in the hippocampus and striatum of SE induced animals...
2014: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Weiwen Wang, Xiaoyang Liao, Zhenghui Yang, Hang Lin, Qingsong Wang, Yuxian Wu, Yu Liu
The present study is to explore the change process and distribution of phosphorylated DARPP-32 (p-DARPP-32) in rat brain including cortex, hippocampus and striatum and to further deduce whether p-DARPP-32 was possibly involved in epilepsy induced by repetitive low doses of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). PTZ-induced epilepsy model in rat was established with 30 male SD rats randomly divided into 6 groups, control group and five trial groups [PTZ 1 h, PTZ 6 h, PTZ 24 h, PTZ 48 h and PTZ 72 h respectively, after onset of status epilepticus (SE)]...
June 2014: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
Aiko Shinko, Takashi Agari, Masahiro Kameda, Takao Yasuhara, Akihiko Kondo, Judith Thomas Tayra, Kenichiro Sato, Tatsuya Sasaki, Susumu Sasada, Hayato Takeuchi, Takaaki Wakamori, Cesario V Borlongan, Isao Date
In clinical practice, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective for treatment of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the mechanisms have not been understood completely. There are some reports that electrical stimulation exerts neuroprotective effects on the central nervous system diseases including cerebral ischemia, head trauma, epilepsy and PD, although there are a few reports on neuroprotective effects of spinal cord stimulation (SCS). We investigated the neuroprotective effects of high cervical SCS on PD model of rats...
2014: PloS One
Q Xu, Z Zhang, W Liao, L Xiang, F Yang, Z Wang, G Chen, Q Tan, Q Jiao, G Lu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Voxel-mirrored intrinsic functional connectivity allows the depiction of interhemispheric homotopic connections in the human brain, whereas time-shift intrinsic functional connectivity allows the detection of the extent of brain injury by measuring hemodynamic properties. We combined time-shift voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity analyses to investigate the alterations in homotopic connectivity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and assessed the value of applying this approach to epilepsy lateralization and the prediction of surgical outcomes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy...
September 2014: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
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