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Intractable epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926827/decoding-hand-gestures-from-primary-somatosensory-cortex-using-high-density-ecog
#1
Mariana P Branco, Zachary V Freudenburg, Erik J Aarnoutse, Martin G Bleichner, Mariska J Vansteensel, Nick F Ramsey
Electrocorticography (ECoG) based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have been proposed as a way to restore and replace motor function or communication in severely paralyzed people. To date, most motor-based BCIs have either focused on the sensorimotor cortex as a whole or on the primary motor cortex (M1) as a source of signals for this purpose. Still, target areas for BCI are not confined to M1, and more brain regions may provide suitable BCI control signals. A logical candidate is the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), which not only shares similar somatotopic organization to M1, but also has been suggested to have a role beyond sensory feedback during movement execution...
December 4, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918345/stereoelectroencephalography-interpretation
#2
Juan C Bulacio, Patrick Chauvel, Aileen McGonigal
Intracranial EEG has been in use for more than 50 years in the presurgical evaluation of patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy. The stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) method has expanded very significantly over the last 5 years, in parallel with the increase in the number of complex cases (i.e., MRI-negative) being referred with medically intractable focal epilepsy to major epilepsy surgery centers. Some centers with extensive experience in subdural electrodes are indeed changing or have changed to SEEG as the principal exploration technique, which suggests that SEEG might offer specific benefits through its approach to accurately localizing the epileptogenic zone...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915398/the-interactive-electrode-localization-utility-software-for-automatic-sorting-and-labeling-of-intracranial-subdural-electrodes
#3
Roan A LaPlante, Wei Tang, Noam Peled, Deborah I Vallejo, Mia Borzello, Darin D Dougherty, Emad N Eskandar, Alik S Widge, Sydney S Cash, Steven M Stufflebeam
PURPOSE: Existing methods for sorting, labeling, registering, and across-subject localization of electrodes in intracranial encephalography (iEEG) may involve laborious work requiring manual inspection of radiological images. METHODS: We describe a new open-source software package, the interactive electrode localization utility which presents a full pipeline for the registration, localization, and labeling of iEEG electrodes from CT and MR images. In addition, we describe a method to automatically sort and label electrodes from subdural grids of known geometry...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915117/from-intentions-to-actions-neural-oscillations-encode-motor-processes-through-phase-amplitude-and-phase-amplitude-coupling
#4
Etienne Combrisson, Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti, Juan Lp Soto, Golnoush Alamian, Philippe Kahane, Jean-Philippe Lachaux, Aymeric Guillot, Karim Jerbi
Goal-directed motor behavior is associated with changes in patterns of rhythmic neuronal activity across widely distributed brain areas. In particular, movement initiation and execution are mediated by patterns of synchronization and desynchronization that occur concurrently across distinct frequency bands and across multiple motor cortical areas. To date, motor-related local oscillatory modulations have been predominantly examined by quantifying increases or suppressions in spectral power. However, beyond signal power, spectral properties such as phase and phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) have also been shown to carry information with regards to the oscillatory dynamics underlying motor processes...
November 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914225/cortical-stimulation-parameters-for-functional-mapping
#5
Jacquelyn A Corley, Pouya Nazari, Vincent J Rossi, Nora C Kim, Louis F Fogg, Thomas J Hoeppner, Travis R Stoub, Richard W Byrne
PURPOSE: There is significant variation in how patients respond to cortical electrical stimulation. It has been hypothesized that individual demographic and pathologic factors, such as age, sex, disease duration, and MRI findings, may explain this discrepancy. The purpose of our study is to identify specific patient characteristics and their effect on cortical stimulation, and discover the extent of variation in behavioral responses that exists among patients with epilepsy. METHOD: We retrospectively analyzed data from 92 patients with medically intractable epilepsy who had extra-operative cortical electrical stimulation...
November 23, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891419/evaluation-of-hospitalized-intractable-epileptic-children-with-spect-scan-in-ahvaz-south-west-of-iran
#6
Ali Akbar Momen, Faramarz Ahmadi, Arash Malekian, Hannaneh Davoodzadeh, Hossein Kabirinia
INTRODUCTION: Seizures are the most frequent neurologic disorder seen in childhood. Epilepsy is a group of disorders that includes an abnormally increased susceptibility to seizures. AIM: To examine the effectiveness of SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography) in detecting seizure foci in 21 Iranian children who had medically refractory epilepsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children between 2 to 15 years of age with uncontrolled seizures were investigated using SPECT scan as a standardized protocol...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891080/enhanced-burst-suppression-and-disruption-of-local-field-potential-synchrony-in-a-mouse-model-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-exhibiting-spike-wave-seizures
#7
Anthony J Williams, Chen Zhou, Qian-Quan Sun
Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are a common cause of brain seizures and are often associated with intractable epilepsy. Here we evaluated aberrant brain neurophysiology in an in vivo mouse model of FCD induced by neonatal freeze lesions (FLs) to the right cortical hemisphere (near S1). Linear multi-electrode arrays were used to record extracellular potentials from cortical and subcortical brain regions near the FL in anesthetized mice (5-13 months old) followed by 24 h cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889457/a-study-of-oxidative-stress-and-the-newer-antiepileptic-drugs-in-epilepsy-associated-with-severe-motor-and-intellectual-disabilities
#8
Masahito Morimoto, Shigeko Satomura, Toshiaki Hashimoto, Shojiro Kyotani
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) are those who have both severe intellectual disabilities and severe physical disabilities. Intractable epilepsy is often associated with SMID. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between epilepsy associated with SMID and oxidative stress, and to clarify the safety and efficacy of the newer antiepileptic drugs (newer AEDs), lamotrigine and levetiracetam. METHODS: This study was conducted in 27 SMID patients with epilepsy who were treated with the newer AEDs...
November 23, 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885946/epilepsy-surgery-in-patients-with-autism
#9
Malgosia A Kokoszka, Patricia E McGoldrick, Maite La Vega-Talbott, Hillary Raynes, Christina A Palmese, Steven M Wolf, Cynthia L Harden, Saadi Ghatan
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to report outcomes of epilepsy surgery in 56 consecutive patients with autism spectrum disorder. METHODS Medical records of 56 consecutive patients with autism who underwent epilepsy surgery were reviewed with regard to clinical characteristics, surgical management, postoperative seizure control, and behavioral changes. RESULTS Of the 56 patients with autism, 39 were male, 45 were severely autistic, 27 had a history of clinically significant levels of aggression and other disruptive behaviors, and 30 were considered nonverbal at baseline...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883965/frequency-independent-characteristics-of-high-frequency-oscillations-in-epileptic-and-non-epileptic-regions
#10
Martin Pail, Pavel Řehulka, Jan Cimbálník, Irena Doležalová, Jan Chrastina, Milan Brázdil
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the presented study is to determine whether there are frequency-independent high-frequency oscillation (HFO) parameters which may differ in epileptic and non-epileptic regions. METHODS: We studied 31 consecutive patients with medically intractable focal (temporal and extratemporal) epilepsies who were examined by either intracerebral or subdural electrodes. Automated detection was used to detect HFO. The characteristics (rate, amplitude, and duration) of HFO were statistically compared within three groups: the seizure onset zone (SOZ), the irritative zone (IZ), and areas outside the IZ and SOZ (nonSOZ/nonIZ)...
October 29, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874947/the-relationship-between-the-occurrence-of-intractable-epilepsy-with-glial-cells-and-myelin-sheath-an-experimental-study
#11
X Hu, J-Y Wang, R Gu, H Qu, M Li, L Chen, R Liu, P Yuan
OBJECTIVE: The occurrence of epilepsy is associated with myelin sheath injury; oligodendrocyte (OL) is the main cell of myelin sheath; In this study, we observed the changes of OL, demyelination, and myelin associated protein in different stages of intractable epilepsy (IE) at the epileptic foci of patients, and provide useful information for the pathophysiology of IE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: IE patients who received epileptogenic focus resection were recruited as the experimental group, their medical records were collected and postoperative follow-up was performed...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873289/the-effect-of-ketogenic-diet-on-serum-selenium-levels-in-patients-with-intractable-epilepsy
#12
Nur Arslan, Engin Kose, Orkide Guzel
The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum selenium levels in children receiving olive oil-based ketogenic diet (KD) for intractable seizures for at least 1 year. Out of 320 patients who were initiated on KD, patients who continued receiving KD for at least 12 months were enrolled. Sixteen patients who had selenium deficiency at the time of starting KD were excluded. Finally, a total of 110 patients (mean age 7.3 ± 4.2 years) were included. Serum selenium levels were measured at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment initiation by using atomic absorption spectroscopy...
November 21, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873133/altered-expression-of-cxcl13-and-cxcr5-in-intractable-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-and-pilocarpine-induced-epileptic-rats
#13
Ruohan Li, Limin Ma, Hao Huang, Shu Ou, Jinxian Yuan, Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Xi Liu, Juan Yang, Yangmei Chen, Xi Peng
The mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of epilepsy are still unclear. Recent studies have indicated that inflammatory processes occurring in the brain are involved in a common and crucial mechanism in epileptogenesis. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) and its only receptor, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and participate in inflammatory responses. The present study aimed to assess the expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in the brain tissues of both patients with intractable epilepsy (IE) and a rat model (lithium-pilocarpine) of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to identify possible roles of the CXCL13-CXCR5 signaling pathway in epileptogenesis...
November 21, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871516/pediatric-patients-on-ketogenic-diet-undergoing-general-anesthesia-a-medical-record-review
#14
Elif Soysal, Heike Gries, Carter Wray
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify guidelines for anesthesia management and determine whether general anesthesia is safe for pediatric patients on ketogenic diet (KD). DESIGN: Retrospective medical record review. SETTING: Postoperative recovery area. PATIENTS: All pediatric patients who underwent general anesthesia while on KD between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. We identified 24 patients who underwent a total of 33 procedures...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870647/meg-may-reveal-hidden-population-of-spikes-in-epilepsy-with-porencephalic-cyst-encephalomalacia
#15
Yosuke Kakisaka, Zhong I Wang, Sumiya Shibata, Yoko Takahashi, John C Mosher, Andreas V Alexopoulos, Richard C Burgess
Porencephalic cyst/encephalomalacia (PC/E) is often associated with intractable epilepsy. A Limited number of studies reported Magnetoencephalography (MEG)'s potential to help construct treatment strategy for epilepsies associated with PC/E. We present here simultaneous EEG and MEG findings in three adult patients with pediatric-onset epilepsy due to PC/E. There were two types of spikes: one type was detected by MEG only (EEG-/MEG+), and the other detected by both EEG and MEG (EEG+/MEG+). Both types were seen in all three cases...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866088/is-ketogenic-diet-treatment-hepatotoxic-for-children-with-intractable-epilepsy
#16
Nur Arslan, Orkide Guzel, Engin Kose, Unsal Yılmaz, Pınar Kuyum, Betül Aksoy, Tansel Çalık
PURPOSE: Long-term ketogenic diet (KD) treatment has been shown to induce liver steatosis and gallstone formation in some in vivo and clinical studies. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the hepatic side effects of KD in epileptic children. METHOD: A total of 141 patients (mean age: 7.1±4.1years [2-18 years], 45.4% girls), receiving KD at least one year for intractable epilepsy due to different diagnoses (congenital brain defects, GLUT-1 deficiency, West syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, hypoxic brain injury, etc...
November 13, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859029/reactivation-of-seizure-related-changes-to-interictal-spike-shape-and-synchrony-during-postseizure-sleep-in-patients
#17
Mark R Bower, Michal T Kucewicz, Erik K St Louis, Fredric B Meyer, W Richard Marsh, Matt Stead, Gregory A Worrell
OBJECTIVE: Local field potentials (LFPs) arise from synchronous activation of millions of neurons, producing seemingly consistent waveform shapes and relative synchrony across electrodes. Interictal spikes (IISs) are LFPs associated with epilepsy that are commonly used to guide surgical resection. Recently, changes in neuronal firing patterns observed in the minutes preceding seizure onset were found to be reactivated during postseizure sleep, a process called seizure-related consolidation (SRC), due to similarities with learning-related consolidation...
November 18, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857813/anesthetic-management-of-a-child-with-lennox-gastaut-syndrome-with-intractable-epilepsy-posted-for-intracranial-surgery
#18
Indu Kapoor, Girija Prasad Rath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857782/heart-type-fatty-acid-binding-protein-as-a-predictor-of-cardiac-ischemia-in-intractable-seizures-in-children
#19
Hatem H El Shorbagy, Mostafa A Elsayed, Naglaa M Kamal, Ahmed A Azab, Mohamed M Bassiouny, Ibrahim A Ghoneim
BACKGROUND: Children with intractable epilepsy have chronic dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system causing myocardial ischemia. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is a sensitive biomarker for myocardial ischemia. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate serum levels of H-FABP during seizures compared to their interictal levels and healthy controls and changes in heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) in epileptic children with intractable seizures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 30 epileptic seizures in 25 children with intractable epilepsy and 30 matched controls...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857621/how-and-why-study-posttraumatic-epileptogenesis-in-animal-models
#20
Bret N Smith
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) greatly increases the risk of medically intractable epilepsy. Several models of TBI have been developed to investigate the relationship between TBI and posttraumatic epileptogenesis. Because the incident that precipitates development of epilepsy is known, studying mechanisms of epileptogenesis, identifying biomarkers to predict PTE, and developing treatments to prevent epilepsy after TBI are attainable research goals.
November 2016: Epilepsy Currents
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