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Alpha Oscillations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720790/neural-oscillations-associated-with-auditory-duration-maintenance-in-working-memory
#1
Xiaolin Yu, Youguo Chen, Junjie Qiu, Xiang Li, Xiting Huang
The neural representation of auditory duration remains unknown. Here, we used electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings to investigate neural oscillations during the maintenance of auditory duration in working memory (WM). EEG analyses indicated that the auditory duration length was not associated with changes in the theta band amplitude, whereas the alpha band amplitudes during 3-s and 4-s auditory duration conditions were lower than during the 1-s and 2-s conditions. Moreover, the alpha band amplitude and accuracy were positively correlated in the 2-s duration condition...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718301/web-addiction-in-the-brain-cortical-oscillations-autonomic-activity-and-behavioral-measures
#2
Michela Balconi, Salvatore Campanella, Roberta Finocchiaro
Background and aims Internet addiction (IA) was recently defined as a disorder tagging both the impulse control and the reward systems. Specifically, inhibitory deficits and reward bias were considered highly relevant in IA. This research aims to examine the electrophysiological correlates and autonomic activity [skin conductance response (SCR) and heart rate] in two groups of young subjects (N = 25), with high or low IA profile [tested by the Internet Addiction Test (IAT)], with specific reference to gambling behavior...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714768/macronutrient-composition-of-a-morning-meal-and-the-maintenance-of-attention-throughout-the-morning
#3
Tommy J Wilson, Michael J Gray, Jan-Willem Van Klinken, Melissa Kaczmarczyk, John J Foxe
BACKGROUND: At present, the impact of macronutrient composition and nutrient intake on sustained attention in adults is unclear, although some prior work suggests that nutritive interventions that engender slow, steady glucose availability support sustained attention after consumption. A separate line of evidence suggests that nutrient consumption may alter electroencephalographic markers of neurophysiological activity, including neural oscillations in the alpha-band (8-14 Hz), which are known to be richly interconnected with the allocation of attention...
July 17, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712947/cortical-dynamics-of-emotional-autobiographical-memory-retrieval-differ-between-women-and-men
#4
Joseph R Manns, Nicole L Varga, John B Trimper, Patricia J Bauer
Retrieval of autobiographical memories entails periods of search, access, and elaboration. Women's reports of their memories feature more detail and emotional content relative to men's. A key question is how these gender differences relate to unfolding changes in cortical activity during retrieval. We recorded EEG activity from 32 scalp electrodes as women and men were cued to retrieve positive, negative, and neutral autobiographical memories. Alpha (9-12Hz) oscillations were prominent at all EEG channels. Alpha coherence between channels was calculated as a measure of ms-level cortical synchrony...
July 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701933/network-efficiency-and-posterior-alpha-patterns-are-markers-of-recovery-from-general-anesthesia-a-high-density-electroencephalography-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#5
Stefanie Blain-Moraes, Vijay Tarnal, Giancarlo Vanini, Tarik Bel-Behar, Ellen Janke, Paul Picton, Goodarz Golmirzaie, Ben J A Palanca, Michael S Avidan, Max B Kelz, George A Mashour
Recent studies have investigated local oscillations, long-range connectivity, and global network patterns to identify neural changes associated with anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. These studies typically employ anesthetic protocols that either just cross the threshold of unconsciousness, or induce deep unconsciousness for a brief period of time-neither of which models general anesthesia for major surgery. To study neural patterns of unconsciousness and recovery in a clinically-relevant context, we used a realistic anesthetic regimen to induce and maintain unconsciousness in eight healthy participants for 3 h...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701732/alpha-power-predicts-persistence-of-bistable-perception
#6
Giovanni Piantoni, Nico Romeijn, German Gomez-Herrero, Ysbrand D Van Der Werf, Eus J W Van Someren
Perception is strongly affected by the intrinsic state of the brain, which controls the propensity to either maintain a particular perceptual interpretation or switch to another. To understand the mechanisms underlying the spontaneous drive of the brain to explore alternative interpretations of unchanging stimuli, we repeatedly recorded high-density EEG after normal sleep and after sleep deprivation while participants observed a Necker cube image and reported the durations of the alternating representations of their bistable perception...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700538/autonomic-responses-to-tonic-pain-are-more-closely-related-to-stimulus-intensity-than-to-pain-intensity
#7
Moritz M Nickel, Elisabeth S May, Laura Tiemann, Martina Postorino, Son Ta Dinh, Markus Ploner
Pain serves the protection of the body by translating noxious stimulus information into a subjective percept and protective responses. Such protective responses rely on autonomic responses which allocate energy resources to protective functions. However, the precise relationship between objective stimulus intensity, subjective pain intensity, autonomic responses and brain activity is not fully clear yet. Here, we addressed this question by continuously recording pain ratings, skin conductance, heart rate and electroencephalography during tonic noxious heat stimulation of the hand in 39 healthy human subjects...
July 8, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700096/peak-alpha-frequency-is-a-neural-marker-of-cognitive-function-across-the-autism-spectrum
#8
Abigail Dickinson, Charlotte DiStefano, Damla Senturk, Shafali Spurling Jeste
Cognitive function varies substantially and serves as a key predictor of outcome and response to intervention in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet we know little about the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie cognitive function in children with ASD. The dynamics of neuronal oscillations in the alpha range (6-12 Hz) are associated with cognition in typical development. Peak alpha frequency is also highly sensitive to developmental changes in neural networks which underlie cognitive function, and therefore it holds promise as a developmentally-sensitive neural marker of cognitive function in ASD...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698387/cortical-and-subcortical-coordination-of-visual-spatial-attention-revealed-by-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-recording
#9
Jessica J Green, Carsten N Boehler, Kenneth C Roberts, Ling-Chia Chen, Ruth M Krebs, Allen W Song, Marty G Woldorff
Visual spatial attention has been studied in humans with both electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) individually. However, due to the intrinsic limitations of each of these methods used alone, our understanding of the systems-level mechanisms underlying attentional control remains limited. Here, we examined trial-to-trial covariations of concurrently recorded EEG and fMRI in a cued visual spatial-attention task in humans, which allowed delineation of both the generators and modulators of the cue-triggered event-related oscillatory brain activity underlying attentional-control function...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697376/erps-and-oscillations-during-encoding-predict-retrieval-of-digit-memory-in-superior-mnemonists
#10
Yafeng Pan, Xianchun Li, Xi Chen, Yixuan Ku, Yujie Dong, Zheng Dou, Lin He, Yi Hu, Weidong Li, Xiaolin Zhou
Previous studies have consistently demonstrated that superior mnemonists (SMs) outperform normal individuals in domain-specific memory tasks. However, the neural correlates of memory-related processes remain unclear. In the current EEG study, SMs and control participants performed a digit memory task during which their brain activity was recorded. Chinese SMs used a digit-image mnemonic for encoding digits, in which they associated 2-digit groups with images immediately after the presentation of each even-position digit in sequences...
July 8, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673993/coherent-alpha-oscillations-link-current-and-future-receptive-fields-during-saccades
#11
Sujaya Neupane, Daniel Guitton, Christopher C Pack
Oscillations are ubiquitous in the brain, and they can powerfully influence neural coding. In particular, when oscillations at distinct sites are coherent, they provide a means of gating the flow of neural signals between different cortical regions. Coherent oscillations also occur within individual brain regions, although the purpose of this coherence is not well understood. Here, we report that within a single brain region, coherent alpha oscillations link stimulus representations as they change in space and time...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669422/slower-resting-alpha-frequency-is-associated-with-superior-localisation-of-moving-targets
#12
Christina J Howard, Craig P A Arnold, Matthew K Belmonte
We examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of individual differences in the ability to maintain up-to-date representations of the positions of moving objects. In two experiments similar to the multiple object tracking (MOT) task, we asked observers to monitor continuously one or several targets as they moved unpredictably for a semi-random period. After all objects disappeared, observers were immediately prompted to report the perceived final position of one queried target. Precision of these position reports declined with attentional load, and reports tended to best resemble positions occupied by the queried target between 0 and 30ms in the past...
June 29, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663196/the-triple-flash-illusion-reveals-a-driving-role-of-alpha-band-reverberations-in-visual-perception
#13
Rasa Gulbinaite, Barkın İlhan, Rufin VanRullen
The modulatory role of spontaneous brain oscillations on perception of threshold-level stimuli is well established. Here, we provide evidence that alpha-band (∼10 Hz) oscillations not only modulate perception of threshold-level sensory inputs, but also can drive perception and generate percepts without a physical stimulus being present. We used the "triple-flash" illusion: Occasional perception of three flashes when only two spatially-coincident veridical ones, separated by ∼100 ms, are presented. The illusion was proposed to result from superposition of two hypothetical oscillatory impulse response functions (IRF) generated in response to each flash: When the delay between flashes matches the period of the oscillation, the superposition enhances a later part of the oscillation that is normally damped; when this enhancement crosses perceptual threshold, a third flash is erroneously perceived (Bowen, 1989)...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659769/propofol-sevoflurane-and-ketamine-induce-a-reversible-increase-in-delta-gamma-and-theta-gamma-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-frontal-cortex-of-rat
#14
Dinesh Pal, Brian H Silverstein, Lana Sharba, Duan Li, Viviane S Hambrecht-Wiedbusch, Anthony G Hudetz, George A Mashour
Studies from human and non-human species have demonstrated a breakdown of functional corticocortical connectivity during general anesthesia induced by anesthetics with diverse molecular, neurophysiological, and pharmacological profiles. Recent studies have demonstrated that changes in long-range neural communication, and by corollary, functional connectivity, might be influenced by cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between the phase of slow oscillations and the amplitude of local fast oscillations. Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) between slow oscillations and alpha rhythm during general anesthesia reveal distinct patterns depending on the anesthetic...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657957/a-prospective-study-of-age-dependent-changes-in-propofol-induced-electroencephalogram-oscillations-in-children
#15
Johanna M Lee, Oluwaseun Akeju, Kristina Terzakis, Kara J Pavone, Hao Deng, Timothy T Houle, Paul G Firth, Erik S Shank, Emery N Brown, Patrick L Purdon
BACKGROUND: In adults, frontal electroencephalogram patterns observed during propofol-induced unconsciousness consist of slow oscillations (0.1 to 1 Hz) and coherent alpha oscillations (8 to 13 Hz). Given that the nervous system undergoes significant changes during development, anesthesia-induced electroencephalogram oscillations in children may differ from those observed in adults. Therefore, we investigated age-related changes in frontal electroencephalogram power spectra and coherence during propofol-induced unconsciousness...
August 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655938/significance-of-high-frequency-electrical-brain-activity
#16
REVIEW
Katsuhiro Kobayashi, Tomoyuki Akiyama, Takashi Agari, Tatsuya Sasaki, Takashi Shibata, Yoshiyuki Hanaoka, Mari Akiyama, Fumika Endoh, Makio Oka, Isao Date
 Electroencephalogram (EEG) data include broadband electrical brain activity ranging from infra-slow bands (< 0.1 Hz) to traditional frequency bands (e.g., the approx. 10 Hz alpha rhythm) to high-frequency bands of up to 500 Hz. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) including ripple and fast ripple oscillations (80-200 Hz and>200 / 250 Hz, respectively) are particularly of note due to their very close relationship to epileptogenicity, with the possibility that they could function as a surrogate biomarker of epileptogenicity...
June 2017: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654081/aging-affects-the-balance-of-neural-entrainment-and-top-down-neural-modulation-in-the-listening-brain
#17
Molly J Henry, Björn Herrmann, Dunja Kunke, Jonas Obleser
Healthy aging is accompanied by listening difficulties, including decreased speech comprehension, that stem from an ill-understood combination of sensory and cognitive changes. Here, we use electroencephalography to demonstrate that auditory neural oscillations of older adults entrain less firmly and less flexibly to speech-paced (∼3 Hz) rhythms than younger adults' during attentive listening. These neural entrainment effects are distinct in magnitude and origin from the neural response to sound per se...
June 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648821/caveolae-protect-notochord-cells-against-catastrophic-mechanical-failure-during-development
#18
Ye-Wheen Lim, Harriet P Lo, Charles Ferguson, Nick Martel, Jean Giacomotto, Guillermo A Gomez, Alpha S Yap, Thomas E Hall, Robert G Parton
The embryonic notochord is a flexible structure present during development that serves as scaffold for formation of the vertebrate spine. This rod-like organ is thought to have evolved in non-vertebrate chordates to facilitate locomotion by providing a rigid but flexible midline structure against which the axial muscles can contract. This hydrostatic "skeleton" is exposed to a variety of mechanical forces during oscillation of the body. There is evidence that caveolae, submicroscopic cup-shaped plasma membrane pits, can buffer tension in cells that undergo high levels of mechanical stress...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643132/integrated-inflammatory-stress-itis-model
#19
Elisabeth O Bangsgaard, Poul G Hjorth, Mette S Olufsen, Jesper Mehlsen, Johnny T Ottesen
During the last decade, there has been an increasing interest in the coupling between the acute inflammatory response and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis. The inflammatory response is activated acutely by pathogen- or damage-related molecular patterns, whereas the HPA axis maintains a long-term level of the stress hormone cortisol which is also anti-inflammatory. A new integrated model of the interaction between these two subsystems of the inflammatory system is proposed and coined the integrated inflammatory stress (ITIS) model...
June 22, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642729/inconsistent-effects-of-parietal-%C3%AE-tacs-on-pseudoneglect-across-two-experiments-a-failed-internal-replication
#20
Domenica Veniero, Christopher S Y Benwell, Merle M Ahrens, Gregor Thut
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is being investigated as an experimental and clinical interventional technique in human participants. While promising, important limitations have been identified, including weak effect sizes and high inter- and intra-individual variability of outcomes. Here, we compared two "inhibitory" tES-techniques with supposedly different mechanisms of action as to their effects on performance in a visuospatial attention task, and report on a direct replication attempt. In two experiments, 2 × 20 healthy participants underwent tES in three separate sessions testing different protocols (10 min stimulation each) with a montage targeting right parietal cortex (right parietal-left frontal, electrode-sizes: 3cm × 3cm-7 cm × 5 cm), while performing a perceptual line bisection (landmark) task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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