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Alpha Oscillations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664924/evidence-supporting-a-role-for-astrocytes-in-the-regulation-of-cognitive-flexibility-and-neuronal-oscillations-through-the-ca2-binding-protein-s100%C3%AE
#1
Adam T Brockett, Gary A Kane, Patrick K Monari, Brandy A Briones, Pierre-Antoine Vigneron, Gabriela A Barber, Andres Bermudez, Uma Dieffenbach, Alexander D Kloth, Timothy J Buschman, Elizabeth Gould
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is important for cognitive flexibility, the ability to switch between two task-relevant dimensions. Changes in neuronal oscillations and alterations in the coupling across frequency ranges have been correlated with attention and cognitive flexibility. Here we show that astrocytes in the mPFC of adult male Sprague Dawley rats, participate in cognitive flexibility through the astrocyte-specific Ca2+ binding protein S100β, which improves cognitive flexibility and increases phase amplitude coupling between theta and gamma oscillations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662434/review-of-the-neural-oscillations-underlying-meditation
#2
REVIEW
Darrin J Lee, Edwin Kulubya, Philippe Goldin, Amir Goodarzi, Fady Girgis
Objective: Meditation is one type of mental training that has been shown to produce many cognitive benefits. Meditation practice is associated with improvement in concentration and reduction of stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, different forms of meditation training are now being used as interventions for a variety of psychological and somatic illnesses. These benefits are thought to occur as a result of neurophysiologic changes. The most commonly studied specific meditation practices are focused attention (FA), open-monitoring (OM), as well as transcendental meditation (TM), and loving-kindness (LK) meditation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658746/older-adults-show-impaired-modulation-of-attentional-alpha-oscillations-evidence-from-dichotic-listening
#3
Chad S Rogers, Lisa Payne, Sujala Maharjan, Arthur Wingfield, Robert Sekuler
Auditory attention is critical for selectively listening to speech from a single talker in a multitalker environment (e.g., Cherry, 1953). Listening in such situations is notoriously more difficult and more poorly encoded to long-term memory in older than in young adults (Tun, O'Kane, & Wingfield, 2002). Recent work by Payne, Rogers, Wingfield, and Sekuler (2017) in young adults demonstrated a neural correlate of auditory attention in the directed dichotic listening task (DDLT), where listeners attend to one ear while ignoring the other...
March 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656907/opposite-effects-of-lateralised-transcranial-alpha-versus-gamma-stimulation-on-auditory-spatial-attention
#4
Malte Wöstmann, Johannes Vosskuhl, Jonas Obleser, Christoph S Herrmann
BACKGROUND: Spatial attention relatively increases the power of neural 10-Hz alpha oscillations in the hemisphere ipsilateral to attention, and decreases alpha power in the contralateral hemisphere. For gamma oscillations (>40 Hz), the opposite effect has been observed. The functional roles of lateralised oscillations for attention are currently unclear. HYPOTHESIS: If lateralised oscillations are functionally relevant for attention, transcranial stimulation of alpha versus gamma oscillations in one hemisphere should differentially modulate the accuracy of spatial attention to the ipsi-versus contralateral side...
April 6, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655974/tacs-mediated-modulation-of-the-auditory-steady-state-response-as-seen-with-meg
#5
Petteri Hyvärinen, Dawoon Choi, Gianpaolo Demarchi, Antti A Aarnisalo, Nathan Weisz
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that transcranial electrical stimulation can be successfully applied during simultaneous MEG measurements. In particular, using beamforming they have established that changes of stimulus induced as well as evoked activity can be inspected during transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We studied tACS-mediated changes of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR), hypothesizing that-due to the putatively inhibitory role of alpha oscillations-these evoked responses would be diminished...
March 28, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643187/alpha-band-oscillation-mediates-the-temporal-organization-of-serially-presented-flashes
#6
Ying Fan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629245/selective-attention-on-representations-in-working-memory-cognitive-and-neural-mechanisms
#7
Yixuan Ku
Selective attention and working memory are inter-dependent core cognitive functions. It is critical to allocate attention on selected targets during the capacity-limited working memory processes to fulfill the goal-directed behavior. The trends of research on both topics are increasing exponentially in recent years, and it is considered that selective attention and working memory share similar underlying neural mechanisms. Different types of attention orientation in working memory are introduced by distinctive cues, and the means using retrospective cues are strengthened currently as it is manipulating the representation in memory, instead of the perceptual representation...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627592/alignment-of-alpha-band-desynchronization-with-syntactic-structure-predicts-successful-sentence-comprehension
#8
Benedict Vassileiou, Lars Meyer, Caroline Beese, Angela D Friederici
Sentence comprehension requires the encoding of phrases and their relationships into working memory. To date, despite the importance of neural oscillations in language comprehension, the neural-oscillatory dynamics of sentence encoding are only sparsely understood. Although oscillations in a wide range of frequency bands have been reported both for the encoding of unstructured word lists and for working-memory intensive sentences, it is unclear to what extent these frequency bands subserve processes specific to the working-memory component of sentence comprehension or to general verbal working memory...
April 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615485/alpha-oscillations-are-causally-linked-to-inhibitory-abilities-in-ageing
#9
Giulia Borghini, Michela Candini, Cristina Filannino, Masud Hussain, Vincent Walsh, Vincenzo Romei, Nahid Zokaei, Marinella Cappelletti
Ageing adults typically show reduced ability to ignore task-irrelevant information, an essential skill for optimal performance in many cognitive operations, including those requiring working memory (WM) resources. In a first experiment, young and elderly human participants of both genders performed an established WM paradigm probing inhibitory abilities by means of valid, invalid and neutral retro-cues. Elderly participants showed an overall cost, especially in performing invalid trials while youngers' general performance was comparatively higher, as expected...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596153/the-neural-underpinnings-of-music-listening-under-different-attention-conditions
#10
Lutz Jäncke, Simon Leipold, Anja Burkhard
Most studies examining the neural underpinnings of music listening have no specific instruction on how to process the presented musical pieces. In this study, we explicitly manipulated the participants' focus of attention while they listened to the musical pieces. We used an ecologically valid experimental setting by presenting the musical stimuli simultaneously with naturalistic film sequences. In one condition, the participants were instructed to focus their attention on the musical piece (attentive listening), whereas in the second condition, the participants directed their attention to the film sequence (passive listening)...
March 28, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594338/macro-and-micromechanical-remodelling-in-the-fish-atrium-is-associated-with-regulation-of-collagen-1-alpha-3-chain-expression
#11
Adam N Keen, Andrew J Fenna, James C McConnell, Michael J Sherratt, Peter Gardner, Holly A Shiels
Numerous pathologies lead to remodelling of the mammalian ventricle, often associated with fibrosis. Recent work in fish has shown that fibrotic remodelling of the ventricle is 'reversible', changing seasonally as temperature-induced changes in blood viscosity alter haemodynamic load on the heart. The atrial response to varying haemodynamic load is less understood in mammals and completely unexplored in non-mammalian vertebrates. To investigate atrial remodelling, rainbow trout were chronically cooled (from 10 ± 1 to 5 ± 1 °C) and chronically warmed (from 10 ± 1 to 18 ± 1 °C) for a minimum of 8 weeks...
March 28, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589817/neurophysiological-changes-in-the-visuomotor-network-after-practicing-a-motor-task
#12
James E Gehringer, David J Arpin, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson, Max J Kurz
Although it is well appreciated that practicing a motor task updates the associated internal model, it is still unknown how the cortical oscillations linked with the motor action change with practice. The present study investigates the short-term changes (e.g., fast motor learning) in the alpha and beta event related desynchronizations (ERD) associated with the production of a motor action. To this end, we utilized magnetoencephalography to identify changes in the alpha and beta ERD in healthy adults after participants practiced a novel isometric ankle plantarflexion target matching task...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588228/neural-oscillations-during-conditional-associative-learning
#13
Alex Clarke, Brooke M Roberts, Charan Ranganath
Associative learning requires mapping between complex stimuli and behavioural responses. When multiple stimuli are involved, conditional associative learning is a gradual process with learning based on trial and error. It is established that a distributed network of regions track associative learning, however the role of neural oscillations in human learning remains less clear. Here we used scalp EEG to test how neural oscillations change during learning of arbitrary visuo-motor associations. Participants learned to associative 48 different abstract shapes to one of four button responses through trial and error over repetitions of the shapes...
March 24, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571717/simultaneous-scalp-recorded-eeg-and-local-field-potentials-from-monkey-ventral-premotor-cortex-during-action-observation-and-execution-reveals-the-contribution-of-mirror-and-motor-neurons-to-the-mu-rhythm
#14
Marco Bimbi, Fabrizia Festante, Gino Coudé, Ross E Vanderwert, Nathan A Fox, Pier Francesco Ferrari
The desynchronization of alpha and beta oscillations (mu rhythm) in the central scalp EEG during action observation and action execution is thought to reflect neural mirroring processes. However, the extent to which mirror neurons (MNs) or other populations of neurons contribute to such EEG desynchronization is still unknown. Here, we provide the first evidence that, in the monkey, the neuronal activity recorded from the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) strongly contributes to the EEG changes occurring in the beta band over central scalp electrodes, during executed and observed actions...
March 20, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567582/intra-operative-characterisation-of-subthalamic-oscillations-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Xinyi Geng, Xin Xu, Andreas Horn, Ningfei Li, Zhipei Ling, Peter Brown, Shouyan Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to use the activities recorded directly from the deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode to address the focality and distinct nature of the local field potential (LFP) activities of different frequency. METHODS: Pre-operative and intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were acquired from patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who underwent DBS in the subthalamic nucleus and intra-operative LFP recording at rest and during cued movements...
May 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551459/unilateral-deep-brain-stimulation-suppresses-alpha-and-beta-oscillations-in-sensorimotor-cortices
#16
Omid Abbasi, Jan Hirschmann, Lena Storzer, Tolga Esat Özkurt, Saskia Elben, Jan Vesper, Lars Wojtecki, Georg Schmitz, Alfons Schnitzler, Markus Butz
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy to treat motor symptoms in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). The mechanisms leading to the high therapeutic effectiveness of DBS are poorly understood so far, but modulation of oscillatory activity is likely to play an important role. Thus, investigating the effect of DBS on cortical oscillatory activity can help clarifying the neurophysiological mechanisms of DBS. Here, we aimed at scrutinizing changes of cortical oscillatory activity by DBS at different frequencies using magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
March 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549239/thalamocortical-dysrhythmia-detected-by-machine-learning
#17
Sven Vanneste, Jae-Jin Song, Dirk De Ridder
Thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD) is a model proposed to explain divergent neurological disorders. It is characterized by a common oscillatory pattern in which resting-state alpha activity is replaced by cross-frequency coupling of low- and high-frequency oscillations. We undertook a data-driven approach using support vector machine learning for analyzing resting-state electroencephalography oscillatory patterns in patients with Parkinson's disease, neuropathic pain, tinnitus, and depression. We show a spectrally equivalent but spatially distinct form of TCD that depends on the specific disorder...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548241/mutual-information-identifies-spurious-hurst-phenomena-in-resting-state-eeg-and-fmri-data
#18
Frederic von Wegner, Helmut Laufs, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Long-range memory in time series is often quantified by the Hurst exponent H, a measure of the signal's variance across several time scales. We analyze neurophysiological time series from electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting state experiments with two standard Hurst exponent estimators and with the time-lagged mutual information function applied to discretized versions of the signals. A confidence interval for the mutual information function is obtained from surrogate Markov processes with equilibrium distribution and transition matrix identical to the underlying signal...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543041/neuropilin-1and-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptors-cooperatively-regulate-intermediate-filaments-and-mesenchymal-cell-migration-during-alveolar-septation
#19
Stephen E McGowan, Diann M McCoy
Secondary alveolar septa are mostly generated after birth in humans and in mice this is completely accomplished postnatally, when mechanical stresses vary as airspace pressure oscillates. Alveolar mesenchymal cells deposit elastic fibers which limit cellular strain, but while the elastic fiber network is incomplete, this function is also served by the intracellular cytoskeleton. Intermediate filament proteins support deformation during cellular division and migration, which occur during septal elongation. Because platelet-derived growth factor-alpha (PDGFRα) signaling is essential for alveolar septation, we hypothesized that neuropilin-1 (NRP1) may link PDGFRα to cytoskeletal deformation...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524634/impaired-fast-network-oscillations-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-alpha-synucleinopathy-a30p
#20
Emma Robson, Clare Tweedy, Nelson Manzanza, John-Paul Taylor, Peter Atkinson, Fiona Randall, Amy Reeve, Gavin J Clowry, Fiona E N LeBeau
Intracellular accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a key pathological process evident in Lewy body dementias (LBD), including Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). LBD results in marked cognitive impairments and changes in cortical networks. To assess the impact of abnormal α-syn expression on cortical network oscillations relevant to cognitive function, we studied changes in fast beta/gamma network oscillations in the hippocampus in a mouse line that over-expresses human mutant α-syn (A30P)...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
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