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Alpha Oscillations

Dandan Zhang, Ruolei Gu
In daily life, people often make consecutive decisions before the ultimate goal is reached (i.e., sequential decision-making). However, this kind of decision-making has been largely overlooked in the literature. The current study investigated whether behavioral preference would change during sequential decisions, and the neural processes underlying the potential changes. For this purpose, we revised the classic balloon analogue risk task and recorded the electroencephalograph (EEG) signals associated with each step of decision-making...
February 21, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
YiYan Wang, Pingxiao Wang, Yuguo Yu
Increasing evidence indicates that the phase pattern and power of the low frequency oscillations of brain electroencephalograms (EEG) contain significant information during the human cognition of sensory signals such as auditory and visual stimuli. Here, we investigate whether and how the letters of the alphabet can be directly decoded from EEG phase and power data. In addition, we investigate how different band oscillations contribute to the classification and determine the critical time periods. An English letter recognition task was assigned, and statistical analyses were conducted to decode the EEG signal corresponding to each letter visualized on a computer screen...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Anthony M Harris, Paul E Dux, Jason B Mattingley
Neural oscillations appear important for perception and attention processes, as stimulus detection is dependent upon the phase of 7-11 Hz oscillations prior to stimulus onset. Previous work has examined stimulus detection at attended locations, but it is unknown whether unattended locations are also subject to phasic modulation by ongoing oscillatory activity, as would be predicted by theories proposing a role for neural oscillations in organizing general neural processing. Here we recorded brain activity with electroencephalography (EEG) while human participants of both sexes detected brief visual targets preceded by a spatial cue, and determined whether performance for cued (attended) and uncued (unattended) targets was influenced by oscillatory phase across a range of frequencies...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sébrina Aubin, Julie A E Christensen, Poul Jennum, Tore Nielsen, Ron Kupers, Maurice Ptito
The loss of vision, particularly when it occurs early in life, is associated with compensatory cortical plasticity not only in the visual cortical areas, but throughout the entire brain. The absence of visual input to the retina can also induce changes in entrainment of the circadian rhythm, as light is the primary zeitgeber of the master biological clock found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a greater number of sleep disturbances is often reported in blind individuals. Here, we examined various electroencephalographic microstructural components of sleep, both during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep, between blind individuals, including both of early and late onset, and normal-sighted controls...
February 2018: Sleep Medicine
Sergio Agnoli, Marco Zanon, Serena Mastria, Alessio Avenanti, Giovanni Emanuele Corazza
The present article describes an innovative neurofeedback training (NFT) procedure aimed at increasing creative cognition through the enhancement of specific brain activities previously associated with divergent thinking. We designed and tested two NFT protocols based on training alpha and beta EEG oscillations selectively measured over the right parietal region. A total of 80 participants were involved, 40 in the alpha NFT protocol and 40 in the beta NFT protocol. The NFT loop was closed on a video stream that would advance only when oscillation power exceeded a normalized threshold...
February 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Sarah Tune, Malte Wöstmann, Jonas Obleser
In recent years, hemispheric lateralization of alpha power has emerged as a neural mechanism thought to underpin spatial attention across sensory modalities. Yet, how healthy aging, beginning in middle adulthood, impacts the modulation of lateralized alpha power supporting auditory attention remains poorly understood. In the current electroencephalography (EEG) study, middle-aged and older adults (N = 29; ~40-70 years) performed a dichotic listening task that simulates a challenging, multi-talker scenario. We examined the extent to which the modulation of 8-12 Hz alpha power would serve as neural marker of listening success across age...
February 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ehsan Negahbani, Florian H Kasten, Christoph S Herrmann, Flavio Frohlich
Non-invasive brain stimulation to target specific network activity patterns, e.g. transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), has become an essential tool to understand the causal role of neuronal oscillations in cognition and behavior. However, conventional sinusoidal tACS limits the ability to record neuronal activity during stimulation and lacks spatial focality. One particularly promising new tACS stimulation paradigm uses amplitude-modulated (AM) high-frequency waveforms (AM-tACS) with a slow signal envelope that may overcome the limitations...
February 7, 2018: NeuroImage
Miaomiao Liu, Guangying Pei, Yinuo Peng, Changming Wang, Tianyi Yan, Jinglong Wu
Schizophrenia is a complex disorder characterized by marked social dysfunctions, but the neural mechanism underlying this deficit is unknown. To investigate whether face-specific perceptual processes are influenced in schizophrenia patients, both face detection and configural analysis were assessed in normal individuals and schizophrenia patients by recording electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Here, a face processing model was built based on the frequency oscillations, and the evoked power (theta, alpha, and beta bands) and the induced power (gamma bands) were recorded while the subjects passively viewed face and nonface images presented in upright and inverted orientations...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Giorgia Michelini, Viryanaga Kitsune, Isabella Vainieri, Georgina M Hosang, Daniel Brandeis, Philip Asherson, Jonna Kuntsi
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) often present with overlapping symptoms and cognitive impairments, such as increased fluctuations in attentional performance measured by increased reaction-time variability (RTV). We previously provided initial evidence of shared and distinct event-related potential (ERP) impairments in ADHD and BD in a direct electrophysiological comparison, but no study to date has compared neural mechanisms underlying attentional impairments with finer-grained brain oscillatory markers...
February 7, 2018: Brain Topography
Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Alex I Wiesman, Timothy J McDermott, Tony W Wilson
The ability to reorient attention within the visual field is central to daily functioning, and numerous fMRI studies have shown that the dorsal and ventral attention networks (DAN, VAN) are critical to such processes. However, despite the instantaneous nature of attentional shifts, the dynamics of oscillatory activity serving attentional reorientation remain poorly characterized. In this study, we utilized magnetoencephalography (MEG) and a Posner task to probe the dynamics of attentional reorienting in 29 healthy adults...
February 6, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Lisa K Chinn, Carolyn S Pauker, Edward J Golob
Cognitive control of attention in conflict situations is a basic skill that is vital for goal-oriented behaviors. Behavioral evidence shows that conflict control occurs over successive trials as well as longer time scales of trial blocks, but the relation among time scales as well as their neural mechanisms are unclear. This study used measures of behavior, EEG, and a simple quantitative model to test the hypothesis that conflict control at the block level is not exclusively driven by the control adjustments over successive trials...
February 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Mariana von Mohr, Michael J Crowley, Jessica Walthall, Linda C Mayes, Kevin A Pelphrey, Helena J V Rutherford
Tactile interactions are of developmental importance to social and emotional interactions across species. In beginning to understand the affective component of tactile stimulation, research has begun to elucidate the neural mechanisms that underscore slow, affective touch. Here, we extended this emerging body of work and examined whether affective touch (C tactile [CT]-optimal speed), as compared to nonaffective touch (non-CT-optimal speed) and no touch conditions, modulated EEG oscillations. We report an attenuation in alpha and beta activity to affective and nonaffective touch relative to the no touch condition...
February 5, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Dmitrii Suchkov, Lyaila Sharipzyanova, Marat Minlebaev
During development, activity in the somatosensory cortex is characterized by intermittent oscillatory bursts at gamma (early gamma-oscillations, EGOs) and alpha-beta (spindle-bursts, SBs) frequencies. Here, we explored the topography of EGOs and SBs in the neighbor barrels of the whisker-related barrel cortex of neonatal rats (P4-7) during responses evoked by simultaneous activation of multiple whiskers as it occurs during natural conditions. We found that brief simultaneous deflection of all whiskers evoked complex neuronal responses comprised of EGOs and SBs...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Shogo Hirano, Alexander Nakhnikian, Yoji Hirano, Naoya Oribe, Shigenobu Kanba, Toshiaki Onitsuka, Margaret Levin, Kevin M Spencer
BACKGROUND: Cross-frequency interactions may coordinate neural circuits operating at different frequencies. While neural oscillations associated with particular circuits in schizophrenia (SZ) are impaired, few studies have examined cross-frequency interactions. Here we examined phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) in the electroencephalograms of individuals with SZ and healthy control subjects (HCs). We computed PAC during the baseline period of 40-Hz auditory steady-state stimulation and rest...
January 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Jens Hjortkjaer, Jonatan Märcher-Rørsted, Søren A Fuglsang, Torsten Dau
Neuronal oscillations are thought to play an important role in working memory (WM) and speech processing. Listening to speech in real-life situations is often cognitively demanding but it is unknown whether WM load influences how auditory cortical activity synchronizes to speech features. Here we developed an auditory n-back paradigm to investigate cortical entrainment to speech envelope fluctuations under different degrees of WM load. We measured the electroencephalogram (EEG), pupil dilations, and behavioural performance from 22 subjects listening to continuous speech with an embedded n-back task...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Fren T Y Smulders, Sanne Ten Oever, Franc C L Donkers, Conny W E M Quaedflieg, Vincent van de Ven
The appropriate definition and scaling of the magnitude of EEG oscillations is an underdeveloped area. The aim of this study was to optimize the analysis of resting EEG alpha magnitude, focusing on alpha peak frequency and non-linear transformation of alpha power. A family of non-linear transforms, Box-Cox transforms, were applied to find the transform that (a) maximized a non-disputed effect: the increase in alpha magnitude when the eyes are closed (Berger effect), and (b) made the distribution of alpha magnitude closest to normal across epochs-within each participant, or across participants...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Louise O'Hare, Federica Menchinelli, Simon J Durrant
Migraine groups show differences in motion perception compared with controls, when tested in between migraine attacks (interictally). This is thought to be due to an increased susceptibility to stimulus degradation (multiplicative internal noise). Fluctuations in alpha-band oscillations are thought to regulate visual perception, and so differences could provide a mechanism for the increased multiplicative noise seen in migraine. The aim of this article was to characterise resting-state alpha-band oscillations (between 8 and 12 Hz) in the visual areas of the brain in migraine and control groups...
January 1, 2018: Perception
Svea C Y Schroeder, Felix Ball, Niko A Busch
Only small amounts of visual information, as determined by the capacity of working memory, can be held in an active and accessible state. Thus, it is important to select and maintain information that is relevant while ignoring irrelevant information. However, the underlying neural mechanism of these processes has yet to be identified. One potential candidate are alpha oscillations (8-14 Hz), which have been shown to inhibit stimulus processing in perceptual tasks. During memory maintenance, alpha power increases with set size suggesting that alpha oscillations are involved either in memory maintenance or in the inhibition of task-irrelevant information in order to protect relevant information from interference...
January 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Fan Zhang, Yingting Duan, Lili Xi, Mengmeng Wei, Axi Shi, Yan Zhou, Yuhui Wei, Xinan Wu
Bile acids (BAs), the most important endogenous and signaling molecules regulate the target transporters and enzymes at transcriptional level, participate in a wide variety of processes throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract to orchestrate homeostasis in vivo. BAs and their metabolism and transportation appear to follow the clear circadian rhythms, and they are recently proposed also as the potential chronobiological signals that can affect the molecular clock mechanism. Cholecystectomy are believed to affect the circadian rhythms of BAs and the relevant enterohepatic transporters and enzymes systems and their regulatory signaling pathways, for the reason that the circadian cycle of gallbladder filling and emptying play a pivotal role in controlling the flow of bile into the intestine and the enterohepatic circulation of BAs...
January 30, 2018: Chronobiology International
Linda Drijvers, Asli Özyürek, Ole Jensen
During face-to-face communication, listeners integrate speech with gestures. The semantic information conveyed by iconic gestures (e.g., a drinking gesture) can aid speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we investigated the spatiotemporal neural oscillatory activity associated with gestural enhancement of degraded speech comprehension. Participants watched videos of an actress uttering clear or degraded speech, accompanied by a gesture or not and completed a cued-recall task after watching every video...
January 30, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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