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Alpha Oscillations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244637/u-shaped-relation-between-prestimulus-alpha-and-poststimulus-gamma-band-power-in-temporal-tactile-perception-in-the-human-somatosensory-cortex
#1
Marc André Wittenberg, Thomas J Baumgarten, Alfons Schnitzler, Joachim Lange
Neuronal oscillations are a ubiquitous phenomenon in the human nervous system. Alpha-band oscillations (8-12 Hz) have been shown to correlate negatively with attention and performance, whereas gamma-band oscillations (40-150 Hz) correlate positively. Here, we studied the relation between prestimulus alpha-band power and poststimulus gamma-band power in a suprathreshold tactile discrimination task. Participants received two electrical stimuli to their left index finger with different SOAs (0 msec, 100 msec, intermediate SOA, intermediate SOA ± 10 msec)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243530/electrophysiological-markers-of-motivation-in-psychosis
#2
Kazuki Sueyoshi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi
Motivation is associated with electrophysiological markers, such as awake state delta oscillation and frontal alpha asymmetry, as well as event-related potentials, such as error-related negativity, feedback-related negativity, and prepulse inhibition. These indicators provide an objective measure of motivational deficits in psychiatric conditions, and response to treatment. Also, these modalities of brain activities are drawing attention as a target of neurofeedback training. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview on electrophysiological findings relevant to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying impaired motivation in psychiatric disorders and clinical practice...
January 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241839/the-theta-burst-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-over-the-right-pfc-affects-electroencephalogram-oscillation-during-emotional-processing
#3
Dan Cao, Yingjie Li, Margaret A Niznikiewicz, Yingying Tang, Jijun Wang
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in emotional processing and therefore is one of the most frequently targeted regions for non-invasive brain stimulation such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in clinical trials, especially in the treatment of emotional disorders. As an approach to enhance the effectiveness of rTMS, continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) has been demonstrated to be efficient and safe. However, it is unclear how cTBS affects brain processes related to emotion...
December 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236724/the-role-of-cortical-oscillations-in-a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-the-basal-ganglia
#4
Zafeirios Fountas, Murray Shanahan
Although brain oscillations involving the basal ganglia (BG) have been the target of extensive research, the main focus lies disproportionally on oscillations generated within the BG circuit rather than other sources, such as cortical areas. We remedy this here by investigating the influence of various cortical frequency bands on the intrinsic effective connectivity of the BG, as well as the role of the latter in regulating cortical behaviour. To do this, we construct a detailed neural model of the complete BG circuit based on fine-tuned spiking neurons, with both electrical and chemical synapses as well as short-term plasticity between structures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234068/fluctuations-in-instantaneous-frequency-predict-alpha-amplitude-during-visual-perception
#5
Stephanie Nelli, Sirawaj Itthipuripat, Ramesh Srinivasan, John T Serences
Rhythmic neural activity in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) is thought to have an important role in the selective processing of visual information. Typically, modulations in alpha amplitude and instantaneous frequency are thought to reflect independent mechanisms impacting dissociable aspects of visual information processing. However, in complex systems with interacting oscillators such as the brain, amplitude and frequency are mathematically dependent. Here, we record electroencephalography in human subjects and show that both alpha amplitude and instantaneous frequency predict behavioral performance in the same visual discrimination task...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227992/thalamocortical-control-of-propofol-phase-amplitude-coupling
#6
Austin E Soplata, Michelle M McCarthy, Jason Sherfey, Shane Lee, Patrick L Purdon, Emery N Brown, Nancy Kopell
The anesthetic propofol elicits many different spectral properties on the EEG, including alpha oscillations (8-12 Hz), Slow Wave Oscillations (SWO, 0.1-1.5 Hz), and dose-dependent phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) between alpha and SWO. Propofol is known to increase GABAA inhibition and decrease H-current strength, but how it generates these rhythms and their interactions is still unknown. To investigate both generation of the alpha rhythm and its PAC to SWO, we simulate a Hodgkin-Huxley network model of a hyperpolarized thalamus and corticothalamic inputs...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205618/different-responses-of-spontaneous-and-stimulus-related-alpha-activity-to-ambient-luminance-changes
#7
Alessandro Benedetto, Diego Lozano-Soldevilla, Rufin VanRullen
Alpha oscillations are particularly important in determining our percepts and have been implicated in fundamental brain functions. Oscillatory activity can be spontaneous or stimulus-related. Furthermore, stimulus-related responses can be phase- or non-phase-locked to the stimulus. Non-phase-locked (induced) activity can be identified as the average amplitude changes in response to a stimulation, while phase-locked activity can be measured via reverse correlation techniques (echo function). However, the mechanisms and the functional roles of these oscillations are far from clear...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203678/multiple-oscillatory-rhythms-determine-the-temporal-organization-of-perception
#8
Luca Ronconi, Nikolaas N Oosterhof, Claudia Bonmassar, David Melcher
Incoming sensory input is condensed by our perceptual system to optimally represent and store information. In the temporal domain, this process has been described in terms of temporal windows (TWs) of integration/segregation, in which the phase of ongoing neural oscillations determines whether two stimuli are integrated into a single percept or segregated into separate events. However, TWs can vary substantially, raising the question of whether different TWs map onto unique oscillations or, rather, reflect a single, general fluctuation in cortical excitability (e...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194486/cortical-auditory-evoked-responses-in-preterm-neonates-revisited-by-spectral-and-temporal-analyses
#9
A Kaminska, V Delattre, J Laschet, J Dubois, M Labidurie, A Duval, A Manresa, J-F Magny, S Hovhannisyan, M Mokhtari, L Ouss, A Boissel, L Hertz-Pannier, M Sintsov, M Minlebaev, R Khazipov, C Chiron
Characteristic preterm EEG patterns of "Delta-brushes" (DBs) have been reported in the temporal cortex following auditory stimuli, but their spatio-temporal dynamics remains elusive. Using 32-electrode EEG recordings and co-registration of electrodes' position to 3D-MRI of age-matched neonates, we explored the cortical auditory-evoked responses (AERs) after 'click' stimuli in 30 healthy neonates aged 30-38 post-menstrual weeks (PMW). (1) We visually identified auditory-evoked DBs within AERs in all the babies between 30 and 33 PMW and a decreasing response rate afterwards...
August 11, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175204/cerebral-peak-alpha-frequency-predicts-individual-differences-in-pain-sensitivity
#10
Andrew J Furman, Timothy J Meeker, Jeremy C Rietschel, Sooyoung Yoo, Janusiya Muthulingam, Mariya Prokhorenko, Michael L Keaser, Ronald N Goodman, Ali Mazaheri, David A Seminowicz
The identification of neurobiological markers that predict individual predisposition to pain are not only important for development of effective pain treatments, but would also yield a more complete understanding of how pain is implemented in the brain. In the current study using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated the relationship between the peak frequency of alpha activity over sensorimotor cortex and pain intensity during capsaicin-heat pain (C-HP), a prolonged pain model known to induce spinal central sensitization in primates...
November 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170759/autism-attention-and-alpha-oscillations-an-electrophysiological-study-of-attentional-capture
#11
Brandon Keehn, Marissa Westerfield, Ralph-Axel Müller, Jeanne Townsend
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with deficits in adaptively orienting attention to behaviorally-relevant information. Neural oscillatory activity plays a key role in brain function and provides a high-resolution temporal marker of attention dynamics. Alpha band (8-12 Hz) activity is associated with both selecting task-relevant stimuli and filtering task-irrelevant information. Methods: The present study used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine alpha-band oscillatory activity associated with attentional capture in nineteen children with ASD and twenty-one age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167407/dissociable-decoding-of-spatial-attention-and-working-memory-from-eeg-oscillations-and-sustained-potentials
#12
Gi-Yeul Bae, Steven J Luck
In human scalp EEG recordings, both sustained potentials and alpha-band oscillations are present during the delay period of working memory tasks and may therefore reflect the representation of information in working memory. However, these signals may instead reflect support mechanisms rather than the actual contents of memory. In particular, alpha-band oscillations have been tightly tied to spatial attention and may not reflect location-independent memory representations per se. To determine how sustained and oscillating EEG signals are related to attention and working memory, we attempted to decode which of 16 orientations was being held in working memory by human observers (both women and men)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167403/alpha-oscillations-reduce-temporal-long-range-dependence-in-spontaneous-human-brain-activity
#13
Robert Becker, Dimitri Van De Ville, Andreas Kleinschmidt
Ongoing neural dynamics comprise both frequency-specific oscillations and broadband-features such as long-range-dependency (LRD). Despite both being behaviorally relevant, little is known about their potential interactions. In humans, 8-12Hz α-oscillations constitute the strongest deviation from 1/f power-law scaling, the signature of LRD. We postulated that α-oscillations - believed to exert active inhibitory gating - down-modulate the temporal width of LRD in slower ongoing brain activity. In two independent "resting-state" data-sets (electroencephalography surface-recordings and magneto-encephalography source-reconstructions), both across space and dynamically over time, power of α-activity co-varied with the power-slope below 5Hz; i...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163341/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-transcranial-pulsed-current-stimulation-and-their-combination-on-brain-oscillations-in-patients-with-chronic-visceral-pain-a-pilot-crossover-randomized-controlled-study
#14
Aurore Thibaut, Cristina Russo, Aura Maria Hurtado-Puerto, Jorge Leon Morales-Quezada, Alícia Deitos, John Christopher Petrozza, Steven Freedman, Felipe Fregni
Objective: Chronic visceral pain (CVP) syndromes are persistently painful disorders with a remarkable lack of effective treatment options. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of different neuromodulation techniques in patients with CVP on cortical activity, through electreocephalography (EEG) and on pain perception, through clinical tests. Design: A pilot crossover randomized controlled study. Settings: Out-patient. Subjects: Adults with CVP (>3 months)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163087/localized-fluctuant-oscillatory-activity-by-working-memory-load-a-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-study
#15
Xiaojie Zhao, Xiaoyun Li, Li Yao
Working memory (WM) is a resource-limited memory system for temporary storage and processing of brain information during the execution of cognitive tasks. Increased WM load will increase the amount and difficulty of memory information. Several studies have used electroencephalography (EEG) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore load-dependent cognition processing according to the time courses of electrophysiological activity or the spatial pattern of blood oxygen metabolic activity. However, the relationships between these two activities and the underlying neural mechanism are still unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162458/electrophysiological-impact-of-multiple-concussions-in-asymptomatic-athletes-a-re-analysis-based-on-alpha-activity-during-a-visual-spatial-attention-task
#16
Samuel Guay, Louis De Beaumont, Brandi Lee Drisdelle, Jean-Marc Lina, Pierre Jolicoeur
Most EEG studies used event-related potentials to assess long-term and cumulative effects of sport-related concussions on brain activity. Time-frequency methods provide another approach that allows the detection of subtle shifts in types and patterns of brain oscillations. We sought to discover whether event-related alpha activity would be significantly affected in asymptomatic multi-concussed athletes. We measured the amplitude of alpha activity (8-12Hz) from the EEG recorded during a visual-spatial attention task to compare event-related alpha perturbations in 13 multi-concussed athletes and 14 age-equivalent, non-concussed teammates...
November 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161621/human-subthalamic-oscillatory-dynamics-following-somatosensory-stimulation
#17
Saskia Elben, Carlos Trenado, Jan Vesper, Alfons Schnitzler, Lars Wojtecki
OBJECTIVE: Electrical median nerve somatosensory stimulation leads to a distinct modulation of cortical oscillations. Initial high frequency and gamma augmentation, as well as modulation of beta and alpha oscillations have been reported. We aimed at investigating the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus in somatosensory processing by means of local field potential recordings, since recordings during passive movements and peripheral somatosensory stimulation have suggested a prominent role...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159036/eeg-oscillations-during-word-processing-predict-mci-conversion-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Ali Mazaheri, Katrien Segaert, John Olichney, Jin-Chen Yang, Yu-Qiong Niu, Kim Shapiro, Howard Bowman
Only a subset of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients progress to develop a form of dementia. A prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive decline in language. We investigated if subtle anomalies in EEG activity of MCI patients during a word comprehension task could provide insight into the likelihood of conversion to AD. We studied 25 amnestic MCI patients, a subset of whom developed AD within 3-years, and 11 elderly controls. In the task, auditory category descriptions (e.g., 'a type of wood') were followed by a single visual target word either semantically congruent (i...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153327/auditory-sensitivity-and-decision-criteria-oscillate-at-different-frequencies-separately-for-the-two-ears
#19
Hao Tam Ho, Johahn Leung, David C Burr, David Alais, Maria Concetta Morrone
Many behavioral measures of visual perception fluctuate continually in a rhythmic manner, reflecting the influence of endogenous brain oscillations, particularly theta (∼4-7 Hz) and alpha (∼8-12 Hz) rhythms [1-3]. However, it is unclear whether these oscillations are unique to vision or whether auditory performance also oscillates [4, 5]. Several studies report no oscillatory modulation in audition [6, 7], while those with positive findings suffer from confounds relating to neural entrainment [8-10]. Here, we used a bilateral pitch-identification task to investigate rhythmic fluctuations in auditory performance separately for the two ears and applied signal detection theory (SDT) to test for oscillations of both sensitivity and criterion (changes in decision boundary) [11, 12]...
November 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142322/bilateral-5%C3%A2-hz-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-on-fronto-temporal-areas-modulates-resting-state-eeg
#20
Aurora D'Atri, Claudia Romano, Maurizio Gorgoni, Serena Scarpelli, Valentina Alfonsi, Michele Ferrara, Fabio Ferlazzo, Paolo Maria Rossini, Luigi De Gennaro
Rhythmic non-invasive brain stimulations are promising tools to modulate brain activity by entraining neural oscillations in specific cortical networks. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility to influence the neural circuits of the wake-sleep transition in awake subjects via a bilateral transcranial alternating current stimulation at 5 Hz (θ-tACS) on fronto-temporal areas. 25 healthy volunteers participated in two within-subject sessions (θ-tACS and sham), one week apart and in counterbalanced order...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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