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Alpha Oscillations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197084/transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-tacs-enhances-mental-rotation-performance-during-and-after-stimulation
#1
Florian H Kasten, Christoph S Herrmann
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been repeatedly demonstrated to modulate endogenous brain oscillations in a frequency specific manner. Thus, it is a promising tool to uncover causal relationships between brain oscillations and behavior or perception. While tACS has been shown to elicit a physiological aftereffect for up to 70 min, it remains unclear whether the effect can still be elicited if subjects perform a complex task interacting with the stimulated frequency band. In addition, it has not yet been investigated whether the aftereffect is behaviorally relevant...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195306/neural-oscillation-reveals-deficits-in-visuospatial-working-memory-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder
#2
Chun-Hao Wang, Yu-Ting Tseng, Dang Liu, Chia-Liang Tsai
The electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations associated with visuospatial working memory (VSWM) were examined in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD; 10-11 years; N = 29) and typically developing (TD) children (10-11 years; N = 29). Behaviorally, DCD showed poorer VSWM than TD, which coincided with the diminished ability of DCD in modulating neural oscillations. Furthermore, prestimulus oscillatory alpha activity was correlated with VSWM performance. The results suggest that children with DCD might have a reduced ability to encode and recognize new information, and in particular have difficulty in maintaining task-relevant information, resulting in poorer VSWM...
February 14, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187128/neural-mechanisms-of-rhythm-based-temporal-prediction-delta-phase-locking-reflects-temporal-predictability-but-not-rhythmic-entrainment
#3
Assaf Breska, Leon Y Deouell
Predicting the timing of upcoming events enables efficient resource allocation and action preparation. Rhythmic streams, such as music, speech, and biological motion, constitute a pervasive source for temporal predictions. Widely accepted entrainment theories postulate that rhythm-based predictions are mediated by synchronizing low-frequency neural oscillations to the rhythm, as indicated by increased phase concentration (PC) of low-frequency neural activity for rhythmic compared to random streams. However, we show here that PC enhancement in scalp recordings is not specific to rhythms but is observed to the same extent in less periodic streams if they enable memory-based prediction...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184227/using-ceres-maize-and-enso-as-decision-support-tools-to-evaluate-climate-sensitive-farm-management-practices-for-maize-production-in-the-northern-regions-of-ghana
#4
Dilys S MacCarthy, Samuel G K Adiku, Bright S Freduah, Francis Gbefo, Alpha Y Kamara
Maize (Zea mays) has traditionally been a major cereal staple in southern Ghana. Through breeding and other crop improvement efforts, the zone of cultivation of maize has now extended to the northern regions of Ghana which, hitherto, were the home to sorghum and millet as the major cereals. Maize yield in the northern Ghana is hampered by three major biophysical constraints, namely, poor soil fertility, low soil water storage capacity and climate variability. In this study we used the DSSAT crop model to assess integrated water and soil management strategies that combined the pre-season El-Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-based weather forecasting in selecting optimal planting time, at four locations in the northern regions of Ghana...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179556/distinct-oscillatory-frequencies-underlie-excitability-of-human-occipital-and-parietal-cortex
#5
Jason Samaha, Olivia Gosseries, Bradley R Postle
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of human occipital and posterior parietal cortex can give rise to visual sensations called phosphenes. We used near-threshold TMS with concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to measure how oscillatory brain dynamics covary, on single trials, with the perception of phosphenes following occipital and parietal TMS. Prestimulus power and phase, predominantly in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), predicted occipital TMS phosphenes, whereas higher frequency beta-band (13-20 Hz) power (but not phase) predicted parietal TMS phosphenes...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176756/amygdala-hippocampal-dynamics-during-salient-information-processing
#6
Jie Zheng, Kristopher L Anderson, Stephanie L Leal, Avgusta Shestyuk, Gultekin Gulsen, Lilit Mnatsakanyan, Sumeet Vadera, Frank P K Hsu, Michael A Yassa, Robert T Knight, Jack J Lin
Recognizing motivationally salient information is critical to guiding behaviour. The amygdala and hippocampus are thought to support this operation, but the circuit-level mechanism of this interaction is unclear. We used direct recordings in the amygdala and hippocampus from human epilepsy patients to examine oscillatory activity during processing of fearful faces compared with neutral landscapes. We report high gamma (70-180 Hz) activation for fearful faces with earlier stimulus evoked onset in the amygdala compared with the hippocampus...
February 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174610/frequency-shift-in-topography-of-spontaneous-brain-rhythms-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#7
E I Rodríguez-Martínez, F J Ruiz-Martínez, C I Barriga Paulino, Carlos M Gómez
It has been described that the frequency ranges at which theta, mu and alpha rhythms oscillate is increasing with age. The present report, by analyzing the spontaneous EEG, tries to demonstrate whether there is an increase with age in the frequency at which the cortical structures oscillate. A topographical approach was followed. The spontaneous EEG of one hundredand seventy subjects was recorded. The spectral power (from 0.5 to 45.5 Hz) was obtained by means of the Fast Fourier Transform. Correlations of spatial topographies among the different age groups showed that older groups presented the same topographical maps as younger groups, but oscillating at higher frequencies...
February 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169425/analgesia-induced-by-self-initiated-electrotactile-sensation-is-mediated-by-top-down-modulations
#8
Ke Zhao, Zhengyu Tang, Huiquan Wang, Yifei Guo, Weiwei Peng, Li Hu
It is well known that sensory perception can be attenuated when sensory stimuli are controlled by self-initiated actions. This phenomenon is explained by the consistency between forward models of anticipated action effects and actual sensory feedback. Specifically, the brain state related to the binding between motor processing and sensory perception would have inhibitory function by gating sensory information via top-down control. Since the brain state could casually influence the perception of subsequent stimuli of different sensory modalities, we hypothesize that pain evoked by nociceptive stimuli following the self-initiated tactile stimulation would be attenuated as compared to that following externally determined tactile stimulation...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138530/feedforward-and-feedback-frequency-dependent-interactions-in-a-large-scale-laminar-network-of-the-primate-cortex
#9
Jorge F Mejias, John D Murray, Henry Kennedy, Xiao-Jing Wang
Interactions between top-down and bottom-up processes in the cerebral cortex hold the key to understanding attentional processes, predictive coding, executive control, and a gamut of other brain functions. However, the underlying circuit mechanism remains poorly understood and represents a major challenge in neuroscience. We approached this problem using a large-scale computational model of the primate cortex constrained by new directed and weighted connectivity data. In our model, the interplay between feedforward and feedback signaling depends on the cortical laminar structure and involves complex dynamics across multiple (intralaminar, interlaminar, interareal, and whole cortex) scales...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129063/power-and-phase-of-alpha-oscillations-reveal-an-interaction-between-spatial-and-temporal-visual-attention
#10
Sayeed A D Kizuk, Kyle E Mathewson
Oscillatory brain rhythms can bias attention via phase and amplitude changes, which modulate sensory activity, biasing information to be processed or ignored. Alpha band (7-14 Hz) oscillations lateralize with spatial attention and rhythmically inhibit visual activity and awareness through pulses of inhibition. Here we show that human observers' awareness of spatially unattended targets is dependent on both alpha power and alpha phase at target onset. Following a predictive directional cue, alpha oscillations were entrained bilaterally using repetitive visual stimuli...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123017/spontaneous-neural-oscillations-bias-perception-by-modulating-baseline-excitability
#11
Luca Iemi, Maximilien Chaumon, Sébastien M Crouzet, Niko A Busch
: The brain exhibits organized fluctuations of neural activity, even in the absence of tasks or sensory input. A prominent type of such spontaneous activity is the alpha rhythm, which influences perception and interacts with other ongoing neural activity. It is currently hypothesized that states of decreased prestimulus α oscillations indicate enhanced neural excitability, resulting in improved perceptual acuity. Nevertheless, it remains debated how changes in excitability manifest at the behavioral level in perceptual tasks...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119510/interpersonal-synchrony-enhanced-through-20-hz-phase-coupled-dual-brain-stimulation
#12
Giacomo Novembre, Günther Knoblich, Laura Dunne, Peter E Keller
Synchronous movement is a key component of social behaviour in several species including humans. Recent theories have suggested a link between interpersonal synchrony of brain oscillations and interpersonal movement synchrony. The present study investigated this link. Using transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) applied over the left motor cortex, we induced beta band (20 Hz) oscillations in pairs of individuals who both performed a finger-tapping task with the right hand. In-phase or anti-phase oscillations were delivered during a preparatory period prior to movement and while the tapping task was performed...
January 24, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119136/gabaergic-effect-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity-dynamics-under-pharmacological-antagonism
#13
Fatima A Nasrallah, Kavita Kaur D/O Ranjit Singh, Ling Yun Yeow, Kai-Hsiang Chuang
Resting state functional connectivity MRI measures synchronous activity among brain regions although the mechanisms governing the temporally coherent BOLD signals remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels are correlated with functional connectivity. To understand whether changes in GABA transmission alter functional connectivity, we modulated the GABAergic activity by a GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline. Resting and evoked electrophysiology and BOLD signals were measured in isoflurane-anesthetized rats under infusion of low-dose bicuculline or vehicle individually...
January 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109667/aberrant-alpha-and-gamma-oscillations-ex-vivo-after-single-application-of-the-nmda-receptor-antagonist-mk-801
#14
Clément E Lemercier, Constance Holman, Zoltan Gerevich
Clinical symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with altered cortical neuronal oscillations in multiple frequency bands such as alpha (7-13Hz) and gamma (30-90Hz) rhythms. NMDA receptor antagonists induce psychotic symptoms in humans and a schizophrenia-like phenotype in animals, suggesting NMDA receptor dysfunction is involved in the generation of many symptoms of the disorder. We investigated the effects of a single intraperitoneal injection of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in rats, a model of first-episode schizophrenia, on network oscillations recorded ex vivo in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex...
January 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105686/visual-tactile-processing-in-primary-somatosensory-cortex-emerges-before-cross-modal-experience
#15
Malte Bieler, Kay Sieben, Sandra Schildt, Brigitte Röder, Ileana L Hanganu-Opatz
The presumptive unisensory neocortical areas process multisensory information by oscillatory entrainment of neuronal networks via direct cortico-cortical projections. While neonatal unimodal experience has been identified as necessary for setting up the neuronal networks of multisensory processing, it is still unclear whether early cross-modal experience equally controls the ontogeny of multisensory processing. Here, we assess the development of visual-somatosensory interactions and their anatomical substrate by performing extracellular recordings of network activity in primary sensory cortices in vivo and assessing the cortico-cortical connectivity in pigmented rats...
January 20, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101523/spatial-mnemonic-encoding-theta-power-decreases-and-medial-temporal-lobe-bold-increases-co-occur-during-the-usage-of-the-method-of-loci
#16
Marie-Christin Fellner, Gregor Volberg, Maria Wimber, Markus Goldhacker, Mark W Greenlee, Simon Hanslmayr
The method of loci is one, if not the most, efficient mnemonic encoding strategy. This spatial mnemonic combines the core cognitive processes commonly linked to medial temporal lobe (MTL) activity: spatial and associative memory processes. During such processes, fMRI studies consistently demonstrate MTL activity, while electrophysiological studies have emphasized the important role of theta oscillations (3-8 Hz) in the MTL. However, it is still unknown whether increases or decreases in theta power co-occur with increased BOLD signal in the MTL during memory encoding...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092972/tracking-dynamic-interactions-between-structural-and-functional-connectivity-a-tms-eeg-dmri-study
#17
Enrico Amico, Olivier Bodart, Mario Rosanova, Olivia Gosseries, Lizette Heine, Pieter Van Mierlo, Charlotte Martial, Marcello Massimini, Daniele Marinazzo, Steven Laureys
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in combination with neuroimaging techniques allows to measure the effects of a direct perturbation of the brain. When coupled to high density electroencephalography (TMS/hd-EEG), TMS pulses revealed electrophysiological signatures of different cortical modules in health and disease. However, the neural underpinnings of these signatures remain unclear. Here, by applying multimodal analyses of cortical response to TMS recordings and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) tractography, we investigated the relationship between functional and structural features of different cortical modules in a cohort of awake healthy volunteers...
January 16, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087359/the-effect-of-nmda-r-antagonism-on-simultaneously-acquired-local-field-potentials-and-tissue-oxygen-levels-in-the-brains-of-freely-moving-rats
#18
John Kealy, Sean Commins, John P Lowry
Non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists are known to induce psychosis-like symptoms in rodents. Administration of such compounds cause behavioural effects such as memory impairment and hyperlocomotion. Additionally, drugs such as phencyclidine (PCP), ketamine and MK-801 all cause distinctive increases in striatal local field potential (LFP) in the high frequency oscillation (HFO) band in the power spectrum (140-180 Hz). Amperometric sensors provide a means to measure tissue oxygen (tO2; a BOLD-like signal) in the brains of freely-moving rats while simultaneously acquiring LFP using the same electrode...
January 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077711/phase-amplitude-coupling-and-long-range-phase-synchronization-reveal-frontotemporal-interactions-during-visual-working-memory
#19
Jonathan Daume, Thomas Gruber, Andreas K Engel, Uwe Friese
: It has been suggested that cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), particularly in temporal brain structures, serves as a neural mechanism for coordinated working memory storage. In this magnetoencephalography study, we show that during visual working memory maintenance, temporal cortex regions, which exhibit enhanced PAC, interact with prefrontal cortex via enhanced low-frequency phase synchronization. Healthy human participants were engaged in a visual delayed match-to-sample task with pictures of natural objects...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077669/preparatory-alpha-band-oscillations-reflect-spatial-gating-independently-of-predictions-regarding-target-identity
#20
Theresa Wildegger, Freek van Ede, Mark W Woolrich, Celine R Gillebert, Anna Christina Nobre
Preparatory modulations of cortical alpha-band oscillations are a reliable index of the voluntary allocation of covert spatial attention. It is currently unclear whether attentional cues containing information about a target's identity (such as its visual orientation), in addition to its location, might additionally shape preparatory alpha modulations. Here, we explore this question by directly comparing spatial and feature-based attention in the same visual detection task while recording brain activity using magneto-encephalography (MEG)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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