keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

reticular activation system

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119068/ischemic-stroke-of-midbrain-and-cerebellum-involving-reticular-activating-system
#1
Waleed Sadiq, Madeeha Subhan
The reticular activating system is the part of the brain that maintains the sleep/wake cycle. Any damage to this region can cause hypersomnolence and drowsiness along with altered sensorium. This case presents a patient with cerebellar and midbrain stroke with infarct of the reticular activating system, leading to hypersomnolence, drowsiness, and altered sensorium.
September 1, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061702/presynaptic-neuronal-nicotinic-receptors-differentially-shape-select-inputs-to-auditory-thalamus-and-are-negatively-impacted-by-aging
#2
Sarah Y Sottile, Troy A Hackett, Rui Cai, Lynne Ling, Daniel A Llano, Donald M Caspary
Acetylcholine is a potent neuromodulator capable of modifying patterns of acoustic information flow. In auditory cortex, cholinergic systems have been shown to increase salience/gain while suppressing extraneous information. However, the mechanism by which cholinergic circuits shape signal processing in the auditory thalamus (medial geniculate body, MGB) is poorly understood. The present study, in male Fischer Brown Norway rats, seeks to determine the location and function of presynaptic neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at the major inputs to MGB and characterize how nAChRs change during aging...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993883/shaping-somatosensory-responses-in-awake-rats-cortical-modulation-of-thalamic-neurons
#3
Daichi Hirai, Kouichi C Nakamura, Ken-Ichi Shibata, Takuma Tanaka, Hiroyuki Hioki, Takeshi Kaneko, Takahiro Furuta
Massive corticothalamic afferents originating from layer 6a of primary sensory cortical areas modulate sensory responsiveness of thalamocortical neurons and are pivotal for shifting neuronal firing between burst and tonic modes. The influence of the corticothalamic pathways on the firing mode and sensory gain of thalamic neurons has only been extensively examined in anesthetized animals, but has yet to be established in the awake state. We made lesions of the rat barrel cortex and on the following day recorded responses of single thalamocortical and thalamic reticular neurons to a single vibrissal deflection in the somatosensory system during wakefulness...
October 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939929/stimulus-induced-transitions-between-spike-wave-discharges-and-spindles-with-the-modulation-of-thalamic-reticular-nucleus
#4
Denggui Fan, Qingyun Wang, Jianzhong Su, Hongguang Xi
It is believed that thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) controls spindles and spike-wave discharges (SWD) in seizure or sleeping processes. The dynamical mechanisms of spatiotemporal evolutions between these two types of activity, however, are not well understood. In light of this, we first use a single-compartment thalamocortical neural field model to investigate the effects of TRN on occurrence of SWD and its transition. Results show that the increasing inhibition from TRN to specific relay nuclei (SRN) can lead to the transition of system from SWD to slow-wave oscillation...
December 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918332/control-of-absence-epilepsy-seizures-in-specific-relay-nuclei-of-thalamus
#5
Bing Hu, Xiaoqiang Zou, Yu Guo, Zhejia Yang, Feng Shi, Wangyuan Dong
In this paper, we used a classic basal ganglia-corticothalamic model(BGCT) to study the onset and control mechanism of absence epilepsy in specific relay nuclei (SRN) of thalamus. It was found that the seizure state may appear in SRN by turning the coupling strength -vsr and signal transmission delay τ on the route "Thalamic reticular nuclei (TRN) of thalamus ⟶ SRN". With increasing of -vsr, the seizure state appeared two times, and its onset mechanism has not been discussed in previous studies. The seizure activity can be well controlled by adjusting the activation level of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in basal ganglia, which is a main output tissue to the corticothalamic system through two direct inhibitory pathways "SNr ⟶ SRN" and "SNr ⟶ TRN" in our model...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889004/quantitative-vascular-neuroimaging-of-the-rat-brain-using-superparamagnetic-nanoparticles-new-insights-on-vascular-organization-and-brain-function
#6
Codi A Gharagouzloo, Liam Timms, Ju Qiao, Zihang Fang, Joseph Nneji, Aniket Pandya, Praveen Kulkarni, Anne L van de Ven, Craig Ferris, Srinivas Sridhar
A method called Quantitative Ultra-Short Time-to-Echo Contrast Enhanced (QUTE-CE) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which utilizes superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent to yield positive contrast angiograms with high clarity and definition is applied to the whole live rat brain. QUTE-CE MRI intensity data are particularly well suited for measuring quantitative cerebral blood volume (qCBV). A global map of qCBV in the awake resting-state with unprecedented detail was created via application of a 3D MRI rat brain atlas with 173 segmented and annotated brain areas...
September 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830686/multistability-in-the-corticothalamic-system
#7
Paula Sanz-Leon, P A Robinson
Neural field theory of the corticothalamic system is used to analyze the properties of its steady-state solutions, including their linear stability, in the parameter space of synaptic couplings for physiological parameter ranges representing normal arousal waking states in adult humans. The independent connections of the corticothalamic model define an eight-dimensional parameter space, while specific combinations of these connections parameterize intracortical, corticothalamic, and intrathalamic loops. Multistable regions are systematically identified and the existence of up to five steady-state solutions is confirmed, up to three of which are linearly stable...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809373/scoring-systems-for-oral-lichen-planus-used-by-differently-experienced-raters
#8
M Gobbo, K Rupel, V Zoi, G Perinetti, G Ottaviani, R Di Lenarda, L Bevilacqua, S-B Woo, M Biasotto
BACKGROUND: Scoring systems have been widely used to evaluate the severity and activity of oral lichen planus (OLP). The aim of the present study was to compare two existing (one modified) scoring systems in the evaluation of OLP severity and correlation with pain. Three differently experienced raters were involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with OLP were assessed for pain using the Visual Analogue Scale and examined at 10 intraoral sites before starting (T0) and three weeks after (T1) steroid therapy (Clobetasol)...
September 1, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764392/the-pacemaker-role-of-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-in-controlling-spike-wave-discharges-and-spindles
#9
Denggui Fan, Fucheng Liao, Qingyun Wang
Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles...
July 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742985/gabab-receptors-suppress-burst-firing-in-reticular-thalamic-neurons
#10
Stuart M Cain, Esperanza Garcia, Zeina Waheed, Karen L Jones, Trevor J Bushell, Terrance P Snutch
Burst-firing in thalamic neurons is known to play a key role in mediating thalamocortical (TC) oscillations that are associated with non-REM sleep and some types of epileptic seizure. Within the TC system the primary output of GABAergic neurons in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) is thought to induce the de-inactivation of T-type calcium channels in thalamic relay (TR) neurons, promoting burst-firing drive to the cortex and the propagation of TC network activity. However, RTN neurons also project back onto other neurons within the RTN...
July 25, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736332/5-hydroxytryptamine-2a-receptors-of-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-mediate-panic-like-behaviours-and-fear-induced-antinociception-elicited-by-neuronal-activation-in-the-central-nucleus-of-the-inferior-colliculus
#11
Raimundo da Silva Soares, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Tayllon Dos Anjos-Garcia, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
It has been established that chemical stimulation of the inferior colliculus (IC) of laboratory animals evokes fear-related defensive responses, which are considered panic attack-like behaviours. In addition, there is evidence that defensive reactions provoked by chemical stimulation of midbrain tectum neurons may induce an antinociceptive response. Morphologically, the IC receives projections from other mesencephalic structures, such as the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), a region rich in serotonergic neurons that play a critical role in the control of defensive behaviours...
July 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729115/arousal-and-drug-abuse
#12
REVIEW
Francisco J Urbano, Verónica Bisagno, Edgar Garcia-Rill
The reticular activating system (RAS) is not an amorphous region but distinct nuclei with specific membrane properties that dictate their firing during waking and sleep. The locus coeruleus and raphe nucleus fire during waking and slow wave sleep, with the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) firing during both waking and REM sleep, the states manifesting arousal-related EEG activity. Two important discoveries in the PPN in the last 10 years are, 1) that some PPN cells are electrically coupled, and 2) every PPN cell manifests high threshold calcium channels that allow them to oscillate at beta/gamma band frequencies...
August 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724360/injury-of-ascending-reticular-activating-system-associated-with-delayed-post-hypoxic-leukoencephalopathy-a-case-report
#13
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
BACKGROUND: Delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPHL) is a demyelinating syndrome characterized by neurological relapse after an initial recovery from hypoxic brain injury. We describe a patient with impaired consciousness following DPHL, concurrent with injury of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) shown using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old male patient was in a drowsy mental state after exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) for about ten hours...
July 19, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716782/the-reticular-activating-system-in-the-wake-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-dazed-and-confused
#14
EDITORIAL
John D Rolston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714107/the-braf-and-nras-mutation-prevalence-in-dermoscopic-subtypes-of-acquired-naevi-reveals-constitutive-mapk-pathway-activation
#15
J M Tan, L N Tom, K Jagirdar, D Lambie, H Schaider, R A Sturm, H P Soyer, M S Stark
BACKGROUND: Acquired naevi can have unique dermoscopic patterns that correspond to distinct microanatomical growth patterns. Previous studies on acquired naevi stratified according to dermoscopic pattern, focused on the frequency of somatic BRAF mutations, whereas NRAS mutations remained to be elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the BRAF and NRAS mutation prevalence and activation of the MAPK pathway in distinct dermoscopic subtypes of acquired naevi. METHODS: Common mutations present in BRAF and NRAS were assessed in 40 globular, reticular, and peripheral rim of globules (PG) subtypes of acquired naevi from 27 participants (19 male, 8 female; mean age 46...
July 17, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673717/distinctive-features-of-phox2b-expressing-neurons-in-the-rat-reticular-formation-dorsal-to-the-trigeminal-motor-nucleus
#16
Kouta Nagoya, Shiro Nakamura, Keiko Ikeda, Hiroshi Onimaru, Atsushi Yoshida, Kiyomi Nakayama, Ayako Mochizuki, Masaaki Kiyomoto, Fumihiko Sato, Kiyoshi Kawakami, Koji Takahashi, Tomio Inoue
Phox2b encodes a paired-like homeodomain-containing transcription factor essential for development of the autonomic nervous system. Phox2b-expressing (Phox2b(+)) neurons are present in the reticular formation dorsal to the trigeminal motor nucleus (RdV) as well as the nucleus of the solitary tract and parafacial respiratory group. However, the nature of Phox2b(+) RdV neurons is still unclear. We investigated the physiological and morphological properties of Phox2b(+) RdV neurons using postnatal day 2-7 transgenic rats expressing yellow fluorescent protein under the control of Phox2b...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673592/bottom-up-gamma-and-stages-of-waking
#17
E Garcia-Rill
Gamma activity has been proposed to promote the feed forward or "bottom-up" flow of information from lower to higher regions of the brain during perception. The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) modulates waking and REM sleep, and is part of the reticular activating system (RAS). The properties of PPN cells are unique in that all PPN neurons fire maximally at gamma band frequency regardless of electrophysiological or transmitter type, thus proposed as one origin of "bottom-up" gamma. This property is based on the presence of intrinsic membrane oscillations subserved by high threshold, voltage-dependent calcium channels...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649683/surface-assisted-ullmann-coupling
#18
M Lackinger
Surface-assisted Ullmann coupling is the workhorse of on-surfaces synthesis. Among the various couplings that were successfully transferred from solution to solid surfaces, Ullmann coupling is arguably the most reliable, controllable, and widespread coupling reaction. The basic reaction scheme is straightforward: halogenated precursors are deposited onto solid surfaces, normally of coinage metals. In the adsorbed state the halogen substitutents are split off by virtue of the surface's reactivity, thereby generating acitvated species that subsequently recombine by forming C-C bonds...
June 26, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638024/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cognitive-impairment-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
L S Chutko, S Yu Surushkina, E A Yakovenko, Yu D Kropotov, A V Sergeev
AIM: To qualify cognitive impairment in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and evaluate the efficacy of memoplant in the treatment of this pathology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The authors present the results of the clinical, psychological and electroencephalographic examination of 40 patients with ADHD, aged from 18 to 45 years. All patients received memoplant in dose of 240 mg a day for 8 weeks. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Adult patients with ADHD were characterized by both subjective and objective disorders of memory and attention...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633970/unified-neural-field-theory-of-brain-dynamics-underlying-oscillations-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-generalized-epilepsies
#20
E J Müller, S J van Albada, J W Kim, P A Robinson
The mechanisms underlying pathologically synchronized neural oscillations in Parkinson's disease (PD) and generalized epilepsies are explored in parallel via a physiologically-based neural field model of the corticothalamic-basal ganglia (CTBG) system. The basal ganglia (BG) are approximated as a single effective population and their roles in the modulation of oscillatory dynamics of the corticothalamic (CT) system and vice versa are analyzed. In addition to normal EEG rhythms, enhanced activity around 4 Hz and 20 Hz exists in the model, consistent with the characteristic frequencies observed in PD...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
keyword
keyword
38267
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"