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reticular activation system

Paul Hasler, Stavros Giaglis, Sinuhe Hahn
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes are the first responders of the immune system to threats by invading microorganisms. In the traditional view, they combat the intruders by phagocytosis and externalisation of granules containing lytic and microbicidal factors. A dozen years ago, this concept was expanded by the observation that neutrophils may react to bacteria by extruding their nuclear chromosomal DNA with attached nuclear and cytoplasmic constituents to form extracellular reticular structures. Since they trapped and immobilised the microbes, they were designated neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and their ensuing cell death NETosis...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
Bradley K Taylor, Karin N Westlund
Central noradrenergic centers such as the locus coeruleus (LC) are traditionally viewed as pain inhibitory; however, complex interactions among brainstem pathways and their receptors modulate both inhibition and facilitation of pain. In addition to the well-described role of descending pontospinal pathways that inhibit spinal nociceptive transmission, an emerging body of research now indicates that noradrenergic neurons in the LC and their terminals in the dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), spinal dorsal horn, and spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis participate in the development and maintenance of allodynia and hyperalgesia after nerve injury...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Francisco J Urbano, Brennon R Luster, Stasia D'Onofrio, Susan Mahaffey, Edgar Garcia-Rill
Synaptic efferents from the PPN are known to modulate the neuronal activity of several intralaminar thalamic regions (e.g., the centrolateral/parafascicular; Cl/Pf nucleus). The activation of either the PPN or Cl/Pf nuclei in vivo has been described to induce the arousal of the animal and an increment in gamma band activity in the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). The cellular mechanisms for the generation of gamma band oscillations in Reticular Activating System (RAS) neurons are the same as those found to generate gamma band oscillations in other brains nuclei...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Malik Q Mahmood, David Reid, Chris Ward, Hans K Muller, Darryl A Knight, Sukhwinder S Sohal, Eugene H Walters
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: COPD is characterized by poorly reversible airflow obstruction usually due to cigarette smoking. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, and in particular a process called epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), which may well be an intermediatory between smoking and both airway fibrosis and lung cancer. The downstream classical or 'canonical' TGF-β1 pathway is via the phosphorylated (p) Smad transcription factor system...
September 11, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Shoko Nagata, Shiro Nakamura, Kiyomi Nakayama, Ayako Mochizuki, Matsuo Yamamoto, Tomio Inoue
Dendrites of masseter (jaw-closing) motoneurons (MMNs) are well developed and ramify extensively throughout the trigeminal motor nucleus and often extend into the adjacent reticular formation. It is possible that the dendrites have active properties, which are altered with the development of the orofacial musculoskeletal system. Thus, we examined the changes in somatic voltage responses evoked by photostimulation of the MMN dendrites by laser photolysis of caged glutamate from postnatal day (P) 2-5 and 9-12 rats...
August 24, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Banafsheh Nazari, Lisa M Rice, Giuseppina Stifano, Alexander M S Barron, Yu Mei Wang, Tess Korndorf, Jungeun Lee, Jag Bhawan, Robert Lafyatis, Jeffrey L Browning
Tissue injury triggers the activation and differentiation of multiple cell types to minimize damage and initiate repair processes. In systemic sclerosis, these repair processes appear to run unchecked, leading to aberrant remodeling and fibrosis of the skin and multiple internal organs, yet the fundamental pathological defect remains unknown. We describe herein a transition wherein the abundant CD34(+) dermal fibroblasts present in healthy human skin disappear in the skin of systemic sclerosis patients, and CD34(-), podoplanin(+), and CD90(+) fibroblasts appear...
October 2016: American Journal of Pathology
E Garcia-Rill, S D'Onofrio, B Luster, S Mahaffey, F J Urbano, C Phillips
A 10 Hz rhythm is present in the occipital cortex when the eyes are closed (alpha waves), in the precentral cortex at rest (mu rhythm), in the superior and middle temporal lobe (tau rhythm), in the inferior olive (projection to cerebellar cortex), and in physiological tremor (underlying all voluntary movement). These are all considered resting rhythms in the waking brain which are "replaced" by higher frequency activity with sensorimotor stimulation. That is, the 10 Hz frequency fulcrum is replaced on the one hand by lower frequencies during sleep, or on the other hand by higher frequencies during volition and cognition...
2016: Transl Brain Rhythm
Terry McMorris
The catecholamines hypothesis for the acute exercise-cognition interaction in humans fails to adequately explain the interaction between peripherally circulating catecholamines and brain concentrations; how different exercise intensities×durations affect different cognitive tasks; and how brain catecholamines, glucocorticoids, BDNF and 5-hydroxytryptamine interact. A review of the animal literature was able to clarify many of the issues. Rodent studies showed that facilitation of cognition during short to moderate duration (SMD), moderate exercise could be accounted for by activation of the locus coeruleus via feedback from stretch reflexes, baroreceptors and, post-catecholamines threshold, β-adrenoceptors on the vagus nerve...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
James L Stone, Julian E Bailes, Ahmed N Hassan, Brian Sindelar, Vimal Patel, John Fino
Patients with severe traumatic brain injury or large intracranial space-occupying lesions (spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, infarction, or tumor) commonly present to the neurocritical care unit with an altered mental status. Many experience progressive stupor and coma from mass effects and transtentorial brain herniation compromising the ascending arousal (reticular activating) system. Yet, little progress has been made in the practicality of bedside, noninvasive, real-time, automated, neurophysiological brainstem, or cerebral hemispheric monitoring...
August 2, 2016: Neurocritical Care
Edward Stanek, Erica Rodriguez, Shengli Zhao, Bao-Xia Han, Fan Wang
UNLABELLED: Anatomical studies have identified brainstem neurons that project bilaterally to left and right oromotor pools, which could potentially mediate bilateral muscle coordination. We use retrograde lentiviruses combined with a split-intein-mediated split-Cre-recombinase system in mice to isolate, characterize, and manipulate a population of neurons projecting to both the left and right jaw-closing trigeminal motoneurons. We find that these bilaterally projecting premotor neurons (BPNs) reside primarily in the supratrigeminal nucleus (SupV) and the parvicellular and intermediate reticular regions dorsal to the facial motor nucleus...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Guy Caljon, Nick Van Reet, Carl De Trez, Marjorie Vermeersch, David Pérez-Morga, Jan Van Den Abbeele
Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei parasites that cause sleeping sickness. Our knowledge on the early interface between the infective metacyclic forms and the mammalian host skin is currently highly limited. Glossina morsitans flies infected with fluorescently tagged T. brucei parasites were used in this study to initiate natural infections in mice. Metacyclic trypanosomes were found to be highly infectious through the intradermal route in sharp contrast with blood stream form trypanosomes...
July 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Mario Novkovic, Lucas Onder, Jovana Cupovic, Jun Abe, David Bomze, Viviana Cremasco, Elke Scandella, Jens V Stein, Gennady Bocharov, Shannon J Turley, Burkhard Ludewig
Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) form the cellular scaffold of lymph nodes (LNs) and establish distinct microenvironmental niches to provide key molecules that drive innate and adaptive immune responses and control immune regulatory processes. Here, we have used a graph theory-based systems biology approach to determine topological properties and robustness of the LN FRC network in mice. We found that the FRC network exhibits an imprinted small-world topology that is fully regenerated within 4 wk after complete FRC ablation...
July 2016: PLoS Biology
Sung Ho Jang, Yi Ji Hyun, Han Do Lee
We report on a patient who survived cardiac arrest and showed recovery of consciousness and an injured ARAS at the early stage of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI- BI) for 3 weeks, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).A 52-year-old male patient who had suffered cardiac arrest caused by acute coronary syndrome was resuscitated immediately by a layman and paramedics for ∼25 minutes. He was then transferred immediately to the emergency room of a local medical center. When starting rehabilitation at 2 weeks after onset, his consciousness was impaired, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (GRS-R) score of 8...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Miao Zheng, Shunsuke Kimura, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Toshihiko Iwanaga
LYVE-1, a receptor molecule for hyaluronan, is expressed in the lymphatic endothelium, blood sinus endothelium, and certain macrophage lineages. The present immunohistochemical study revealed a broader distribution of LYVE-1 in vascular endothelial cells of the murine lung, adrenal gland, and heart as well as the liver and spleen. In addition, sinus reticular cells-including sinuslining cells-in the medulla of the lymph node also intensely expressed LYVE-1. Ultrastructurally, immuno-gold particles for LYVE-1 were localized on the entire length of plasma membrane in all cell types...
2016: Biomedical Research
Brennon R Luster, Francisco J Urbano, Edgar Garcia-Rill
The pedunculopontine nucleus is a part of the reticular activating system, and is active during waking and REM sleep. Previous results showed that all PPN cells tested fired maximally at gamma frequencies when depolarized. This intrinsic membrane property was shown to be mediated by high-threshold N- and P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels. Recent studies show that the PPN contains three independent populations of neurons which can generate gamma band oscillations through only N-type channels, only P/Q-type channels, or both N- and P/Q-type channels...
June 2016: Physiological Reports
Laurent Goetz, Brigitte Piallat, Manik Bhattacharjee, Hervé Mathieu, Olivier David, Stéphan Chabardès
The mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) mainly composed by the pedunculopontine and the cuneiform nuclei is involved in the control of several fundamental brain functions such as locomotion, rapid eye movement sleep and waking state. On the one hand, the role of MRF neurons in locomotion has been investigated for decades in different animal models, including in behaving nonhuman primate (NHP) using extracellular recordings. On the other hand, MRF neurons involved in the control of waking state have been consistently shown to constitute the cholinergic component of the reticular ascending system...
July 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
A Kovács, Cs Bordás, T Bíró, Z Hegyi, M Antal, P Szücs, Balázs Pál
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), a cholinergic nucleus of the reticular activating system, is known to be involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. Endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids, by systemic or local administration to the pedunculopontine nucleus, can both influence sleep. We previously demonstrated that activation of astrocytes by cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor agonists was able to modulate the membrane potential of PPN neurons, even in the presence of blockers of fast synaptic neurotransmission...
May 11, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Claudia Terlouw, Cécile Bourguet, Véronique Deiss
This review describes the neurobiological mechanisms that are relevant for the stunning and killing process of animals in the abattoir. The mechanisms underlying the loss of consciousness depend on the technique used: mechanical, electrical or gas stunning. Direct exsanguination (without prior stun) causes also a loss of consciousness before inducing death. The underlying mechanisms may involve cerebral anoxia or ischemia, or the depolarisation, acidification and/or the destruction of brain neurons. These effects may be caused by shock waves, electrical fields, the reduction or arrest of the cerebral blood circulation, increased levels of CO2 or low levels of O2 in the inhaled air, or the mechanical destruction of neurons...
August 2016: Meat Science
Liping Ma, Hui-Fan Shen, Yan-Qin Shen, Melitta Schachner
The human natural killer cell antigen-1 (HNK-1) is functionally important in development, synaptic activity, and regeneration after injury in the nervous system of several mammalian species. It contains a sulfated glucuronic acid which is carried by neural adhesion molecules and expressed in nonmammalian species, including zebrafish, which, as opposed to mammals, spontaneously regenerate after injury in the adult. To evaluate HNK-1's role in recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI) of adult zebrafish, we assessed the effects of the two HNK-1 synthesizing enzymes, glucuronyl transferase and HNK-1 sulfotransferase...
April 16, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Sung Ho Jang, Seong Ho Kim, Han Do Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
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