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reticular activating system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742032/modulation-of-motor-cortical-excitability-with-auditory-stimulation
#1
Olli Löfberg, Petro Julkunen, Elisa Kallioniemi, Ari Pääkkönen, Jari Karhu
Loud sounds have been demonstrated to increase motor cortex excitability when transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is synchronized with auditory evoked N100 potential measured from electroencephalography (EEG). The N100 potential is generated by an afferent response to sound onset and feature analysis, and upon novel sound it is also related to the arousal reaction. Arousal reaction is known to originate from the ascending reticular activating system of the brainstem and to modulate neuronal activity throughout the central nervous system...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720934/reticulospinal-systems-for-tuning-motor-commands
#2
REVIEW
Robert M Brownstone, Jeremy W Chopek
The pontomedullary reticular formation (RF) is a key site responsible for integrating descending instructions to execute particular movements. The indiscrete nature of this region has led not only to some inconsistencies in nomenclature, but also to difficulties in understanding its role in the control of movement. In this review article, we first discuss nomenclature of the RF, and then examine the reticulospinal motor command system through evolution. These command neurons have direct monosynaptic connections with spinal interneurons and motoneurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718741/high-throughput-behavioral-assay-to-investigate-seizure-sensitivity-in-zebrafish-implicates-zfhx3-in-epilepsy
#3
Tyson D Fuller, Trudi A Westfall, Tirthasree Das, Deborah V Dawson, Diane C Slusarski
Epilepsy, which affects ∼1% of the population, is caused by abnormal synchronous neural activity in the central nervous system (CNS). While there is a significant genetic contribution to epilepsy, the underlying causes for the majority of genetic cases remain unknown. The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Project (UDP) utilized exome sequencing to identify genetic variants in patients affected by various conditions with undefined etiology, including epilepsy. Confirming the functional relevance of the candidate genes identified by exome sequencing in a timely manner is crucial to translating exome data into clinically useful information...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528433/schlafen-8-is-essential-for-lymphatic-endothelial-cell-activation-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#4
Katsuhiro Nakagawa, Takanori Matsuki, Liang Zhao, Kanako Kuniyoshi, Hiroki Tanaka, Isao Ebina, Kenta J Yoshida, Hiroshi Nabeshima, Kiyoharu Fukushima, Hisashi Kanemaru, Fumihiro Yamane, Takahiro Kawasaki, Tomohisa Machida, Hisamichi Naito, Nobuyuki Takakura, Takashi Satoh, Shizuo Akira
Schlafen-8 (Slfn8) is a member of the Schlafen family of proteins, which harbor helicase domains and are induced by LPS and interferons. It has been reported that the Schlafen family are involved in various cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation and regulation of virus replication. Slfn8 has been implicated in T-cell differentiation in the thymus. However, the roles of Slfn8 in the immune system remains unclear. In this study, we generated Slfn8 knockout mice (Slfn8-/-) and investigated the immunological role of Slfn8 using the T-cell-mediated autoimmune model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
March 8, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520482/leptin-alters-somatosensory-thalamic-networks-by-decreasing-gaba-release-from-reticular-thalamic-nucleus-and-action-potential-frequency-at-ventrobasal-neurons
#5
Paula P Perissinotti, María Celeste Rivero-Echeto, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Verónica Bisagno, Francisco J Urbano
Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that controls appetite and energy expenditure. Leptin receptors are expressed on extra-hypothalamic ventrobasal (VB) and reticular thalamic (RTN) nuclei from embryonic stages. Here, we studied the effects of pressure-puff, local application of leptin on both synaptic transmission and action potential properties of thalamic neurons in thalamocortical slices. We used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of thalamocortical VB neurons from wild-type (WT) and leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice...
March 8, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483634/the-role-of-reticular-chemistry-in-the-design-of-co-2-reduction-catalysts
#6
REVIEW
Christian S Diercks, Yuzhong Liu, Kyle E Cordova, Omar M Yaghi
The problem with current state-of-the-art catalysts for CO2 photo- or electroreduction is rooted in the notion that no single system can independently control, and thus optimize, the interplay between activity, selectivity and efficiency. At its core, reticular chemistry is recognized for its ability to control, with atomic precision, the chemical and structural features (activity and selectivity) as well as the output optoelectronic properties (efficiency) of porous, crystalline materials. The molecular building blocks that are in a reticular chemist's toolbox are chosen in such a way that the structures are rationally designed, framework chemistry is performed to integrate catalytically active components, and the manner in which these building blocks are connected endows the material with the desired optoelectronic properties...
April 2018: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476336/neuroanatomical-and-neurochemical-bases-of-vigilance-states
#7
Pierre-Hervé Luppi, Patrice Fort
In the present chapter, hypotheses on the mechanisms responsible for the genesis of the three vigilance states, namely, waking, non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) also called slow-wave sleep (SWS), and REM sleep also called paradoxical sleep (PS), are presented. A huge number of studies first indicate that waking is induced by the activation of multiple waking systems, including the serotonergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic, and hypocretin systems. At the onset of sleep, the SWS-active neurons would be activated by the circadian clock localized in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and a hypnogenic factor, adenosine, which progressively accumulates in the brain during waking...
February 24, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468936/copd-as-an-endothelial-disorder-endothelial-injury-linking-lesions-in-the-lungs-and-other-organs-2017-grover-conference-series
#8
Francesca Polverino, Bartolome R Celli, Caroline A Owen
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic expiratory airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible. COPD patients develop varying degrees of emphysema, small and large airway disease, and various co-morbidities. It has not been clear whether these co-morbidities share common underlying pathogenic processes with the pulmonary lesions. Early research into the pathogenesis of COPD focused on the contributions of injury to the extracellular matrix and pulmonary epithelial cells...
January 2018: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432146/bacteriocyte-cell-death-in-the-pea-aphid-buchnera-symbiotic-system
#9
Pierre Simonet, Karen Gaget, Séverine Balmand, Mélanie Ribeiro Lopes, Nicolas Parisot, Kurt Buhler, Gabrielle Duport, Veerle Vulsteke, Gérard Febvay, Abdelaziz Heddi, Hubert Charles, Patrick Callaerts, Federica Calevro
Symbiotic associations play a pivotal role in multicellular life by facilitating acquisition of new traits and expanding the ecological capabilities of organisms. In insects that are obligatorily dependent on intracellular bacterial symbionts, novel host cells (bacteriocytes) or organs (bacteriomes) have evolved for harboring beneficial microbial partners. The processes regulating the cellular life cycle of these endosymbiont-bearing cells, such as the cell-death mechanisms controlling their fate and elimination in response to host physiology, are fundamental questions in the biology of symbiosis...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409092/-gallop-in-the-routineergometrie-only-chore-or-diagnostic-challenge
#10
Stephan Knöchner, K Kronberg, U Schumann
ANAMNESIS:  A 47-year-old recreational sportsman showed in a routine ergometry polymorphic ventricular extrasystoles with good physical performance. INVESTIGATIONS:  In resting ECG impressed ventricular extrasystoles (VES) predominantly right-hand-block-like with superior axis, a long-term ECG yielded up to 100 VES per hour. Echocardiographically imposing 4 - 5 trabeculae, feathered, reticular structures apically in the left and lower in the right ventricle...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390491/absent-mindedness-and-injury-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-a-patient-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#11
Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo
RATIONALE: No study on the association of absent-mindedness and injury of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) has been reported. We report on a patient who showed absent-mindedness and injury of the ARAS following mild traumatic brain injury. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient complained of absent-mindedness since the head trauma, which was mainly observed while dining for several (5-10) minutes approximately 3 to 4 times a day: according to the patient's family, he usually stopped eating while holding the spoon in the air for approximately 5∼10 minutes...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386118/balance-control-mediated-by-vestibular-circuits-directing-limb-extension-or-antagonist-muscle-co-activation
#12
Andrew J Murray, Katherine Croce, Timothy Belton, Turgay Akay, Thomas M Jessell
Maintaining balance after an external perturbation requires modification of ongoing motor plans and the selection of contextually appropriate muscle activation patterns that respect body and limb position. We have used the vestibular system to generate sensory-evoked transitions in motor programming. In the face of a rapid balance perturbation, the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN) generates exclusive extensor muscle activation and selective early extension of the hindlimb, followed by the co-activation of extensor and flexor muscle groups...
January 30, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366839/characterization-of-the-bone-marrow-adipocyte-niche-with-three-dimensional-electron-microscopy
#13
Hero Robles, SungJae Park, Matthew S Joens, James A J Fitzpatrick, Clarissa S Craft, Erica L Scheller
Unlike white and brown adipose tissues, the bone marrow adipocyte (BMA) exists in a microenvironment containing unique populations of hematopoietic and skeletal cells. To study this microenvironment at the sub-cellular level, we performed a three-dimensional analysis of the ultrastructure of the BMA niche with focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). This revealed that BMAs display hallmarks of metabolically active cells including polarized lipid deposits, a dense mitochondrial network, and areas of endoplasmic reticulum...
January 27, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353013/bottom-up-gamma-maintenance-in-various-disorders
#14
REVIEW
E Garcia-Rill, S Mahaffey, James R Hyde, F J Urbano
Maintained gamma band activity is a key element of higher brain function, participating in perception, executive function, and memory. The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), as part of the reticular activating system (RAS), is a major source of the "bottom-up" flow of gamma activity to higher regions. However, interruption of gamma band activity is associated with a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review will focus on the role of the PPN in activating higher regions to induce arousal and descending pathways to modulate posture and locomotion...
January 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327340/shank3-deficient-thalamocortical-neurons-show-hcn-channelopathy-and-alterations-in-intrinsic-electrical-properties
#15
Mengye Zhu, Vinay Kumar Idikuda, Jianbing Wang, Fusheng Wei, Virang Kumar, Nikhil Shah, Christopher B Waite, Qinglian Liu, Lei Zhou
KEY POINTS: Shank3 increases the HCN channel surface expression in heterologous expression systems. Shank3Δ13-16 deficiency causes significant reduction in HCN2 expression and Ih current amplitude in thalamocortical (TC) neurons. Shank3Δ13-16 - but not Shank3Δ4-9 -deficient TC neurons share changes in basic electrical properties which are comparable to those of HCN2-/- TC neurons. HCN channelopathy may critically mediate events downstream from Shank3 deficiency. ABSTRACT: SHANK3 is a scaffolding protein that is highly enriched in excitatory synapses...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284263/reticular-electronic-tuning-of-porphyrin-active-sites-in-covalent-organic-frameworks-for-electrocatalytic-carbon-dioxide-reduction
#16
Christian S Diercks, Song Lin, Nikolay Kornienko, Eugene A Kapustin, Eva M Nichols, Chenhui Zhu, Yingbo Zhao, Christopher J Chang, Omar M Yaghi
The electronic character of porphyrin active sites for electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CO in a two-dimensional covalent organic framework (COF) was tuned by modification of the reticular structure. Efficient charge transport along the COF backbone promotes electronic connectivity between remote functional groups and the active sites and enables the modulation of the catalytic properties of the system. A series of oriented thin films of these COFs was found to reduce CO2 to CO at low overpotential (550 mV) with high selectivity (faradaic efficiency of 87%) and at high current densities (65 mA/mg), a performance well beyond related molecular catalysts in regard to selectivity and efficiency...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222423/voluntary-modulation-of-mental-effort-investment-an-fmri-study
#17
Omar T Khachouf, Gang Chen, Davide Duzzi, Carlo A Porro, Giuseppe Pagnoni
Mental effort is a common phenomenological construct deeply linked to volition and self-control. While it is often assumed that the amount of exertion invested in a task can be voluntarily regulated, the neural bases of such faculty and its behavioural effects are yet insufficiently understood. In this study, we investigated how the instructions to execute a demanding cognitive task either "with maximum exertion" or "as relaxed as possible" affected performance and brain activity. The maximum exertion condition, compared to relaxed execution, was associated with speeded motor responses without an accuracy trade-off, and an amplification of both task-related activations in dorsal frontoparietal and cerebellar regions, and task-related deactivations in default mode network (DMN) areas...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209779/central-regulation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis-and-energy-homeostasis-dependent-on-food-availability
#18
REVIEW
Yoshiko Nakamura, Kazuhiro Nakamura
Energy homeostasis of mammals is maintained by balancing energy expenditure within the body and energy intake through feeding. Several lines of evidence indicate that brown adipose tissue (BAT), a sympathetically activated thermogenic organ, turns excess energy into heat to maintain the energy balance in rodents and humans, in addition to its thermoregulatory role for the defense of body core temperature in cold environments. Elucidating the central circuit mechanism controlling BAT thermogenesis dependent on nutritional conditions and food availability in relation to energy homeostasis is essential to understand the etiology of symptoms caused by energy imbalance, such as obesity...
December 5, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188167/reconstruction-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-with-diffusion-tensor-tractography-in-patients-with-a-disorder-of-consciousness-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Edgar Gerardo Ordóñez-Rubiano, Jason Johnson, Cesar O Enciso-Olivera, Jorge H Marín-Muñoz, William Cortes-Lozano, Pablo E Baquero-Herrera, Edgar G Ordóñez-Mora, Hernando A Cifuentes-Lobelo
This work describes the reconstruction of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) with diffusion tensor tractography in three patients with altered consciousness after traumatic brain injury. A diffusion tensor tractography was performed in three patients with impaired consciousness after a severe traumatic brain injury. A 1.5 T scanner was used to obtain the tensor sequences; axial tensors were acquired. Post-processing was performed, and the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values were recorded...
September 28, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186180/clonogenic-myogenic-progenitors-expressing-mcam-cd146-are-incorporated-as-adventitial-reticular-cells-in-the-microvascular-compartment-of-human-post-natal-skeletal-muscle
#20
Tiziana Persichini, Alessia Funari, Marco Colasanti, Benedetto Sacchetti
Recent observation identifies subendothelial (mural) cells expressing MCAM, a specific system of clonogenic, self-renewing, osteoprogenitors (a.k.a, "mesenchymal stem cells") in the microvascular compartment of post-natal human bone marrow (BM). In this study, we used MCAM/CD146, as a marker to localize, isolate and assay subendothelial clonogenic cells from the microvasculature of postnatal human skeletal muscle. We show here that these cells share with their BM counterpart, anatomic position (subendothelial/adventitial) and ex vivo clonogenicity (CFU-Fs)...
2017: PloS One
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