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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327340/shank3-deficient-thalamocortical-neurons-show-hcn-channelopathy-and-alterations-in-intrinsic-electrical-properties
#1
Mengye Zhu, VinayKumar Idikuda, Jianbing Wang, Fusheng Wei, Virang Kumar, Nikhil Shah, Christopher B Waite, Qinglian Liu, Lei Zhou
Shank3 is a scaffolding protein that is highly enriched in excitatory synapses. Mutations in Shank3 gene have been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders especially the Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Shank3 deficiency is known to cause impairments in synaptic transmission, but its effects on basic neuronal electrical properties that are more localized to the soma and proximal dendrites remain unclear. Here we confirmed that in heterologous expression systems two different Shank3 isoforms, Shank3A and Shank3C, significant increase the surface expression of the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic-nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284263/reticular-electronic-tuning-of-porphyrin-active-sites-in-covalent-organic-frameworks-for-electrocatalytic-carbon-dioxide-reduction
#2
Christian S Diercks, Song Lin, Nikolay Kornienko, Eugene A Kapustin, Eva M Nichols, Chenhui Zhu, Yingbo Zhao, Christopher J Chang, Omar M Yaghi
The electronic character of porphyrin active sites for electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CO in a two-dimensional covalent organic framework (COF) was tuned by modification of the reticular structure. Efficient charge transport along the COF backbone promotes electronic connectivity between remote functional groups and the active sites and enables the modulation of the catalytic properties of the system. A series of oriented thin films of these COFs was found to reduce CO2 to CO at low overpotential (550 mV) with high selectivity (faradaic efficiency of 87%) and at high current densities (65 mA/mg) - a performance well beyond related molecular catalysts in regard to selectivity and efficiency...
December 29, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222423/voluntary-modulation-of-mental-effort-investment-an-fmri-study
#3
Omar T Khachouf, Gang Chen, Davide Duzzi, Carlo A Porro, Giuseppe Pagnoni
Mental effort is a common phenomenological construct deeply linked to volition and self-control. While it is often assumed that the amount of exertion invested in a task can be voluntarily regulated, the neural bases of such faculty and its behavioural effects are yet insufficiently understood. In this study, we investigated how the instructions to execute a demanding cognitive task either "with maximum exertion" or "as relaxed as possible" affected performance and brain activity. The maximum exertion condition, compared to relaxed execution, was associated with speeded motor responses without an accuracy trade-off, and an amplification of both task-related activations in dorsal frontoparietal and cerebellar regions, and task-related deactivations in default mode network (DMN) areas...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209779/central-regulation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis-and-energy-homeostasis-dependent-on-food-availability
#4
REVIEW
Yoshiko Nakamura, Kazuhiro Nakamura
Energy homeostasis of mammals is maintained by balancing energy expenditure within the body and energy intake through feeding. Several lines of evidence indicate that brown adipose tissue (BAT), a sympathetically activated thermogenic organ, turns excess energy into heat to maintain the energy balance in rodents and humans, in addition to its thermoregulatory role for the defense of body core temperature in cold environments. Elucidating the central circuit mechanism controlling BAT thermogenesis dependent on nutritional conditions and food availability in relation to energy homeostasis is essential to understand the etiology of symptoms caused by energy imbalance, such as obesity...
December 5, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188167/reconstruction-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-with-diffusion-tensor-tractography-in-patients-with-a-disorder-of-consciousness-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Edgar Gerardo Ordóñez-Rubiano, Jason Johnson, Cesar O Enciso-Olivera, Jorge H Marín-Muñoz, William Cortes-Lozano, Pablo E Baquero-Herrera, Edgar G Ordóñez-Mora, Hernando A Cifuentes-Lobelo
This work describes the reconstruction of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) with diffusion tensor tractography in three patients with altered consciousness after traumatic brain injury. A diffusion tensor tractography was performed in three patients with impaired consciousness after a severe traumatic brain injury. A 1.5 T scanner was used to obtain the tensor sequences; axial tensors were acquired. Post-processing was performed, and the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values were recorded...
September 28, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186180/clonogenic-myogenic-progenitors-expressing-mcam-cd146-are-incorporated-as-adventitial-reticular-cells-in-the-microvascular-compartment-of-human-post-natal-skeletal-muscle
#6
Tiziana Persichini, Alessia Funari, Marco Colasanti, Benedetto Sacchetti
Recent observation identifies subendothelial (mural) cells expressing MCAM, a specific system of clonogenic, self-renewing, osteoprogenitors (a.k.a, "mesenchymal stem cells") in the microvascular compartment of post-natal human bone marrow (BM). In this study, we used MCAM/CD146, as a marker to localize, isolate and assay subendothelial clonogenic cells from the microvasculature of postnatal human skeletal muscle. We show here that these cells share with their BM counterpart, anatomic position (subendothelial/adventitial) and ex vivo clonogenicity (CFU-Fs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119068/ischemic-stroke-of-midbrain-and-cerebellum-involving-reticular-activating-system
#7
Waleed Sadiq, Madeeha Subhan
The reticular activating system is the part of the brain that maintains the sleep/wake cycle. Any damage to this region can cause hypersomnolence and drowsiness along with altered sensorium. This case presents a patient with cerebellar and midbrain stroke with infarct of the reticular activating system, leading to hypersomnolence, drowsiness, and altered sensorium.
September 1, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061702/presynaptic-neuronal-nicotinic-receptors-differentially-shape-select-inputs-to-auditory-thalamus-and-are-negatively-impacted-by-aging
#8
Sarah Y Sottile, Troy A Hackett, Rui Cai, Lynne Ling, Daniel A Llano, Donald M Caspary
Acetylcholine is a potent neuromodulator capable of modifying patterns of acoustic information flow. In auditory cortex, cholinergic systems have been shown to increase salience/gain while suppressing extraneous information. However, the mechanism by which cholinergic circuits shape signal processing in the auditory thalamus (medial geniculate body, MGB) is poorly understood. The present study, in male Fischer Brown Norway rats, seeks to determine the location and function of presynaptic neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at the major inputs to MGB and characterize how nAChRs change during aging...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993883/shaping-somatosensory-responses-in-awake-rats-cortical-modulation-of-thalamic-neurons
#9
Daichi Hirai, Kouichi C Nakamura, Ken-Ichi Shibata, Takuma Tanaka, Hiroyuki Hioki, Takeshi Kaneko, Takahiro Furuta
Massive corticothalamic afferents originating from layer 6a of primary sensory cortical areas modulate sensory responsiveness of thalamocortical neurons and are pivotal for shifting neuronal firing between burst and tonic modes. The influence of the corticothalamic pathways on the firing mode and sensory gain of thalamic neurons has only been extensively examined in anesthetized animals, but has yet to be established in the awake state. We made lesions of the rat barrel cortex and on the following day recorded responses of single thalamocortical and thalamic reticular neurons to a single vibrissal deflection in the somatosensory system during wakefulness...
October 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939929/stimulus-induced-transitions-between-spike-wave-discharges-and-spindles-with-the-modulation-of-thalamic-reticular-nucleus
#10
Denggui Fan, Qingyun Wang, Jianzhong Su, Hongguang Xi
It is believed that thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) controls spindles and spike-wave discharges (SWD) in seizure or sleeping processes. The dynamical mechanisms of spatiotemporal evolutions between these two types of activity, however, are not well understood. In light of this, we first use a single-compartment thalamocortical neural field model to investigate the effects of TRN on occurrence of SWD and its transition. Results show that the increasing inhibition from TRN to specific relay nuclei (SRN) can lead to the transition of system from SWD to slow-wave oscillation...
December 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918332/control-of-absence-epilepsy-seizures-in-specific-relay-nuclei-of-thalamus
#11
Bing Hu, Xiaoqiang Zou, Yu Guo, Zhejia Yang, Feng Shi, Wangyuan Dong
In this paper, we used a classic basal ganglia-corticothalamic model(BGCT) to study the onset and control mechanism of absence epilepsy in specific relay nuclei (SRN) of thalamus. It was found that the seizure state may appear in SRN by turning the coupling strength -vsr and signal transmission delay τ on the route "Thalamic reticular nuclei (TRN) of thalamus ⟶ SRN". With increasing of -vsr, the seizure state appeared two times, and its onset mechanism has not been discussed in previous studies. The seizure activity can be well controlled by adjusting the activation level of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in basal ganglia, which is a main output tissue to the corticothalamic system through two direct inhibitory pathways "SNr ⟶ SRN" and "SNr ⟶ TRN" in our model...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889004/quantitative-vascular-neuroimaging-of-the-rat-brain-using-superparamagnetic-nanoparticles-new-insights-on-vascular-organization-and-brain-function
#12
Codi A Gharagouzloo, Liam Timms, Ju Qiao, Zihang Fang, Joseph Nneji, Aniket Pandya, Praveen Kulkarni, Anne L van de Ven, Craig Ferris, Srinivas Sridhar
A method called Quantitative Ultra-Short Time-to-Echo Contrast Enhanced (QUTE-CE) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which utilizes superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent to yield positive contrast angiograms with high clarity and definition is applied to the whole live rat brain. QUTE-CE MRI intensity data are particularly well suited for measuring quantitative cerebral blood volume (qCBV). A global map of qCBV in the awake resting-state with unprecedented detail was created via application of a 3D MRI rat brain atlas with 173 segmented and annotated brain areas...
September 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830686/multistability-in-the-corticothalamic-system
#13
Paula Sanz-Leon, P A Robinson
Neural field theory of the corticothalamic system is used to analyze the properties of its steady-state solutions, including their linear stability, in the parameter space of synaptic couplings for physiological parameter ranges representing normal arousal waking states in adult humans. The independent connections of the corticothalamic model define an eight-dimensional parameter space, while specific combinations of these connections parameterize intracortical, corticothalamic, and intrathalamic loops. Multistable regions are systematically identified and the existence of up to five steady-state solutions is confirmed, up to three of which are linearly stable...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809373/scoring-systems-for-oral-lichen-planus-used-by-differently-experienced-raters
#14
M Gobbo, K Rupel, V Zoi, G Perinetti, G Ottaviani, R Di Lenarda, L Bevilacqua, S-B Woo, M Biasotto
BACKGROUND: Scoring systems have been widely used to evaluate the severity and activity of oral lichen planus (OLP). The aim of the present study was to compare two existing (one modified) scoring systems in the evaluation of OLP severity and correlation with pain. Three differently experienced raters were involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with OLP were assessed for pain using the Visual Analogue Scale and examined at 10 intraoral sites before starting (T0) and three weeks after (T1) steroid therapy (Clobetasol)...
September 1, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764392/the-pacemaker-role-of-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-in-controlling-spike-wave-discharges-and-spindles
#15
Denggui Fan, Fucheng Liao, Qingyun Wang
Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles...
July 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742985/gabab-receptors-suppress-burst-firing-in-reticular-thalamic-neurons
#16
Stuart M Cain, Esperanza Garcia, Zeina Waheed, Karen L Jones, Trevor J Bushell, Terrance P Snutch
Burst-firing in thalamic neurons is known to play a key role in mediating thalamocortical (TC) oscillations that are associated with non-REM sleep and some types of epileptic seizure. Within the TC system the primary output of GABAergic neurons in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) is thought to induce the de-inactivation of T-type calcium channels in thalamic relay (TR) neurons, promoting burst-firing drive to the cortex and the propagation of TC network activity. However, RTN neurons also project back onto other neurons within the RTN...
July 25, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736332/5-hydroxytryptamine-2a-receptors-of-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-mediate-panic-like-behaviours-and-fear-induced-antinociception-elicited-by-neuronal-activation-in-the-central-nucleus-of-the-inferior-colliculus
#17
Raimundo da Silva Soares, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Tayllon Dos Anjos-Garcia, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
It has been established that chemical stimulation of the inferior colliculus (IC) of laboratory animals evokes fear-related defensive responses, which are considered panic attack-like behaviours. In addition, there is evidence that defensive reactions provoked by chemical stimulation of midbrain tectum neurons may induce an antinociceptive response. Morphologically, the IC receives projections from other mesencephalic structures, such as the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), a region rich in serotonergic neurons that play a critical role in the control of defensive behaviours...
July 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729115/arousal-and-drug-abuse
#18
REVIEW
Francisco J Urbano, Verónica Bisagno, Edgar Garcia-Rill
The reticular activating system (RAS) is not an amorphous region but distinct nuclei with specific membrane properties that dictate their firing during waking and sleep. The locus coeruleus and raphe nucleus fire during waking and slow wave sleep, with the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) firing during both waking and REM sleep, the states manifesting arousal-related EEG activity. Two important discoveries in the PPN in the last 10 years are, 1) that some PPN cells are electrically coupled, and 2) every PPN cell manifests high threshold calcium channels that allow them to oscillate at beta/gamma band frequencies...
August 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724360/injury-of-ascending-reticular-activating-system-associated-with-delayed-post-hypoxic-leukoencephalopathy-a-case-report
#19
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
BACKGROUND: Delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPHL) is a demyelinating syndrome characterized by neurological relapse after an initial recovery from hypoxic brain injury. We describe a patient with impaired consciousness following DPHL, concurrent with injury of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) shown using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old male patient was in a drowsy mental state after exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) for about ten hours...
July 19, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716782/the-reticular-activating-system-in-the-wake-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-dazed-and-confused
#20
EDITORIAL
John D Rolston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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