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reticular activating system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091707/gastric-distension-causes-changes-in-heart-rate-and-arterial-blood-pressure-by-affecting-the-crosstalk-between-vagal-and-splanchnic-systems-in-anesthetised-rats
#1
Maurizio Sabbatini, Elena Grossini, Claudio Molinari, David A S G Mary, Giovanni Vacca, Mario Cannas
Various hindbrain nuclei have been demonstrated to be involved in the control of the cardiovascular reflexes elicited by both non-noxious and noxious gastric distension, through parasympathetic and sympathetic activation. The different role played by the branches of autonomic nervous system in exerting these effects and their crosstalk in relation to low-/high-pressure distension rate has not been examined yet. Therefore, in the present work, monolateral and bilateral vagotomy and splanchnicotomy were performed in anesthetised rats to analyse the involvement of hindbrain nuclei in haemodynamic changes caused by gastric distension at high (80 mmHg) and low (15 mmHg) pressure...
January 13, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078839/widespread-membrane-potential-changes-and-cardiorespiratory-synchronization-involved-in-anxiety-and-sleep-wake-transitions
#2
R Jerath, S M Cearley, M Jensen
Located within the ascending reticular activating system are nuclei which release neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. These nuclei have widespread projections that extend into the limbic system and throughout cortex. Activation of these neurotransmitters during awake states leads to arousal, while inhibition leads to the loss of consciousness experienced during slow-wave sleep. Previously, we proposed a mechanism in which cardiorespiratory synchronization may underlie the widespread hyperpolarization that occurs throughout the brain during slow-wave sleep...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072702/hypersomnia-due-to-injury-of-the-ventral-ascending-reticular-activating-system-following-cerebellar-herniation-a-case-report
#3
Sung Ho Jang, Chul Hoon Chang, Young Jin Jung, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
RATIONALE: We report on a patient with hypersomnia who showed injury of the lower ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) following cerebellar herniation due to a cerebellar infarct, detected on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 53-year-old male patient was diagnosed as a left cerebellar infarct, and underwent decompressive suboccipital craniectomy due to brain edema at 2 days after the onset of a cerebellar infarct. Three weeks after onset when the patient started rehabilitation, he showed hypersomnia without impairment of consciousness; he fell asleep most of daytime without external stimulation and showed an abnormal score on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale: 15 (full score: 24, cut off for hypersomnia: 10)...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065829/medullary-reticular-neurons-mediate-neuropeptide-y-induced-metabolic-inhibition-and-mastication
#4
Yoshiko Nakamura, Yuchio Yanagawa, Shaun F Morrison, Kazuhiro Nakamura
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) elicits hunger responses to increase the chances of surviving starvation: an inhibition of metabolism and an increase in feeding. Here we elucidate a key central circuit mechanism through which hypothalamic NPY signals drive these hunger responses. GABAergic neurons in the intermediate and parvicellular reticular nuclei (IRt/PCRt) of the medulla oblongata, which are activated by NPY-triggered neural signaling from the hypothalamus, potentially through the nucleus tractus solitarius, mediate the NPY-induced inhibition of metabolic thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) via their innervation of BAT sympathetic premotor neurons...
January 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036019/lymph-nodes-and-cancer-metastasis-new-perspectives-on-the-role-of-intranodal-lymphatic-sinuses
#5
REVIEW
Rui-Cheng Ji
The lymphatic system is essential for transporting interstitial fluid, soluble antigen, and immune cells from peripheral tissues to lymph nodes (LNs). Functional integrity of LNs is dependent on intact lymphatics and effective lymph drainage. Molecular mechanisms that facilitate interactions between tumor cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) during tumor progression still remain to be identified. The cellular and molecular structures of LNs are optimized to trigger a rapid and efficient immune response, and to participate in the process of tumor metastasis by stimulating lymphangiogenesis and establishing a premetastatic niche in LNs...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018238/key-brainstem-structures-activated-during-hypoxic-exposure-in-one-day-old-mice-highlight-characteristics-for-modeling-breathing-network-in-premature-infants
#6
Fanny Joubert, Camille Loiseau, Anne-Sophie Perrin-Terrin, Florence Cayetanot, Alain Frugière, Nicolas Voituron, Laurence Bodineau
We mapped and characterized changes in the activity of brainstem cell groups under hypoxia in one-day-old newborn mice, an animal model in which the central nervous system at birth is particularly immature. The classical biphasic respiratory response characterized by transient hyperventilation, followed by severe ventilation decline, was associated with increased c-FOS immunoreactivity in brainstem cell groups: the nucleus of the solitary tract, ventral reticular nucleus of the medulla, retrotrapezoid/parafacial region, parapyramidal group, raphe magnus nucleus, lateral, and medial parabrachial nucleus, and dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004939/fabrication-of-photocatalytic-paper-using-tio2-nanoparticles-confined-in-hollow-silica-capsules
#7
Kensei Fujiwara, Yasutaka Kuwahara, Yuki Sumida, Hiromi Yamashita
TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated in hollow silica spheres (TiO2@HSSs) show a shielding-effect that can insulate photocatalytically active TiO2 NPs from the surrounding environment and thus prohibit the self-degradation of organic support materials under ultraviolet (UV)-light irradiation. In this study, photocatalytically active papers were fabricated by combining TiO2@HSS and cellulose fibers, and their photocatalytic activities and durability under UV-light irradiation were examined. The yolk-shell nanostructured TiO2@HSS, which has an ample void space between inner TiO2 NPs and an outer silica shell, was synthesized using a facile single-step method utilizing an oil-in-water microemulsion as an organic template...
December 30, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989404/nailfold-capillaroscopic-parameters-and-skin-telangiectasia-patterns-in-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis
#8
Carmen Pizzorni, Anna R Giampetruzzi, Chiara Mondino, Antonio Facchiano, Damiano Abeni, Sabrina Paolino, Barbara Ruaro, Vanessa Smith, Alberto Sulli, Maurizio Cutolo
OBJECTIVE: To correlate nailfold capillaroscopic parameters with the presence of skin telangiectases (TAs) in systemic sclerosis patients (SSc). METHODS: Thirty-three consecutive patients (28 women and 5 men, mean age 59±21years) affected by SSc according to the ACR/EULAR criteria, 30 with limited (lcSSc) and 3 with diffuse (dcSSc) skin disease, displaying the presence of skin TAs on face, hands, forearms, neck, and décolleté were recruited. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) was performed to classify the patients into one of the three main patterns of SSc microangiopathy ("early", "active", "late"), and to calculate the microangiopathy evolution score (MES)...
December 16, 2016: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977583/injury-of-the-lower-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-patients-with-pontine-hemorrhage-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#9
Sung Ho Jang, Sang Seok Yeo
Many studies have reported about injury of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) in patients with various brain pathologies, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT); however, little is known about injury of the ARAS in patients with pontine hemorrhage. In this study, using DTT, we attempted to investigate injury of the lower ventral and dorsal ARAS in patients with pontine hemorrhage. Twenty-three consecutive patients with pontine hemorrhage and 14 control subjects were recruited into this study...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936748/a-base-resistant-metalloporphyrin-metal-organic-framework-for-c-h-bond-halogenation
#10
Xiu-Liang Lv, Kecheng Wang, Bin Wang, Jie Su, Xiaodong Zou, Yabo Xie, Jian-Rong Li, Hong-Cai Zhou
A base-resistant porphyrin metal-organic framework (MOF), namely PCN-602 has been constructed with 12-connected [Ni8(OH)4(H2O)2Pz12] (Pz = pyrazolate) cluster and a newly designed pyrazolate-based porphyrin ligand, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-(pyrazolate-4-yl)phenyl)porphyrin under the guidance of the reticular synthesis strategy. Besides its robustness in hydroxide solution, PCN-602 also shows excellent stability in aqueous solutions of F(-), CO3(2-), and PO4(3-) ions. Interestingly, the Mn(3+)-porphyrinic PCN-602, as a recyclable MOF catalyst, presents high catalytic activity for the C-H bond halogenation reaction in a basic system, significantly outperforming its homogeneous counterpart...
December 23, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930506/change-of-ascending-reticular-activating-system-with-recovery-from-vegetative-state-to-minimally-conscious-state-in-a-stroke-patient
#11
Sung Ho Jang, Chul Hoon Chang, Young Jin Jung, You Sung Seo
RATIONALE: We report on a stroke patient who showed change of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) concurrent with recovery from a vegetative state (VS) to a minimally conscious state (MCS), which was demonstrated on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 59-year-old male patient underwent CT-guided stereotactic drainage 3 times for management of intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage. DIAGNOSIS: After 4 months from onset, when starting rehabilitation, the patient showed impaired consciousness, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 6 and a Coma Recovery Scale-Revised score of 2...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907202/a-reproducible-method-for-isolation-and-in-vitro-culture-of-functional-human-lymphoid-stromal-cells-from-tonsils
#12
Yotam E Bar-Ephraim, Tanja Konijn, Mehmet Gönültas, Reina E Mebius, Rogier M Reijmers
The stromal compartment of secondary lymphoid organs is classicaly known for providing a mechanical scaffold for the complex interactions between hematopoietic cells during immune activation as well as for providing a niche which is favorable for survival of lymphocytes. In recent years, it became increasingly clear that these cells also play an active role during such a response. Currently, knowledge of the interactions between human lymphoid stroma and hematopoietic cells is still lacking and most insight is based on murine systems...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900462/effects-of-a-trpv1-agonist-capsaicin-on-respiratory-rhythm-generation-in-brainstem-spinal-cord-preparation-from-newborn-rats
#13
Mariho Tani, Sayumi Kotani, Chikara Hayakawa, Shih-Tien Lin, Saki Irie, Keiko Ikeda, Kiyoshi Kawakami, Hiroshi Onimaru
The heat-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels are expressed in the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, there is no report on how the activation of TRPV1 causes the modulation of neuronal activity in the medullary respiratory center. We examined effects of capsaicin, a specific agonist of TRPV1 channels, on respiratory rhythm generation in brainstem-spinal cord preparation from newborn rats. Capsaicin induced a biphasic response in the respiratory rhythm (a transient decrease followed by an increase in the C4 rate)...
November 29, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891607/cortical-and-reticular-contributions-to-human-precision-and-power-grip
#14
Toshiki Tazoe, Monica A Perez
It is well accepted that the corticospinal tract contributes to the control of finger muscles during precision and power grip in humans but the neural mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Here, we examined motor evoked potentials elicited by cortical and subcortical stimulation of corticospinal axons (MEPs and CMEPs, respectively) and the activity in intracortical circuits (suppression of voluntary electromyography) and spinal motoneurons (F-waves) in an intrinsic hand muscle during index finger abduction (control task), precision grip, and power grip...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881983/high-endothelial-venules-and-lymphatic-vessels-in-tertiary-lymphoid-organs-characteristics-functions-and-regulation
#15
REVIEW
Nancy H Ruddle
High endothelial venules (HEVs) and lymphatic vessels (LVs) are essential for the function of the immune system, by providing communication between the body and lymph nodes (LNs), specialized sites of antigen presentation and recognition. HEVs bring in naïve and central memory cells and LVs transport antigen, antigen-presenting cells, and lymphocytes in and out of LNs. Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are accumulations of lymphoid and stromal cells that arise and organize at ectopic sites in response to chronic inflammation in autoimmunity, microbial infection, graft rejection, and cancer...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880004/causal-relationships-among-neurons-of-the-nucleus-incertus-and-the-hippocampal-theta-activity-in-the-rat
#16
Sergio Martínez-Bellver, Ana Cervera-Ferri, Aina Luque-García, Joana Martínez-Ricós, Alfonso Valverde-Navarro, Manuel Bataller, Juan Guerrero, Vicent Teruel-Marti
In recent years, a body of evidence has shown that the nucleus incertus (NI), in the dorsal tegmental pons, is a key node of the brainstem circuitry involved in hippocampal theta rhythmicity. Ascending reticular brainstem system activation evokes hippocampal theta rhythm with coupled neuronal activity in the NI. In a recent paper, we showed three populations of neurons in the NI with differential firings during hippocampal theta activation. The objective of this work is to better evaluate the causal relationship between the activity of NI neurons and the hippocampus during theta activation in order to further understand the role of the NI in the theta network...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818290/developmental-expression-of-mglu2-and-mglu3-in-the-mouse-brain
#17
Caitlin E McOmish, Elena Y Demireva, Jay A Gingrich
The glutamatergic system directs central nervous system (CNS) neuronal activity and may underlie various neuropsychiatric disorders. Glutamate transmits its effects through multiple receptor classes. Class II metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGlu2 and mGlu3, play an important role in regulating synaptic release of different neurotransmitter systems and consequently modulate signaling across several neuronal subtypes. Drugs targeting mGlu2 and mGlu3 are seen as potential therapeutics for various psychiatric and neurological disorders, and defining their expression through development can aid in understanding their distinct function...
November 2016: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790220/t-cell-interstitial-migration-motility-cues-from-the-inflamed-tissue-for-micro-and-macro-positioning
#18
REVIEW
Alison Gaylo, Dillon C Schrock, Ninoshka R J Fernandes, Deborah J Fowell
Effector T cells exit the inflamed vasculature into an environment shaped by tissue-specific structural configurations and inflammation-imposed extrinsic modifications. Once within interstitial spaces of non-lymphoid tissues, T cells migrate in an apparent random, non-directional, fashion. Efficient T cell scanning of the tissue environment is essential for successful location of infected target cells or encounter with antigen-presenting cells that activate the T cell's antimicrobial effector functions. The mechanisms of interstitial T cell motility and the environmental cues that may promote or hinder efficient tissue scanning are poorly understood...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723901/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-health-and-disease
#19
Paul Hasler, Stavros Giaglis, Sinuhe Hahn
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes are the first responders of the immune system to threats by invading microorganisms. In the traditional view, they combat the intruders by phagocytosis and externalisation of granules containing lytic and microbicidal factors. A dozen years ago, this concept was expanded by the observation that neutrophils may react to bacteria by extruding their nuclear chromosomal DNA with attached nuclear and cytoplasmic constituents to form extracellular reticular structures. Since they trapped and immobilised the microbes, they were designated neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and their ensuing cell death NETosis...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685982/the-noradrenergic-locus-coeruleus-as-a-chronic-pain-generator
#20
REVIEW
Bradley K Taylor, Karin N Westlund
Central noradrenergic centers such as the locus coeruleus (LC) are traditionally viewed as pain inhibitory; however, complex interactions among brainstem pathways and their receptors modulate both inhibition and facilitation of pain. In addition to the well-described role of descending pontospinal pathways that inhibit spinal nociceptive transmission, an emerging body of research now indicates that noradrenergic neurons in the LC and their terminals in the dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), spinal dorsal horn, and spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis participate in the development and maintenance of allodynia and hyperalgesia after nerve injury...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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