keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

reticular activating system

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907202/a-reproducible-method-for-isolation-and-in-vitro-culture-of-functional-human-lymphoid-stromal-cells-from-tonsils
#1
Yotam E Bar-Ephraim, Tanja Konijn, Mehmet Gönültas, Reina E Mebius, Rogier M Reijmers
The stromal compartment of secondary lymphoid organs is classicaly known for providing a mechanical scaffold for the complex interactions between hematopoietic cells during immune activation as well as for providing a niche which is favorable for survival of lymphocytes. In recent years, it became increasingly clear that these cells also play an active role during such a response. Currently, knowledge of the interactions between human lymphoid stroma and hematopoietic cells is still lacking and most insight is based on murine systems...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900462/effects-of-a-trpv1-agonist-capsaicin-on-respiratory-rhythm-generation-in-brainstem-spinal-cord-preparation-from-newborn-rats
#2
Mariho Tani, Sayumi Kotani, Chikara Hayakawa, Shih-Tien Lin, Saki Irie, Keiko Ikeda, Kiyoshi Kawakami, Hiroshi Onimaru
The heat-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels are expressed in the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, there is no report on how the activation of TRPV1 causes the modulation of neuronal activity in the medullary respiratory center. We examined effects of capsaicin, a specific agonist of TRPV1 channels, on respiratory rhythm generation in brainstem-spinal cord preparation from newborn rats. Capsaicin induced a biphasic response in the respiratory rhythm (a transient decrease followed by an increase in the C4 rate)...
November 29, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891607/cortical-and-reticular-contributions-to-human-precision-and-power-grip
#3
Toshiki Tazoe, Monica A Perez
It is well accepted that the corticospinal tract contributes to the control of finger muscles during precision and power grip in humans but the neural mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Here, we examined motor evoked potentials elicited by cortical and subcortical stimulation of corticospinal axons (MEPs and CMEPs, respectively) and the activity in intracortical circuits (suppression of voluntary electromyography) and spinal motoneurons (F-waves) in an intrinsic hand muscle during index finger abduction (control task), precision grip, and power grip...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881983/high-endothelial-venules-and-lymphatic-vessels-in-tertiary-lymphoid-organs-characteristics-functions-and-regulation
#4
REVIEW
Nancy H Ruddle
High endothelial venules (HEVs) and lymphatic vessels (LVs) are essential for the function of the immune system, by providing communication between the body and lymph nodes (LNs), specialized sites of antigen presentation and recognition. HEVs bring in naïve and central memory cells and LVs transport antigen, antigen-presenting cells, and lymphocytes in and out of LNs. Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are accumulations of lymphoid and stromal cells that arise and organize at ectopic sites in response to chronic inflammation in autoimmunity, microbial infection, graft rejection, and cancer...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880004/causal-relationships-among-neurons-of-the-nucleus-incertus-and-the-hippocampal-theta-activity-in-the-rat
#5
Sergio Martínez-Bellver, Ana Cervera-Ferri, Aina Luque-García, Joana Martínez-Ricós, Alfonso Valverde-Navarro, Manuel Bataller, Juan Guerrero, Vicent Teruel-Marti
In recent years, a body of evidence has shown that the nucleus incertus (NI), in the dorsal tegmental pons, is a key node of the brainstem circuitry involved in hippocampal theta rhythmicity. Ascending reticular brainstem system activation evokes hippocampal theta rhythm with coupled neuronal activity in the NI. In a recent paper, we showed three populations of neurons in the NI with differential firings during hippocampal theta activation. The objective of this work is to better evaluate the causal relationship between the activity of NI neurons and the hippocampus during theta activation in order to further understand the role of the NI in the theta network...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818290/developmental-expression-of-mglu2-and-mglu3-in-the-mouse-brain
#6
Caitlin E McOmish, Elena Y Demireva, Jay A Gingrich
The glutamatergic system directs central nervous system (CNS) neuronal activity and may underlie various neuropsychiatric disorders. Glutamate transmits its effects through multiple receptor classes. Class II metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGlu2 and mGlu3, play an important role in regulating synaptic release of different neurotransmitter systems and consequently modulate signaling across several neuronal subtypes. Drugs targeting mGlu2 and mGlu3 are seen as potential therapeutics for various psychiatric and neurological disorders, and defining their expression through development can aid in understanding their distinct function...
November 2016: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790220/t-cell-interstitial-migration-motility-cues-from-the-inflamed-tissue-for-micro-and-macro-positioning
#7
REVIEW
Alison Gaylo, Dillon C Schrock, Ninoshka R J Fernandes, Deborah J Fowell
Effector T cells exit the inflamed vasculature into an environment shaped by tissue-specific structural configurations and inflammation-imposed extrinsic modifications. Once within interstitial spaces of non-lymphoid tissues, T cells migrate in an apparent random, non-directional, fashion. Efficient T cell scanning of the tissue environment is essential for successful location of infected target cells or encounter with antigen-presenting cells that activate the T cell's antimicrobial effector functions. The mechanisms of interstitial T cell motility and the environmental cues that may promote or hinder efficient tissue scanning are poorly understood...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723901/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-health-and-disease
#8
Paul Hasler, Stavros Giaglis, Sinuhe Hahn
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes are the first responders of the immune system to threats by invading microorganisms. In the traditional view, they combat the intruders by phagocytosis and externalisation of granules containing lytic and microbicidal factors. A dozen years ago, this concept was expanded by the observation that neutrophils may react to bacteria by extruding their nuclear chromosomal DNA with attached nuclear and cytoplasmic constituents to form extracellular reticular structures. Since they trapped and immobilised the microbes, they were designated neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and their ensuing cell death NETosis...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685982/the-noradrenergic-locus-coeruleus-as-a-chronic-pain-generator
#9
Bradley K Taylor, Karin N Westlund
Central noradrenergic centers such as the locus coeruleus (LC) are traditionally viewed as pain inhibitory; however, complex interactions among brainstem pathways and their receptors modulate both inhibition and facilitation of pain. In addition to the well-described role of descending pontospinal pathways that inhibit spinal nociceptive transmission, an emerging body of research now indicates that noradrenergic neurons in the LC and their terminals in the dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), spinal dorsal horn, and spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis participate in the development and maintenance of allodynia and hyperalgesia after nerve injury...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684729/recording-gamma-band-oscillations-in-pedunculopontine-nucleus-neurons
#10
Francisco J Urbano, Brennon R Luster, Stasia D'Onofrio, Susan Mahaffey, Edgar Garcia-Rill
Synaptic efferents from the PPN are known to modulate the neuronal activity of several intralaminar thalamic regions (e.g., the centrolateral/parafascicular; Cl/Pf nucleus). The activation of either the PPN or Cl/Pf nuclei in vivo has been described to induce the arousal of the animal and an increment in gamma band activity in the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). The cellular mechanisms for the generation of gamma band oscillations in Reticular Activating System (RAS) neurons are the same as those found to generate gamma band oscillations in other brains nuclei...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614607/transforming-growth-factor-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-smad-signalling-pathways-a-likely-key-to-emt-associated-copd-pathogenesis
#11
Malik Q Mahmood, David Reid, Chris Ward, Hans K Muller, Darryl A Knight, Sukhwinder S Sohal, Eugene H Walters
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: COPD is characterized by poorly reversible airflow obstruction usually due to cigarette smoking. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, and in particular a process called epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), which may well be an intermediatory between smoking and both airway fibrosis and lung cancer. The downstream classical or 'canonical' TGF-β1 pathway is via the phosphorylated (p) Smad transcription factor system...
September 11, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568204/postnatal-changes-in-glutamatergic-inputs-of-jaw-closing-motoneuron-dendrites
#12
Shoko Nagata, Shiro Nakamura, Kiyomi Nakayama, Ayako Mochizuki, Matsuo Yamamoto, Tomio Inoue
Dendrites of masseter (jaw-closing) motoneurons (MMNs) are well developed and ramify extensively throughout the trigeminal motor nucleus and often extend into the adjacent reticular formation. It is possible that the dendrites have active properties, which are altered with the development of the orofacial musculoskeletal system. Thus, we examined the changes in somatic voltage responses evoked by photostimulation of the MMN dendrites by laser photolysis of caged glutamate from postnatal day (P) 2-5 and 9-12 rats...
August 24, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565038/altered-dermal-fibroblasts-in-systemic-sclerosis-display-podoplanin-and-cd90
#13
Banafsheh Nazari, Lisa M Rice, Giuseppina Stifano, Alexander M S Barron, Yu Mei Wang, Tess Korndorf, Jungeun Lee, Jag Bhawan, Robert Lafyatis, Jeffrey L Browning
Tissue injury triggers the activation and differentiation of multiple cell types to minimize damage and initiate repair processes. In systemic sclerosis, these repair processes appear to run unchecked, leading to aberrant remodeling and fibrosis of the skin and multiple internal organs, yet the fundamental pathological defect remains unknown. We describe herein a transition wherein the abundant CD34(+) dermal fibroblasts present in healthy human skin disappear in the skin of systemic sclerosis patients, and CD34(-), podoplanin(+), and CD90(+) fibroblasts appear...
October 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547831/the-10-hz-frequency-a-fulcrum-for-transitional-brain-states
#14
E Garcia-Rill, S D'Onofrio, B Luster, S Mahaffey, F J Urbano, C Phillips
A 10 Hz rhythm is present in the occipital cortex when the eyes are closed (alpha waves), in the precentral cortex at rest (mu rhythm), in the superior and middle temporal lobe (tau rhythm), in the inferior olive (projection to cerebellar cortex), and in physiological tremor (underlying all voluntary movement). These are all considered resting rhythms in the waking brain which are "replaced" by higher frequency activity with sensorimotor stimulation. That is, the 10 Hz frequency fulcrum is replaced on the one hand by lower frequencies during sleep, or on the other hand by higher frequencies during volition and cognition...
2016: Translational Brain Rhythmicity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526999/developing-the-catecholamines-hypothesis-for-the-acute-exercise-cognition-interaction-in-humans-lessons-from-animal-studies
#15
REVIEW
Terry McMorris
The catecholamines hypothesis for the acute exercise-cognition interaction in humans fails to adequately explain the interaction between peripherally circulating catecholamines and brain concentrations; how different exercise intensities×durations affect different cognitive tasks; and how brain catecholamines, glucocorticoids, BDNF and 5-hydroxytryptamine interact. A review of the animal literature was able to clarify many of the issues. Rodent studies showed that facilitation of cognition during short to moderate duration (SMD), moderate exercise could be accounted for by activation of the locus coeruleus via feedback from stretch reflexes, baroreceptors and, post-catecholamines threshold, β-adrenoceptors on the vagus nerve...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484878/brainstem-monitoring-in-the-neurocritical-care-unit-a-rationale-for-real-time-automated-neurophysiological-monitoring
#16
James L Stone, Julian E Bailes, Ahmed N Hassan, Brian Sindelar, Vimal Patel, John Fino
Patients with severe traumatic brain injury or large intracranial space-occupying lesions (spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, infarction, or tumor) commonly present to the neurocritical care unit with an altered mental status. Many experience progressive stupor and coma from mass effects and transtentorial brain herniation compromising the ascending arousal (reticular activating) system. Yet, little progress has been made in the practicality of bedside, noninvasive, real-time, automated, neurophysiological brainstem, or cerebral hemispheric monitoring...
August 2, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445144/supratrigeminal-bilaterally-projecting-neurons-maintain-basal-tone-and-enable-bilateral-phasic-activation-of-jaw-closing-muscles
#17
Edward Stanek, Erica Rodriguez, Shengli Zhao, Bao-Xia Han, Fan Wang
UNLABELLED: Anatomical studies have identified brainstem neurons that project bilaterally to left and right oromotor pools, which could potentially mediate bilateral muscle coordination. We use retrograde lentiviruses combined with a split-intein-mediated split-Cre-recombinase system in mice to isolate, characterize, and manipulate a population of neurons projecting to both the left and right jaw-closing trigeminal motoneurons. We find that these bilaterally projecting premotor neurons (BPNs) reside primarily in the supratrigeminal nucleus (SupV) and the parvicellular and intermediate reticular regions dorsal to the facial motor nucleus...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441553/the-dermis-as-a-delivery-site-of-trypanosoma-brucei-for-tsetse-flies
#18
Guy Caljon, Nick Van Reet, Carl De Trez, Marjorie Vermeersch, David Pérez-Morga, Jan Van Den Abbeele
Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei parasites that cause sleeping sickness. Our knowledge on the early interface between the infective metacyclic forms and the mammalian host skin is currently highly limited. Glossina morsitans flies infected with fluorescently tagged T. brucei parasites were used in this study to initiate natural infections in mice. Metacyclic trypanosomes were found to be highly infectious through the intradermal route in sharp contrast with blood stream form trypanosomes...
July 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27415420/topological-small-world-organization-of-the-fibroblastic-reticular-cell-network-determines-lymph-node-functionality
#19
Mario Novkovic, Lucas Onder, Jovana Cupovic, Jun Abe, David Bomze, Viviana Cremasco, Elke Scandella, Jens V Stein, Gennady Bocharov, Shannon J Turley, Burkhard Ludewig
Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) form the cellular scaffold of lymph nodes (LNs) and establish distinct microenvironmental niches to provide key molecules that drive innate and adaptive immune responses and control immune regulatory processes. Here, we have used a graph theory-based systems biology approach to determine topological properties and robustness of the LN FRC network in mice. We found that the FRC network exhibits an imprinted small-world topology that is fully regenerated within 4 wk after complete FRC ablation...
July 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27368033/recovery-of-consciousness-and-an-injured-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-a-patient-who-survived-cardiac-arrest-a-case-report
#20
Sung Ho Jang, Yi Ji Hyun, Han Do Lee
We report on a patient who survived cardiac arrest and showed recovery of consciousness and an injured ARAS at the early stage of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI- BI) for 3 weeks, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).A 52-year-old male patient who had suffered cardiac arrest caused by acute coronary syndrome was resuscitated immediately by a layman and paramedics for ∼25 minutes. He was then transferred immediately to the emergency room of a local medical center. When starting rehabilitation at 2 weeks after onset, his consciousness was impaired, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (GRS-R) score of 8...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
keyword
keyword
38266
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"