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Valderi D Leite, Juliana M R Paredes, Tales A T de Sousa, Wilton S Lopes, José T de Sousa
  The ammonia nitrogen stripping process at open horizontal flow reactors was evaluated and is described in this paper. The ammonia came from landfill leachate. Superficial loads of 650 kgN-<inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href="00387-ilm02.gif"/> (phase 1), 750 kgN-<inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href="00387-ilm03.gif"/> (phase 2), and 850 kgN-<inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www...
May 1, 2018: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Mario Giess, Anna Witte, Julia Jasper, Oliver Koch, Daniel Summerer
5-methylcytosine (5mC) and its oxidized derivatives are regulatory elements of mammalian genomes involved in development and disease. These nucleobases do not selectively modulate Watson-Crick pairing, preventing their programmable targeting and analysis by traditional hybridiza-tion probes. Transcription-activator-like effectors (TALEs) can be engineered for use as programmable probes with epi-genetic nucleobase selectivity. However, only partial selectivi-ties for oxidized 5mC have been achieved so far, preventing unambiguous target binding...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nicolas Denancé, Boris Szurek, Erin L Doyle, Emmanuelle Lauber, Lisa Fontaine-Bodin, Sébastien Carrère, Endrick Guy, Ahmed Hajri, Aude Cerutti, Tristan Boureau, Stéphane Poussier, Matthieu Arlat, Adam J Bogdanove, Laurent D Noël
Xanthomonas transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are injected inside plant cells to promote host susceptibility by enhancing transcription of host susceptibility genes. TALE-encoding (tal) genes were thought to be absent from Brassicaceae-infecting Xanthomonas campestris (Xc) genomes based on four reference genomic sequences. We discovered tal genes in 26 of 49 Xc strains isolated worldwide and used a combination of single molecule real time (SMRT) and tal amplicon sequencing to yield a near-complete description of the TALEs found in Xc (Xc TALome)...
April 20, 2018: New Phytologist
Sangeetha Yoganathan, Mugil Varman, Samuel Philip Oommen, Maya Thomas
Nutritional deficiencies related neurological manifestations are not uncommon in infants and children. Here, we describe an infant with Vitamin B12 deficiency due to depleted maternal Vitamin B12 status presenting with progressive encephalopathy and extrapyramidal signs. Diagnosis of infantile tremor syndrome was established in our patient based on the clinical and biochemical parameters. Magnetic resonance imaging had shown frontotemporal atrophy with widened Sylvian fissures and prominent cerebrospinal fluid spaces...
October 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Jacques Dubochet, Erwin Knapek
This is a tale of two scientists who, in their younger days, had their scientific judgement clouded by the promise of a big discovery. Two years later, they found that their conclusions had been considerably exaggerated. They were lucky, though, as their later work would prove to be significant. Now, more than 30 years after those events, they met again and put in writing their understanding of what went wrong.
April 19, 2018: PLoS Biology
David B Morris
The current opioid crisis-driven partly by medical overprescription and partly by illegal drug abuse-is a significant cultural and professional dilemma in the USA and elsewhere. It has produced a strong reaction in favour of restricting medical use of opioids for pain, especially chronic pain. The author for a quarter century has written about pain from a biocultural perspective, and in this essay-based on his experience as primary caregiver for his late wife-he approaches the question of appropriate opioid use at the end of life...
April 18, 2018: Medical Humanities
Matteo M Guerrini, Alexis Vogelzang, Sidonia Fagarasan
Disruption of the gut microbiota is thought to contribute to disease onset in individuals with a genetic predisposition to autoimmunity. In a recent issue of Science, Manfredo Vieira et al. (2018) identify translocation of the gut commensal Enterococcus gallinarum into the liver as a trigger for the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematous.
April 17, 2018: Immunity
Aparna Pande, Rashmi Ramachandran, Vimi Rewari
We present a case of bronchial injury following bougie-assisted endotracheal intubation in a patient with difficult airway scheduled to undergo right percutaneous nephrolithotomy under general anaesthesia. The patient developed pleuritic pain along with right pleural effusion on the third postoperative day which was diagnosed by the anaesthesiologist who was following up the patient for airway trauma-associated complications. However, the patient was diagnosed to have a nephropleural fistula, a rare complication of supracostal access to percutaneous nephrolithotomy, which was managed successfully...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Bree Zimmerman, Marta Ivars, Kelly M Cordoro
We present cases of localized alopecia on the vertex scalp of two girls after elaborate professional hairstyling marketed as the "Princess Package" at a major U.S. theme park. Localized alopecia followed pain, erythema, and delayed crusting due to necrosis of the scalp. The majority of the affected alopecic areas had evidence of regrowth at interval follow-up, but small areas of scarring alopecia remained. We propose that these cases represent a type of alopecia caused by a combination of pressure ischemia and acute traction alopecia...
April 15, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
Trisha Greenhalgh
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based medicine is the application of research findings to inform individual clinical decisions. There is a tension-both philosophical and practical-between the average result from a population study and the circumstances and needs of an individual patient. This personal account of "evidence-based" trauma care illustrates and explores this tension. THE CASE: The author, a keen athlete, describes her experience of a high-impact cycle accident that led to limb fractures (which were diagnosed and treated according to evidence-based guidelines) and also an occult injury to the cervical spine (which was not diagnosed at the time)...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Katrien Van der Borght, Bart N Lambrecht
Heart disease is the major cause of death and it is broadly recognized that the immune system plays a central role in healthy and injured heart. Here, we focus on the contribution of various subsets of mononuclear phagocytes in the cardiac system. Macrophages and dendritic cells reside in the healthy myocardium to fulfill homeostatic functions and rapidly increase in numbers in diseases like myocardial ischemia and myocarditis to contribute to disease or resolve it. Recent experiments have revealed the extraordinary heterogeneity of cardiac mononuclear phagocytes that differ in origin, lifespan, phenotype and function...
April 5, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Kristie Bloom, Mohube Betty Maepa, Abdullah Ely, Patrick Arbuthnot
Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global health concern and accounts for approximately 1 million deaths annually. Amongst other limitations of current anti-HBV treatment, failure to eliminate the viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and emergence of resistance remain the most worrisome. Viral rebound from latent episomal cccDNA reservoirs occurs following cessation of therapy, patient non-compliance, or the development of escape mutants. Simultaneous viral co-infections, such as by HIV-1, further complicate therapeutic interventions...
April 12, 2018: Genes
Ian S Miller
Whether encountered as a movie or novel, Roald Dahl's Charlie and the Chocolate Factory is a childhood staple of postwar Anglophone culture. Originally published in 1964, Dahl's story of "Willie Wonka" is a morality tale for our times addressed by the present essay in relation to the precariousness, violence, intergenerational faith, and materialist fantasies reflective of contemporary life in the early twenty-first century. Compensating for the precarity of contemporary life's impoverishment as assumptions of societal stability are overthrown, this chronicle of the Bucket family details: envious desire validated by large group chosen trauma; authoritarian enslavement of inferior, colonized peoples with murderous, industrial-level human experimentation; toward gratification of the greedy fantasy of unlimited sweetness under the sway of lethal identification with the aggressor...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Stephen F Smagula, Helmet T Karim, Anusha Rangarajan, Fernando Pasquini Santos, Sossena C Wood, Tales Santini, John M Jakicic, Charles F Reynolds, Judy L Cameron, Abbe N Vallejo, Meryl A Butters, Caterina Rosano, Tamer S Ibrahim, Kirk I Erickson, Howard J Aizenstein
OBJECTIVES: Hippocampal hyperactivation marks preclinical dementia pathophysiology, potentially due to differences in the connectivity of specific medial temporal lobe structures. Our aims were to characterize the resting-state functional connectivity of medial temporal lobe sub-structures in older adults, and evaluate whether specific substructural (rather than global) functional connectivity relates to memory function. METHODS: In 15 adults (mean age: 69 years), we evaluated the resting state functional connectivity of medial temporal lobe substructures: dentate/Cornu Ammonis (CA) 4, CA1, CA2/3, subiculum, the molecular layer, entorhinal cortex, and parahippocampus...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Seema Shah, Ethan J Brock, Kyungmin Ji, Raymond R Mattingly
Ras oncoproteins play pivotal roles in both the development and maintenance of many tumor types. Unfortunately, these proteins are difficult to directly target using traditional pharmacological strategies, in part due to their lack of obvious binding pockets or allosteric sites. This obstacle has driven a considerable amount of research into pursuing alternative ways to effectively inhibit Ras, examples of which include inducing mislocalization to prevent Ras maturation and inactivating downstream proteins in Ras-driven signaling pathways...
April 3, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
M Angela Nieto
Some 25 years ago, a clone was identified that contained the chicken Slug sequences (now called Snail2 ). How could we anticipate at that time how much the chick embryo would help us to understand the ins and outs of cell migration during development and in disease? Indeed, the chick embryo helped us identify Snail2 as the first transcription factor that could induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), key for the migration of embryonic and cancer cells.
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Kwok Thye David Loh, Yi Shan Phoon, Vanessa Phua, Krishan Mohan Kapoor
Facial fillers are becoming increasingly popular as aesthetic procedures to temporarily reduce the depth of wrinkles or to contour faces. However, even in the hands of very experienced injectors, there is always a small possibility of vascular complications like intra-arterial injection of filler substance. We present a case report of a patient who developed features of vascular obstruction in right infraorbital artery and tell-tale signs of impending skin necrosis, after hyaluronic acid filler injection by an experienced injector...
February 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Louis B Rice, Charlene Desbonnet, Amelia Tait-Kamradt, Monica Garcia-Solache, John Lonks, Thomas M Moon, Éverton D D'Andréa, Rebecca Page, Wolfgang Peti
Enterococcus faecalis strains resistant to penicillin and ampicillin are rare and have been associated with increases in quantities of low-affinity penicillin-binding protein 4 (PBP4) or with amino acid substitutions in PBP4. We report an E. faecalis strain (LS4828) isolated from a prosthetic knee joint that was subjected to long-term exposure to aminopenicillins. Subsequent cultures yielded E. faecalis with MICs of penicillins and carbapenems higher than those for wild-type strain E. faecalis JH2-2. Sequence analysis of the pbp4 gene of LS4828 compared to that of JH2-2 revealed two point mutations with amino acid substitutions (V223I, A617T) and deletion of an adenine from the region upstream of the predicted pbp4 -35 promoter sequence (UP region)...
April 3, 2018: MBio
Alejandra D Alonso, Leah S Cohen
The microtubule associated protein tau in a hyperphosphorylated form was identified as the building block of the filamentous aggregates found in the neurons of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. In the abnormal state, hyperphosphorylated tau from AD brains (AD P-tau) was unable to promote microtubule assembly and more importantly, it could inhibit the normal activity of tau and other MAPs. AD P-tau was able to disrupt preformed microtubules and, by binding to normal tau, turn the latter into an AD P-tau like molecule...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Elmar Kriegler, Gunnar Luderer, Nico Bauer, Lavinia Baumstark, Shinichiro Fujimori, Alexander Popp, Joeri Rogelj, Jessica Strefler, Detlef P van Vuuren
We explore the feasibility of limiting global warming to 1.5°C without overshoot and without the deployment of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) technologies. For this purpose, we perform a sensitivity analysis of four generic emissions reduction measures to identify a lower bound on future CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes. Final energy demand reductions and electrification of energy end uses as well as decarbonization of electricity and non-electric energy supply are all considered...
May 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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