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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786876/temporal-and-long-term-gut-microbiota-variation-in-allergic-disease-a-prospective-study-from-infancy-to-school-age
#1
Kotryna Simonyté Sjödin, Marie-Louise Hammarström, Patrik Rydén, Andreas Sjödin, Olle Hernell, Lars Engstrand, Christina E West
BACKGROUND: Compositional changes of the early life gut microbiota have been implicated in IgE-associated allergic disease but there is lack of longitudinal studies. We examined gut microbiota development from infancy to school age in relation to onset of IgE-associated allergic diseases. At 8 years of age, we also examined the relationship between gut microbiota and T-cell regulation, estimated as responses to polyclonal T-cell activation. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 93 children at 4, 6 and 13 months, and 8 years of age...
May 22, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785027/targeting-g-quadruplex-dna-as-cognitive-function-therapy-for-atr-x-syndrome
#2
Norifumi Shioda, Yasushi Yabuki, Kouya Yamaguchi, Misaki Onozato, Yue Li, Kenji Kurosawa, Hideyuki Tanabe, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Takumi Era, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Takahito Wada, Kohji Fukunaga
Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATR-X) syndrome is caused by mutations in ATRX, which encodes a chromatin-remodeling protein. Genome-wide analyses in mouse and human cells indicate that ATRX tends to bind to G-rich sequences with a high potential to form G-quadruplexes. Here, we report that Atrx mutation induces aberrant upregulation of Xlr3b expression in the mouse brain, an outcome associated with neuronal pathogenesis displayed by ATR-X model mice. We show that ATRX normally binds to G-quadruplexes in CpG islands of the imprinted Xlr3b gene, regulating its expression by recruiting DNA methyltransferases...
May 21, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782850/histone-deacetylase-1-promotes-glioblastoma-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-via-activation-of-pi3k-akt-and-mek-erk-signaling-pathways
#3
Shun Li, Xiangrong Chen, Lifang Mao, Kashif Rafiq Zahid, Jun Wen, Liu Zhang, Maoying Zhang, Junwei Duan, Jie Duan, Xiaohong Yin, Yuanchuan Wang, Long Zhao, Xiaoping Tang, Xiangyu Wang, Guozheng Xu
Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) plays a crucial role in cancer progression and development. This enzyme has been confirmed to be a key regulator of tumor biology functions, such as tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion. However, HDAC1 expression in glioma remains controversial, and its specific function and molecular mechanism in glioblastoma is poorly understood. In this study, our findings demonstrated that protein and mRNA levels of HDAC1 were increased in glioma cell lines and glioma tissues compared to normal glial cell lines and non-neoplastic brain tissues, respectively...
May 18, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782350/effect-of-pyruvate-kinase-m2-regulating-aerobic-glycolysis-on-chemotherapy-resistance-of-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer
#4
Yuejun Qian, Lina Bi, Yingxu Yang, Dong Wang
This study aims to explore the effect and mechanism of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) on chemotherapy resistance of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (ER BC) by regulating aerobic glycolysis. The expression of PKM2 in ER BC MCF-7 cells, T47D cells and MCF-7/ADR cells (which are subject to adriamycin/ADR induction) were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. MCF-7/ADR (M/A) cells were grouped into blank group (M/A), negative group (M/A+NC), low expression of PKM2 group (M/A+si-PKM2 group), overexpression of PKM2 group (M/A+PKM2 group) and glycolysis inhibition group (M/A+PKM2+2-DG group)...
May 18, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781318/hypochlorite-modified-albumins-promote-cell-death-in-the-tubule-interstitium-in-rats-via-mitochondrial-damage-in-obstructive-nephropathy-and-the-protective-effects-of-antioxidant-peptides
#5
Zong-Rui Liu, Si-Qi Chen, Yao-Wei Zou, Xiao-Yu Wu, Hong-Ying Li, Xiao-Qiao Wang, Yue Shi, Hong-Xin Niu
A major feature of the injury sustained by the kidney during obstructive nephropathy is a profound induction of apoptosis in the tubular epithelium. In this study, we explored the central roles of mitochondria and the mechanism of the protective effect of the mitochondrial targeted peptides in tubular cell apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis during obstructive nephropathy. Unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) was performed on rats, and the animals were randomly assigned to intravenous treatment with normal saline, rat serum albumin (RSA), or HOCl-rat serum albumin (HOCl-RSA) in the presence or absence of SS-31...
May 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780830/the-cd40-rs1883832-polymorphism-affects-sepsis-susceptibility-and-scd40l-levels
#6
Zuo-Liang Liu, Jing Hu, Xue-Fei Xiao, Yue Peng, Shang-Ping Zhao, Xian-Zhong Xiao, Ming-Shi Yang
Sepsis is a severe and progressive disease characterized by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). CD40 serves as a vital link between immune response and inflammation. This study was designed to investigate the potential association between a functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of CD40 (rs1883832) and susceptibility to sepsis. We first performed a case-control study to explore the relationship between the CD40 rs1883832 polymorphism and sepsis. CD40 mRNA expression and protein expression were determined by real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from sepsis patients and healthy controls...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780389/deep-surveying-of-the-transcriptional-and-alternative-splicing-signatures-for-decidual-cd8-t-cells-at-the-first-trimester-of-human-healthy-pregnancy
#7
Weihong Zeng, Xinmei Liu, Zhicui Liu, Ying Zheng, Tiantian Yu, Shaliu Fu, Xiao Li, Jing Zhang, Siming Zhang, Xiaoling Ma, Xiao-Rui Liu, Xiaoli Qin, Asma Khanniche, Yan Zhang, Fuju Tian, Yi Lin
Decidual CD8+ (dCD8) T cells have been proposed to play important roles in immune protection against the invading pathogens and in tolerance toward the growing semi-allogeneic fetus during early pregnancy. However, their phenotypic and functional characteristics remain poorly defined. Here, we performed the first analysis of the transcriptional and alternative splicing (AS) signatures for human first-trimester dCD8 T cells using high-throughput mRNA sequencing. Our data revealed that dCD8 T cells have distinct transcriptional and AS landscapes when compared with their autologous peripheral blood CD8+ (pCD8) T counterparts...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779267/%C3%AE-synuclein-activates-innate-immunity-but-suppresses-interferon-%C3%AE-expression-in-murine-astrocytes
#8
Jintang Wang, Zheng Chen, Jeremy Walston, Peisong Gao, Maolong Gao, Sean X Leng
Glial activation and neuroinflammation contribute to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, linked to neuron loss and dysfunction. α-Synuclein (α-syn), as a metabolite of neuron, can induce microglia activation to trigger innate immune response. However, whether α-syn, as well as its mutants (A53T, A30P and E46K), induces astrocyte activation and inflammatory response is not fully elucidated. In this study, we used A53T mutant and wildtype α-syns to stimulate primary astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manners (0...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779068/new-insights-into-the-inflamed-tumor-immune-microenvironment-of-gastric-cancer-with-lymphoid-stroma-from-morphology-and-digital-analysis-to-gene-expression
#9
Irene Gullo, Patrícia Oliveira, Maria Athelogou, Gilza Gonçalves, Marta L Pinto, Joana Carvalho, Ana Valente, Hugo Pinheiro, Sara Andrade, Gabriela M Almeida, Ralf Huss, Kakoli Das, Patrick Tan, José C Machado, Carla Oliveira, Fátima Carneiro
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer with lymphoid stroma (GCLS) is characterized by prominent stromal infiltration of T-lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate GCLS biology through analysis of clinicopathological features, EBV infection, microsatellite instability (MSI), immune gene-expression profiling and PD-L1 status in neoplastic cells and tumor immune microenvironment. METHODS: Twenty-four GCLSs were analyzed by RNA in situ hybridization for EBV (EBER), PCR/fragment analysis for MSI, immunohistochemistry (PD-L1, cytokeratin, CD3, CD8), co-immunofluorescence (CK/PD-L1, CD68/PD-L1), NanoString gene-expression assay for immune-related genes and PD-L1 copy number alterations...
May 19, 2018: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777134/zebrafish-vcap1x2-regulates-cardiac-contractility-and-proliferation-of-cardiomyocytes-and-epicardial-cells
#10
Fang-Chi Hsieh, Yu-Fen Lu, Ian Liau, Chien-Chang Chen, Chao-Min Cheng, Chung-Der Hsiao, Sheng-Ping L Hwang
Sarcomeric signaling complexes are important to sustain proper sarcomere structure and function, however, the mechanisms underlying these processes are not fully elucidated. In a gene trap experiment, we found that vascular cell adhesion protein 1 isoform X2 (VCAP1X2) mutant embryos displayed a dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype, including reduced cardiac contractility, enlarged ventricular chamber and thinned ventricular compact layer. Cardiomyocyte and epicardial cell proliferation was decreased in the mutant heart ventricle, as was the expression of pAKT and pERK...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775725/anti-hepatitis-c-virus-activity-and-synergistic-effect-of-nymphaea-alba-extracts-and-bioactive-constituents-in-liver-infected-cells
#11
Sidra Rehman, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Bushra Ijaz, Sheikh Riazuddin
BACKGROUND: Without an effective vaccine, hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a global threat, inflicting 170-300 million carriers worldwide at risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Though various direct acting antivirals have been redeemed the hepatitis C treatment, a few restraints persist including possible side effects, viral resistance emergence, excessive cost which restricts its availability to a common person. HYPOTHESIS: There is no preventive HCV vaccine available today so the discovery of potent antiviral natural flora and their bioactive constituents may help to develop preventive cures against HCV infection...
May 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774043/integration-of-the-pokeweed-mirna-and-mrna-transcriptomes-reveals-targeting-of-jasmonic-acid-responsive-genes
#12
Kira C M Neller, Alexander Klenov, Juan C Guzman, Katalin A Hudak
The American pokeweed plant, Phytolacca americana , displays broad-spectrum resistance to plant viruses and is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator. However, little is known about the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses in this non-model plant. To investigate the control of miRNAs in gene expression, we sequenced the small RNA transcriptome of pokeweed treated with jasmonic acid (JA), a hormone that mediates pathogen defense and stress tolerance. We predicted 145 miRNAs responsive to JA, most of which were unique to pokeweed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773851/modeling-transcriptional-rewiring-in-neutrophils-through-the-course-of-treated-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#13
Zihua Hu, Kaiyu Jiang, Mark Barton Frank, Yanmin Chen, James N Jarvis
Neutrophils in children with the polyarticular form of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) display abnormal transcriptional patterns linked to fundamental metabolic derangements. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of therapy on mRNA and miRNA expression networks in polyarticular JIA. Using exon and miRNA microarrays, we studied children with untreated active JIA (ADU, n = 35), children with active disease on therapy with methotrexate ± etanercept (ADT, n = 26), and children with inactive disease also on therapy (ID, n = 14)...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772373/a-novel-c-type-lectin-from-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-ajctl-2-with-preferential-binding-of-d-galactose
#14
Hui Wang, Zhuang Xue, Zhaoqun Liu, Weilin Wang, Feifei Wang, Ying Wang, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
C-type lectins (CTLs) are Ca2+ dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins that share structural homology in their carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). In the present study, a novel CTL was identified from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (named as AjCTL-2). The deduced amino acid sequence of AjCTL-2 was homologous to CTLs from other animals with the identities ranging from 33% to 40%. It contained a canonical signal peptide at the N-terminus, a low density lipoprotein receptor class A (LDLa), a C1r/C1s/Uegf/bone morphogenetic protein 1 (CUB), and a CRD with two motif Glu-Pro-Asn (EPN) and Trp-Asn-Asp (WND) in Ca2+ binding site 2...
May 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771955/crispr-cas9-mediated-high-efficiency-knockout-of-the-eye-color-gene-vermillion-in-helicoverpa-zea-boddie
#15
Omaththage P Perera, Nathan S Little, Calvin A Pierce
Among various genome editing tools available for functional genomic studies, reagents based on clustered regularly interspersed palindromic repeats (CRISPR) have gained popularity due to ease and versatility. CRISPR reagents consist of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes formed by combining guide RNA (gRNA) that target specific genomics regions and a CRISPR associated nuclease (Cas). The gRNA targeting specific gene sequences may be delivered as a plasmid construct that needs to be transcribed or as a synthetic RNA...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769273/genome-wide-posttranscriptional-dysregulation-by-micrornas-in-human-asthma-as-revealed-by-frac-seq
#16
Rocio T Martinez-Nunez, Hitasha Rupani, Manuela Platé, Mahesan Niranjan, Rachel C Chambers, Peter H Howarth, Tilman Sanchez-Elsner
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that inhibit gene expression posttranscriptionally, implicated in virtually all biological processes. Although the effect of individual microRNAs is generally studied, the genome-wide role of multiple microRNAs is less investigated. We assessed paired genome-wide expression of microRNAs with total (cytoplasmic) and translational (polyribosome-bound) mRNA levels employing subcellular fractionation and RNA sequencing (Frac-seq) in human primary bronchoepithelium from healthy controls and severe asthmatics...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768479/construction-of-a-tri-chromatic-reporter-cell-line-for-the-rapid-and-simple-screening-of-splice-switching-oligonucleotides-targeting-dmd-exon-51-using-high-content-screening
#17
Takenori Shimo, Keisuke Tachibana, Satoshi Obika
Splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) that can modulate RNA splicing are used for the treatment of many genetic disorders. To enhance the efficacy of modulating splicing, it is important to optimize SSOs with regard to target sites, GC content, melting temperature (Tm value), chemistries, and lengths. Thus, in vitro assay systems that allow for the rapid and simple screening of SSOs are essential for optimizing SSO design. In this study, we established a novel tri-chromatic reporter cell line for SSO screening...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767557/polycystin-1-dysfunction-impairs-electrolyte-and-water-handling-in-a-renal-pre-cystic-mouse-model-for-adpkd
#18
Eric H J Verschuren, Sami G Mohammed, Wouter N Leonhard, Caro Overmars-Bos, Kimberly A M Veraar, Joost G J Hoenderop, René J M Bindels, Dorien J M Peters, Francisco J Arjona
The PKD1 gene encodes polycystin-1 (PC1), a mechanosensor triggering intracellular responses upon urinary flow sensing in kidney tubular cells. Mutations in PKD1 lead to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The involvement of PC1 in renal electrolyte handling remains unknown since renal electrolyte physiology in ADPKD patients has only been characterized in cystic ADPKD. We thus studied the renal electrolyte handling in inducible kidney-specific Pkd1 knockout (iKsp-Pkd1-/-) mice manifesting a pre-cystic phenotype...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764972/separate-functional-properties-of-nmdars-regulate-distinct-aspects-of-spatial-cognition
#19
Erin M Sanders, Akua O Nyarko-Odoom, Kevin Zhao, Michael Nguyen, Hong Hong Liao, Matthew Keith, Jane Pyon, Alyssa Kozma, Mohima Sanyal, Daniel G McHail, Theodore C Dumas
N -methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at excitatory synapses are central to activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. NMDARs act as ionotropic and metabotropic receptors by elevating postsynaptic calcium concentrations and by direct intracellular protein signaling. In the forebrain, these properties are controlled largely by the auxiliary GluN2 subunits, GluN2A and GluN2B. While calcium conductance through NMDAR channels and intracellular protein signaling make separate contributions to synaptic plasticity, it is not known if these properties individually influence learning and memory...
June 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763465/expression-of-the-three-components-of-linear-ubiquitin-assembly-complex-in-breast-cancer
#20
Amirhossein Kharman-Biz, Hui Gao, Reza Ghiasvand, Lars-Arne Haldosen, Kazem Zendehdel
Proteins belonging to the linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC) are believed to be important in tumorigenesis. LUBAC has been demonstrated to be composed of RBCK1, RNF31 and SHARPIN. The aim of this study was to explore all members of the LUBAC complex as novel biomarkers in breast cancer. We have already reported that RNF31 mRNA levels are higher in breast cancer samples compared to adjacent non-tumor tissue. In this study we extend these findings by demonstrating that the mRNA levels of RBCK1 and SHARPIN are also higher in tumors compared to adjacent non-tumor tissue in the same cross sectional study of samples (p < 0...
2018: PloS One
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