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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805342/deletion-of-the-activating-nk-cell-receptor-nkg2d-accelerates-rejection-of-cardiac-allografts
#1
Cornelia Fabritius, Paul Viktor Ritschl, Thomas Resch, Mario Roth, Susanne Ebner, Julia Günther, Vanessa Mellitzer, Anh-Vu Nguyen, Johann Pratschke, Martina Sauter, Karin Klingel, Katja Kotsch
It has already been shown that neutralization of the activating NK cell receptor NKG2D in combination with co-stimulation blockade prolongs graft survival of vascularized transplants. In order to clarify the underlying cellular mechanisms, we transplanted complete MHC-disparate BALB/c-derived cardiac grafts into C57BL/6 wildtypes or mice deficient for NKG2D (Klrk1(-/-) ). Although median survival was eight days for both recipient groups, we detected already at day 5 post-transplantation significantly greater intragraft frequencies of NKp46(+) NK cells in Klrk1(-/-) recipients than in wildtypes...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802228/mtdh-and-map3k1-are-direct-targets-of-apoptosis-regulating-mirnas-in-colorectal-carcinoma
#2
Sohair M Salem, Ahmed R Hamed, Rehab M Mosaad
Artificially designed miRNAs mimics and inhibitors that specifically target known oncogenes have attracted significant research attention. Herein, we aimed to explore whether MIR-375, MIR-145, and MIR-224 are involved in induction of apoptosis of CRC cells by regulating apoptosis-mediating genes MTDH, MAP3K1, PDK1, BAX, and BCL-XL. MTT assay was used to assess cell growth. Apoptosis was determined in terms of caspase activity measurement and phosphatidylserine detection using annexin V staining by flow cytometry...
August 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801656/comprehensive-mirna-expression-profiling-in-human-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-by-small-rna-sequencing
#3
Annelynn Wallaert, Wouter Van Loocke, Lucie Hernandez, Tom Taghon, Frank Speleman, Pieter Van Vlierberghe
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a genetically heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different molecular genetic subtypes according to their mRNA gene expression profile. In this study, we applied RNA sequencing to investigate the full spectrum of miRNA expression in primary T-ALL patient samples, T-ALL leukemia cell lines and healthy donor thymocytes. Notably, this analysis revealed that genetic subtypes of human T-ALL also display unique miRNA expression signatures, which are largely conserved in human T-ALL cell lines with corresponding genetic background...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800959/mybph-inhibits-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-migration-and-attenuates-neointimal-hyperplasia-in-a-rat-carotid-balloon-injury-model
#4
Ting Zhu, Yi He, Jue Yang, Weiguo Fu, Xin Xu, Yi Si
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration is implicated in restenosis. Myosin binding protein H (MYBPH) is capable of reducing cell motility and metastasis. In this study, we sought to determine whether MYBPH is involved in VSMC migration and neointima formation in response to vascular injury. To determine the expression of MYBPH in injured artery, we used a standard rat carotid artery balloon-injury model. In vivo studies have demonstrated that MYBPH is upregulated after vascular injury. VSMCs treated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB displayed increased MYBPH mRNA and protein levels...
August 8, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800359/the-selective-pi3k%C3%AE-inhibitor-byl719-as-a-novel-therapeutic-option-for-neuroendocrine-tumors-results-from-multiple-cell-line-models
#5
Svenja Nölting, Jakob Rentsch, Helma Freitag, Katharina Detjen, Franziska Briest, Markus Möbs, Victoria Weissmann, Britta Siegmund, Christoph J Auernhammer, Elke Tatjana Aristizabal Prada, Michael Lauseker, Ashley Grossman, Samantha Exner, Christian Fischer, Carsten Grötzinger, Jörg Schrader, Patricia Grabowski
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The therapeutic options for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are limited. As PI3K signaling is often activated in NETs, we have assessed the effects of selective PI3Kp110α inhibition by the novel agent BYL719 on cell viability, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle, signaling pathways, differentiation and secretion in pancreatic (BON-1, QGP-1) and pulmonary (H727) NET cell lines. METHODS: Cell viability was investigated by WST-1 assay, colony formation by clonogenic assay, apoptosis by caspase3/7 assay, the cell cycle by FACS, cell signaling by Western blot analysis, expression of chromogranin A and somatostatin receptors 1/2/5 by RT-qPCR, and chromogranin A secretion by ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794503/inflammatory-genes-tnf%C3%AE-and-il6-display-no-signs-of-increased-h3k4me3-in-circulating-monocytes-from-untreated-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#6
T C Messemaker, H M M Mikkers, T W Huizinga, R E M Toes, A H M van der Helm-van Mil, F Kurreeman
Innate immune cells, such as monocytes, can adopt a long-lasting pro-inflammatory phenotype, a phenomenon called 'trained immunity'. In trained immunity, increased cytokine levels of genes, like interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, are observed, which are associated with increased histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) in the promoter region. As systemic IL6 and TNFα levels are increased in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and monocytes are known to be the primary producers of TNFα and IL6, we hypothesized that 'trained immunity' signals may be observed at these genes in monocytes from RA patients...
August 10, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794184/post-transcriptional-regulation-of-mouse-neurogenesis-by-pumilio-proteins
#7
Meng Zhang, Dong Chen, Jing Xia, Wenqi Han, Xiekui Cui, Nils Neuenkirchen, Gretchen Hermes, Nenad Sestan, Haifan Lin
Despite extensive studies on mammalian neurogenesis, its post-transcriptional regulation remains under-explored. Here we report that neural-specific inactivation of two murine post-transcriptional regulators, Pumilio 1 (Pum1) and Pum2, severely reduced the number of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the postnatal dentate gyrus (DG), drastically increased perinatal apoptosis, altered DG cell composition, and impaired learning and memory. Consistently, the mutant DG neurospheres generated fewer NSCs with defects in proliferation, survival, and differentiation, supporting a major role of Pum1 and Pum2 in hippocampal neurogenesis and function...
August 9, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790184/adiponectin-protects-against-development-of-metabolic-disturbances-in-a-pcos-mouse-model
#8
Anna Benrick, Belén Chanclón, Peter Micallef, Yanling Wu, Laila Hadi, John M Shelton, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Ingrid Wernstedt Asterholm
Adiponectin, together with adipocyte size, is the strongest factor associated with insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study investigates the causal relationship between adiponectin levels and metabolic and reproductive functions in PCOS. Prepubertal mice overexpressing adiponectin from adipose tissue (APNtg), adiponectin knockouts (APNko), and their wild-type (WT) littermate mice were continuously exposed to placebo or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to induce PCOS-like traits...
August 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780502/pulmonary-ccr2-cd4-t-cells-are-immune-regulatory-and-attenuate-lung-fibrosis-development
#9
Katrin Milger, Yingyan Yu, Eva Brudy, Martin Irmler, Alla Skapenko, Michael Mayinger, Mareike Lehmann, Johannes Beckers, Frank Reichenberger, Jürgen Behr, Oliver Eickelberg, Melanie Königshoff, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann
BACKGROUND: Animal models have suggested that CCR2-dependent signalling contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, but global blockade of CCL2 failed to improve the clinical course of patients with lung fibrosis. However, as levels of CCR2(+)CD4(+) T cells in paediatric lung fibrosis had previously been found to be increased, correlating with clinical symptoms, we hypothesised that distinct CCR2(+) cell populations might either increase or decrease disease pathogenesis depending on their subtype...
August 5, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779971/lncrna-h19-regulates-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-metastasis-of-bladder-cancer-by-mir-29b-3p-as-competing-endogenous-rna
#10
Mengxin Lv, Zhenyu Zhong, Mengge Huang, Qiang Tian, Rong Jiang, Junxia Chen
Accumulating evidences indicate that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) might play important roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis. EMT (epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition) is considered as a critical step in invasion and metastasis of various tumors including bladder cancer (BC). Recent researches have showed that lncRNA H19 is implicated in metastasis through regulating EMT and the reverse MET (mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition). However, underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we screened lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles of BC with microarray assay...
August 2, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777475/genetic-deletion-of-git2-prolongs-functional-recovery-and-suppresses-chondrocyte-differentiation-in-rats-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#11
Hui Li, Shi-Bing Guan, Yi Lu, Fei Wang, Yu-Hong Liu, Qi-Yun Liu
The current study was conducted for investigating the mechanism by which GIT2 gene deletion affects the functional recovery and chondrocyte differentiation in rats with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into normal, model, GIT2 gene knockout (GIT2-KO), and model + GIT2-KO groups. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was performed for the observation of synovial tissues. Immunohistochemistry examinations were conducted to determine type II collagen expression as well as identify chondrocyte differentiation...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776725/synergistic-effect-of-sirna-mediated-silencing-of-tgf-%C3%AE-r1-and-tgf-%C3%AE-r2-genes-on-the-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-penile-urethral-epithelial-cells-in-hypospadiac-male-rats
#12
Chao Wang, Yan-Yan Qiao
The study elucidated the effects associated with silencing growth factor-β R1 (TGF-β R1) and TGF-β R2 genes on the proliferation and apoptosis of penile urethral epithelial cells (UECs) in hypospadiac male rats. Seventy-five male rats were distributed into the normal, model, TGF-β R1/2-siRNA, TGF-β R1-siRNA and TGF-β R2-siRNA groups. The UECs of the rats included in the study were cultured in vitro and subsequently divided into the control, blank, TGF-β R1/2-siRNA, TGF-β R1-siRNA and TGF-β R2-siRNA groups...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774859/conjugal-transfer-of-aac-6-ie-aph-2%C3%A2-ia-gene-from-native-species-and-mechanism-of-regulation-and-cross-resistance-in-enterococcus-faecalis-mcc3063-by-real-time-pcr
#13
G Jaimee, P M Halami
High level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) in the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) derived from food animals is detrimental. The aim of this study was to investigate the localization and conjugal transfer of aminoglycoside resistance genes, aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia and aph(3')IIIa in different Enterococcus species. The cross resistance patterns in Enterococcus faecalis MCC3063 to clinically important aminoglycosides by real time PCR were also studied. Southern hybridization experiments revealed the presence of aac(6')Ie-aph(2(″))Ia and aph(3')IIIa genes conferring HLAR in high molecular weight plasmids except in Lactobacillus plantarum...
July 31, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774490/hmgb3-modulates-ros-production-via-activating-tlr-cascade-in-apostichopus-japonicus
#14
Zhimeng Lv, Zhen Zhang, Zhixin Wei, Chenghua Li, Yina Shao, Weiwei Zhang, Xuelin Zhao, Jinbo Xiong
High mobility group box protein 3 (HMGB3) regulates proliferation and inflammatory response in vertebrates. However, its functional roles in invertebrates are largely unknown. In this study, a HMGB3 homologue molecule was identified from Apostichopus japonicus (designated as AjHMGB3) by RACE approach. The full-length cDNA of AjHMGB3 was of 2298 bp with an open reading frame of 1320 bp encoding a 439-amino-acid (aa) residue protein. Structural analysis then conducted and the results revealed that AjHMGB3 processed two conserved HMGBs (133-204 and 210-279 aa) and an acidic tail...
August 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768907/upregulated-heme-biosynthesis-an-exploitable-vulnerability-in-mycn-driven-leukemogenesis
#15
Yu Fukuda, Yao Wang, Shangli Lian, John Lynch, Shinjiro Nagai, Bruce Fanshawe, Ayten Kandilci, Laura J Janke, Geoffrey Neale, Yiping Fan, Brian P Sorrentino, Martine F Roussel, Gerard Grosveld, John D Schuetz
The increased heme biosynthesis long observed in leukemia was previously of unknown significance. Heme, synthesized from porphyrin precursors, plays a central role in oxygen metabolism and mitochondrial function, yet little is known about its role in leukemogenesis. Here, we show increased expression of heme biosynthetic genes, including UROD, only in pediatric AML samples that have high MYCN expression. High expression of both UROD and MYCN predicts poor overall survival and unfavorable outcomes in adult AML...
August 3, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765041/evidence-for-altered-osteoclastogenesis-in-splenocyte-cultures-from-vdr-knockout-mice
#16
Daniel C Reinke, Yolandi Starczak, Masakazu Kogawa, Kate R Barratt, Howard A Morris, Paul H Anderson, Gerald J Atkins
The indirect action of 1α,25(OH)2-vitamin-D3 (1,25D) on the osteoclast through stromal signalling is well established. The role of vitamin D in osteoclasts through direct 1,25D-VDR signalling is less well known. We showed previously that local 1,25D synthesis in osteoclasts modified osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic resorptive activity. In this study, we hypothesised that osteoclasts lacking VDR expression would display an enhanced resorptive capacity due to the loss of 1,25D signalling. Splenocytes were cultured under osteoclast-differentiating conditions from mice with global deletion of the Vdr gene (VDRKO) and this was compared with age-matched wild-type littermate controls (WT)...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762193/probiotic-features-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-a-diverse-pool-of-traditional-greek-dairy-products-regarding-specific-strain-host-interactions
#17
Georgia Zoumpopoulou, Alexandra Tzouvanou, Eleni Mavrogonatou, Voula Alexandraki, Marina Georgalaki, Rania Anastasiou, Marina Papadelli, Eugenia Manolopoulou, Maria Kazou, Dimitris Kletsas, Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Effie Tsakalidou
The increased consumers' interest on the positive role of food in wellbeing and health underscores the need to determine new probiotic microorganisms. Triggered by the fact that artisanal food products can be a valuable source of novel probiotic strains, 106 lactic acid bacteria, all isolated from traditional Greek dairy products, namely Feta, Kasseri, Xynotyri, Graviera, Formaela, Galotyri, and Kefalotyri cheeses as well as yogurt and milk, were studied for probiotic properties. Based on their survival at pH 2...
July 31, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761009/ascus-dysgenesis-in-hybrid-crosses-of-neurospora-and-sordaria-sordariaceae
#18
Durgadas P Kasbekar
When two lineages derived from a common ancestor become reproductively isolated (e.g. Neurospora crassa and N. tetrasperma), genes that have undergone mutation and adaptive evolution in one lineage can potentially become dysfunctional when transferred into the other, since other genes have undergone mutation and evolution in the second lineage, and the derived alleles were never 'tested' together before hybrid formation. Bateson (1909), Dobzhansky (1936), and Muller (1942) recognized that incompatibility between the derived alleles could potentially make the hybrid lethal, sterile, or display some other detriment...
July 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760881/evidence-for-ig-light-chain-isotype-exclusion-in-shark-b-lymphocytes-suggests-ordered-mechanisms
#19
Anna Iacoangeli, Anita Lui, Ashley Haines, Yuko Ohta, Martin Flajnik, Ellen Hsu
Unlike most vertebrates, the shark IgL gene organization precludes secondary rearrangements that delete self-reactive VJ rearranged genes. Nurse sharks express four L chain isotypes, κ, λ, σ, and σ-2, encoded by 35 functional minigenes or clusters. The sequence of gene activation/expression and receptor editing of these isotypes have not been studied. We therefore investigated the extent of isotypic exclusion in separated B cell subpopulations. Surface Ig (sIg)κ-expressing cells, isolated with mAb LK14 that recognizes Cκ, carry predominantly nonproductive rearrangements of other L chain isotypes...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758176/antidepressant-like-effect-of-bacopaside-i-in-mice-exposed-to-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-by-modulating-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-and-activating-bdnf-signaling-pathway
#20
Xianpeng Zu, Mingjian Zhang, Wencai Li, Haisheng Xie, Zhang Lin, Niao Yang, Xinru Liu, Weidong Zhang
Preliminary studies conducted in our laboratory have confirmed that Bacopaside I (BS-I), a saponin compound isolated from Bacopa monnieri, displayed antidepressant-like activity in the mouse behavioral despair model. The present investigation aimed to verify the antidepressant-like action of BS-I using a mouse model of behavioral deficits induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and further probe its underlying mechanism of action. Mice were exposed to CUMS for a period of 5 consecutive weeks to induce depression-like behavior...
July 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
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