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fear generalisation

Walter Chingwaru, Jerneja Vidmar
Zimbabwe is going through a generalised acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. The first five years of the epidemic (1985-1990) were characterised by lack of medicines against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and an exponential increase in prevalence (65-fold) and incidence (13-fold), which were fuelled by high-risk sexual behaviour. The high HIV prevalence, mortality and stigma yielded great fear and panic in the population, which are thought to have led to confusion and hopelessness, and, in turn, increased risky sexual behaviour...
August 11, 2016: Global Public Health
Allison J Matthews, Carolyn Mackintosh, Sarah Williams, Monique Williams, Kenneth C Kirkby
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine habituation of subjective anxiety and electrophysiological correlates of cortical hyper-vigilance during exposure to spider images among high (n = 12) and low (n = 11) spider fear groups. METHODS: Participants viewed a six-stage hierarchy of spider images. The images used at stage 1 and stage 6 were the same. Subjective anxiety was rated at four intervals during each three-minute exposure stage (0, 60, 120, and 180 s) and event-related potentials (ERPs) were averaged across these epochs (0-60, 60-120, 120-180)...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Daina L Sturnieks, Kim Delbaere, Matthew A Brodie, Stephen R Lord
Psychological processes may influence balance and contribute to the risk of falls in older people. While a self-reported fear of falling is associated with increased postural sway, inducing fear using an elevated platform can lead to reduced sway, suggesting different underlying mechanisms whereby fear may influence balance control. This study examined changes in postural sway, muscle activity and physiological measures of arousal while standing on a 65cm elevated platform, compared to floor level, in young and older adults...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
Inna Arnaudova, Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Marieke Effting, Merel Kindt, Tom Beckers
Individual differences in fear generalisation have been proposed to play a role in the aetiology and/or maintenance of anxiety disorders, but few data are available to directly support that claim. The research that is available has focused mostly on generalisation of peripheral and central physiological fear responses. Far less is known about the generalisation of avoidance, the behavioural component of fear. In two experiments, we evaluated how neuroticism, a known vulnerability factor for anxiety, modulates an array of fear responses, including avoidance tendencies, towards generalisation stimuli (GS)...
July 12, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Hiroko Ikeda, Katsumi Imai, Hitoshi Ikeda, Hideo Shigematsu, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Yushi Inoue, Norimichi Higurashi, Shinichi Hirose
PCDH19-related epilepsy is a genetic disorder that was first described in 1971, then referred to as "epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females". PCDH19 has recently been identified as the responsible gene, but a detailed characterization of the seizure manifestation based on video-EEG recording is still limited. The purpose of this study was to elucidate features of the seizure semiology in children with PCDH19-related epilepsy. To do this, ictal video-EEG recordings of 26 convulsive seizures in three girls with PCDH19-related epilepsy were analysed...
March 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Arja Gerritsen, Marc Jacobs, Inge Henselmans, Jons van Hattum, Fabio Efficace, Geert-Jan Creemers, Ignace H de Hingh, Miriam Koopman, I Quintus Molenaar, Hanneke W Wilmink, Olivier R Busch, Marc G Besselink, Hanneke W van Laarhoven
BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are amongst the most relevant outcome measures in pancreatic cancer care and research. However, it is unknown which out of the numerous PROs are most important to patients and health care professionals (HCPs) in this setting. The aim of this study was to identify a core set of PROs to be incorporated in a nationwide prospective multidisciplinary pancreatic cancer registry. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a two-round Delphi survey among 150 patients diagnosed with pancreatic or periampullary cancer (treated either with curative intent or in palliative setting) and 78 HCPs (surgeons, medical oncologists, gastroenterologists, radiotherapists, nurses, and dietitians) in The Netherlands...
April 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Stefano Berterame, Juliana Erthal, Johny Thomas, Sarah Fellner, Benjamin Vosse, Philip Clare, Wei Hao, David T Johnson, Alejandro Mohar, Jagjit Pavadia, Ahmed Kamal Eldin Samak, Werner Sipp, Viroj Sumyai, Sri Suryawati, Jallal Toufiq, Raymond Yans, Richard P Mattick
BACKGROUND: Despite opioid analgesics being essential for pain relief, use has been inadequate in many countries. We aim to provide up-to-date worldwide, regional, and national data for changes in opioid analgesic use, and to analyse the relation of impediments to use of these medicines. METHODS: We calculated defined daily doses for statistical purposes (S-DDD) per million inhabitants per day of opioid analgesics worldwide and for regions and countries from 2001 to 2013, and we used generalised estimating equation analysis to assess longitudinal change in use...
April 16, 2016: Lancet
Sharon A M Stevelink, N T Fear
PURPOSE: To examine how vision loss affects the psychosocial well-being of female ex-Service personnel and how they cope with their visual impairment. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted consisting of two study phases. During phase 1, a questionnaire was undertaken via the telephone with nine female ex-Service personnel (all under 55 years of age) using clinical screening measures to identify the probable presence of the following mental health disorders: depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, PTSD Checklist-Civilian) and alcohol misuse (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test)...
April 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
S F La Vincente, D Mielnik, K Jenkins, F Bingwor, L Volavola, H Marshall, P Druavesi, F M Russell, K Lokuge, E K Mulholland
BACKGROUND: In 2008 Fiji implemented a nationwide Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine campaign targeting all girls aged 9-12 years through the existing school-based immunisation program. Parents of vaccine-eligible girls were asked to provide written consent for vaccination. The purpose of this study was to describe parents' knowledge, experiences and satisfaction with the campaign, the extent to which information needs for vaccine decision-making were met, and what factors were associated with vaccine consent...
2015: BMC Public Health
Sarah Griffiths, Chris Jarrold, Ian S Penton-Voak, Marcus R Munafò
Many psychological disorders are characterised by insensitivities or biases in the processing of subtle facial expressions of emotion. Training using expression morph sequences which vary the intensity of expressions may be able to address such deficits. In the current study participants were shown expressions from either happy or fearful intensity morph sequences, and trained to detect the target emotion (e.g., happy in the happy sequence) as being present in low intensity expressions. Training transfer was tested using a six alternative forced choice emotion labelling task with varying intensity expressions, which participants completed before and after training...
December 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Stella Tsotsi, Vassilis P Bozikas, Mary H Kosmidis
INTRODUCTION: Studies investigating the involvement of attention processes in facial affect recognition (FAR) have been contradictory, with some suggesting a generalised cognitive deficit, whereas others a specialised deficit in affect recognition. Given the ubiquity of both attention and emotion perception deficits in schizophrenia, we examined whether specific attentional processes, in fact, mediate FAR. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia (n = 38) and healthy controls (n = 24) performed tests assessing FAR and attention processes, specifically, visual attention (Trail Making Test A), sustained attention/inhibition (Rapid Visual Processing subtest; Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery), and attention to details in facial features (AFF)...
2015: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Martin Weihs, Anna Meyer-Weitz
Low workplace HIV testing uptake makes effective management of HIV and AIDS difficult for South African organisations. Identifying barriers to workplace HIV testing is therefore crucial to inform urgently needed interventions aimed at increasing workplace HIV testing. This study reviewed literature on workplace HIV testing barriers in South Africa. Pubmed, ScienceDirect, PsycInfo and SA Publications were systematically researched. Studies needed to include measures to assess perceived or real barriers to participate in HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) at the workplace or discuss perceived or real barriers of HIV testing at the workplace based on collected data, provide qualitative or quantitative evidence related to the research topic and needed to refer to workplaces in South Africa...
2016: AIDS Care
Daniel S J Costa, Mbathio Dieng, Anne E Cust, Phyllis N Butow, Nadine A Kasparian
OBJECTIVE: Classical psychometric methods have been used to demonstrate the validity and reliability of the 42-item Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory (FCRI). Our aim was to expand on this evidence with information on the discriminative value of the individual items when administered to people with a personal history of melanoma, using an item response theory (IRT) approach. METHODS: We used a two-parameter IRT model to examine all items of the FCRI, primarily regarding whether people with a personal history of melanoma use the response scale as expected (as indicated by item characteristic curves), and whether the items can discriminate between those low and high on the constructs assessed by the instrument...
July 2016: Psycho-oncology
Nicholas L Balderston, Ambika Mathur, Joel Adu-Brimpong, Elizabeth A Hale, Monique Ernst, Christian Grillon
Behavioural pattern separation (BPS), the ability to distinguish among similar stimuli based on subtle physical differences, has been used to study the mechanism underlying stimulus generalisation. Fear overgeneralisation is often observed in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders. However, the relationship between anxiety and BPS remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of anxiety (threat of shock) on BPS, which was assessed across separate encoding and retrieval sessions...
October 19, 2015: Cognition & Emotion
Haakon G Engen, Jonathan Smallwood, Tania Singer
It is commonly assumed that threatening expressions are perceptually prioritised, possessing the ability to automatically capture and hold attention. Recent evidence suggests that this prioritisation depends on the task relevance of emotion in the case of attention holding and for fearful expressions. Using a hybrid attentional blink (AB) and repetition blindness (RB) paradigm we investigated whether task relevance also impacts on prioritisation through attention capture and perceptual salience, and if these effects generalise to angry expressions...
September 15, 2015: Cognition & Emotion
Natasha Azzopardi-Muscat, Christoph Aluttis, Kristine Sorensen, Roderick Pace, Helmut Brand
The patients' rights and cross-border health care directive was implemented in Malta in 2013. Malta's transposition of the directive used the discretionary elements allowable to retain national control on cross-border care to the fullest extent. This paper seeks to analyse the underlying dynamics of this directive on the Maltese health care system through the lens of key health system stakeholders. Thirty-three interviews were conducted. Qualitative content analysis of the interviews reveals six key themes: fear from the potential impact of increased patient mobility, strategies employed for damage control, opportunities exploited for health system reform, moderate enhancement of patients' rights, negligible additional patient mobility and unforeseen health system reforms...
October 2015: Health Policy
Declan T Bradley, Charlene Treanor, Colin McMullan, Tracy Owen, Adele Graham, Diane Anderson
OBJECTIVES: To identify the reasons why some people do not participate in bowel cancer screening so that steps can be taken to improve informed decision-making. DESIGN: Qualitative study, using focus groups with thematic analysis of data to identify, analyse and report patterns. Transcripts were repeatedly read and inductively coded using a phenomenological perspective, and organised into key themes. SETTING: Belfast and Armagh, two areas of Northern Ireland with relatively low uptake of bowel cancer screening...
2015: BMJ Open
N Gupta, A R H Fischer, L J Frewer
Examining those risk and benefit perceptions utilised in the formation of attitudes and opinions about emerging technologies such as nanotechnology can be useful for both industry and policy makers involved in their development, implementation and regulation. A broad range of different socio-psychological and affective factors may influence consumer responses to different applications of nanotechnology, including ethical concerns. A useful approach to identifying relevant consumer concerns and innovation priorities is to develop predictive constructs which can be used to differentiate applications of nanotechnology in a way which is meaningful to consumers...
2015: Nanoethics
Matthew N Davies, Serena Verdi, Andrea Burri, Maciej Trzaskowski, Minyoung Lee, John M Hettema, Rick Jansen, Dorret I Boomsma, Tim D Spector
Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety-related diagnosis, affecting approximately 5% of the adult population. One characteristic of GAD is a high degree of anxiety sensitivity (AS), a personality trait which describes the fear of arousal-related sensations. Here we present a genome-wide association study of AS using a cohort of 730 MZ and DZ female twins. The GWAS showed a significant association for a variant within the RBFOX1 gene. A heritability analysis of the same cohort also confirmed a significant genetic component with h2 of 0...
2015: PloS One
Jennifer A Fish, Ivanka Prichard, Kerry Ettridge, Elizabeth A Grunfeld, Carlene Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Effectiveness of cancer control partly depends upon early identification and treatment. Men appear to be more likely to delay help-seeking for symptoms, resulting in later diagnosis. This review aims to provide a mixed research synthesis of the psychosocial barriers to and facilitators of help-seeking for cancer symptoms among men. METHODS: Systematic methods were followed, including a predefined research question and search strategy. Searches retrieved 7131 international records from online databases: MEDLINE (n = 3011), PubMed (n = 471), SCOPUS (n = 896), Informit (n = 131), PsychINFO (n = 347), and Web of Science (n = 2275)...
July 23, 2015: Psycho-oncology
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