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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814971/quality-of-life-in-anxious-adolescents
#1
Solfrid Raknes, Ståle Pallesen, Joseph A Himle, Jon Fauskanger Bjaastad, Gro Janne Wergeland, Asle Hoffart, Kari Dyregrov, Åshild Tellefsen Håland, Bente Storm Mowatt Haugland
PURPOSE: To examine associations between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and anxiety symptoms across anxiety domains (obsessions/compulsions, social anxiety, panic disorder, agoraphobia, separation anxiety, physical injury fears, generalised anxiety, and posttraumatic stress) in a general adolescent population. Expanded knowledge about these associations can provide valuable information for improving interventions and prevention strategies for adolescent anxiety. METHODS: Cross-sectional data about anxiety were collected via a school survey from a community sample of Norwegian adolescents aged 12-17 (N = 1719)...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691571/women-s-reasons-for-choosing-abortion-method-a-systematic-literature-review
#2
Charlotte Kanstrup, Marjukka Mäkelä, Anette Hauskov Graungaard
AIMS: We aim to describe and classify reasons behind women's choice between medical and surgical abortion. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed and PsycINFO in October 2015. The subjects were women in early pregnancy opting for abortion at clinics or hospitals in high-income countries. We extracted women's reasons for choice of abortion method and analysed these qualitatively, looking at main reasons for choosing either medical or surgical abortion...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621259/clinical-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-a-multifaceted-podiatry-intervention-for-falls-prevention-in-older-people-a-multicentre-cohort-randomised-controlled-trial-the-reducing-falls-with-orthoses-and-a-multifaceted-podiatry-intervention-trial
#3
Sarah Cockayne, Sara Rodgers, Lorraine Green, Caroline Fairhurst, Joy Adamson, Arabella Scantlebury, Belen Corbacho, Catherine E Hewitt, Kate Hicks, Robin Hull, Anne-Maree Keenan, Sarah E Lamb, Caroline McIntosh, Hylton B Menz, Anthony Redmond, Zoe Richardson, Wesley Vernon, Judith Watson, David J Torgerson
BACKGROUND: Falls are a serious cause of morbidity and cost to individuals and society. Evidence suggests that foot problems and inappropriate footwear may increase the risk of falling. Podiatric interventions could help reduce falls; however, there is limited evidence regarding their clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention for preventing falls in community-dwelling older people at risk of falling, relative to usual care...
April 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385510/classical-conditioning-differences-associated-with-chronic-pain-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Daniel S Harvie, G Lorimer Moseley, Susan L Hillier, Ann Meulders
Prominent clinical models of chronic pain propose a fundamental role of classical conditioning in the development of pain-related disability. If classical conditioning is key to this process, then people with chronic pain may show a different response to pain-related conditioned stimuli than healthy control subjects. We set out to determine whether this is the case by undertaking a comprehensive and systematic review of the literature. To identify studies comparing classical conditioning between people with chronic pain and healthy control subjects, the databases MEDLINE, PsychINFO, PsychARTICLES, Scopus, and CINAHL were searched using key words and medical subject headings consistent with 'classical conditioning' and 'pain...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356140/clinical-course-and-prognosis-of-musculoskeletal-pain-in-patients-referred-for-physiotherapy-does-pain-site-matter
#5
Nils-Bo de Vos Andersen, Peter Kent, Jakob Hjort, David Høyrup Christiansen
BACKGROUND: Danish patients with musculoskeletal disorders are commonly referred for primary care physiotherapy treatment but little is known about their general health status, pain diagnoses, clinical course and prognosis. The objectives of this study were to 1) describe the clinical course of patients with musculoskeletal disorders referred to physiotherapy, 2) identify predictors associated with a satisfactory outcome, and 3) determine the influence of the primary pain site diagnosis relative to those predictors...
March 29, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298187/icanadapt-early-protocol-randomised-controlled-trial-rct-of-clinician-supervised-transdiagnostic-internet-delivered-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-icbt-for-depression-and-or-anxiety-in-early-stage-cancer-survivors-vs-treatment-as-usual
#6
M J Murphy, J M Newby, P Butow, L Kirsten, K Allison, S Loughnan, M A Price, J Shaw, H Shepherd, J Smith, G Andrews
BACKGROUND: This RCT with two parallel arms will evaluate the efficacy of an internet-delivered transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) intervention for the treatment of clinical depression and/or anxiety in early stage cancer survivors. METHODS/DESIGN: Early stage cancer survivors will be recruited via the research arm of a not-for-profit clinical research unit and randomised to an intervention (iCBT) group or a 'treatment as usual' (TAU) control group...
March 15, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283563/a-rapid-subcortical-amygdala-route-for-faces-irrespective-of-spatial-frequency-and-emotion
#7
Jessica McFadyen, Martial Mermillod, Jason B Mattingley, Veronika Halász, Marta I Garrido
There is significant controversy over the existence and function of a direct subcortical visual pathway to the amygdala. It is thought that this pathway rapidly transmits low spatial frequency information to the amygdala independently of the cortex, and yet the directionality of this function has never been determined. We used magnetoencephalography to measure neural activity while human participants discriminated the gender of neutral and fearful faces filtered for low or high spatial frequencies. We applied dynamic causal modeling to demonstrate that the most likely underlying neural network consisted of a pulvinar-amygdala connection that was uninfluenced by spatial frequency or emotion, and a cortical-amygdala connection that conveyed high spatial frequencies...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223059/fear-of-future-terrorism-associated-psychiatric-burden
#8
T Abiola, O Udofia, T L Sheikh, D A Yusuf
BACKGROUND: The mental health burden from fear of future terrorism has not been given much research attention compared to the immediate mental distress such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Such neglected ongoing mental health morbidity associated with threats of terrorism had been described as pre-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). OBJECTIVE: The study highlighted this phenomenon (PTSS) in Nigeria by examining the catastrophic burden of the fear of future terrorism and associated psychiatric burden among adult population in Kaduna city...
February 4, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215661/post-deployment-screening-for-mental-disorders-and-tailored-advice-about-help-seeking-in-the-uk-military-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Roberto J Rona, Howard Burdett, Mizanur Khondoker, Melanie Chesnokov, Kevin Green, David Pernet, Norman Jones, Neil Greenberg, Simon Wessely, Nicola T Fear
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of post-deployment screening for mental disorders has not been assessed in a randomised controlled trial. We aimed to assess whether post-deployment screening for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, or alcohol misuse was effective. We defined screening as the presumptive identification of a previously unrecognised disorder using tests to distinguish those who probably had the disorder from those who probably did not so that those people with a probable disorder could be referred appropriately, and assessed effectiveness and consequences for help-seeking by the odds ratio at follow-up between those receiving tailored help-seeking advice and those who received general mental health advice...
April 8, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050706/identifying-disordered-eating-behaviours-in-adolescents-how-do-parent-and-adolescent-reports-differ-by-sex-and-age
#10
Savani Bartholdy, Karina Allen, John Hodsoll, Owen G O'Daly, Iain C Campbell, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Erin Burke Quinlan, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Eric Artiges, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Luise Poustka, Michael N Smolka, Eva Mennigen, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Ulrike Schmidt
This study investigated the prevalence of disordered eating cognitions and behaviours across mid-adolescence in a large European sample, and explored the extent to which prevalence ratings were affected by informant (parent/adolescent), or the sex or age of the adolescent. The Development and Well-Being Assessment was completed by parent-adolescent dyads at age 14 (n = 2225) and again at age 16 (n = 1607) to explore the prevalence of 7 eating disorder symptoms (binge eating, purging, fear of weight gain, distress over shape/weight, avoidance of fattening foods, food restriction, and exercise for weight loss)...
June 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984787/pathways-from-uncertainty-to-anxiety-an-evaluation-of-a-hierarchical-model-of-trait-and-disorder-specific-intolerance-of-uncertainty-on-anxiety-disorder-symptoms
#11
Sarah Shihata, Peter M McEvoy, Barbara A Mullan
Uncertainty is central to anxiety-related pathology and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) appears to be a transdiagnostic risk and maintaining factor. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a hierarchical model to identify the unique contributions of trait and disorder-specific IU (i.e., uncertainty specific to generalised anxiety disorder, social anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, and panic disorder) to disorder-specific symptoms, beyond other disorder-specific cognitive vulnerabilities (i.e., negative metacognitive beliefs, fear of negative evaluation, inflated responsibility, and agoraphobic cognitions, respectively)...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903838/european-military-mental-health-research-benefits-of-collaboration
#12
EDITORIAL
Hubertus Himmerich, G D Willmund, U Wesemann, N Jones, N T Fear
Despite joint participation in international military operations, few collaborative military mental health research projects have been undertaken by European countries. From a common perspective of military mental health researchers from Germany and the UK, the lack of shared research might be related not only to the use of different languages but also the different ways in which the two militaries provide mental health and medical support to operations and differences in military institutions. One area that is suitable for military health research collaboration within UK and German forces is mental health and well-being among military personnel...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892819/fear-generalisation-in-individuals-with-high-neuroticism-increasing-predictability-is-not-necessarily-better
#13
Natalia M Garcia, Lori A Zoellner
Fear generalisation, a process by which conditioned fear spreads to similar but innocuous stimuli, is key in understanding why some individuals feel unsafe in objectively non-threatening situations. Both trait neuroticism and lack of predictability about the likelihood of feared consequences are associated with negative affect in the face of ambiguity and may increase the degree to which fear generalises. Undergraduates (N = 129) with varying degrees of neuroticism were randomised to either high- or low-instructional predictability conditions prior to fear acquisition...
November 28, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875941/perceived-time-slows-during-fleeting-fun-or-fear
#14
Mike Corke, Jason Bell, Stephanie C Goodhew, Michael Smithson, Mark Edwards
Previous psychophysical studies at durations greater than 1000 ms have confirmed the anecdotal reports of an increase in the perceived duration of both positively and negatively valenced emotive stimuli; however, the results of studies at durations less than 1000 ms have been inconsistent. This study further investigated the effect of valence on the perception of durations less than 1000 ms. We used both positively and negatively valenced stimuli in order to compare their effects on the distortion of duration, and we tested multiple data points within the sub-one-second range...
December 12, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797991/experiences-and-explanations-of-mental-ill-health-in-a-group-of-devout-christians-from-the-ethnic-majority-population-in-secular-sweden-a-qualitative-study
#15
Aina Lilja, Valerie DeMarinis, Arja Lehti, Annika Forssén
OBJECTIVE: To explore existential meaning-making in an ethnic-majority subgroup with mental ill health and to increase knowledge about the importance of gaining access to such information in mental healthcare. DESIGN: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and systematic text condensation analysis. PARTICIPANTS: 17 devote Christians with an ethnic-Swedish background, 12 women and 5 men, 30-73 years old, from different congregations across Sweden, having sought medical care for mental ill health of any kind...
October 24, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771572/d-cycloserine-does-not-enhance-the-effects-of-in%C3%A2-vivo-exposure-among-young-people-with-broad-based-anxiety-disorders
#16
Ronald M Rapee, Michael P Jones, Jennifer L Hudson, Gin S Malhi, Heidi J Lyneham, Sophie C Schneider
Use of the partial NMDA receptor agonist d-Cycloserine (DCS) to increase extinction to feared cues among anxious adults has shown mixed, although overall positive effects. Few studies have extended this effect to youth and none have addressed young people with broad-based anxiety such as separation anxiety, social anxiety, or generalised anxiety. In the current trial 51 children and adolescents with diagnosed anxiety disorders, aged 7-14 years received four sessions of graduated, experimenter-led, in vivo exposure to a hierarchy of feared cues relevant to their primary fear...
October 18, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685780/culture-myths-and-panic-three-decades-and-beyond-with-an-hiv-aids-epidemic-in-zimbabwe
#17
Walter Chingwaru, Jerneja Vidmar
Zimbabwe is going through a generalised acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. The first five years of the epidemic (1985-1990) were characterised by lack of medicines against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and an exponential increase in prevalence (65-fold) and incidence (13-fold), which were fuelled by high-risk sexual behaviour. The high HIV prevalence, mortality and stigma yielded great fear and panic in the population, which are thought to have led to confusion and hopelessness, and, in turn, increased risky sexual behaviour...
August 11, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497062/habituation-of-self-reported-anxiety-and-cortical-hyper-vigilance-during-image-based-exposure-to-spiders
#18
Allison J Matthews, Carolyn Mackintosh, Sarah Williams, Monique Williams, Kenneth C Kirkby
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine habituation of subjective anxiety and electrophysiological correlates of cortical hyper-vigilance during exposure to spider images among high (n = 12) and low (n = 11) spider fear groups. METHODS: Participants viewed a six-stage hierarchy of spider images. The images used at stage 1 and stage 6 were the same. Subjective anxiety was rated at four intervals during each three-minute exposure stage (0, 60, 120, and 180 s) and event-related potentials (ERPs) were averaged across these epochs (0-60, 60-120, 120-180)...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428596/the-influence-of-age-anxiety-and-concern-about-falling-on-postural-sway-when-standing-at-an-elevated-level
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Daina L Sturnieks, Kim Delbaere, Matthew A Brodie, Stephen R Lord
Psychological processes may influence balance and contribute to the risk of falls in older people. While a self-reported fear of falling is associated with increased postural sway, inducing fear using an elevated platform can lead to reduced sway, suggesting different underlying mechanisms whereby fear may influence balance control. This study examined changes in postural sway, muscle activity and physiological measures of arousal while standing on a 65cm elevated platform, compared to floor level, in young and older adults...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405100/fearing-shades-of-grey-individual-differences-in-fear-responding-towards-generalisation-stimuli
#20
Inna Arnaudova, Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Marieke Effting, Merel Kindt, Tom Beckers
Individual differences in fear generalisation have been proposed to play a role in the aetiology and/or maintenance of anxiety disorders, but few data are available to directly support that claim. The research that is available has focused mostly on generalisation of peripheral and central physiological fear responses. Far less is known about the generalisation of avoidance, the behavioural component of fear. In two experiments, we evaluated how neuroticism, a known vulnerability factor for anxiety, modulates an array of fear responses, including avoidance tendencies, towards generalisation stimuli (GS)...
July 12, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
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