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Mindfulness training

Benjamin Hon Kei Yip, Xue Li, Christine Hiu Yan Leung, Ting Gao, Vincent Chi Ho Chung, Fiona Wai Ping Yu, Tsz Ping Lam, Jack Chun Yiu Cheng, Samuel Yeung Shan Wong
INTRODUCTION: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most prevalent deforming orthopaedic condition; it causes significant disability when spinal curves progress beyond 45deg. Bracing is the primary treatment prescribed for adolescents with an immature skeleton who have spinal curves between 25 and 45deg. New evidence suggests that compliance with bracing significantly decreases the progression of high-risk curves to the threshold for surgery. Nonetheless, bracing is a stressful experience...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Physiotherapy
Lukasz M Mazur, Lawrence B Marks, Ron McLeod, Waldemar Karwowski, Prithima Mosaly, Gregg Tracton, Robert D Adams, Lesley Hoyle, Shiva Das, Bhishamjit Chera
There is a need to better prepare radiation therapy (RT) providers to safely operate within the health information technology (IT) sociotechnical system. Simulation-based training has been preemptively used to yield meaningful improvements during providers' interactions with health IT, including RT settings. Therefore, on the basis of the available literature and our experience, we propose principles for the effective design and use of simulated scenarios and describe a conceptual framework for a debriefing approach to foster successful training that is focused on safety mindfulness during RT professionals' interactions with health IT...
April 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Sadhbh Joyce, Fiona Shand, Joseph Tighe, Steven J Laurent, Richard A Bryant, Samuel B Harvey
OBJECTIVES: To synthesise the available evidence on interventions designed to improve individual resilience. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis METHODS: The following electronic databases were searched: Ovid Medline, Ovid EMBASE, PsycINFO, Ovid Cochrane and WHO Clinical Trials Registry in order to identify any controlled trials or randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining the efficacy of interventions aimed at improving psychological resilience. Pooled effects sizes were calculated using the random-effects model of meta-analysis...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Ashley E Mason, Frederick M Hecht, Jennifer J Daubenmier, David A Sbarra, Jue Lin, Patricia J Moran, Samantha G Schleicher, Michael Acree, Aric A Prather, Elissa S Epel
OBJECTIVE: To determine, within a weight-loss clinical trial for obesity, the impact of intervention arm, weight change, and weight-loss maintenance on telomere length (TL). METHODS: Adults (N=194) with a BMI between 30 and 45 were randomized to a 5.5-month weight-loss program with (n=100) or without (n=94) mindfulness training and identical diet-exercise guidelines. We assessed TL at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline in immune cell populations (primarily in peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs], but also in granulocytes and T and B lymphocytes)...
June 12, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Rachael N Blasiman, Christopher A Was
In this paper, we systematically reviewed twenty-one factors that have been shown to either vary with or influence performance on working memory (WM) tasks. Specifically, we review previous work on the influence of intelligence, gender, age, personality, mental illnesses/medical conditions, dieting, craving, stress/anxiety, emotion/motivation, stereotype threat, temperature, mindfulness training, practice, bilingualism, musical training, altitude/hypoxia, sleep, exercise, diet, psychoactive substances, and brain stimulation on WM performance...
March 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
Cristiano Crescentini, Alessio Matiz, Matteo Cimenti, Eric Pascoli, Roberto Eleopra, Franco Fabbro
Background: Varied evidence shows that mindfulness-oriented meditation improves individuals' mental health, positively influencing practitioners' personality profiles as well. A limited number of studies are beginning to show that this type of meditation may also be a helpful therapeutic option for persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: We evaluated the effects of an 8-week mindfulness-oriented meditation training on the personality profiles, anxiety and depression symptoms, and mindfulness skills of a group of patients with MS...
May 2018: International Journal of MS Care
S Pulciani, E Nutile, D Taruscio
Until a few decades ago, Rare Diseases were relatively unknown. Their low prevalence made them invisible to public opinion, and were of little concern to researchers and pharmaceutical industries. Rare disease sufferers and their loved ones had become victims of the disease as their implications were overlooked. Consequently, some of these individuals formed associations and embarked on ways to change this situation of neglect they had found themselves, in finally having their rights recognized. These associations have over time gained important roles in planning public health and biomedical research, especially after the introduction of the Human Genome Project...
July 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Carrie Plummer, Eydie Cloyd, Jennifer K Doersam, Mary S Dietrich, Karen A Hande
This study evaluated a mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention for graduate nursing students. Forty-four participants engaged in 20 weekly, 1.5-hour sessions of mindfulness training. There were no statistically significant effects on participants' stress levels or quality of life, yet there was a statistically significant increase in overall mindfulness (P < .05).
July 2018: Holistic Nursing Practice
Ragni B Haukaas, Ingrid B Gjerde, Grunde Varting, Håvard E Hallan, Stian Solem
The Attention Training Technique (ATT) and Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) are two promising psychological interventions. ATT is a 12-min auditory exercise designed to strengthen attentional control and promote external focus of attention, while MSC uses guided meditation and exercises designed to promote self-compassion. In this randomized controlled trial (RCT), a three-session intervention trial was conducted in which university students were randomly assigned to either an ATT-group ( n = 40) or a MSC-group ( n = 41)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yanli Lin, Courtney P Callahan, Jason S Moser
The aim of the current review is to advance the hypothesis that change in self-referential processing is a key but under-examined mechanism through which mindfulness training confers its therapeutic benefits for individuals with internalizing disorders. Consequently, we integrated neuroscientific studies on aberrant self-referential processing in internalizing disorders with contemplative science scholarship examining the effects of mindfulness training on the self-referential system. Reviewing these literatures yielded four major conclusions: (1) internalizing disorders can be characterized by excessive self-referential processing and emotion dysregulation; (2) mindfulness training has moderate effects on reducing internalizing symptoms; (3) mindfulness training promotes the shifting from narrative self-focus to present-centered experiential awareness; (4) such mindfulness-induced changes in self-reference is accompanied by reduced activation in overactive self-referential brain regions that have been implicated in internalizing disorders...
June 7, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Jan Grimell
Self-identity work appears to be a challenge for many service members as they transition and reintegrate into civilian life. When other cultural influences seem to threaten an established self as it labors with transition, tension and conflict may arise and can potentially impact mental health. Insights from an ongoing longitudinal project on the subject matter indicate that an analysis of an individual, which utilizes the concept of I-positions may serve as a useful analytical tool during these processes. A longitudinal methodology combining a narrative approach with such an exploration of I-positions derived from a dialogical self framework may prove to be a promising avenue to advance the understanding of selves in transition beyond the dichotomy of the military and civilian spheres...
June 2018: Culture & Psychology
Joachim Bervoets, Lisa M Jonkman, Sandra Mulkens, Hein de Vries, Gerjo Kok
BACKGROUND: Executive functions are higher cognitive control functions, which are essential to physical and psychological well-being, academic performance, and healthy social relationships. Executive functions can be trained, albeit without broad transfer, to this date. Broad transfer entails the translation of improved cognitive functions to daily life (behaviors). The intervention Train your Mind was designed to train executive functions among elementary school children aged 9 to 11 years, and obtain broad transfer in terms of enhanced physical activity, healthy eating, and socioemotional regulation...
June 7, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Ann H Cottingham, Kathleen Beck-Coon, Jennifer K Bernat, Paul R Helft, Karen Schmidt, Cleveland G Shields, Alexia M Torke, Shelley A Johns
OBJECTIVE: Advance care planning (ACP) increases quality of life and satisfaction with care for those with cancer and their families, yet these important conversations often do not occur. Barriers include patients' and families' emotional responses to cancer, such as anxiety and sadness, which can lead to avoidance of discussing illness-related topics such as ACP. Interventions that address psychological barriers to ACP are needed. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a mindfulness intervention designed to cultivate patient and caregiver emotional and relational capacity to respond to the challenges of cancer with greater ease, potentially decreasing psychological barriers to ACP and enhancing ACP engagement...
June 8, 2018: Palliative & Supportive Care
Daniel S Donovan, Jeremy D Podolnick, Wayne Reizner, O Alton Barron, Louis W Catalano, Steven Z Glickel
BACKGROUND: A cadaveric study was performed to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of radiographic estimation of the volar lip fragment size in proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations. METHODS: Middle phalangeal base volar lip fractures of varying size and morphology were simulated in 18 digits. Radiographs and digital photographs of the middle phalangeal joint surface were obtained pre- and postinjury. Ten orthopedic surgeons of varying levels of training estimated the fracture size based on radiographs...
June 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Stephanie Daigle, France Talbot, Douglas J French
AIMS: This pilot study aims to further document MBSR's effect on wellbeing while exploring its impact on errors among hospital nurses. BACKGROUND: The concept of mindfulness has been found to be highly relevant to holistic nursing practices but remains understudied and under used. Preliminary evidence suggests that Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction can reduce stress among nurses. As stress and mental processes such as inattention are potential sources of error, mindfulness-based stress reduction may also help to improve patient safety...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Warhel Asim Mohammed, Athanasios Pappous, Dinkar Sharma
Literature indicates that injured athletes face both physical and psychological distress after they have been injured. In this study, a Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) was utilised as an intervention for use during the period of recovery with injured athletes and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using MBSR as an intervention for this purpose. Objective: The aim of this research was to investigate the role of MBSR practise in reducing the perception of pain and decreasing anxiety/stress, as well as increasing pain tolerance and mindfulness...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Trond Haugmark, Kåre Birger Hagen, Sella Aarrestad Provan, Elisebeth Bærheim, Heidi A Zangi
INTRODUCTION: People with fibromyalgia (FM) suffer from symptoms such as widespread pain, non-refreshing sleep, fatigue and reduced quality of life. Effects of pharmacological treatment are questionable and non-pharmacological treatments are recommended as first-line therapy. To date the majority of patients with FM in Norway are not offered any targeted treatment. The aim of this randomised controlled trial is to investigate the effects of a community-based multicomponent rehabilitation programme comprising an acceptance-based and mindfulness-based group intervention, the Vitality Training Programme (VTP), followed by tailored physical activity counselling...
June 4, 2018: BMJ Open
Roger Gassert, Volker Dietz
The past decades have seen rapid and vast developments of robots for the rehabilitation of sensorimotor deficits after damage to the central nervous system (CNS). Many of these innovations were technology-driven, limiting their clinical application and impact. Yet, rehabilitation robots should be designed on the basis of neurophysiological insights underlying normal and impaired sensorimotor functions, which requires interdisciplinary collaboration and background knowledge.Recovery of sensorimotor function after CNS damage is based on the exploitation of neuroplasticity, with a focus on the rehabilitation of movements needed for self-independence...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Tanya M Spruill, Harmony R Reynolds, Victoria Vaughan Dickson, Amanda J Shallcross, Pallavi D Visvanathan, Chorong Park, Jolaade Kalinowski, Hua Zhong, Jeffrey S Berger, Judith S Hochman, Glenn I Fishman, Gbenga Ogedegbe
BACKGROUND: Elevated stress is associated with adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes and accounts in part for the poorer recovery experienced by women compared with men after myocardial infarction (MI). Psychosocial interventions improve outcomes overall but are less effective for women than for men with MI, suggesting the need for different approaches. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an evidence-based intervention that targets key psychosocial vulnerabilities in women including rumination (i...
April 21, 2018: American Heart Journal
Margaret Carroll, Carmel Downes, Ailish Gill, Mark Monahan, Ursula Nagle, Deirdre Madden, Agnes Higgins
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to identify midwives' competency in perinatal mental health care in terms of their knowledge, confidence, skill and educational priorities, and to explore their clinical practices in relation to the assessment and management of perinatal mental health problems. RESEARCH DESIGN: An exploratory descriptive study design was used on a sample of 438 midwives in the Republic of Ireland. Data were collected over a two-month period in 2016 using an anonymous, self-completed survey designed by the research team...
May 18, 2018: Midwifery
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