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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681805/characterization-of-sensory-motor-behavior-under-cognitive-load-using-a-new-statistical-platform-for-studies-of-embodied-cognition
#1
Jihye Ryu, Elizabeth B Torres
The field of enacted/embodied cognition has emerged as a contemporary attempt to connect the mind and body in the study of cognition. However, there has been a paucity of methods that enable a multi-layered approach tapping into different levels of functionality within the nervous systems (e.g., continuously capturing in tandem multi-modal biophysical signals in naturalistic settings). The present study introduces a new theoretical and statistical framework to characterize the influences of cognitive demands on biophysical rhythmic signals harnessed from deliberate, spontaneous and autonomic activities...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681551/-he-must-die-or-go-mad-in-this-place-prisoners-insanity-and-the-pentonville-model-prison-experiment-1842-52
#2
Catherine Cox, Hilary Marland
The relationship between prisons and mental illness has preoccupied prison administrators, physicians, and reformers from the establishment of the modern prison service in the nineteenth century to the current day. Here we take the case of Pentonville Model Prison, established in 1842 with the aim of reforming convicts through religious exhortation, rigorous discipline and training, and the imposition of separate confinement in its most extreme form. Our article demonstrates how following the introduction of separate confinement, the prison chaplains rather than the medical officers took a lead role in managing the minds of convicts...
2018: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681185/cognitively-based-compassion-training-cbct-in-breast-cancer-survivors-a-randomized-clinical-trial-study
#3
Edgar Gonzalez-Hernandez, Rocio Romero, Daniel Campos, Diana Burichka, Rebeca Diego-Pedro, Rosa Baños, Lobsang Tenzin Negi, Ausiàs Cebolla
CONTEXT: Breast cancer (BC) requires a significant psychological adaptation once treatment is finished. There is growing evidence of how compassion training enhances psychological and physical well-being, however, there are very few studies analyzing the efficacy of compassion-based Interventions on BC survivors. OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of the Cognitively-Based Compassion Training (CBCT) protocol in a BC survivor sample on quality of life, psychological well-being, fear of cancer recurrence, self-compassion, and compassion domains and mindfulness facets...
April 1, 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673837/movements-of-older-adults-during-exergaming-interventions-that-are-associated-with-the-systems-framework-for-postural-control-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Robin Tahmosybayat, Katherine Baker, Alan Godfrey, Nick Caplan, Gill Barry
One in three older adults fall annually, in part due to impairments in the physiological systems that make up the postural control (PC) system. Exercise, particularly balance training, helps to prevent deterioration and even to improve outcomes in the PC system. Exergaming (exercise-gaming) is interactive computer gaming whereby an individual moves the body in response to onscreen cues in a playful format. Exergaming is an alternative method to standard practice for improving PC outcomes, which has been shown to reduce the risk of falling...
May 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669599/mindfulness-based-treatment-of-addiction-current-state-of-the-field-and-envisioning-the-next-wave-of-research
#5
REVIEW
Eric L Garland, Matthew O Howard
Contemporary advances in addiction neuroscience have paralleled increasing interest in the ancient mental training practice of mindfulness meditation as a potential therapy for addiction. In the past decade, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been studied as a treatment for an array addictive behaviors, including drinking, smoking, opioid misuse, and use of illicit substances like cocaine and heroin. This article reviews current research evaluating MBIs as a treatment for addiction, with a focus on findings pertaining to clinical outcomes and biobehavioral mechanisms...
April 18, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667260/tai-chi-improves-brain-metabolism-and-muscle-energetics-in-older-adults
#6
Min Zhou, Huijun Liao, Lasya P Sreepada, Joshua R Ladner, James A Balschi, Alexander P Lin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tai Chi is a mind-body exercise that has been shown to improve both mental and physical health. As a result, recent literature suggests the use of Tai Chi to treat both physical and psychological disorders. However, the underlying physiological changes have not been characterized. The aim of this pilot study is to assess the changes in brain metabolites and muscle energetics after Tai Chi training in an aging population using a combined brain-muscle magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) examination...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659819/mindfulness-based-lifestyle-programs-for-the-self-management-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-australia
#7
Brooke E Vandenberg, Jenny Advocat, Craig Hassed, Jennifer Hester, Joanne Enticott, Grant Russell
Despite emerging evidence suggesting positive outcomes of mindfulness training for the self-management of other neurodegenerative diseases, limited research has explored its effect on the self-management of Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to characterize the experiences of individuals participating in a facilitated, group mindfulness-based lifestyle program for community living adults with Stage 2 PD and explore how the program influenced beliefs about self-management of their disease. Our longitudinal qualitative study was embedded within a randomized controlled trial exploring the impact of a 6-week mindfulness-based lifestyle program on patient-reported function...
April 11, 2018: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659005/state-of-the-science-of-neural-systems-in-late-life-depression-impact-on-clinical-presentation-and-treatment-outcome
#8
Kevin J Manning, David C Steffens
Major depression in older adults, or late-life depression (LLD), is a common and debilitating psychiatric disorder that increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Although the effects of LLD make it important to achieve a diagnosis and start treatment quickly, individuals with LLD are often inadequately or unsuccessfully treated. The latest treatment developments suggest that interventions targeting executive dysfunction and neuroticism, constructs associated with poor response to antidepressants in older adults, are successful in treating LLD...
April 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657854/targeted-drug-discovery-and-development-from-molecular-signaling-to-the-global-market-an-educational-program-at-new-york-university-5-year-metrics
#9
Gloria Lee, Joseph Plaksin, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Gabrielle Gold-von Simson
Drug discovery and development (DDD) is a collaborative, dynamic process of great interest to researchers, but an area where there is a lack of formal training. The Drug Development Educational Program (DDEP) at New York University was created in 2012 to stimulate an improved, multidisciplinary DDD workforce by educating early stage scientists as well as a variety of other like-minded students. The first course of the program emphasizes post-compounding aspects of DDD; the second course focuses on molecular signaling pathways...
2018: Journal of Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655859/rescuing-cognitive-and-emotional-regulatory-skills-to-aid-smoking-prevention-in-at-risk-youth-a-randomized-trial
#10
Michael W Otto, Eugenia I Gorlin, David Rosenfield, Elijah A Patten, Warren K Bickel, Michael J Zvolensky, Stacey N Doan
Adolescence is a vulnerable period for smoking initiation, with disadvantaged teens particularly at risk. In addition, emotional and cognitive dysregulation is associated with an increased risk of smoking and makes it particularly challenging to benefit from standard substance use prevention interventions. The goal of the current study is to investigate the extent to which interventions designed to improve cognitive (working memory) and emotional (distress tolerance) regulatory processes enhance the effectiveness of a standard smoking prevention informational intervention...
April 12, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651257/mindfulness-based-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-substance-and-behavioral-addictions-a-systematic-review
#11
Marta Sancho, Marta De Gracia, Rita C Rodríguez, Núria Mallorquí-Bagué, Jéssica Sánchez-González, Joan Trujols, Isabel Sánchez, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Jose M Menchón
Background: Emotion (dys)regulation as well as the interventions for improving these difficulties are receiving a growing attention in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to conduct a systematic review about the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in both substance and behavioral addictions (BAs). Method: A literature search was conducted using Cochrane, PubMed, and Web of Science. Fifty-four randomized controlled trials published in English since 2009 to April 2017 were included into a narrative synthesis...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627695/mindfulness-based-resilience-training-to-reduce-health-risk-stress-reactivity-and-aggression-among-law-enforcement-officers-a-feasibility-and-preliminary-efficacy-trial
#12
Michael S Christopher, Matthew Hunsinger, Lt Richard J Goerling, Sarah Bowen, Brant S Rogers, Cynthia R Gross, Eli Dapolonia, Jens C Pruessner
The primary objective of this study was to assess feasibility and gather preliminary outcome data on Mindfulness-Based Resilience Training (MBRT) for law enforcement officers. Participants (n = 61) were randomized to either an 8-week MBRT course or a no intervention control group. Self-report and physiological data were collected at baseline, post-training, and three months following intervention completion. Attendance, adherence, post-training participant feedback, and interventionist fidelity to protocol all demonstrated feasibility of MBRT for law enforcement officers...
March 23, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622015/empathy-is-proprioceptive-the-bodily-fundament-of-empathy-a-philosophical-contribution-to-medical-education
#13
Florian Schmidsberger, Henriette Löffler-Stastka
BACKGROUND: The current philosophical debate on empathy entails accounts of theory of mind and simulation as well as a phenomenological opposition. The first focuses on a detached observation of others from a 3rd person perspective and formulates the common claim that there is no direct access to the mental and emotional life of others, only simulation or analogy can grant access to the emotions and behaviour of others. The philosophical respectively phenomenological account of Fuchs instead opposes by focusing personal interaction within a 1st or 2nd person perspective claiming that the emotions of others are experienceable through bodily expression and bodily resonance...
April 5, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622005/changing-hearts-and-minds-examining-student-nurses-experiences-and-perceptions-of-a-general-practice-placement-through-a-community-of-practice-lens
#14
Robin Lewis, Shona Kelly
BACKGROUND: The recent UK Government paper 'Five year forward view' describes the need to move much patient management from secondary to primary care, and this will require a significant increase in the numbers of General Practice Nurses (GPNs). Until recently, there has been no clear recruitment strategy to address this. There have however been a number of proposed solutions to address the impending GPN recruitment crisis and to increase the numbers of new GPNs in post. General Practitioners (GPs) working in the Advanced Training Practice Scheme (ATPS) have been commissioned by Health Education England to provide placements for student nurses...
April 5, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617197/diagnosis-or-diagnosing-from-symptoms-to-a-phenomenological-psychoanalytic-stance-on-the-patient-s-world
#15
Mario Rossi Monti, Alessandra D'Agostino
While on the one hand therapists can count on a number of codified and standardized diagnostic procedures, on the other hand it is hard to believe that in their daily work therapists slavishly follow these standardized procedures. In a clinical assessment, the diagnosis seems to be the outcome of a naïve and fuzzy process that is strongly influenced by personal training, by, theoretical models, and by one's masters as well as the experience gained in the field. What happens inside the no man's land of the clinical encounter? Can we identify some landmarks in these "amoeboid" exploratory moves? This paper addresses diagnosis not only as a noun or name ("diagnosis"), but also as a verb ("diagnosing"), arguing that a diagnostic space opens up thanks to an oscillatory state of mind that emerges at the intersection of different ways of looking "through" the symptom...
April 2018: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616846/specific-transcriptome-changes-associated-with-blood-pressure-reduction-in-hypertensive-patients-after-relaxation-response-training
#16
Manoj K Bhasin, John W Denninger, Jeff C Huffman, Marie G Joseph, Halsey Niles, Emma Chad-Friedman, Roberta Goldman, Beverly Buczynski-Kelley, Barbara A Mahoney, Gregory L Fricchione, Jeffery A Dusek, Herbert Benson, Randall M Zusman, Towia A Libermann
OBJECTIVE: Mind-body practices that elicit the relaxation response (RR) have been demonstrated to reduce blood pressure (BP) in essential hypertension (HTN) and may be an adjunct to antihypertensive drug therapy. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the RR reduces BP remain undefined. DESIGN: Genomic determinants associated with responsiveness to an 8-week RR-based mind-body intervention for lowering HTN in 13 stage 1 hypertensive patients classified as BP responders and 11 as nonresponders were identified...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615905/four-weekly-ayahuasca-sessions-lead-to-increases-in-acceptance-capacities-a-comparison-study-with-a-standard-8-week-mindfulness-training-program
#17
Joaquim Soler, Matilde Elices, Elisabeth Dominguez-Clavé, Juan C Pascual, Amanda Feilding, Mayte Navarro-Gil, Javier García-Campayo, Jordi Riba
Background: The therapeutic effects of the Amazonian plant tea ayahuasca may relate to its ability to enhance mindfulness capacities. Ayahuasca induces a modified state of awareness through the combined action of its active principles: the psychedelic N,N- dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and a series of centrally acting β-carbolines, mainly harmine and tetrahydroharmine. To better understand the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca, here we compared the impact on mindfulness capacities induced by two independent interventions: (a) participation in four ayahuasca sessions without any specific purpose related to improving mindfulness capacities; and (b) participation in a standard mindfulness training course: 8 weeks mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), with the specific goal of improving these skills...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609475/effectiveness-of-a-smartphone-based-worry-reduction-training-for-stress-reduction-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Anke Versluis, Bart Verkuil, Philip Spinhoven, Jos F Brosschot
OBJECTIVE: Perseverative cognition (e.g. worry) and unconscious stress are suggested to be important mediators in the relation between stressors and physiological health. We examined whether a smartphone-based worry-reduction training improved a physiological marker of stress (i.e. increased heart rate variability [HRV]) and unconscious stress. DESIGN: Randomised-controlled trial was conducted with individuals reporting work stress (n = 136). Participants were randomised to the experimental, control or waitlist condition (resp...
April 3, 2018: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607379/experiences-of-the-breast-cancer-patients-undergoing-radiotherapy-at-a-public-hospital-peshawar-pakistan
#19
Gulzar Habibullah, Raisa Gul, Shanaz Cassum, Rehana Elahi
Objective: This study aimed to explore the experiences of female breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) in a public hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan. Methods: This study employed a descriptive exploratory method. A purposive sample of 14 breast cancer women undergoing RT was selected for this study. Data were collected over the period of 5 months, using a semi-structured interview guide and conducting in-depth face-to-face interviews. These interviews were audio taped and transcribed by a bilingual transcriber...
April 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599848/the-co-creation-and-feasibility-of-a-compassion-training-as-a-follow-up-to-mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-in-patients-with-recurrent-depression
#20
Rhoda Schuling, Marloes Huijbers, Hetty Jansen, Renée Metzemaekers, Erik Van Den Brink, Frits Koster, Hiske Van Ravesteijn, Anne Speckens
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of Mindfulness - Based Compassionate Living (MBCL) as a follow-up intervention to Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy in adults with recurrent depression. We conducted an uncontrolled study in 17 patients with recurrent depression, in two successive groups. The first group contained novices to compassion training ( N  = 14); in the second group, ten of these participated again, in addition to three new participants ( N  = 13)...
2018: Mindfulness
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