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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317569/oral-fungal-infections-diagnosis-and-management
#1
REVIEW
David R Telles, Niraj Karki, Michael W Marshall
Oral and maxillofacial fungal infections can appear in high-risk patients, including those immunocompromised. This article explores common oral manifestations of fungal infections in the oral cavity as primary lesions or as a result of disseminated disease. By far the most common oral fungal infection experienced in dentistry is oral candidiasis, which is reviewed in depth from simple oral infections to invasive candidiasis. The review aids the dental practitioner in understanding the full scope of Candida infections and other fungal infections...
April 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300772/immune-response-to-coccidioidomycosis-and-the-development-of-a-vaccine
#2
REVIEW
Natalia Castro-Lopez, Chiung-Yu Hung
Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Coccidioides posadasii and Coccidioides immitis. It is estimated that 150,000 new infections occur in the United States each year. The incidence of this infection continues to rise in endemic regions. There is an urgent need for the development of better therapeutic drugs and a vaccine against coccidioidomycosis. This review discusses the features of host innate and adaptive immune responses to Coccidioides infection. The focus is on the recent advances in the immune response and host-pathogen interactions, including the recognition of spherules by the host and defining the signal pathways that guide the development of the adaptive T-cell response to Coccidioides infection...
March 16, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289027/efficacy-of-the-investigational-antifungal-vt-1161-in-treating-naturally-occurring-coccidioidomycosis-in-dogs
#3
Lisa F Shubitz, Michael E Roy, Hien T Trinh, William J Hoekstra, Robert J Schotzinger, Edward P Garvey
Coccidioidomycosis can be a chronic, systemic fungal infection requiring long-term to lifetime medication. Thus there is a need for improved antifungal agents with greater efficacy and reduced toxicity. VT-1161 has a low affinity for mammalian cytochromes and potently inhibits fungal CYP51 with proven efficacy in murine models of CNS and respiratory coccidioidomycosis. Dogs experience coccidioidomycosis similar to humans and are a useful preclinical model for naturally occurring disease. Twenty-four client-owned dogs diagnosed with respiratory coccidioidomycosis based on radiography, serology, clinical signs, and clinicopathologic abnormalities were treated with a loading dose of VT-1161 for 14 days followed by 46 days of a lower maintenance dose...
March 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228898/disseminated-coccidioidomycosis-with-multifocal-musculoskeletal-disease-involvement
#4
Michael F McConnell, Ann Shi, Todd M Lasco, Luke Yoon
We report a rare case of disseminated coccidioidomycosis with multifocal musculoskeletal involvement. The patient presented to the emergency department with left shoulder pain and swelling. Magnetic resonance imaging of the left shoulder revealed enhancing soft tissue masses, bony lesions, and fluid collections in and around the glenohumeral joint with involvement of the proximal humerus, glenoid, and rotator cuff musculature. Multiple additional areas of involvement were subsequently discovered. Fungal cultures confirmed coccidioidomycosis infection at all surgical sites with superimposed polymicrobial bacterial infection in the left shoulder...
March 2017: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166146/bone-scan-pet-ct-and-mri-in-disseminated-coccidioidomycosis
#5
John Randolph Dryden, Michael David Starsiak, Mickaila James Johnston, Eugene David Silverman
Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is a systemic fungal infection resulting from inhalation of the Coccidioides immitis or posadasii spores. In many cases, infection causes a self-limited community-acquired pneumonia; however, in patients with risk factors, such as immunosuppression or African or Pacific Island ancestry, significant morbidity and mortality from disseminated disease may occur. Presented here are comparative images using Tc-MDP bone scan, F-FDG PET/CT, and MRI. Each demonstrates particular strengths, which aid in assessing the extent of systemic involvement of a biopsy-proven case of disseminated coccidioidomycosis...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143444/peritoneal-and-genital-coccidioidomycosis-in-an-otherwise-healthy-danish-female-a-case-report
#6
Ole Bæk, Karen Astvad, Reza Serizawa, Lawrence J Wheat, Pia T Brenøe, Ann-Brit E Hansen
BACKGROUND: Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection that usually presents as a primary lung infection. The fungus is endemic to the Southwest United States of America, northern Mexico and parts of Central and South America the infection is rare outside these areas. However, some patients develop disseminated infection that can lie dormant for several years and can present itself in travelers. We report the first case of extra pulmonary Coccidioidomycosis in a non-immunocompromised individual in Denmark...
January 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134743/donor-related-coccidioidomycosis-transmitted-through-left-liver-transplant-to-a-child-recipient-in-a-non-endemic-area
#7
Corentin Tanné, Frédérique Dijoud, Meja Rabodonirina, Damien Dupont, Christine Rivet, Sophie Collardeau-Frachon, Yves Gillet, Rémi Dubois, Frédéric Hameury, Jérome Dumortier, Alain Lachaux
This first observation of donor-transmitted cocciodioidomycosis to a pediatric liver transplant recipient underlines a rare condition in transplanted patients in a non-endemic area. Moreover, this transmission was observed following a liver split, the patient being contaminated by the left liver while the right liver recipient was not.
January 26, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098554/risk-factors-for-disseminated-coccidioidomycosis-united-states
#8
Camila D Odio, Beatriz E Marciano, John N Galgiani, Steven M Holland
Of 150,000 new coccidioidomycosis infections that occur annually in the United States, ≈1% disseminate; one third of those cases are fatal. Immunocompromised hosts have higher rates of dissemination. We identified 8 patients with disseminated coccidioidomycosis who had defects in the interleukin-12/interferon-γ and STAT3 axes, indicating that these are critical host defense pathways.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053850/disseminated-coccidioidomycosis-presenting-with-intramedullary-spinal-cord-abscesses-management-challenges
#9
Kristina L Bajema, Mark F Dalesandro, David N Fredricks, Meena Ramchandani
Coccidioides species are endemic to the southwestern United States and typically cause a mild or asymptomatic primary infection. In some instances, infection can disseminate and involve the central nervous system with meningitis being the most common manifestation. Non-osseous spinal cord involvement is exceedingly rare. We report a case of disseminated coccidioidomycosis in an otherwise healthy 20 year old man with diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement, cerebrospinal fluid findings suggestive of meningitis, and intramedullary spinal cord abscesses...
March 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053216/enhanced-antibody-detection-and-diagnosis-of-coccidioidomycosis-with-the-miravista-igg-and-igm-detection-enzyme-immunoassay
#10
Joshua Malo, Eric Holbrook, Tirdad Zangeneh, Chris Strawter, Eyal Oren, Ian Robey, Heidi Erickson, Racquel Chahal, Michelle Durkin, Cindy Thompson, Susan E Hoover, Neil M Ampel, L Joseph Wheat, Kenneth S Knox
Coccidioidomycosis is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in areas of the southwestern United States in which the disease is endemic. Clinical presentations range from self-limited disease to severe disseminated disease. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is essential to ensure appropriate treatment and monitoring. Currently available diagnostic tests have variable accuracy, particularly in certain patient populations, and new tests may offer improved accuracy for the diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927853/intrathecal-amphotericin-b-a-60-year-experience-in-treating-coccidioidal-meningitis
#11
Jackie Ho, Pete Fowler, Arash Heidari, Royce H Johnson
Coccidioidal meningitis (CM) is a devastating complication of coccidioidomycosis. Since the late 1950s, intrathecal (IT) amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmBd) has been successfully used to treat and often cure this disease, reducing mortality rates from 100% to approximately 30%. The introduction of azoles further revolutionized the treatment of coccidioidal infections. However, IT AmBd remains the only known curative option in the management of CM. While the use of IT AmBd is well described in many articles, few discuss the actual methods behind preparation, titration, and dosing strategies utilized...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903576/first-reported-case-of-peroneal-tenosynovitis-caused-by-coccidioides-immitis-successfully-treated-with-fluconazole
#12
Aneela Majeed, Waqas Ullah, Auon Abbas Hamadani, Anca Georgescu
Coccidioidomycosis is an insidious infection caused by Coccidioides spp (C. immitis and C. posadasii). Disseminated disease occasionally involves tendon sheaths and synovium of the joints leading to tenosynovitis. Here, we describe the case of a 72-year-old woman from southern Arizona, who presented with right ankle pain, redness and swelling for 2 months. Her serum IgG was positive for C. immitis on complement fixation, and her MRI of the right ankle joint showed extensive tenosynovitis of the right peroneal tendons, and subtalar joint effusions with associated synovitis...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851559/1924-a-rare-case-of-ards-from-overwhelming-coccidioidomycosis
#13
Erik Dong, Phillip Zakowski, Joshua Chung, Michael Nurok, Oren Friedman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851532/1897-unique-enhanced-susceptibility-of-hla-drb1-alleles-leading-to-severe-pulmonary-coccidioidomycosis
#14
Kenneth Juenger, Daya Upadhyay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744308/ast-to-alt-ratio-is-elevated-in-disseminated-histoplasmosis-as-compared-to-localized-pulmonary-disease-and-other-endemic-mycoses
#15
Andrej Spec, Christopher R Barrios, Usama Ahmad, Laurie A Proia
Severe pulmonary or disseminated histoplasmosis often necessitates presumptive antifungal treatment while awaiting definitive diagnosis. Histoplasma antigen assays have improved sensitivity but results may lag up to 7 days. In order to increase diagnostic certainty, "soft clues" may be looked for in laboratory and radiologic data, such as elevated alkaline phosphatase or ferritin levels and findings of mediastinal adenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. To determine if elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio is specific to histoplasmosis or a non-specific marker for disseminated fungal infection or sepsis in general, we retrospectively examined records of all patients diagnosed with an endemic fungal infection (EFI) at Rush University Medical Center from January of 1997 to October of 2012, and a cohort of septic patients with elevated liver enzymes...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740893/coccidioidomycosis-surgical-issues-and-implications
#16
Joseph D Forrester, Haiwei Henry Guo, Thomas G Weiser
BACKGROUND: Coccidioidomycosis, commonly called "valley fever," "San Joaquin fever," "desert fever," or "desert rheumatism," is a multi-system illness caused by infection with Coccidioides fungi (C. immitis or C. posadasii). This organism is endemic to the desert Southwest regions of the United States and Mexico and to parts of South America. The manifestations of infection occur along a spectrum from asymptomatic to mild self-limited fever to severe disseminated disease. METHODS: Review of the English-language literature...
December 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724885/the-habitat-of-coccidioides-spp-and-the-role-of-animals-as-reservoirs-and-disseminators-in-nature
#17
María Del Rocío Reyes-Montes, María Ameyali Pérez-Huitrón, Jorge Luis Ocaña-Monroy, María Guadalupe Frías-De-León, Erick Martínez-Herrera, Roberto Arenas, Esperanza Duarte-Escalante
BACKGROUND: Coccidioidomycosis, a potentially fatal fungal infection, is considered an emergent mycotic disease because of the increased incidence of fungal infections registered over recent years. Infection occurs through the inhalation of arthroconidia from two main species of Coccidioides: Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, which are both endemic to arid and semi-arid regions of North America. Coccidioides species not only infect humans but can also infect other mammals (land, aquatic, wild or domestic), reptiles and birds...
October 10, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717191/clinicopathologic-and-histopathologic-renal-abnormalities-in-dogs-with-coccidioidomycosis
#18
L R Mehrkens, F C Mohr, J E Sykes
BACKGROUND: We observed evidence of protein-losing nephropathy in some dogs with coccidioidomycosis, suggestive of immune complex glomerulonephritis (ICGN). The goal of this study was to understand the prevalence of renal histopathologic lesions and proteinuria in dogs with coccidioidomycosis. HYPOTHESIS: Biochemical and histopathological evidence of glomerular lesions is present in dogs with coccidioidomycosis. ANIMALS: Hundred and fifty-six dogs with naturally occurring coccidioidomycosis...
September 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703017/hospitalized-burden-and-outcomes-of-coccidioidomycosis-a-nationwide-analysis-2005-2012
#19
Ruihong Luo, Alan Greenberg, Christian D Stone
The incidence of coccidioidomycosis (CM) infection has increased over the last 20 years. We investigated recent trends of CM-associated hospitalization in the United States. patients with CM-associated hospitalization were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2005-2012. The outcomes of interest were the trend of annual hospitalization, in-hospital mortality, and independent risk factors for mortality. A total of 30,870 hospitalizations with CM (29,584 of adults; 1,286 of children) were identified...
October 4, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649029/effect-of-geography-on-the-analysis-of-coccidioidomycosis-associated-deaths-united-states
#20
Jason A Noble, Robert G Nelson, Gudeta D Fufaa, Paul Kang, Shira Chani Shafir, John N Galgiani
Because coccidioidomycosis death rates vary by region, we reanalyzed coccidioidomycosis-associated mortality in the United States by race/ethnicity, then limited analysis to Arizona and California. Coccidioidomycosis-associated deaths were shown to increase among African-Americans but decrease among Native Americans and Hispanics. Separately, in a Native American cohort, diabetes co-varied with coccidioidomycosis-associated death.
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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