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coccidioidomycosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669037/coccidioidomycosis-in-selected-immunosuppressed-hosts
#1
Janis E Blair, Neil M Ampel, Susan E Hoover
After contracting coccidioidomycosis, persons with impaired cellular immunity are more likely than healthy persons to have severe infection, disseminated infection, and higher mortality rates. In this brief review, we summarize the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of coccidioidomycosis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), recipients of solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplants, and recipients of biologic response modifiers. Among individuals infected with HIV, a diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and a CD4 T-lymphocyte count <250 cells/μl were associated with more severe coccidioidomycosis, whereas less severe disease occurred among those with undetectable HIV-RNA and higher CD4 T-lymphocyte counts, indicating that controlled HIV viremia and improved cellular immune status are important in limiting disease...
April 13, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622277/the-role-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-severe-pulmonary-coccidioidomycosis
#2
Alex Studemeister, Lucy Studemeister, Francisco Brun
BACKGROUND: Severe coccidioidal pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high mortality. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been applied successfully to other severe fungal pneumonia associated with ARDS. We review our experience with the use of ECMO in severe coccidioidal ARDS. OBJECTIVES: To review indications and outcome of ECMO in severe pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. METHODS: Three cases of severe ARDS caused by coccidioidomycosis are presented...
April 2, 2018: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620721/pediatric-coccidioidomycosis-case-series-from-a-california-pediatric-infectious-diseases-clinic
#3
Lauren A Lee, Gail L Sondermeyer Cooksey, Janice J Kim, Amandeep Kahal, Debra Gilliss, Fouzia Naeem, James M McCarty, Duc J Vugia
BACKGROUND: Coccidioidomycosis is not as well described in the pediatric population as it is in the adult population. We describe clinical findings, diagnosis, and management of coccidioidomycosis in 108 pediatric patients seen in an outpatient clinic in the California Central Valley, an area endemic for coccidioidomycosis. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of a convenience sample of pediatric patients (≤17 years of age) diagnosed with coccidioidomycosis who visited an infectious diseases clinic in Madera, CA during January 1-October 1, 2012...
April 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610256/myeloid-differentiation-factor-88-myd88-and-il-1r1-signaling-contribute-to-resistance-to-coccidioides-immitis
#4
Suganya Viriyakosol, Lorraine Walls, Sharon Okamoto, Eyal Raz, David L Williams, Joshua Fierer
Rodents are a natural host for the dimorphic pathogenic fungi Coccidioides immitis and posadasii , and mice are a good model for human infection. Humans and rodents both express Dectin-1 and TLR2 on myeloid cells and those receptors collaborate to maximize the cytokine/chemokine responses to spherules (the tissue form of the fungi), and to formalin killed spherules (FKS). We showed that Dectin-1 is necessary for resistance to pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, but the importance of TLR2 in vivo is uncertain. MyD88 is the adapter protein for TLR2 and 4, and IL-1R1 and IL-18R1...
April 2, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593263/detection-of-coccidioides-posadasii-from-xerophytic-environments-in-venezuela-reveals-risk-of-naturally-acquired-coccidioidomycosis-infections
#5
Primavera Alvarado, Marcus de Melo Teixeira, Lela Andrews, Alexis Fernandez, Gerardo Santander, Adina Doyle, Magaly Perez, Francisco Yegres, Bridget Marie Barker
A wide range of mammals are susceptible to infection by the fungal species Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. In humans, 60% of infections are asymptomatic; however, certain patients may develop a severe and deep systemic mycosis called coccidioidomycosis. Genetic analysis suggests that the majority of clinical isolates recovered from South America are C. posadasii; however, little is known about the prevalence, species distribution, and ecological factors that favor the occurrence of this pathogen in those areas...
March 29, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553315/testing-for-coccidioidomycosis-among-community-acquired-pneumonia-patients-southern-california-usa-1
#6
Sara Y Tartof, Kaitlin Benedict, Fagen Xie, Gunter K Rieg, Kalvin C Yu, Richard Contreras, Jonathan Truong, Kimberlee Fong, Hung Fu Tseng, Steven J Jacobsen, Rajal K Mody
We conducted a cohort study to identify characteristics associated with testing for, and testing positive for, coccidioidomycosis among patients with community-acquired pneumonia in southern California, USA. Limited and delayed testing probably leads to underdiagnosis among non-Hispanic black, Filipino, or Hispanic patients and among high-risk groups, including persons in whom antimicrobial drug therapy has failed.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551116/coccidioidomycosis
#7
Matthew Laffer, Lindsay Ackerman
A 23-year-old man presented with new-onset pruritic and painful urticarial lesions and targetoid erythematous plaques on both palms, the trunk, and the upper and lower extremities (Figure 1). Additionally, small pustules were discovered on the neck (Figure 2), and there with edematous erythematous vermillion lips with splaying onto the cutaneous lips without ulceration. The patient stated he had had a fever before the eruption, fatigue, chills, myalgias, and sore throat. A chest x-ray was obtained and showed bilateral infiltrates...
2018: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535094/coccidioides-immitis-septic-knee-arthritis
#8
Scott A Weisenberg
A 78-year-old man developed right knee pain and swelling without other systemic symptoms. He had travelled frequently to the Central Valley of California. He was diagnosed with coccidioidomycosis based on joint fluid culture. Coccidioidal complement fixation antibody titres were extremely elevated. Arthroscopic debridement and fluconazole therapy did not lead to satisfactory improvement. Subsequent open debridement and change to itraconazole was followed by resolution of clinical signs of infection.
March 13, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534236/direct-detection-of-coccidioides-from-arizona-soils-using-coccienv-a-highly-sensitive-and-specific-real-time-pcr-assay
#9
J R Bowers, K L Parise, E J Kelley, D Lemmer, J M Schupp, E M Driebe, D M Engelthaler, P Keim, B M Barker
Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii are soil fungi endemic to desert regions of the southwestern United States, and the causative agents of valley fever, or coccidioidomycosis. Studies have shown that the distribution of Coccidioides in soils is sporadic and cannot be explained by soil characteristics alone, suggesting that biotic and other abiotic factors should be examined. However, tools to reliably and robustly screen the large number of soils needed to investigate these potential associations have not been available...
March 8, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460741/coccidioidomycosis-outbreaks-united-states-and-worldwide-1940-2015
#10
Michael Freedman, Brendan R Jackson, Orion McCotter, Kaitlin Benedict
Coccidioidomycosis causes substantial illness and death in the United States each year. Although most cases are sporadic, outbreaks provide insight into the clinical and environmental features of coccidioidomycosis, high-risk activities, and the geographic range of Coccidioides fungi. We identified reports published in English of 47 coccidioidomycosis outbreaks worldwide that resulted in 1,464 cases during 1940-2015. Most (85%) outbreaks were associated with environmental exposures; the 2 largest outbreaks resulted from an earthquake and a large dust storm...
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447170/imported-endemic-mycoses-in-spain-evolution-of-hospitalized-cases-clinical-characteristics-and-correlation-with-migratory-movements-1997-2014
#11
Daniel Molina-Morant, Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá, Fernando Salvador, Augusto Sao-Avilés, Israel Molina
Endemic mycoses are systemic fungal infections. Histoplasmosis is endemic in all temperate areas of the world; coccidioidomycosis and paracoccidioidomycosis are only present in the American continent. These pathogens are not present in Spain, but in the last years there has been an increase of reported cases due to migration and temporary movements. We obtained from the Spanish hospitals records clinical and demographic data of all hospitalized cases between 1997 and 2014. There were 286 cases of histoplasmosis, 94 of Coccidioidomycosis and 25 of paracoccidioidomycosis...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426026/lung-health-in-era-of-climate-change-and-dust-storms
#12
REVIEW
Michael D Schweitzer, Andrew S Calzadilla, Oriana Salamo, Arash Sharifi, Naresh Kumar, Gregory Holt, Michael Campos, Mehdi Mirsaeidi
Dust storms are strong winds which lead to particle exposure over extensive areas. These storms influence air quality on both a local and global scale which lead to both short and long-term effects. The frequency of dust storms has been on the rise during the last decade. Forecasts suggest that their incidence will increase as a response to the effects of climate change and anthropogenic activities. Elderly people, young children, and individuals with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are at the greatest risk for health effects of dust storms...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383771/coccidioidomycosis-imported-and-possible-domestic-cases-in-china-a-case-report-and-review-1958-2017
#13
Guanzhao Liang, Yongnian Shen, Guixia Lv, Hailin Zheng, Huan Mei, Xiaoli Zheng, Xue Kong, Oliver Blechert, Dongmei Li, Weida Liu
We report a case of imported pulmonary coccidioidomycosis caused by Coccidioides posadasii in a patient who was misdiagnosed as tuberculosis and mistreated with antituberculosis medications for 18 months. The symptoms were not relieved until antifungal treatment was started. An extensive review of the coccidioidomycosis cases occurring in China reveals 38 cases, 16 of which had no associated history of travel to any traditional endemic areas. We speculate that some factors may drive Coccidioides spp. transference to China, which then causes those domestic infections...
January 31, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374638/fluctuating-hypercalcaemia-caused-by-cavitary-mycobacterium-bovis-pulmonary-infection
#14
Darren Patrick Moloney, Liam Chawke, Mairead Therese Crowley, Terence M O'Connor
Hypercalcaemia occurs in many granulomatous diseases. Among them, sarcoidosis and tuberculosis are the most common causes. Other causes include berylliosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, Crohn's disease, silicone-induced granulomas, cat-scratch disease, Wegener's granulomatosis and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Hypercalcaemia in granulomatous disease occurs as a consequence of dysregulated production of 1,25-(OH)2 D3 (calcitriol) by activated macrophages in granulomas. Hypercalcaemia in patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been reported in 0%-28% of cases...
January 26, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351943/role-of-modified-eloesser-flap-in-the-treatment-of-bronchopleural-fistula-caused-by-pulmonary-coccidioidomycosis
#15
Orlando Garner, Alfredo Iardino, Ana Ramirez, Yasir Ahmed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346251/combined-endosonography-reduces-time-to-diagnose-pulmonary-coccidioidomycosis
#16
Raj A Shah, Jose J Vempilly, Shaikh M Noor Ul Husnain, Pravachan Hegde
Coccidioidomycosis causes significant morbidity in endemic areas. In the absence of sensitive diagnostic serologic testing, clinicians have increasingly relied on lung and lymph node biopsies for diagnosis. Recently, endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has been shown to be an excellent sampling method for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancers, especially when combined with endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). We present 13 consecutive cases where EBUS-TBNA and/or EUS-FNA of pulmonary lymph nodes were performed as part of the workup for pulmonary coccidioidomycosis...
April 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244019/prevalence-healthcare-resource-utilization-and-overall-burden-of-fungal-meningitis-in-the-united-states
#17
Lefko T Charalambous, Alykhan Premji, Caroline Tybout, Anastasia Hunt, Drew Cutshaw, Aladine A Elsamadicy, Siyun Yang, Jichun Xie, Charles Giamberardino, Promila Pagadala, John R Perfect, Shivanand P Lad
PURPOSE: Previous epidemiological and cost studies of fungal meningitis have largely focused on single pathogens, leading to a poor understanding of the disease in general. We studied the largest and most diverse group of fungal meningitis patients to date, over the longest follow-up period, to examine the broad impact on resource utilization within the United States. METHODOLOGY: The Truven Health Analytics MarketScan database was used to identify patients with a fungal meningitis diagnosis in the United States between 2000 and 2012...
February 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237660/disseminated-coccidioidomycosis-related-cervical-intramedullary-lesion-causing-quadriplegia-in-an-immunocompetent-host
#18
James Michael Noto, Raquel Nahra, Tapan Kavi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228363/testing-for-coccidioidomycosis-in-emergency-departments-in-arizona
#19
Mohammed A Khan, Shane Brady, Ken K Komatsu
Testing practices for coccidioidomycosis in the emergency department are poorly understood. We described characteristics of patients tested for coccidioidomycosis in emergency departments in Arizona and examined coccidioidomycosis testing among community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. Emergency department visit records for patients tested for coccidioidomycosis and CAP patients were extracted from the Arizona hospital discharge database. In sum, 2.8% of CAP patients were tested for coccidioidomycosis. The proportion of patients tested varied substantially by healthcare facility and provider...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212702/multicenter-clinical-validation-of-a-cartridge-based-real-time-pcr-system-for-detection-of-coccidioides-spp-in-lower-respiratory-specimens
#20
Michael A Saubolle, Bette R Wojack, Anne M Wertheimer, Atehkeng Z Fuayagem, Stephen Young, Brian A Koeneman
Available methods for the diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis have significant shortcomings relative to accuracy and timeliness. We retrospectively and prospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance and reproducibility of a new cartridge-based real-time PCR assay for Coccidioides spp. directly in lower respiratory secretions and compared them to today's "gold standard," fungal culture. The GeneSTAT Coccidioides assay uses a 106-bp target sequence repeated multiple times (∼60×) per genome, thus lowering the limit of detection (LOD) for extracted DNA to 10 genome equivalents/ml...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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