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Mind and the law

Kulamakan Kulasegaram, Maria Mylopoulos, Paul Tonin, Stacey Bernstein, Pier Bryden, Marcus Law, Jana Lazor, Richard Pittini, Sanjeev Sockalingam, Glendon R Tait, Patricia Houston
RATIONALE: There are perennial calls for MD curricula to reform in order to meet the changing needs of students, patients, and society. And yet, efforts at renewal have also been suggested to have minimal impact on the pedagogy and outcomes of medical education. One reason may be misalignment between the components of the curriculum during design and implementation. The University of Toronto MD program recently renewed its undergraduate preclinical Foundations curriculum. Mindful of the pitfalls of misalignment, the renewal process focused deliberately on alignment between the various components of the curriculum: instructional methods, student assessment, faculty development, and the larger purpose of serving students and society...
February 28, 2018: Medical Teacher
Simon Baron-Cohen, Michael V Lombardo
In 2003, we proposed the hypersystemizing theory of autism. The theory proposes that the human mind possesses a systemizing mechanism (SM) that helps identify lawful regularities (often causal) that govern the input-operation-output workings of a system. The SM can be tuned to different levels, from low to high, with a normal distribution of individual differences in how strongly people search for such input-operation-out-put regularities in any data that is systemizable. Evidence suggests that people with autism are on average hypersystemizers, scoring higher than average on the systemizing quotient and on performance tests of systemizing...
December 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Félix Schoeller, Leonid Perlovsky, Dmitry Arseniev
What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, thermodynamics, quantum physics, the theory of relativity, astrophysics and the theory of superstrings? All these areas of physics have in common a methodology, which is discussed in the first few lines of the review. Is a physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe how a mind adapts in real time to changes in the physical world through a theory based on a few basic laws? From perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas allowing high-level cognition and executive functioning, at nearly all levels of study, the mind shows variability and uncertainties...
February 2, 2018: Physics of Life Reviews
Uddalok Sen, Souvick Chatterjee, Ranjan Ganguly, Richard Dodge, Lisha Yu, Constantine M Megaridis
Spontaneous pumpless transport of droplets on wettability-confined tracks is important for various applications, such as rapid transport and mixing of fluid droplets, enhanced dropwise condensation, biomedical devices, etc. Recent studies have shown that on an open surface, a superhydrophilic track of diverging width, laid on a superhydrophobic background, facilitates the transport of water from the narrower end to the wider end at unprecedented rates (up to 40 cm/s), without external actuation. Keeping in mind that such designs play a key role for a diverse range of applications handling organic liquids and in point-of-care devices, the importance of characterizing the spreading behavior of viscous liquids on such surfaces cannot be over-emphasized...
January 11, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Jillian K Yeakel, Barry K Logan
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS), often characterized as unregulated psychoactive compounds designed to circumvent existing legislation, have become mainstream on the illicit drug market. Because of their physical and mind-altering properties, NPS may be deliberately or inadvertently ingested at electronic dance music (EDM) festivals to enhance the attendees' appreciation of the music and overall experience. Their widespread use at EDM festivals have been well documented and several adverse events and fatalities associated with NPS ingestion have been reported in the United States...
January 2018: Forensic Science International
Qing Wang, Ho Chung Law, Yan Li, Zhanfei Xu, Weiguo Pang
The article explores undergraduate students' experiences of developing mindful agency as a positive learning disposition, their perceived change as a learner, and the possible impact of mindful agency coaching on students' learning and personal growth, using a narrative research method. Seventy Chinese undergraduate students generated personal reflective journals and eight participants' journals were selected to enter into the narrative-oriented inquiry. Our analysis revealed a number of primary themes based on which we produced a meta-story...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Mohammed Hamza Marishet
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) prohibited deprivation legal capacity of persons with disability based on assessment of mental capacity. The assertion is that, persons with disabilities shall exercise their legal capacity in all aspects of life without any restrictions that are based on mental incapacity (such as, unsoundness of mind, deficit in mental capacity, dotage, etc. This approach signifies a shift from substituted decision making, where another person act on behalf of persons with mental disabilities, to supported decision making where the person with mental disability is assisted in decision making...
November 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Consuelo Casula
In this article, I do not intend to present the many and well-known treatments for relieving pain and distress symptoms of the physical body, damaged by terminal diseases, such as cancer, AIDS, multiple sclerosis. In this article, I'd rather focus my attention on clinical hypnosis for subjects who, freed from physical pain, thanks to palliative care, are open to receiving comfort and support for their psychological and spiritual suffering. The intent of this article is to express how clinical hypnosis can harmoniously integrate psychological and spiritual aspects so that the terminal patient can make peace with his/her past, with the people who have hurt him/her, and with the people who will suffer because of his/her death...
September 28, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Amanda C Pustilnik
Advances in structural and functional neuroimaging offer new ways to conceptualize chronic pain disorders and to prevent, diagnose, and treat chronic pain. Advances in pain science, though, do not entail changes in the concepts of chronic pain in law and culture. Authoritative legal and cultural conceptions of chronic pain continue to promote abstruse theories, characterizing these disorders as arising out of everything from a person's unmet need for love to resistance to "patriarchy." These constructs have consequences, impeding treatment and affecting whether individuals with chronic pain can obtain legal redress...
November 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Graham W Prescott, William J Sutherland, Daniel Aguirre, Matthew Baird, Vicky Bowman, Jake Brunner, Grant M Connette, Martin Cosier, David Dapice, Jose Don T De Alban, Alex Diment, Julia Fogerite, Jefferson Fox, Win Hlaing, Saw Htun, Jack Hurd, Katherine LaJeunesse Connette, Felicia Lasmana, Cheng Ling Lim, Antony Lynam, Aye Chan Maung, Benjamin McCarron, John F McCarthy, William J McShea, Frank Momberg, Myat Su Mon, Than Myint, Robert Oberndorf, Thaung Naing Oo, Jacob Phelps, Madhu Rao, Dietrich Schmidt-Vogt, Hugh Speechly, Oliver Springate-Baginski, Robert Steinmetz, Kirk Talbott, Maung Maung Than, Tint Lwin Thaung, Salai Cung Lian Thawng, Kyaw Min Thein, Shwe Thein, Robert Tizard, Tony Whitten, Guy Williams, Trevor Wilson, Kevin Woods, Alan D Ziegler, Michal Zrust, Edward L Webb
Political and economic transitions have had substantial impacts on forest conservation. Where transitions are underway or anticipated, historical precedent and methods for systematically assessing future trends should be used to anticipate likely threats to forest conservation and design appropriate and prescient policy measures to counteract them. Myanmar is transitioning from an authoritarian, centralized state with a highly regulated economy to a more decentralized and economically liberal democracy and is working to end a long-running civil war...
October 14, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Kate Sweeny, Jennifer L Howell
People frequently await uncertain news, yet research reveals that the strategies people naturally use to cope with uncertainty are largely ineffective. We tested the role of mindfulness for improving the experience of a stressful waiting period. Law graduates awaiting their bar exam results either reported their trait mindfulness (Study 1; N = 150) or were instructed to practice mindfulness meditation (Study 2; N = 90). As hypothesized, participants who were naturally more mindful or who practiced mindfulness managed their expectations more effectively by bracing for the worst later in the waiting period and perceived themselves as coping better...
October 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Markus Kneer, Sacha Bourgeois-Gironde
A coherent practice of mens rea ('guilty mind') ascription in criminal law presupposes a concept of mens rea which is insensitive to the moral valence of an action's outcome. For instance, an assessment of whether an agent harmed another person intentionally should be unaffected by the severity of harm done. Ascriptions of intentionality made by laypeople, however, are subject to a strong outcome bias. As demonstrated by the Knobe effect, a knowingly incurred negative side effect is standardly judged intentional, whereas a positive side effect is not...
December 2017: Cognition
Ernest Rutter, Abigail Hackston
Fluid injection into rocks is increasingly used for energy extraction and for fluid wastes disposal, and can trigger/induce small- to medium-scale seismicity. Fluctuations in pore fluid pressure may also be associated with natural seismicity. The energy release in anthropogenically induced seismicity is sensitive to amount and pressure of fluid injected, through the way that seismic moment release is related to slipped area, and is strongly affected by the hydraulic conductance of the faulted rock mass. Bearing in mind the scaling issues that apply, fluid injection-driven fault motion can be studied on laboratory-sized samples...
September 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Vitalii Pashkov, Yevhen Hrekov, Maryna Hrekova
INTRODUCTION: the current state of patenting legal regulation of medical treatment in Ukraine and in the world is analyzed, the directions for the further development are determined. The author defines "non-industrial medical" and socio-ethical theories in the field of medical treatment patent protection. The existence of exclusively formal "monopoly" of the patent owner is noted, as well as the inapplicability of the majority of the patented achievements in this field in Ukraine. AIM: the purpose of this article is to investigate the current state of patenting legal regulation of medical treatment in Ukraine and in the world, to analyze the limitation of patent protection basic conception in the medical field and to determine the tendencies and perspectives of the legal protection mechanism of further development in this field in Ukraine, considering the European and world regulation experience...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
William M Sage
Tracing the evolution of political conversations about health care spending and their relationship to the formation of policy is a valuable exercise. Health care spending is about science and ethics, markets and government, freedom and community. By the late 1980s the unique upward trajectory of post-Medicare U.S. health care spending had been established, recessions and tax cuts were eroding federal and state budgets, and efforts to harness market forces to serve policy goals were accelerating. From the initial writings on "managed competition," through the failed Clinton health reform effort in the early 1990s, to the passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, the policy narrative of health spending acquired a superficial consistency...
December 2016: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
Patryk Zradziński, Jolanta Karpowicz, Krzysztof Gryz, Wiesław Leszko
BACKGROUND: Low frequency magnetic field, inducing electrical field (E<sub>in</sub>) inside conductive structures may directly affect the human body, e.g., by electrostimulation in the nervous system. In addition, the spatial distribution and level of E<sub>in</sub> are disturbed in tissues neighbouring the medical implant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Numerical models of magneto-therapeutic applicator (emitting sinusoidal magnetic field of frequency 100 Hz) and the user of hearing implant (based on bone conduction: Bonebridge type - IS-BB or BAHA (bone anchorde hearing aid) type - IS-BAHA) were worked out...
June 27, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
Ana Cristina González Vélez, Isabel Cristina Jaramillo
In May 2006, Colombia's Constitutional Court liberalized abortion, introducing three circumstances under which the procedure would not be considered a crime: (1) rape or incest; (2) a risk to the woman's health or life; and (3) fetal malformations incompatible with life. Immediately following the court's ruling, known as Sentence C-355, members of La Mesa por la Vida y Salud de las Mujeres (hereinafter La Mesa) began to mobilize to ensure the decision's implementation, bearing in mind the limited impact that the legal framework endorsed by the court has had in other countries in the region...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
George G Buttigieg
The article analyses some of the seeming weaknesses of the Bolam and Bolitho tests as applied to electronic foetal monitoring in labour, in the form of intra-partum CTG monitoring. Homing on to such aspects as confirmation of foetal hypoxia/acidosis, it evaluates the Bolam and Bolitho tests in the context of evidence-based medicine versus traditionally held views, which still hold their own in medical jurisprudence. Case law examples are quoted to illustrate various points. The discussion is of practical relevance both to the individual obstetrician as well as to national budgetary implications, bearing in mind, that, for example, in 2011, 'birth asphyxia' comprised 50% of the UK NHS litigation costs, and in the 2000-2010 decade, the same NHS forked out £3...
June 2017: Medico-legal Journal
Liu Junjie
Health quotient (HQ) is the newest health culture and concept in the 21st century, and the analysis of the human body sports model is not enough mature at present, what's more, the purpose of this paper is to study the integration of the two subjects the health quotient and the sport model. This paper draws the conclusion that physical training and education in colleges and universities can improve the health quotient, and it will make students possess a more healthy body and mind. Then through a new rigid body model of sports to simulate the human physical exercise...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Chuan Hu, Sameer Kumar, Jiao Huang, Kurunathan Ratnavelu
In face-to-face communications, to avoid sanctions and disapproval from others, people are more likely to hide negative aspects of their true self (such as socially undesirable personalities, minds, beliefs and consciousness) to avoid conflict with social norms and laws. The anonymity of cyberspace provides people a unique environment to behave more freely and openly with less restraint from the real word. Existing research related to online true self expression has mainly explored true self as an independent aspect of self...
2017: PloS One
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