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Mental health and the law

Alaaddin M Salih, Jasim M Ahmed, Jamal F Mohamed, Musaab M Alfaki
Given the persistent recurrence of armed conflict, influential actors owe it to the affected communities to take action. The legitimacy of health professionals to mitigate the effects of conflict relates to their ability to save lives and address the physical and mental consequences of armed conflict during which thousands of lives may be lost. Medical professionals have unique and potentially far-reaching skills. These become crucial during wartime and disasters in terms of providing medical services and humanitarian aid...
October 24, 2016: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
Martie L Skinner, Kevin P Haggerty, Mary Casey-Goldstein, Ronald W Thompson, Laura Buddenberg, W Alex Mason
OBJECTIVES: The changes in Washington State and Colorado marijuana laws call for the development of new brief family-focused adolescent marijuana use preventive interventions that are relevant for and tailored to the context of legalization for retail sale. To that end, focus groups with parents and teens were conducted to find out about their concerns and needs in the context of legalization. METHODS: Six semi-structured focus groups (3 with parents, 3 with teens) were conducted in Washington State in 2013 related to consequences of teen marijuana use and messages that would be effective in helping to prevent teens from using marijuana in the context of legal adult use...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Karen E van den Hondel, Anne Linde Saaltink, Peter Paul M Bender
BACKGROUND: Forensic physicians are responsible for first-line medical care of detainees (individuals held in custody) in the police station. The Dutch police law contains a 'duty of care', which gives the police responsibility for the apparent mentally ill and/or confused people they encounter during their work. The police can ask a forensic physician to do a primary psychiatric assessment of any apparent mentally ill detainee. The forensic physician determines if the apparent mentally ill behavior of the detainee is due to a somatic illness, or has a psychiatric cause for which the detainee needs admission to a psychiatric hospital...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Camilla Lauritzen, Charlotte Reedtz
BACKGROUND: Children who have parents with mental health problems are a vulnerable group. Intervening early to support parents with a mental illness can contribute to improve outcomes for children. Rigging the adult mental health system in such a manner that child responsible personnel are designated in wards is a strategy to systematically address the needs of families. It has since 2010 been mandatory for Norwegian hospitals to appoint such personnel in all hospital wards. The current study aimed to investigate the appointment of child responsible personnel in the adult mental health services in a regional hospital with local clinics...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Ara Aiken, R Gomperts, J Trussell
OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics and experiences of women in Ireland and Northern Ireland seeking at-home medical termination of pregnancy (TOP) using online telemedicine. DESIGN: Population-based study. SETTING: Ireland and Northern Ireland. POPULATION: Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2015, 5650 women requested at-home medical TOP through online telemedicine initiative Women on Web. METHODS: We examined the demographics and circumstances of women requesting medical TOP and examined the experiences of the 1023 women who completed TOP between January 2010 and December 2012...
October 17, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Sarah DeGue, Katherine A Fowler, Cynthia Calkins
INTRODUCTION: Several high-profile cases in the U.S. have drawn public attention to the use of lethal force by law enforcement (LE), yet research on such fatalities is limited. Using data from a public health surveillance system, this study examined the characteristics and circumstances of these violent deaths to inform prevention. METHODS: All fatalities (N=812) resulting from use of lethal force by on-duty LE from 2009 to 2012 in 17 U.S. states were examined using National Violent Death Reporting System data...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Emily F Law, Jessica L Fales, Sarah E Beals-Erickson, Alessandro Failo, Deirdre Logan, Edin Randall, Karen Weiss, Lindsay Durkin, Tonya M Palermo
OBJECTIVE : To adapt problem-solving skills training (PSST) for parents of children receiving intensive pain rehabilitation and evaluate treatment feasibility, acceptability, and satisfaction. METHODS : Using a prospective single-arm case series design, we evaluated the feasibility of delivering PSST to 26 parents (84.6% female) from one of three pediatric pain rehabilitation programs. Parents completed four to six sessions of PSST delivered during a 2-4-week period. A mixed-methods approach was used to assess treatment acceptability and satisfaction...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Bethany L Strong, Sarah-Blythe Ballard, Wendy Braund
The American College of Preventive Medicine Policy Committee makes policy guidelines and recommendations on preventive medicine and public health topics for public health decision makers. After a review of the current evidence available in 2016, the College is providing a consensus-based set of policy recommendations designed to reduce firearm-related morbidity and mortality in the U.S. These guidelines address seven general areas pertaining to the public health threat posed by firearms: gun sales and background checks, assault weapons and high-capacity weapons, mental health, research funding, gun storage laws, and physician counseling...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Tilman Steinert, Andreas Heinz, Felix Hohl-Radke, Manfred Koller, Jürgen Müller, Sabine Müller, Martin Zinkler
The term of a "considerable damage to one's health" is central in German guardianship law with respect to judge's decisions on involuntary commitment and coercive treatment. A legal definition has not been provided, and up to now no explanations from the part of medicine have been available what a "considerable damage to one's health" is in the case of mental illness and how it can be determined. A consensus paper of the German Association of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (DGPPN) explains four possible scenarios of manifestation of such kind of damage, corresponding to somatic illnesses: evidence of structural brain lesions (rare), subjective suffering (sufficient, but not necessary), impairment of functioning in important areas of life, and severe impairment of social participation (e...
October 2016: Psychiatrische Praxis
Mukul Inamdar, Michael Ashley Stein, Joske Bunders
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) requires States to replace their mental health laws based on substitute decision-making for persons with mental health issues with laws based on the supported decision-making paradigm. However, the exact scope of the CRPD's mandates is currently under debate, especially in the case of persons with very high support needs. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2013, introduces supported decision-making in India in the form of advance directives and nominated representatives...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Jenny My Huen, Eliza Sy Lai, Angie Ky Shum, Sam Wk So, Melissa Ky Chan, Paul Wc Wong, Y W Law, Paul Sf Yip
BACKGROUND: Digital game-based learning (DGBL) makes use of the entertaining power of digital games for educational purposes. Effectiveness assessment of DGBL programs has been underexplored and no attempt has been made to simultaneously model both important components of DGBL: learning attainment (ie, educational purposes of DGBL) and engagement of users (ie, entertaining power of DGBL) in evaluating program effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe and evaluate an Internet-based DGBL program, Professor Gooley and the Flame of Mind, which promotes mental health to adolescents in a positive youth development approach...
October 7, 2016: JMIR Mental Health
Geoffrey M Reed, Jack Drescher, Richard B Krueger, Elham Atalla, Susan D Cochran, Michael B First, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Iván Arango-de Montis, Sharon J Parish, Sara Cottler, Peer Briken, Shekhar Saxena
In the World Health Organization's forthcoming eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), substantial changes have been proposed to the ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders related to sexuality and gender identity. These concern the following ICD-10 disorder groupings: F52 Sexual dysfunctions, not caused by organic disorder or disease; F64 Gender identity disorders; F65 Disorders of sexual preference; and F66 Psychological and behavioural disorders associated with sexual development and orientation...
October 2016: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
Yumi Nakahara, Hisao Yanagi, Ichiro Aida, Toshihide Kidokoro, Yoshiki Hompo, Minoru Nakamoto, Eisuke Nakazato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
Pedro Retamal C, Niina Markkula, Sebastián Peña
This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates...
July 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
Maya Vijayaraghavan, Steven A Schroeder, Margot Kushel
Despite population-wide efforts to reduce tobacco use, low-income populations in the USA have much higher rates of tobacco use compared with the general population. The principal components of tobacco control policies in the USA include cigarette taxes, clean indoor air laws and comprehensive interventions to increase access to tobacco cessation services. In this review, we describe the effectiveness of these policies and interventions in reducing tobacco use among vulnerable populations, focusing on persons with mental health disorders and substance use disorders, persons who have experienced incarceration or homelessness, and low-income tenants of public housing...
September 22, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Eric J Chan, Dale E McNiel, Renee L Binder
With most youths now using the Internet and social networking sites (SNSs), the public has become increasingly concerned about risks posed by online predators. In response, lawmakers have begun to pass laws that ban or limit sex offenders' use of the Internet and SNSs. At the time of this article, 12 states and the federal government have passed legislation attempting to restrict or ban the use of SNSs by registered sex offenders. These laws have been successfully challenged in 4 states. In this article, we discuss examples of case law that illustrate evolving trends regarding Internet and social networking site restrictions on sex offenders on supervised release, as well as those who have already completed their sentences...
September 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Mudasir Kamal, William J Newman
Revenge pornography, also known as nonconsensual pornography, is a subtype of cyberharassment/cyberstalking, and a serious problem facing society in the Internet age. Revenge pornography can result in lifelong mental health consequences for victims, damaged relationships, and social isolation. Recently, a growing number of states have recognized the importance of this phenomenon and have enacted legislation that criminalizes it. The technology industry has also taken steps to assist victims of revenge pornography by creating web forms to request removal of links leading to the explicit content...
September 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Maggie Redshaw, Jane Henderson
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy and the postnatal period is a period of potential vulnerability for women and families. It is UK policy that all women are asked about their mental health and wellbeing early in pregnancy and following the birth to help detect potential problems and prevent serious adverse outcome. However, identification of mental health problems in pregnancy may be less than 50 %. The aim of the study was to find out which women are asked about their mood and mental health during pregnancy and postnatally, and about offer and uptake of treatment...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Maria Kozlowski-Gibson
Individual of legal age with schizophrenia presenting anosognosia was abandoned, as a result of a court decision. Close family members were not allowed to provide medical follow-up, treatment, protection regarding his vulnerability, and preserve the dignity of their loved one. The issue was the court's prioritization of the autonomy of the individual over his mental health status. The purpose of this case study was to identify the pitfalls of a court case seeking medical follow-up and treatment for a family member with schizophrenia and anosognosia...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
John E Pachankis, Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Massimo Mirandola, Peter Weatherburn, Rigmor C Berg, Ulrich Marcus, Axel J Schmidt
While the prevalence of sexual identities and behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) varies across countries, no study has examined country-level structural stigma toward sexual minorities as a correlate of this variation. Drawing on emerging support for the context-dependent nature of MSM's open sexual self-identification cross-nationally, we examined country-level structural stigma as a key correlate of the geographic variation in MSM's sexual attraction, behavior, and identity, and concordance across these factors...
September 12, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
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