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ewing sarcoma neuroblastoma

Minerva Becker, Salvatore Stefanelli, Anne-Laure Rougemont, Pierre Alexandre Poletti, Laura Merlini
Tumors of the pediatric facial skeleton represent a major challenge in clinical practice because they can lead to functional impairment, facial deformation, and long-term disfigurement. Their treatment often requires a multidisciplinary approach, and radiologists play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and management of these lesions. Although rare, pediatric tumors arising in the facial bones comprise a wide spectrum of benign and malignant lesions of osteogenic, fibrogenic, hematopoietic, neurogenic, or epithelial origin...
March 13, 2017: Neuroradiology
Lester Dr Thompson
One of the most challenging diagnostic categories within tumors of the sinonasal tract is the small round blue cell tumors. Biopsies are usually small and limited, resulting in considerable diagnostic difficulty for practicing surgical pathologists. These tumors share several overlapping histologic and immunophenotypic findings while also showing considerable variation within and between cases. Specific tumor site of origin, imaging findings, and clinical findings must be combined with the histology and pertinent ancillary studies if the correct diagnosis is to be reached...
January 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Gaetano Magro, Lucia Salvatorelli, Rita Alaggio, Velia D'Agata, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Andrea Di Cataldo, Rosalba Parenti
Small round blue cell tumors (SRBCTs) of children and adolescents are often diagnostically challenging lesions. With the increasing diagnostic approach based on small biopsies, there is the need of specific immunomarkers that can help in the differential diagnosis among the different tumor histotypes to assure the patient a correct diagnosis for proper treatment. Based on our recent studies showing cyclin D1 overexpression in both Ewing sarcoma/primitive peripheral neuroectodermal tumor (EWS/pPNET) and peripheral neuroblastic tumors (neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroblastoma), we immunohistochemically assessed cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in 128 cases of SRBCTs in children and adolescents to establish its potential utility in the differential diagnosis...
February 2017: Human Pathology
Bradford Siegele, Jon Roberts, Jennifer O Black, Erin Rudzinski, Sara O Vargas, Csaba Galambos
The histologic differential diagnosis of pediatric and adult round cell tumors is vast and includes the recently recognized entity CIC-DUX4 fusion-positive round cell tumor. The diagnosis of CIC-DUX4 tumor can be suggested by light microscopic and immunohistochemical features, but currently, definitive diagnosis requires ancillary genetic testing such as conventional karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization, or molecular methods. We sought to determine whether DUX4 expression would serve as a fusion-specific immunohistochemical marker distinguishing CIC-DUX4 tumor from potential histologic mimics...
March 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Don W Coulter, Timothy R McGuire, John G Sharp, Erin M McIntyre, Yuxiang Dong, Xiaofang Wang, Shawn Gray, Gracey R Alexander, Nagendra K Chatuverdi, Shantaram S Joshi, Xiaoyu Chen, Jonathan L Vennerstrom
BACKGROUND: Evaluate the anti-tumor activity of ozonide antimalarials using a chemoresistant neuroblastoma cell line, BE (2)-c. METHODS: The activity of 12 ozonides, artemisinin, and two semisynthetic artemisinins were tested for activity against two neuroblastoma cell-lines (BE (2)-c and IMR-32) and the Ewing's Sarcoma cell line A673 in an MTT viability assay. Time course data indicated that peak effect was seen 18 h after the start of treatment thus 18 h pre-treatment was used for all subsequent experiments...
November 8, 2016: BMC Cancer
Xiangshui Sun, Yue Lou, Xiaodong Wang
Iliac bone destruction in children is uncommon and presents various imaging features. Correct diagnosis based on clinical and imaging features is difficult. This research aimed to retrospectively explore the clinical features, imaging, and histopathological diagnosis of children with iliac bone destruction. A total of 22 children with iliac bone destruction were enrolled in this retrospective analysis from two children's hospitals during July 2007 to April 2015. Clinical features, imaging, and histopathological findings were analysed...
2016: BioMed Research International
Adrienne H Long, Steven L Highfill, Yongzhi Cui, Jillian P Smith, Alec J Walker, Sneha Ramakrishna, Rana El-Etriby, Susana Galli, Maria G Tsokos, Rimas J Orentas, Crystal L Mackall
Genetically engineered T cells expressing CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) have shown impressive activity against B-cell malignancies, and preliminary results suggest that T cells expressing a first-generation disialoganglioside (GD2)-specific CAR can also provide clinical benefit in patients with neuroblastoma. We sought to assess the potential of GD2-CAR therapies to treat pediatric sarcomas. We observed that 18 of 18 (100%) of osteosarcomas, 2 of 15 (13%) of rhabdomyosarcomas, and 7 of 35 (20%) of Ewing sarcomas expressed GD2...
October 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
Wei Liu, Fang Sui, Jiazhe Liu, Meichen Wang, Sijia Tian, Meiju Ji, Bingyin Shi, Peng Hou
Paired box 3 (PAX3) is expressed early during embryonic development in spatially restricted domains in the nervous system and in some mesodermally-derived structure. In recent years, it is found to be overexpressed in different types of cancer tissues and cell lines including glioblastomas, neuroblastomas, melanomas, rhabdomyosarcomas, Ewing sarcomas and gastric cancers, suggesting that it may function as an oncogene in these cancers. However, its role in thyroid cancer remains totally unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the functions and related molecular mechanism of PAX3 in thyroid tumorigenesis...
August 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Konstantin Dobrenkov, Irina Ostrovnaya, Jessie Gu, Irene Y Cheung, Nai-Kong V Cheung
BACKGROUND: GD2 and GD3 are the tumor-associated glycolipid antigens found in a broad spectrum of human cancers. GD2-specific antibody is currently a standard of care for high-risk neuroblastoma therapy. In this study, the pattern of GD2 and GD3 expression among pediatric/adolescent or young adult tumors was determined, providing companion diagnostics for targeted therapy. METHODS: Ninety-two specimens of human osteosarcoma (OS), rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), Ewing family of tumors, desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT), and melanoma were analyzed for GD2/GD3 expression by immunohistochemistry...
October 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
M E Dourthe, N Ternès, D Gajda, A Paci, C Dufour, E Benhamou, D Valteau-Couanet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Magdalena Gorska, Alicja Kuban-Jankowska, Ryszard Milczarek, Michal Wozniak
Neuroblastoma is one of the most common childhood malignancies and the primary cause of death from pediatric cancer. Derivatives of 17β-estradiol, 2-methoxyestradiol, as well as selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as fulvestrant, are novel potentially active anticancer agents. In particular, 2-methoxyestradiol is effective in treatment of numerous malignancies, including breast and prostate cancer, Ewing sarcoma, and osteosarcoma. Herein, we treated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with physiologically and pharmacologically relevant concentrations of 2-methoxyestradiol...
April 2016: Anticancer Research
Jonathan P H Fisher, Barry Flutter, Florian Wesemann, Jennifer Frosch, Claudia Rossig, Kenth Gustafsson, John Anderson
Gamma delta T lymphocytes (γδT cells) have pleiotropic properties including innate cytotoxicity, which make them attractive effectors for cancer immunotherapy. Combination treatment with zoledronic acid and IL-2 can activate and expand the most common subset of blood γδT, which express the Vγ9Vδ2 T cell receptor (TCR) (Vδ2 T cells). Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are equipped for antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) through expression of the low-affinity FcγR CD16. GD2 is a highly ranked tumor associated antigen for immunotherapy due to bright expression on the cell surface, absent expression on normal tissues and availability of therapeutic antibodies with known efficacy in neuroblastoma...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Dominik Sturm, Brent A Orr, Umut H Toprak, Volker Hovestadt, David T W Jones, David Capper, Martin Sill, Ivo Buchhalter, Paul A Northcott, Irina Leis, Marina Ryzhova, Christian Koelsche, Elke Pfaff, Sariah J Allen, Gnanaprakash Balasubramanian, Barbara C Worst, Kristian W Pajtler, Sebastian Brabetz, Pascal D Johann, Felix Sahm, Jüri Reimand, Alan Mackay, Diana M Carvalho, Marc Remke, Joanna J Phillips, Arie Perry, Cynthia Cowdrey, Rachid Drissi, Maryam Fouladi, Felice Giangaspero, Maria Łastowska, Wiesława Grajkowska, Wolfram Scheurlen, Torsten Pietsch, Christian Hagel, Johannes Gojo, Daniela Lötsch, Walter Berger, Irene Slavc, Christine Haberler, Anne Jouvet, Stefan Holm, Silvia Hofer, Marco Prinz, Catherine Keohane, Iris Fried, Christian Mawrin, David Scheie, Bret C Mobley, Matthew J Schniederjan, Mariarita Santi, Anna M Buccoliero, Sonika Dahiya, Christof M Kramm, André O von Bueren, Katja von Hoff, Stefan Rutkowski, Christel Herold-Mende, Michael C Frühwald, Till Milde, Martin Hasselblatt, Pieter Wesseling, Jochen Rößler, Ulrich Schüller, Martin Ebinger, Jens Schittenhelm, Stephan Frank, Rainer Grobholz, Istvan Vajtai, Volkmar Hans, Reinhard Schneppenheim, Karel Zitterbart, V Peter Collins, Eleonora Aronica, Pascale Varlet, Stephanie Puget, Christelle Dufour, Jacques Grill, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Marietta Wolter, Martin U Schuhmann, Tarek Shalaby, Michael Grotzer, Timothy van Meter, Camelia-Maria Monoranu, Jörg Felsberg, Guido Reifenberger, Matija Snuderl, Lynn Ann Forrester, Jan Koster, Rogier Versteeg, Richard Volckmann, Peter van Sluis, Stephan Wolf, Tom Mikkelsen, Amar Gajjar, Kenneth Aldape, Andrew S Moore, Michael D Taylor, Chris Jones, Nada Jabado, Matthias A Karajannis, Roland Eils, Matthias Schlesner, Peter Lichter, Andreas von Deimling, Stefan M Pfister, David W Ellison, Andrey Korshunov, Marcel Kool
Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS-PNETs) are highly aggressive, poorly differentiated embryonal tumors occurring predominantly in young children but also affecting adolescents and adults. Herein, we demonstrate that a significant proportion of institutionally diagnosed CNS-PNETs display molecular profiles indistinguishable from those of various other well-defined CNS tumor entities, facilitating diagnosis and appropriate therapy for patients with these tumors. From the remaining fraction of CNS-PNETs, we identify four new CNS tumor entities, each associated with a recurrent genetic alteration and distinct histopathological and clinical features...
February 25, 2016: Cell
Rima A Safadi, Dima H Bader, Niveen I Abdullah, Maher A Sughayer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the immunohistochemical expression (IHCE) of selected keratins in primary cutaneous and mucosal melanoma (pM), and metastatic melanoma (metsM) of the head and neck and to compare their expression to a group of undifferentiated/poorly differentiated tumors of the same anatomic region. STUDY DESIGN: IHCE of K6, K7, K8, K14, K16, K18, and K19 were studied in 29 melanomas and 70 cases of non-melanoma tumors of the same anatomic region (neuroendocrine carcinoma, neuroblastoma, olfactory neuroblastoma, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (PDSCC), and Ewing sarcoma)...
May 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Yin P Hung, Christopher D M Fletcher, Jason L Hornick
Ewing sarcoma shows considerable histologic overlap with other round cell tumors. NKX2-2, a homeodomain transcription factor involved in neuroendocrine/glial differentiation and a downstream target of EWSR1-FLI1, has been reported as an immunohistochemical marker for Ewing sarcoma. We assessed the specificity of NKX2-2 for Ewing sarcoma compared with other round cell malignant neoplasms and other soft tissue tumors with EWSR1 translocations. We evaluated whole-tissue sections from 270 cases: 40 Ewing sarcomas (4 with atypical/large cell features), 20 CIC-DUX4 sarcomas, 5 BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas, 9 unclassified round cell sarcomas, 10 poorly differentiated synovial sarcomas, 10 lymphoblastic lymphomas, 10 alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, 10 embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, 10 Merkel cell carcinomas, 10 small cell carcinomas, 20 melanomas, 5 NUT midline carcinomas, 10 Wilms tumors, 10 neuroblastomas, 10 olfactory neuroblastomas, 12 mesenchymal chondrosarcomas, 10 angiomatoid fibrous histiocytomas, 10 clear cell sarcomas, 5 gastrointestinal clear cell sarcoma-like tumors, 5 desmoplastic small round cell tumors, 10 extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, 10 soft tissue and cutaneous myoepitheliomas, and 19 myoepithelial carcinomas...
April 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Jason Tilan, Joanna Kitlinska
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a sympathetic neurotransmitter with pleiotropic actions, many of which are highly relevant to tumor biology. Consequently, the peptide has been implicated as a factor regulating the growth of a variety of tumors. Among them, two pediatric malignancies with high endogenous NPY synthesis and release - neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma - became excellent models to investigate the role of NPY in tumor growth and progression. The stimulatory effect on tumor cell proliferation, survival, and migration, as well as angiogenesis in these tumors, is mediated by two NPY receptors, Y2R and Y5R, which are expressed in either a constitutive or inducible manner...
February 2016: Neuropeptides
Sonja J Gill, Jon Travers, Irina Pshenichnaya, Fiona A Kogera, Syd Barthorpe, Tatiana Mironenko, Laura Richardson, Cyril H Benes, Michael R Stratton, Ultan McDermott, Stephen P Jackson, Mathew J Garnett
Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant pediatric bone tumor with a poor prognosis for patients with metastatic or recurrent disease. Ewing's sarcoma cells are acutely hypersensitive to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition and this is being evaluated in clinical trials, although the mechanism of hypersensitivity has not been directly addressed. PARP inhibitors have efficacy in tumors with BRCA1/2 mutations, which confer deficiency in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HR). This drives dependence on PARP1/2 due to their function in DNA single-strand break (SSB) repair...
2015: PloS One
Martin S Staege
Recent technical developments allow the genome-wide and near-complete analysis of gene expression in a given sample, e.g. by usage of high-density DNA microarrays or next generation sequencing. The generated data structure is usually multi-dimensional and requires extensive processing not only for analysis but also for presentation of the results. Today, such data are usually presented graphically, e.g. in the form of heat maps. In the present paper, we propose an alternative form of analysis and presentation which is based on the transformation of gene expression data into sounds that are characterized by their frequency (pitch) and tone duration...
2015: Scientific Reports
Stephen S Roberts, Alexander J Chou, Nai-Kong V Cheung
Pediatric sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors of bone and soft tissue origin. Although more than 100 different histologic subtypes have been described, the majority of pediatric cases belong to the Ewing's family of tumors, rhabdomyosarcoma and osteosarcoma. Most patients that present with localized stage are curable with surgery and/or chemotherapy; however, those with metastatic disease at diagnosis or those who experience a relapse continue to have a very poor prognosis. New therapies for these patients are urgently needed...
2015: Frontiers in Oncology
Cecile Rouleau, Diego A Gianolio, Robert Smale, Stephanie D Roth, Roy Krumbholz, Jay Harper, Kenneth J Munroe, Tessa L Green, Bruce C Horten, Steven M Schmid, Beverly A Teicher
Endosialin/TEM1/CD248 is a cell surface protein expressed at high levels by the malignant cells of about 50% of sarcomas and neuroblastomas. The antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) anti-endosialin-MC-VC-PABC-MMAE was selectively cytotoxic to endosialin-positive cells in vitro and achieved profound and durable antitumor efficacy in preclinical human tumor xenograft models of endosialin-positive disease. MC-VC-PABC-MMAE was conjugated with anti-endosialin with 3-4 MMAE molecules per ADC. The anti-endosialin-MC-VC-PABC-MMAE conjugate was tested for activity in four human cell lines with varied endosialin levels...
September 2015: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
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