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adult structural heart disease

K Schneider
The radiographic technique of pediatric chest X‑rays is substantially different from that in adults. In nearly all cases ap/pa X‑rays are sufficient and lateral radiographs are rarely needed. In the first years of life the thymus may overshadow the heart, the great vessels and the lung hila. The most important anatomical structures essential for diagnosing pathological findings of the lungs and mediastinum are the trachea with the bifurcation and the main bronchi with the adjacent great vessels. For the assessment of distended lungs and intrathoracic consolidations, fundamental knowledge of the anatomy in childhood and malformations which can involve the airways, the lungs, the heart, as well as systemic and pulmonary vessels are indispensable...
March 19, 2018: Der Radiologe
Sini M Kinnunen, Marja Tölli, Mika J Välimäki, Erhe Gao, Zoltan Szabo, Jaana Rysä, Mónica P A Ferreira, Pauli Ohukainen, Raisa Serpi, Alexandra Correia, Ermei Mäkilä, Jarno Salonen, Jouni Hirvonen, Hélder A Santos, Heikki Ruskoaho
Transcription factors are fundamental regulators of gene transcription, and many diseases, such as heart diseases, are associated with deregulation of transcriptional networks. In the adult heart, zinc-finger transcription factor GATA4 is a critical regulator of cardiac repair and remodelling. Previous studies also suggest that NKX2-5 plays function role as a cofactor of GATA4. We have recently reported the identification of small molecules that either inhibit or enhance the GATA4-NKX2-5 transcriptional synergy...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Julien Ternacle, Romain Gallet, Annabelle Nguyen, Jean-François Deux, Antonio Fiore, Emmanuel Teiger, Jean-Luc Dubois-Randé, Elisabeth Riant, Pascal Lim
Percutaneous approaches to treat structural heart diseases are growing in number and complexity. Multimodality imaging is essential for planning and monitoring such interventions. The combination of three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography with fluoroscopy is the cornerstone of interventional imaging. However, these two modalities are displayed on separate screens, and are handled by different physicians, which requires a complex mental reconstruction for the interventional team. To overcome this issue, echocardiographic-fluoroscopic fusion imaging has been introduced recently in clinical practice...
March 11, 2018: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
Jussi T Koivumäki, Nikolay Naumenko, Tomi Tuomainen, Jouni Takalo, Minna Oksanen, Katja A Puttonen, Šárka Lehtonen, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Jari Koistinaho, Pasi Tavi
Background: Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) have emerged as a promising experimental tool for translational heart research and drug development. However, their usability as a human adult cardiomyocyte model is limited by their functional immaturity. Our aim is to analyse quantitatively those characteristics and how they differ from adult CMs. Methods and Results: We have developed a novel in silico model with all essential functional electrophysiology and calcium handling features of hiPSC-CMs...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Heidi M Connolly
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of pregnancy-related maternal mortality in the United States, and congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common form of structural heart disease affecting women of childbearing age. Most females born with CHD will reach childbearing age and consider pregnancy. Adult CHD and maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) specialists managing women with CHD should provide preconception counseling, cardiovascular risk assessment prior to pregnancy that estimates maternal and fetal risk, management during pregnancy, and in the peripartum period and also know the potential complications and special circumstances that may occur in the post-partum period...
February 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Juzhong Ke, Xianfeng Zhou, Hua Qiu, Siyu Yu, Kang Wu, Xinyi Rui, Xiaonan Wang, Xiaolin Liu, Tao Lin, Xiaonan Ruan
BACKGROUND: Most previous studies on sleep duration and cardio-cerebral vascular disease (CCVD) association have not adequately controlled for many confounders. The current study prospectively examined the association of sleep duration with CCVD prevalence in a Chinese community population; cardiovascular risk factors, chronic diseases, and sleep quality were taken into consideration. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China...
February 2018: Sleep Medicine
Allison K Cabalka, Jeremy D Asnes, David T Balzer, John P Cheatham, Matthew J Gillespie, Thomas K Jones, Henri Justino, Dennis W Kim, Te-Hsin Lung, Daniel R Turner, Doff B McElhinney
BACKGROUND: Stented bioprosthetic valves (BPVs) are commonly used for surgical pulmonary valve (PV) replacement in postoperative congenital heart disease, but develop structural failure in a time-related fashion. The Melody transcatheter PV (TPV) (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minn) has been used to treat BPV dysfunction, but there have been few studies in this population. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, multicenter study to evaluate Melody valve function in patients who underwent TPV replacement (TPVR) into a dysfunctional pulmonary BPV...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Linda Long, Lindsey Anderson, Alice M Dewhirst, Jingzhou He, Charlene Bridges, Manish Gandhi, Rod S Taylor
BACKGROUND: A previous Cochrane review has shown that exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) can benefit myocardial infarction and post-revascularisation patients. However, the impact on stable angina remains unclear and guidance is inconsistent. Whilst recommended in the guidelines of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology, in the UK the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) states that there is "no evidence to suggest that CR is clinically or cost-effective for managing stable angina"...
February 2, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lavanya M Iyer, Sankari Nagarajan, Monique Woelfer, Eric Schoger, Sara Khadjeh, Maria Patapia Zafiriou, Vijayalakshmi Kari, Jonas Herting, Sze Ting Pang, Tobias Weber, Franziska S Rathjens, Thomas H Fischer, Karl Toischer, Gerd Hasenfuss, Claudia Noack, Steven A Johnsen, Laura C Zelarayán
Chromatin remodelling precedes transcriptional and structural changes in heart failure. A body of work suggests roles for the developmental Wnt signalling pathway in cardiac remodelling. Hitherto, there is no evidence supporting a direct role of Wnt nuclear components in regulating chromatin landscapes in this process. We show that transcriptionally active, nuclear, phosphorylated(p)Ser675-β-catenin and TCF7L2 are upregulated in diseased murine and human cardiac ventricles. We report that inducible cardiomyocytes (CM)-specific pSer675-β-catenin accumulation mimics the disease situation by triggering TCF7L2 expression...
January 31, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
A S Madhun, C H Isachsen, L M Omdal, A C B Einen, S Maehle, V Wennevik, E Niemelä, T Svåsand, E Karlsbakk
Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) caused by piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) and pancreas disease (PD) caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) are among the most prevalent viral diseases of Atlantic salmon farmed in Norway. There are limited data about the impact of disease in farmed salmon on wild salmon populations. Therefore, the prevalence of PRV and SAV in returning salmon caught in six sea sites was determined using real-time RT-PCR analyses. Of 419 salmon tested, 15.8% tested positive for PRV, while none were positive for SAV...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Jo Howard, April E Slee, Simon Skene, Baba Inusa, Jamie Kawadler, Michelle Downes, Johanna Gavlak, Melanie Koelbel, Hanne Stotesbury, Maria Chorozoglou, Susan Tebbs, Subarna Chakravorty, Moji Awogbade, David C Rees, Atul Gupta, Patrick B Murphy, Nicholas Hart, Sati Sahota, Carol Nwosu, Maureen Gwam, Dawn Saunders, Vivek Muthurangu, Nathaniel Barber, Emmanuel Ako, Swee Lay Thein, Melanie Marshall, Isabel C Reading, Man Ying Edith Cheng, Fenella J Kirkham, Christina Liossi
BACKGROUND: In addition to pain, sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) complications include neurocognitive difficulties in attention and processing speed associated with low daytime and night-time oxygen saturation compounded by obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). In the general population OSA is treated with continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP). The aim of this single-blind, randomised, controlled phase II trial is to compare auto-adjusting CPAP (APAP) with standard care to standard care alone in individuals with HbSS to determine whether the intervention improves attention and processing speed, brain structure, pain and quality of life...
January 22, 2018: Trials
Sallie J Weaver, Xin Xuan Che, Laura A Petersen, Sylvia J Hysong
BACKGROUND: The 2016 President's Cancer Panel Connected Health report calls for thoroughly characterizing the team structures and processes involved in coordinating care for people with chronic conditions. We developed a multilevel care coordination framework by integrating existing frameworks from the teams and care coordination literatures, and used it to review evidence examining care coordination processes for patients with cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and combinations of these conditions...
March 2018: Medical Care
Lilly-Ann Mohlkert, Jenny Hallberg, Olof Broberg, Annika Rydberg, Cecilia Pegelow Halvorsen, Petru Liuba, Vineta Fellman, Magnus Domellöf, Gunnar Sjöberg, Mikael Norman
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity in adult life. We evaluated whether preterm birth is associated with deviating cardiac structure and function before school start. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 176 children aged 6 years and born extremely preterm (EXPT; gestational age of 22-26 weeks) and 134 children born at term (control [CTRL]) were studied. We used echocardiography to assess left heart dimensions, geometry, and functions...
January 20, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Catherine L Nevin, Evan Formosa, Yohei Maki, Brad Matushewski, Timothy R H Regnault, Bryan S Richardson
We determined the impact of moderate maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in guinea pigs with fetal growth restriction (FGR) on offspring body and organ weights, hypothesizing that FGR-MNR animals will show catch-up growth, but with organ-specific differences. Guinea pig sows were fed ad libitum (Control) or 70% of the control diet from 4 week`s pre-conception, switching to 90% at mid-pregnancy (MNR). Control newborns >95g (appropriate for gestational age or AGA, N=37) and MNR newborns <85g (FGR, N=37) were monitored until neonatal (~25 days) or adult (~110 days) necropsy...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Kelly M Kenzik, Courtney Balentine, Joshua Richman, Meredith Kilgore, Smita Bhatia, Grant R Williams
Purpose We sought to determine the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-stroke and myocardial infarction-and congestive heart failure (CHF) in older patients with colorectal cancer, as well as to understand the roles that preexisting comorbidities and cancer therapy play in increasing this risk. Patients and Methods We evaluated individuals from the SEER-Medicare database with incident stage I to III colorectal cancer at age older than 65 years between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2011 (n = 72,408) and compared these patients with a matched cohort of Medicare patients without cancer (n = 72,408)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Myung Chul Hyun
Purpose: Atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) is less common in pediatric patients than in adult patients. Thus, data for pediatric AVNRT patients are insufficient. Hence, we aimed to analyze the patient characteristics, treatment, and any recurrences in pediatric AVNRT patients. Methods: We reviewed the records of 50 pediatric AVNRT patients who had undergone radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) between January 1998 and December 2016 at a single regional center...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Ricardo Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Eduardo M Vilela, Paulo Bettencourt, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Ana Azevedo
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Hypertension causes subclinical changes in left ventricular structure and function, namely diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic dysfunction is a predictor of heart failure, being involved in the association between hypertension and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. We aimed to determine whether patients with prehypertension have early changes in diastolic function in a large community-based cohort of asymptomatic adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional evaluation was performed of a community-based cohort consisting of 925 adults, aged 45 years or older, without known cardiovascular disease...
December 16, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
Mohammed J Arisha, Ming C Hsiung, Navin C Nanda, Ankur Gupta, David C George, Ahmed Elkaryoni, Kirolos Barssoum, Ahmed H Mohamed, Swetha Srialluri
BACKGROUND: The noninvasive assessment of superior vena cava (SVC), crista terminalis (CT), and the right atrial appendage (RAA) has clinical implications in determining the right atrium (RA) pressure in adult patients in whom the inferior vena cava cannot be imaged, in planning electrophysiological procedures and for evaluation of thrombi in RA/RAA. It is difficult to image these structures using standard two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2DTTE), but the right parasternal approach has shown promise in the very few studies published so far...
December 2017: Echocardiography
Karine Gendron, Sean P McDonough, James A Flanders, May Tse, Peter V Scrivani
The mediastinal serous cavity is a normal anatomic space in the caudal mediastinum. Aims of this anatomic and case series study were to describe the signs of pathologic expansion of the mediastinal serous cavity observed during computed tomography (CT), review the underlying anatomy, perform a literature review, and evaluate the medical records of several dogs with mediastinal serous cavity empyema (paraesophageal empyema). The mesothelial lined mediastinal serous cavity is a cranial extension of the omental bursa, separated from the peritoneal cavity by the diaphragm, in the dorsal part of the caudal mediastinum, to the right of the esophagus, between the heart base and diaphragm...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Smita Mehta, Philip R Khoury, Nicolas L Madsen, Lawrence M Dolan, Thomas R Kimball, Elaine M Urbina
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the association between myocardial strain and arterial thickness and stiffness in young adults. Increased common carotid artery intima media thickness and peripheral arterial stiffness are known to precede coronary artery disease and cardiovascular (CV) events such as myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. However, subclinical cardiac dysfunction can be detected in high-risk adults by myocardial strain echocardiography. The authors hypothesized that increased carotid artery intima media thickness would be associated with abnormal myocardial strain in young subjects who had obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
January 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
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