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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622360/the-seroprevalence-of-west-nile-virus-in-israel-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-study
#1
Ravit Bassal, Tamy Shohat, Zalman Kaufman, Batya Mannasse, Eilat Shinar, Doron Amichay, Mira Barak, Anat Ben-Dor, Adina Bar Haim, Daniel Cohen, Ella Mendelson, Yaniv Lustig
West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel, affecting yearly 40-160 individuals. Israel is located on a central migratory path between Africa and Eurasia and most West Nile Fever (WNF) cases reported in recent years were among residents of the coastal plain. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of WNV among the Israeli population and to assess correlates for WNV infection. A cross-sectional nationwide serologic survey was conducted using 3,145 serum samples collected by the national Israeli serum bank during 2011-2014, representing all age and population groups in Israel...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616499/emergence-of-wesselsbron-virus-among-black-rat-and-humans-in-eastern-senegal-in-2013
#2
Moussa M Diagne, Martin Faye, Oumar Faye, Abdourahmane Sow, Fanny Balique, Mbacké Sembène, Laurent Granjon, Pascal Handschumacher, Ousmane Faye, Mawlouth Diallo, Amadou A Sall
Wesselsbron disease is a neglected mosquito transmitted Flavivirus infection that causes abortions and has teratogenic effects on sheep and cattle in Africa. Human can also be infected. The detection of human or animal cases is complicated by the non-specific symptoms close to Rift Valley Fever (RVF) in domestic livestock species or Dengue like syndrome in humans. Then, these detections are usually made during RVF investigations in sheep. These domestic animals should take a role in the life cycle of the virus but some evidences of Wesselsbron virus (WSLV) presence in wild animals suggest that the latter may be involved in the virus maintenance in nature...
June 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584177/structural-drivers-of-vulnerability-to-zoonotic-disease-in-africa
#3
Vupenyu Dzingirai, Salome Bukachi, Melissa Leach, Lindiwe Mangwanya, Ian Scoones, Annie Wilkinson
This paper argues that addressing the underlying structural drivers of disease vulnerability is essential for a 'One Health' approach to tackling zoonotic diseases in Africa. Through three case studies-trypanosomiasis in Zimbabwe, Ebola and Lassa fever in Sierra Leone and Rift Valley fever in Kenya-we show how political interests, commercial investments and conflict and securitization all generate patterns of vulnerability, reshaping the political ecology of disease landscapes, influencing traditional coping mechanisms and affecting health service provision and outbreak responses...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584174/poor-livestock-keepers-ecosystem-poverty-health-interactions
#4
REVIEW
Delia Grace, Johanna Lindahl, Francis Wanyoike, Bernard Bett, Tom Randolph, Karl M Rich
Humans have never been healthier, wealthier or more numerous. Yet, present success may be at the cost of future prosperity and in some places, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, poverty persists. Livestock keepers, especially pastoralists, are over-represented among the poor. Poverty has been mainly attributed to a lack of access, whether to goods, education or enabling institutions. More recent insights suggest ecosystems may influence poverty and the self-reinforcing mechanisms that constitute poverty traps in more subtle ways...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584173/spatial-seasonal-and-climatic-predictive-models-of-rift-valley-fever-disease-across-africa
#5
David W Redding, Sonia Tiedt, Gianni Lo Iacono, Bernard Bett, Kate E Jones
Understanding the emergence and subsequent spread of human infectious diseases is a critical global challenge, especially for high-impact zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. Global climate and land-use change are likely to alter host and vector distributions, but understanding the impact of these changes on the burden of infectious diseases is difficult. Here, we use a Bayesian spatial model to investigate environmental drivers of one of the most important diseases in Africa, Rift Valley fever (RVF). The model uses a hierarchical approach to determine how environmental drivers vary both spatially and seasonally, and incorporates the effects of key climatic oscillations, to produce a continental risk map of RVF in livestock (as a proxy for human RVF risk)...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584171/local-disease-ecosystem-livelihood-dynamics-reflections-from-comparative-case-studies-in-africa
#6
Melissa Leach, Bernard Bett, M Said, Salome Bukachi, Rosemary Sang, Neil Anderson, Noreen Machila, Joanna Kuleszo, Kathryn Schaten, Vupenyu Dzingirai, Lindiwe Mangwanya, Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu, Elaine Lawson, Kofi Amponsah-Mensah, Lina M Moses, Annie Wilkinson, Donald S Grant, James Koninga
This article explores the implications for human health of local interactions between disease, ecosystems and livelihoods. Five interdisciplinary case studies addressed zoonotic diseases in African settings: Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Kenya, human African trypanosomiasis in Zambia and Zimbabwe, Lassa fever in Sierra Leone and henipaviruses in Ghana. Each explored how ecological changes and human-ecosystem interactions affect pathogen dynamics and hence the likelihood of zoonotic spillover and transmission, and how socially differentiated peoples' interactions with ecosystems and animals affect their exposure to disease...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583857/a-novel-highly-sensitive-rapid-and-safe-rift-valley-fever-virus-neutralization-test
#7
Paul J Wichgers Schreur, Janusz T Paweska, Jet Kant, Jeroen Kortekaas
Antibodies specific for Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) can be detected by diverse methods, including ezyme-linked immunosortbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test (VNT). The VNT is superior in sensitivity and specificity and is therefore considered the gold standard serological assay. Classical VNTs make use of virulent RVFV and therefore have to be performed in biosafety level-3 laboratories. Here, we report the development of a novel VNT that is based on an avirulent RVFV expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), which can be performed safely outside level 3 biocontainment facilities...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576573/rapid-development-of-vaccines-against-emerging-pathogens-the-replication-deficient-simian-adenovirus-platform-technology
#8
Sarah C Gilbert, George M Warimwe
Despite the fact that there had been multiple small outbreaks of Ebola Virus Disease, when a large outbreak occurred in 2014 there were no vaccines or drugs available for use. Clinical development of multiple candidate vaccines was then initiated in parallel with attempts to contain the outbreak but only one vaccine was eventually tested in a phase III trial. In order to be better prepared for future outbreaks of known human pathogens, platform technologies to accelerate vaccine development should be employed, allowing vaccine developers to take advantage of detailed knowledge of the vaccine platform and facilitating rapid progress to clinical trials and eventually to vaccine stockpiles...
May 30, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562600/effects-of-flood-irrigation-on-the-risk-of-selected-zoonotic-pathogens-in-an-arid-and-semi-arid-area-in-the-eastern-kenya
#9
Bernard Bett, Mohammed Y Said, Rosemary Sang, Salome Bukachi, Salome Wanyoike, Shem C Kifugo, Fredrick Otieno, Enoch Ontiri, Ian Njeru, Johanna Lindahl, Delia Grace
To investigate the effects of irrigation on land cover changes and the risk of selected zoonotic pathogens, we carried out a study in irrigated, pastoral and riverine areas in the eastern Kenya. Activities implemented included secondary data analyses to determine land use and land cover (LULC) changes as well as human, livestock and wildlife population trends; entomological surveys to characterize mosquitoes population densities and species distribution by habitat and season; and serological surveys in people to determine the risk of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), West Nile fever virus (WNV), dengue fever virus (DFV), Leptospira spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555542/rift-valley-fever-virus-strategies-for-maintenance-survival-and-vertical-transmission-in-mosquitoes
#10
Sarah Lumley, Daniel L Horton, Luis L M Hernandez-Triana, Nicholas Johnson, Anthony R Fooks, Roger Hewson
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus causing severe disease in humans and ruminants. Spread of RVFV out of Africa has raised concerns that it could emerge in Europe or the USA. Virus persistence is dependent on successful infection of, replication in, and transmission to susceptible vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, modulated by virus-host and vector-virus interactions. The principal accepted theory for the long-term maintenance of RVFV involves vertical transmission (VT) of virus to mosquito progeny, with the virus surviving long inter-epizootic periods within the egg...
May 30, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542242/-we-do-not-bury-dead-livestock-like-human-beings-community-behaviors-and-risk-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-infection-in-baringo-county-kenya
#11
Edna N Mutua, Salome A Bukachi, Bernard K Bett, Benson A Estambale, Isaac K Nyamongo
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley Fever (RVF), is a viral zoonotic disease transmitted by Aedes and Culex mosquitoes. In Kenya, its occurrence is associated with increased rains. In Baringo County, RVF was first reported in 2006-2007 resulting in 85 human cases and 5 human deaths, besides livestock losses and livelihood disruptions. This study sought to investigate the county's current RVF risk status. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of RVF was conducted through a mixed methods approach utilizing a questionnaire survey (n = 560) and 26 focus group discussions (n = 231)...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497117/rna-interference-restricts-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-multiple-insect-systems
#12
Isabelle Dietrich, Stephanie Jansen, Gamou Fall, Stephan Lorenzen, Martin Rudolf, Katrin Huber, Anna Heitmann, Sabine Schicht, El Hadji Ndiaye, Mick Watson, Ilaria Castelli, Benjamin Brennan, Richard M Elliott, Mawlouth Diallo, Amadou A Sall, Anna-Bella Failloux, Esther Schnettler, Alain Kohl, Stefanie C Becker
The emerging bunyavirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is transmitted to humans and livestock by a large number of mosquito species. RNA interference (RNAi) has been characterized as an important innate immune defense mechanism used by mosquitoes to limit replication of positive-sense RNA flaviviruses and togaviruses; however, little is known about its role against negative-strand RNA viruses such as RVFV. We show that virus-specific small RNAs are produced in infected mosquito cells, in Drosophila melanogaster cells, and, most importantly, also in RVFV vector mosquitoes...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457675/four-segmented-rift-valley-fever-virus-based-vaccines-can-be-applied-safely-in-ewes-during-pregnancy
#13
Paul J Wichgers Schreur, Lucien van Keulen, Jet Kant, Jeroen Kortekaas
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes severe and recurrent outbreaks on the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula and continues to expand its habitat. This mosquito-borne virus, belonging to the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae contains a tri-segmented negative-strand RNA genome. Previously, we developed four-segmented RVFV (RVFV-4s) variants by splitting the M-genome segment into two M-type segments each encoding one of the structural glycoproteins; Gn or Gc. Vaccination/challenge experiments with mice and lambs subsequently showed that RVFV-4s induces protective immunity against wild-type virus infection after a single administration...
April 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457351/rift-valley-fever
#14
REVIEW
Amy Hartman
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe veterinary disease of livestock that also causes moderate to severe illness in people. The life cycle of RVF is complex and involves mosquitoes, livestock, people, and the environment. RVF virus is transmitted from either mosquitoes or farm animals to humans, but is generally not transmitted from person to person. People can develop different diseases after infection, including febrile illness, ocular disease, hemorrhagic fever, or encephalitis. There is a significant risk for emergence of RVF into new locations, which would affect human health and livestock industries...
June 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442428/rapamycin-modulation-of-p70-s6-kinase-signaling-inhibits-rift-valley-fever-virus-pathogenesis
#15
Todd M Bell, Virginia Espina, Svetlana Senina, Caitlin Woodson, Ashwini Brahms, Brian Carey, Shih-Chao Lin, Lindsay Lundberg, Chelsea Pinkham, Alan Baer, Claudius Mueller, Elizabeth A Chlipala, Faye Sharman, Cynthia de la Fuente, Lance Liotta, Kylene Kehn-Hall
Despite over 60 years of research on antiviral drugs, very few are FDA approved to treat acute viral infections. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), an arthropod borne virus that causes hemorrhagic fever in severe cases, currently lacks effective treatments. Existing as obligate intracellular parasites, viruses have evolved to manipulate host cell signaling pathways to meet their replication needs. Specifically, translation modulation is often necessary for viruses to establish infection in their host. Here we demonstrated phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase, S6 ribosomal protein, and eIF4G following RVFV infection in vitro through western blot analysis and in a mouse model of infection through reverse phase protein microarrays (RPPA)...
July 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437185/absence-of-evidence-of-rift-valley-fever-infection-in-eulemur-fulvus-brown-lemur-in-mayotte-during-an-interepidemic-period
#16
Raphaëlle Métras, Laure Dommergues, Katia Ortiz, Marion Pannequin, Christian Schuler, Patrick Roux, John W Edmunds, Matt J Keeling, Catherine Cêtre-Sossah, Eric Cardinale
The potential role of Eulemur fulvus (brown lemur) in the epidemiology of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Mayotte, during an interepidemic period, was explored. In February and March 2016, 72 animals were blood sampled and tested for RVF. No evidence of RVF genome or antibodies was found in the samples. The role of other wild mammals on the island should, however, be further investigated.
May 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431166/landscape-genetics-of-aedes-mcintoshi-diptera-culicidae-an-important-vector-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-northeastern-kenya
#17
Lindsay P Campbell, Alana M Alexander
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a vector-borne, zoonotic disease that affects humans, wild ungulates, and domesticated livestock in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Rift Valley fever virus exhibits interepizootic and epizootic phases, the latter defined by widespread virus occurrence in domesticated livestock. Kenya appears to be particularly vulnerable to epizootics, with 11 outbreaks occurring between 1951 and 2007. The mosquito species Aedes mcintoshi (subgenus Neomelaniconion) is an important primary vector for RVFV in Kenya...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427961/evidence-for-enzootic-circulation-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-among-livestock-in-cameroon
#18
M Rissmann, M Eiden, A Wade, R Poueme, S Abdoulkadiri, H Unger, U Ziegler, T Homeier, M H Groschup
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen, causing serious epidemics in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In Cameroon serological data indicate the presence of RVFV, but active circulation of RVFV, causing clinical infections has not been proven yet. For this purpose we carried out a serological and molecular study on a total of 1953 randomly selected serum samples of small ruminants and cattle, which were collected in years 2013 and 2014 in Cameroon. In a first step, sera were screened serologically using a variety of assay formats to reveal RVFV specific antibodies...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425834/rift-valley-fever-vaccines-an-overview-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-the-live-attenuated-mp-12-vaccine-candidate
#19
Tetsuro Ikegami
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic viral disease endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. High rates of abortion among infected ruminants and hemorrhagic fever in infected humans are major public health concerns. Commercially available veterinary RVF vaccines are important for preventing the spread of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in endemic countries; however, RVFV outbreaks continue to occur frequently in endemic countries in the 21st century. In the U.S., the live-attenuated MP-12 vaccine has been developed for both animal and human vaccination...
May 2, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397519/emerging-vector-borne-diseases-in-dromedaries-in-tunisia-west-nile-bluetongue-epizootic-haemorrhagic-disease-and-rift-valley-fever
#20
Thameur B Hassine, Jihane Amdouni, Federica Monaco, Giovanni Savini, Soufien Sghaier, Imed B Selimen, Walid Chandoul, Khaled B Hamida, Salah Hammami
A total of 118 sera were collected during 2016 from two groups of dromedaries from Kebili and Medenine governorates in the south of Tunisia. The aim of this study was to provide the first serological investigation of four emerging vector-borne diseases in two groups of dromedaries in Tunisia. Sera were tested by ELISA and serum neutralisation test to identify West Nile virus (WNV), bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). In the first group, the seroprevalence for BTV was 4...
March 31, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
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