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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776384/competence-of-mosquitoes-native-to-the-united-kingdom-to-support-replication-and-transmission-of-rift-valley-fever-virus
#1
Sarah Lumley, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Daniel L Horton, Maria Del Mar Fernández de Marco, Jolyon M Medlock, Roger Hewson, Anthony R Fooks, Nicholas Johnson
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus causing severe disease in humans and livestock. It is endemic in Africa and spread to the Arabian Peninsula in 2000 raising concerns it could emerge in Europe. The ability of temperate mosquitoes from the United Kingdom (UK) to support replication and transmission of RVFV is unknown. METHODS: In this study, two colonised lines of Culex pipiens, wild-caught Aedes detritus and Ae. rusticus from the UK were infected with pathogenic strains of RVFV to assess their vector competence...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769377/-ex-vivo-cytokine-release-determined-by-a-multiplex-cytokine-assay-in-response-to-coccidioidal-antigen-stimulation-of-whole-blood-among-subjects-with-recently-diagnosed-primary-pulmonary-coccidioidomycosis
#2
Neil M Ampel, Ian Robey, Chinh T Nguyen, Brentin Roller, Jessica August, Kenneth S Knox, Demosthenes Pappagianis
The elements of the cellular immune response in human coccidioidomycosis remain undefined. We examined the ex vivo release of an array of inflammatory proteins in response to incubation with a coccidioidal antigen preparation to ascertain which of these might be associated with diagnosis and outcome. Patients with a recent diagnosis of primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis and a control group of healthy subjects were studied. Blood samples were incubated for 18 h with T27K, a soluble coccidioidal preparation containing multiple glycosylated antigens, and the supernatant was assayed for inflammatory proteins using the multiplex Luminex system...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769351/protein-phosphatase-1%C3%AE-interacts-with-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-virus-capsid-protein-and-regulates-viral-replication-through-modulation-of-capsid-phosphorylation
#3
Brian D Carey, Tatiana Ammosova, Chelsea Pinkham, Xionghao Lin, Weidong Zhou, Lance A Liotta, Sergei Nekhai, Kylene Kehn-Hall
Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a serine/threonine phosphatase which has been implicated in the regulation of a number of viruses including HIV-1, Ebolavirus and Rift Valley fever virus. Catalytic subunits of PP1 (PP1α, PP1β, or PP1γ) interact with a host of regulatory subunits and target a wide variety of cellular substrates through a combination of short binding motifs, including an RVxF motif present in the majority of PP1 regulatory subunits. Targeting the RVxF interacting site on PP1 with the small molecule, 1E7-03 inhibits HIV-1, Ebolavirus, and Rift Valley fever virus replication...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768102/identification-of-dengue-and-chikungunya-cases-among-suspected-cases-of-yellow-fever-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#4
Sheila Makiala-Mandanda, Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Jessica L Abbate, Elisabeth Pukuta-Simbu, Justus Nsio-Mbeta, Nicolas Berthet, Eric Maurice Leroy, Pierre Becquart, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum
For more than 95% of acute febrile jaundice cases identified through surveillance for yellow fever, a reemerging arthropod-borne viral disease, no etiological exploration is ever done. The aim of this study was to test for other arthropod-borne viruses that can induce the same symptoms in patients enrolled in the yellow fever surveillance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Of 652 patients included in the surveillance of yellow fever in DRC from January 2003 to January 2012, 453 patients that tested negative for yellow fever virus (YFV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were selected for the study...
May 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756406/interspecific-network-centrality-host-range-and-early-life-development-are-associated-with-wildlife-hosts-of-rift-valley-fever-virus
#5
M G Walsh, S M Mor
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is responsible for a substantive disease burden in pastoralist communities and the agricultural sector in the African continent and Arabian Peninsula. Enzootic, epizootic and zoonotic RVFV transmission dynamics remain ill-defined, particularly due to a poor understanding of the role of mammalian hosts in the epidemiology and infection ecology of this arbovirus. Using a piecewise structural equation model, this study sought to identify associations between biological and ecological characteristics of mammalian species and documented RVFV infection to highlight species-level traits that may influence wildlife host status...
May 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742102/attenuation-and-efficacy-of-live-attenuated-rift-valley-fever-virus-vaccine-candidates-in-non-human-primates
#6
Darci R Smith, Sara C Johnston, Ashley Piper, Miriam Botto, Ginger Donnelly, Joshua Shamblin, César G Albariño, Lisa E Hensley, Connie Schmaljohn, Stuart T Nichol, Brian H Bird
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an important mosquito-borne veterinary and human pathogen that has caused large outbreaks of severe disease throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Currently, no licensed vaccine or therapeutics exists to treat this potentially deadly disease. The explosive nature of RVFV outbreaks and the severe consequences of its accidental or intentional introduction into RVFV-free areas provide the impetus for the development of novel vaccine candidates for use in both livestock and humans...
May 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733579/detection-of-multiple-pathogens-in-serum-using-silica-encapsulated-nanotags-in-a-sers-based-immunoassay
#7
Jing Neng, Yina Li, Ashley J Driscoll, William C Wilson, Patrick Alfred Johnson
A robust immunoassay based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been developed to simultaneously detect trace quantities of multiple pathogenic antigens from West Nile virus, Rift Valley Fever virus and Yersinia pestis in fetal bovine serum. Antigens were detected by capture with silica-encapsulated nanotags and magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with polyclonal antibodies. The magnetic pull-down resulted in aggregation of the immune complexes and the silica-encapsulated nanotags provided distinct spectra corresponding to each antigen captured...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727450/rift-valley-fever-viral-load-correlates-with-the-human-inflammatory-response-and-coagulation-pathway-abnormalities-in-humans-with-hemorrhagic-manifestations
#8
Annabelle de St Maurice, Jessica Harmon, Luke Nyakarahuka, Stephen Balinandi, Alex Tumusiime, Jackson Kyondo, Sophia Mulei, Annemarion Namutebi, Barbara Knust, Trevor Shoemaker, Stuart T Nichol, Anita K McElroy, Christina F Spiropoulou
Rift Valley fever virus is an arbovirus that affects both livestock and humans throughout Africa and in the Middle East. Despite its endemicity throughout Africa, it is a rare event to identify an infected individual during the acute phase of the disease and an even rarer event to collect serial blood samples from the affected patient. Severely affected patients can present with hemorrhagic manifestations of disease. In this study we identified three Ugandan men with RVFV disease that was accompanied by hemorrhagic manifestations...
May 4, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723189/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-rift-valley-fever-in-humans-and-animals-from-kabale-district-in-southwestern-uganda-2016
#9
Luke Nyakarahuka, Annabelle de St Maurice, Lawrence Purpura, Elizabeth Ervin, Stephen Balinandi, Alex Tumusiime, Jackson Kyondo, Sophia Mulei, Patrick Tusiime, Julius Lutwama, John Klena, Shelley Brown, Barbara Knust, Pierre E Rollin, Stuart T Nichol, Trevor R Shoemaker
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) found in Africa and the Middle East. Outbreaks can cause extensive morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. Following the diagnosis of two acute human RVF cases in Kabale district, Uganda, we conducted a serosurvey to estimate RVFV seroprevalence in humans and livestock and to identify associated risk factors. METHODS: Humans and animals at abattoirs and villages in Kabale district were sampled...
May 3, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707242/a-rift-valley-fever-virus-gn-ectodomain-based-dna-vaccine-induces-a-partial-protection-not-improved-by-apc-targeting
#10
Tiphany Chrun, Sandra Lacôte, Céline Urien, Luc Jouneau, Céline Barc, Edwige Bouguyon, Vanessa Contreras, Audrey Ferrier-Rembert, Christophe N Peyrefitte, Nuria Busquets, Enric Vidal, Joan Pujols, Philippe Marianneau, Isabelle Schwartz-Cornil
Rift Valley fever virus, a phlebovirus endemic in Africa, causes serious diseases in ruminants and humans. Due to the high probability of new outbreaks and spread to other continents where competent vectors are present, vaccine development is an urgent priority as no licensed vaccines are available outside areas of endemicity. In this study, we evaluated in sheep the protective immunity induced by DNA vaccines encoding the extracellular portion of the Gn antigen which was either or not targeted to antigen-presenting cells...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703185/retrospective-analysis-of-risk-factors-of-slide-positivity-among-febrile-patients-in-the-salween-river-valley-of-shan-special-region-ii-northern-myanmar
#11
Hui Liu, Jian-Wei Xu, Qi-Zhang Xu, Yi-Rou Zeng
BACKGROUND: In Myanmar, epidemiological conditions have been unclear due to a lack of accurate data. In 2014 and 2016, malaria outbreaks occurred in the Shan Special Region II (SSR2). It was reported that these outbreaks were caused by malaria patients from the Salween River Valley (SRV), but further research is needed to confirm these reports. To examine the risks of malaria infection in the SSR2 section of the SRV, this paper offers a retrospective analysis based on the data we collected in 2009...
April 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698664/novel-activities-of-safe-in-human-broad-spectrum-antiviral-agents
#12
Aleksandr Ianevski, Eva Zusinaite, Suvi Kuivanen, Mårten Strand, Hilde Lysvand, Mona Teppor, Laura Kakkola, Henrik Paavilainen, Mira Laajala, Hannimari Kallio-Kokko, Miia Valkonen, Anu Kantele, Kaidi Telling, Irja Lutsar, Pille Letjuka, Natalja Metelitsa, Valentyn Oksenych, Magnar Bjørås, Svein Arne Nordbø, Uga Dumpis, Astra Vitkauskiene, Christina Öhrmalm, Kåre Bondeson, Anders Bergqvist, Tero Aittokallio, Rebecca J Cox, Magnus Evander, Veijo Hukkanen, Varpu Marjomaki, Ilkka Julkunen, Olli Vapalahti, Tanel Tenson, Andres Merits, Denis Kainov
According to the WHO, there is an urgent need for better control of viral diseases. Re-positioning existing safe-in-human antiviral agents from one viral disease to another could play a pivotal role in this process. Here, we reviewed all approved, investigational and experimental antiviral agents, which are safe in man, and identified 59 compounds that target at least three viral diseases. We tested 55 of these compounds against eight different RNA and DNA viruses. We found novel activities for dalbavancin against echovirus 1, ezetimibe against human immunodeficiency virus 1 and Zika virus, as well as azacitidine, cyclosporine, minocycline, oritavancin and ritonavir against Rift valley fever virus...
April 23, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698487/enhanced-surveillance-for-rift-valley-fever-in-livestock-during-el-ni%C3%A3-o-rains-and-threat-of-rvf-outbreak-kenya-2015-2016
#13
Harry Oyas, Lindsey Holmstrom, Naomi P Kemunto, Matthew Muturi, Athman Mwatondo, Eric Osoro, Austine Bitek, Bernard Bett, Jane W Githinji, Samuel M Thumbi, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Peninah M Munyua, M Kariuki Njenga
BACKGROUND: In mid-2015, the United States' Pandemic Prediction and Forecasting Science and Technical Working Group of the National Science and Technology Council, Food and Agriculture Organization Emergency Prevention Systems, and Kenya Meteorological Department issued an alert predicting a high possibility of El-Niño rainfall and Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemic in Eastern Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In response to the alert, the Kenya Directorate of Veterinary Services (KDVS) carried out an enhanced syndromic surveillance system between November 2015 and February 2016, targeting 22 RVF high-risk counties in the country as identified previously through risk mapping...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682293/methodological-aspects-of-serosurveillance-in-resource-poor-settings
#14
Susanna Sternberg Lewerin, Cecilia Wolff, Charles Masembe, Karl Ståhl, Sofia Boqvist, Mikael Andersson Franko
Animal production is important for the agricultural economy in low-income countries, but is threatened by infectious diseases. Serosurveys are conducted for different reasons such as disease detection, risk factor studies, disease monitoring and establishing disease-free status. Most reports on such serosurveys include some discussion about methodological constraints but still, by necessity, rely on serological results for case definition. This study uses a cross-sectional serosurvey for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Rift Valley fever (RVF) and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in cattle in three districts in Western Uganda to illustrate the limitations of this approach, addressing the questions of what flaws can be expected in sampling and diagnostics and how these influence the results...
2018: Veterinary Record Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677221/a-2015-outbreak-of-flea-borne-rickettsiosis-in-san-gabriel-valley-los-angeles-county-california
#15
Kimberly Nelson, Alice N Maina, Angela Brisco, Chelsea Foo, Curtis Croker, Van Ngo, Rachel Civen, Allen L Richards, Kenn Fujioka, J Wakoli Wekesa
Although flea-borne rickettsiosis is endemic in Los Angeles County, outbreaks are rare. In the spring of 2015 three human cases of flea-borne rickettsiosis among residents of a mobile home community (MHC) prompted an investigation. Fleas were ubiquitous in common areas due to presence of flea-infested opossums and overabundant outdoor cats and dogs. The MHC was summarily abated in June 2015, and within five months, flea control and removal of animals significantly reduced the flea population. Two additional epidemiologically-linked human cases of flea-borne rickettsiosis detected at the MHC were suspected to have occurred before control efforts began...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664701/prevalence-of-selected-zoonotic-diseases-and-risk-factors-at-a-human-wildlife-livestock-interface-in-mpumalanga-province-south-africa
#16
Gregory J G Simpson, Vanessa Quan, John Frean, Darryn L Knobel, Jennifer Rossouw, Jacqueline Weyer, Tanguy Marcotty, Jacques Godfroid, Lucille H Blumberg
A lack of surveillance and diagnostics for zoonotic diseases in rural human clinics limits clinical awareness of these diseases. We assessed the prevalence of nine zoonotic pathogens in a pastoral, low-income, HIV-endemic community bordering wildlife reserves in South Africa. Two groups of participants were included: malaria-negative acute febrile illness (AFI) patients, called febrilers, at three clinics (n = 74) and second, farmers, herders, and veterinary staff found at five government cattle dip-tanks, called dip-tanksters (n = 64)...
April 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664379/history-of-mosquitoborne-diseases-in-the-united-states-and-implications-for-new-pathogens
#17
Max J Moreno-Madriñán, Michael Turell
The introduction and spread of West Nile virus and the recent introduction of chikungunya and Zika viruses into the Americas have raised concern about the potential for various tropical pathogens to become established in North America. A historical analysis of yellow fever and malaria incidences in the United States suggests that it is not merely a temperate climate that keeps these pathogens from becoming established. Instead, socioeconomic changes are the most likely explanation for why these pathogens essentially disappeared from the United States yet remain a problem in tropical areas...
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652799/combination-kinase-inhibitor-treatment-suppresses-rift-valley-fever-virus-replication
#18
Todd M Bell, Virginia Espina, Lindsay Lundberg, Chelsea Pinkham, Ashwini Brahms, Brian D Carey, Shih-Chao Lin, Bibha Dahal, Caitlin Woodson, Cynthia de la Fuente, Lance A Liotta, Charles L Bailey, Kylene Kehn-Hall
Viruses must parasitize host cell translational machinery in order to make proteins for viral progeny. In this study, we sought to use this signal transduction conduit against them by inhibiting multiple kinases that influence translation. Previous work indicated that several kinases involved in translation, including p70 S6K, p90RSK, ERK, and p38 MAPK, are phosphorylated following Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection. Furthermore, inhibiting p70 S6K through treatment with the FDA approved drug rapamycin prevents RVFV pathogenesis in a mouse model of infection...
April 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652643/expression-of-a-recombinant-nucleocapsid-protein-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-vero-cells-as-an-immunofluorescence-antigen-and-its-use-for-serosurveillance-in-traditional-cattle-herds-in-zambia
#19
Ngonda Saasa, Masahiro Kajihara, George Dautu, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Shuetsu Fukushi, Yona Sinkala, Shigeru Morikawa, Aaron Mweene, Ayato Takada, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Jiro Arikawa
The open reading frame of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) strain MP12 was cloned and expressed in Vero E6 cells. The recombinant NP (rNP)-expressing cells were used as antigens for an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). The rNP-based IFA and RVFV-infected Vero E6 cell (authentic antigen)-based IFA showed similar IFA profiles with immune rabbit serum, which was prepared by immunization with rNP expressed using a baculovirus vector. A total of 942 traditional cattle sera obtained in five districts in Central, Southern, and Western provinces of Zambia were screened for anti-RVFV antibodies by the authentic antigen-based and rNP-based IFAs...
March 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625611/serological-evidence-of-rift-valley-fever-phlebovirus-and-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-orthonairovirus-infections-among-pygmies-in-the-east-region-of-cameroon
#20
Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba, Gide Martial Yonga Wansi, Maurice Demanou, Antoine Gessain, Richard Njouom
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley Fever Phlebovirus (RVFV) and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Orthonairovirus (CCHFV) specific antibodies had been documented among humans in urban settings of the southwestern and northern Cameroon in the late 1980s. Recently, evidence for enzootic circulation of RVFV was reported among livestock in both rural and urban settings in Cameroon. However, current estimates of human exposure to RVFV and CCHFV are still to be documented in Cameroon, especially in rural areas...
April 6, 2018: Virology Journal
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