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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651163/ex-vivo-assessment-of-valve-thickness-calcification-of-patients-with-calcific-aortic-stenosis-in-relation-to-in-vivo-clinical-outcomes
#1
Ching-Li Cheng, Hsiao-Huang Chang, Pei-Jung Huang, Wei-Chen Wang, Shan-Yang Lin
Calcific aortic stenosis (AS) plays a critical role in the risk of cardiovascular disease. This preliminary study examined the relationship between the ex vivo valve thickness/calcification and in vivo clinical outcomes of Chinese patients with calcific AS. Six Chinese patients (3 patients with tricuspid aortic valves (TAV)) and 3 patients with. bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) with calcific AS undergoing heart valve replacement were initially chosen for this study. In vivo medical imaging of these calcific AS patients was evaluated using computed tomography and echocardiography...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650995/septins-restrict-inflammation-and-protect-zebrafish-larvae-from-shigella-infection
#2
Maria J Mazon-Moya, Alexandra R Willis, Vincenzo Torraca, Laurent Boucontet, Avinash R Shenoy, Emma Colucci-Guyon, Serge Mostowy
Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen, causes inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. Infection by S. flexneri has been well-studied in vitro and is a paradigm for bacterial interactions with the host immune system. Recent work has revealed that components of the cytoskeleton have important functions in innate immunity and inflammation control. Septins, highly conserved cytoskeletal proteins, have emerged as key players in innate immunity to bacterial infection, yet septin function in vivo is poorly understood...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650811/regularized-spectral-log-difference-technique-for-ultrasonic-attenuation-imaging
#3
Andres L Coila, Roberto J Lavarello
The attenuation coefficient slope (ACS) has the potential to be used for tissue characterization and as a diagnostic ultrasound tool, hence complementing B-mode images. The ACS can be valuable for estimation of other ultrasound parameters such as the backscatter coefficient. There is a well-known trade-off between the precision of the estimated ACS values and the data block size used in spectral-based techniques such as the spectral log difference (SLD). This trade-off limits the practical usefulness of spectral-based attenuation imaging techniques...
June 26, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650490/hypoxia-induced-tumor-cell-resistance-is-overcome-by-synergistic-gapdh-sirna-and-chemotherapy-co-delivered-by-long-circulating-and-cationic-interior-liposomes
#4
Jibin Guan, Jin Sun, Feilong Sun, Bo Lou, Dong Zhang, Vida Mashayekhi, Negar Sadeghi, Gert Storm, Enrico Mastrobattista, Zhonggui He
Chemotherapeutic drug resistance of tumor cells under hypoxic conditions is caused by the inhibition of apoptosis by autophagy and drug efflux via adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent transporter activation, among other factors. Here, we demonstrate that disrupting glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression can reduce the autophagy and ATP levels in tumor cells. To test whether GAPDH knockdown is sufficient to overcome drug resistance, a nanocarrier (asymmetry-membrane liposome) was designed to encapsulate GAPDH-siRNA with a low dose of paclitaxel (PTX)...
June 26, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650486/advanced-carbon-dots-via-plasma-induced-surface-functionalization-for-fluorescent-and-bio-medical-applications
#5
So Young Park, Che Yoon Lee, Ha-Rim An, Hyeran Kim, Young-Chul Lee, Edmond Changkyun Park, Hang-Suk Chun, Hee Young Yang, Sae-Hae Choi, Hee Sik Kim, Kyoung Suk Kang, Hyun Gyu Park, Jong-Pil Kim, Yunju Choi, Jouhahn Lee, Hyun Uk Lee
Multifunctional carbon-based nanodots (C-dots) are synthesized using atmospheric plasma treatments involving reactive gases (oxygen and nitrogen). Surface design was achieved through one-step plasma treatment of C-dots (AC-paints) from polyethylene glycol used as a precursor. These AC-paints show high fluorescence, low cytotoxicity and excellent cellular imaging capability. They exhibit bright fluorescence with a quantum yield twice of traditional C-dots. The cytotoxicity of AC-paints was tested on BEAS2B, THLE2, A549 and hep3B cell lines...
June 26, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650477/video-rate-volumetric-ca-2-imaging-across-cortex-using-seeded-iterative-demixing-sid-microscopy
#6
Tobias Nöbauer, Oliver Skocek, Alejandro J Pernía-Andrade, Lukas Weilguny, Francisca Martínez Traub, Maxim I Molodtsov, Alipasha Vaziri
Light-field microscopy (LFM) is a scalable approach for volumetric Ca(2+) imaging with high volumetric acquisition rates (up to 100 Hz). Although the technology has enabled whole-brain Ca(2+) imaging in semi-transparent specimens, tissue scattering has limited its application in the rodent brain. We introduce seeded iterative demixing (SID), a computational source-extraction technique that extends LFM to the mammalian cortex. SID can capture neuronal dynamics in vivo within a volume of 900 × 900 × 260 μm located as deep as 380 μm in the mouse cortex or hippocampus at a 30-Hz volume rate while discriminating signals from neurons as close as 20 μm apart, at a computational cost three orders of magnitude less than that of frame-by-frame image reconstruction...
June 26, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650110/reproducibility-of-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-t1-rho-and-t2-relaxation-time-measurements-of-hip-cartilage-at-3-0t-in-healthy-volunteers
#7
Angeline Nemeth, Lucy Di Marco, Florent Boutitie, Michael Sdika, Denis Grenier, Muriel Rabilloud, Olivier Beuf, Jean-Baptiste Pialat
PURPOSE: To assess the T1 ρ and T2 values in the hip cartilage of healthy volunteers and to evaluate the reproducibility of these measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The right hip joint of 30 asymptomatic volunteers was explored with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Quantitative 3D T1 ρ- and T2 -maps sequences were repeated twice with a 30-minute delay (immediate reproducibility). The same protocol was repeated 14 days later (short-term reproducibility). Immediate and short-term reproducibility were estimated using coefficients of variation and correlation concordance coefficients (CCC)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649922/in-vivo-imaging-of-lyme-arthritis-in-mice-by-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#8
A Pietikäinen, R Siitonen, H Liljenbäck, O Eskola, M Söderström, A Roivainen, J Hytönen
OBJECTIVE: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi spirochaetes, which are able to disseminate from the tick-bite site to distant organs. Mouse models are widely used to study LB and especially Lyme arthritis (LA), but only a few whole-animal in vivo imaging studies on the pathogenesis of B. burgdorferi infection in mice have been published so far. The existing imaging techniques have their drawbacks and, therefore, novel tools to complement the array of available LB imaging methodologies are needed...
June 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649670/pretargeted-pet-imaging-of-trans-cyclooctene-modified-porous-silicon-nanoparticles
#9
Outi Keinänen, Ermei M Mäkilä, Rici Lindgren, Helena Virtanen, Heidi Liljenbäck, Vesa Oikonen, Mirkka Sarparanta, Carla Molthoff, Albert D Windhorst, Anne Roivainen, Jarno J Salonen, Anu J Airaksinen
Pretargeted positron emission tomography (PET) imaging based on bioorthogonal chemical reactions has proven its potential in immunoimaging. It may also have great potential in nanotheranostic applications. Here, we report the first successful pretargeted PET imaging of trans-cyclooctene-modified mesoporous silicon nanoparticles, using (18)F-labeled tetrazine as a tracer. The inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition (IEDDA) reaction was fast, resulting in high radioactivity accumulation in the expected organs within 10 min after the administration of the tracer...
January 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649615/imaging-parkinson-s-disease-below-the-neck
#10
Per Borghammer, Karoline Knudsen, Tatyana D Fedorova, David J Brooks
Parkinson's disease is a systemic disorder with widespread and early α-synuclein pathology in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems, which is present throughout the gastrointestinal canal prior to diagnosis. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary autonomic symptoms often predate clinical diagnosis by several years. It has been hypothesized that progressive α-synuclein aggregation is initiated in hyperbranched, non-myelinated neuron terminals, and may subsequently spread via retrograde axonal transport. This would explain why autonomic nerves are so prone to formation of α-synuclein pathology...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649156/multi-atlas-segmentation-enables-robust-multi-contrast-mri-spleen-segmentation-for-splenomegaly
#11
Yuankai Huo, Jiaqi Liu, Zhoubing Xu, Robert L Harrigan, Albert Assad, Richard G Abramson, Bennett A Landman
Non-invasive spleen volume estimation is essential in detecting splenomegaly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to facilitate splenomegaly diagnosis in vivo. However, achieving accurate spleen volume estimation from MR images is challenging given the great inter-subject variance of human abdomens and wide variety of clinical images/modalities. Multi-atlas segmentation has been shown to be a promising approach to handle heterogeneous data and difficult anatomical scenarios. In this paper, we propose to use multi-atlas segmentation frameworks for MRI spleen segmentation for splenomegaly...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648794/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-a-coaxial-electrospun-small-caliber-vascular-graft-loaded-with-heparin-and-vegf
#12
Yuntao Hu, Xudong Pan, Jun Zheng, Weiguo Ma, Lizhong Sun
INTRODUCTION: To date, clinically available expanded polytetrafluoro- Ethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts are suboptimal for reconstructing small Caliber (D<;6mm)arteries, owing to thrombosis in early and restenosis in; late stage. Our aim in this preliminary study was to fabricate a nano-fibrous vascular graft which was biofunctionalized with VEGF and hepa-rin. The short term performance was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. METHOD: 4 mm caliber grafts were prepared by the coaxial-elctrospun technique, which consisted of poly (l-lactide-co-caprolactone) [P (LLA-CL)] collagen and elastin...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648753/association-of-increased-genotypes-risk-for-bipolar-disorder-with-brain-white-matter-integrity-investigated-with-tract-based-spatial-statistics
#13
REVIEW
L Squarcina, J Houenou, A C Altamura, J Soares, P Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies, which allow the in-vivo investigation of brain tissue integrity, have shown that bipolar disorder (BD) patients present signs of white matter dysconnectivity. In parallel, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified several risk genetic variants for BD. I METHODS: In this mini-review, we summarized DTI studies coupling tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), a reliable technique exploring white matter axon bundles, and genetics in BD...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648478/imaging-vulnerable-plaques-by-targeting-inflammation-in-atherosclerosis-using-fluorescent-labeled-dual-ligand-microparticles-of-iron-oxide-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#14
Joyce M S Chan, Claudia Monaco, Marzena Wylezinska-Arridge, Jordi L Tremoleda, Jennifer E Cole, Michael Goddard, Maggie S H Cheung, Kishore K Bhakoo, Richard G J Gibbs
OBJECTIVE: Identification of patients with high-risk asymptomatic carotid plaques remains an elusive but essential step in stroke prevention. Inflammation is a key process in plaque destabilization and a prelude to clinical sequelae. There are currently no clinical imaging tools to assess the inflammatory activity within plaques. This study characterized inflammation in atherosclerosis using dual-targeted microparticles of iron oxide (DT-MPIO) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probe...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648385/fluorescence-imaging-of-lymphatic-outflow-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-mice
#15
Sunkuk Kwon, Christopher F Janssen, Fred Christian Velasquez, Eva M Sevick-Muraca
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is known to be reabsorbed by the lymphatic vessels and drain into the lymph nodes (LNs) through peripheral lymphatic vessels. In the peripheral lymphatics, the contractile pumping action of lymphangions mediates lymph drainage; yet it is unknown whether lymphatic vessels draining cranial and spinal CSF show similar function. Herein, we used non-invasive near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) to image (i) indocyanine green (ICG) distribution along the neuraxis and (ii) routes of ICG-laden CSF outflow into the lymphatics following intrathecal lumbar administration...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648070/magnetic-resonance-imaging-quantification-of-fasted-state-colonic-liquid-pockets-in-healthy-humans
#16
Kathryn Murray, Caroline L Hoad, Deanna M Mudie, Jeff Wright, Khaled Heissam, Nichola Abrehart, Susan E Pritchard, Salem Al Atwah, Penny A Gowland, Martin C Garnett, Gregory E Amidon, Robin C Spiller, Gordon L Amidon, Luca Marciani
The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption from solid oral dosage forms is highly dependent on the volume of liquid in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, little is known about the time course of GIT liquid volumes after drinking a glass of water (8 oz), particularly in the colon, which is a targeted site for both locally and systemically acting drug products. Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies offered novel insights on GIT liquid distribution in fasted humans in the stomach and small intestine, and showed that freely mobile liquid in the intestine collects in fairly distinct regions or 'pockets'...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647901/in-vivo-visualization-of-the-locus-coeruleus-in-humans-quantifying-the-test-retest-reliability
#17
Klodiana-Daphne Tona, Max C Keuken, Mischa de Rover, Egbert Lakke, Birte U Forstmann, Sander Nieuwenhuis, Matthias J P van Osch
The locus coeruleus (LC) is a brainstem nucleus involved in important cognitive functions. Recent developments in neuroimaging methods and scanning protocols have made it possible to visualize the human LC in vivo by utilizing a T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) scan. Despite its frequent use and its application as a biomarker for tracking the progress of monoaminergic-related neurodegenerative diseases, no study to date has investigated the reproducibility and inter-observer variability of LC identification using this TSE scan sequence...
June 24, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647883/casper-computer-aided-segmentation-of-imperceptible-motion-a-learning-based-tracking-of-an-invisible-needle-in-ultrasound
#18
Parmida Beigi, Robert Rohling, Septimiu E Salcudean, Gary C Ng
PURPOSE: This paper presents a new micro-motion-based approach to track a needle in ultrasound images captured by a handheld transducer. METHODS: We propose a novel learning-based framework to track a handheld needle by detecting microscale variations of motion dynamics over time. The current state of the art on using motion analysis for needle detection uses absolute motion and hence work well only when the transducer is static. We have introduced and evaluated novel spatiotemporal and spectral features, obtained from the phase image, in a self-supervised tracking framework to improve the detection accuracy in the subsequent frames using incremental training...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647604/hydrogen-rich-water-induces-aluminum-tolerance-in-maize-seedlings-by-enhancing-antioxidant-capacities-and-nutrient-homeostasis
#19
Xueqiang Zhao, Qiuhong Chen, Yanmei Wang, Zhenguo Shen, Wenbiao Shen, Xiaoming Xu
The ameliorative effect of H2 on aluminum (Al)-induced stress remains poorly understood. We treated maize seedlings with Al and hydrogen-rich water (HRW) to determine the roles of H2 in the alleviation of Al toxicity. Our results demonstrated that Al stress triggered damage to the photosynthetic apparatus, plant growth inhibition, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and boosted lipid peroxidation. However, the addition of HRW at 75% saturation markedly alleviated Al toxicity symptoms through the promotion of root elongation...
June 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647411/hippocampal-5-ht1a-receptor-expression-changes-in-prodromal-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease-beneficial-or-deleterious
#20
REVIEW
M Verdurand, L Zimmer
There is increasing evidence that the serotonergic system is highly dysfunctional in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and this could be related to cognitive impairments associated with dementia. Of the various serotonin receptors, 5-HT1A receptors are relevant to AD as they are highly expressed in the human hippocampus and are known to be involved in the regulation of memory processes. This review will discuss the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in AD at several levels (post-mortem, in-vivo imaging, animal models)...
June 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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