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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240567/theoretical-evaluation-and-experimental-validation-of-localized-therapeutic-hypothermia-application-to-preserve-residual-hearing-after-cochlear-implantation
#1
Ilmar Tamames, Curtis King, Chin-Yuh Huang, Fred F Telischi, Michael E Hoffer, Suhrud M Rajguru
OBJECTIVES: Cochlear implantation surgery has been shown to result in trauma to inner ear sensory structures, resulting in loss of residual hearing. Localized therapeutic hypothermia has been shown in clinical care to be a neuroprotective intervention. Previously, we have shown in an experimental model that localized hypothermia protects cochlear hair cells and residual hearing function against surgical and cochlear implantation trauma. Using experimental temperature measurements carried out in human cadaver temporal bones and a finite element model of the inner ear, the present study examined the temperature distribution of a custom-designed hypothermia delivery system in the human inner ear organs...
December 13, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240422/high-in-vivo-stability-of-64cu-labeled-cross-bridged-chelators-is-a-crucial-factor-in-improved-tumor-imaging-of-rgd-peptide-conjugates
#2
Swarbhanu Sarkar, Nikunj Bhatt, Yeong Su Ha, Phuong Tu Huynh, Nisarg Soni, Woong Hee Lee, Yong Jin Lee, Jung Young Kim, Darpan N Pandya, Gwang Il An, Kyo Chul Lee, Yongmin Chang, Jeongsoo Yoo
Although the importance of bifunctional chelators (BFCs) is well recognized, the chemophysical parameters of chelators that govern the biological behavior of the corresponding bioconjugates have not been clearly elucidated. Here, five BFCs closely related in structure were conjugated with a cyclic RGD peptide and radiolabeled with Cu-64 ions. Various biophysical and chemical properties of the Cu(II) complexes were analyzed with the aim of identifying correlations between individual factors and the biological behavior of the conjugates...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239725/t-cell-calcium-dynamics-visualized-in-a-ratiometric-tdtomato-gcamp6f-transgenic-reporter-mouse
#3
Tobias X Dong, Shivashankar Othy, Amit Jairaman, Jonathan Skupsky, Angel Zavala, Ian Parker, Joseph L Dynes, Michael D Cahalan
Calcium is an essential cellular messenger that regulates numerous functions in living organisms. Here we describe development and characterization of 'Salsa6f', a fusion of GCaMP6f and tdTomato optimized for cell tracking while monitoring cytosolic Ca2+, and a transgenic Ca2+ reporter mouse with Salsa6f targeted to the Rosa26 locus for Cre-dependent expression in specific cell types. The development and function of T cells was unaffected in Cd4-Salsa6f mice. We describe Ca2+ signals reported by Salsa6f during T cell receptor activation in naïve T cells, helper Th17 T cells and regulatory T cells, and Ca2+ signals mediated in T cells by an activator of mechanosensitive Piezo1channels...
December 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239276/radiolabeled-anti-adenosine-triphosphate-synthase-monoclonal-antibody-as-a-theragnostic-agent-targeting-angiogenesis
#4
Bok-Nam Park, Su Jin Lee, Jung Hyun Roh, Kyung-Han Lee, Young-Sil An, Joon-Kee Yoon
INTRODUCTION: The potential of a radioiodine-labeled, anti-adenosine triphosphate synthase monoclonal antibody (ATPS mAb) as a theragnostic agent for simultaneous cancer imaging and treatment was evaluated. METHODS: Adenosine triphosphate synthase monoclonal antibody was labeled with radioiodine, then radiotracer uptake was measured in 6 different cancer cell lines. In vivo biodistribution was evaluated 24 and 48 hours after intravenous injection of 125I-ATPS mAb into MKN-45 tumor-bearing mice (n = 3)...
January 2017: Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239125/autofluorescence-and-white-light-imaging-guided-endoscopic-raman-and-diffuse-reflectance-spectroscopy-for-in-vivo-nasopharyngeal-cancer-detection
#5
Duo Lin, Sufang Qiu, Wei Huang, Jianji Pan, Zhihong Xu, Rong Chen, Shangyuan Feng, Guannan Chen, Yongzeng Li, Michael Short, Jianhua Zhao, Yasser Fawzy, Haishan Zeng
Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is an endemic with high incidence in Southern China and Southeast Asia countries. Screening for NPC under conventional white light imaging (WLI) nasopharyngoscope examination remains a great clinical challenge due to its poor sensitivity. Here, we developed an integrated four-modality endoscopy system combining WLI, autofluorescence imaging (AFI), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and Raman spectroscopy (RS) technologies for in vivo endoscopic cancer detection for the first time...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238397/a-method-to-generate-the-surface-cell-layer-of-the-3d-virtual-shoot-apex-from-apical-initials
#6
Krzysztof Kucypera, Marcin Lipowczan, Anna Piekarska-Stachowiak, Jerzy Nakielski
Background: The development of cell pattern in the surface cell layer of the shoot apex can be investigated in vivo by use of a time-lapse confocal images, showing naked meristem in 3D in successive times. However, how this layer is originated from apical initials and develops as a result of growth and divisions of their descendants, remains unknown. This is an open area for computer modelling. A method to generate the surface cell layer is presented on the example of the 3D paraboloidal shoot apical dome...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238016/-imaging-of-bone-and-joint-destruction
#7
Junichi Kikuta, Masaru Ishii
  Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing giant polykaryons that differentiate from mononuclear macrophage/monocyte-lineage hematopoietic precursors. We have originally established an advanced imaging system for visualizing in vivo behavior of osteoclasts and their precursors with intravital two-photon microscopy. By means of the system, we found that sphingosine-1-phosphate, a lipid mediator enriched in blood, controlled the migratory behavior of osteoclast precursors. We also developed pH-sensing chemical fluorescent probes to detect localized acidification by bone-resorbing osteoclasts on the bone surface in vivo, and identified two distinct functional states of differentiated osteoclasts, 'bone-resorptive' and 'non-resorptive'...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238015/-in-vivo-imaging-of-cutaneous-inflammation-novel-insights-into-cutaneous-immune-responses-revealed-by-multi-photon-microscopic-analysis
#8
Tetsuya Honda, Kenji Kabashima
  Skin is an outermost organ that serves as an interface between the host and the environment. The skin provides not only mechanical barrier functions, but also an active immunological barrier that provides the first line of defense against infections. For the effective clearance of pathogens or antigens in the skin, immune cells, especially effector T cells, must quickly exert their effector functions while avoiding the host damage by their excess activation. Therefore, the quality, magnitude, and the duration of the effector T cell activity must be carefully regulated...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237459/quantification-of-sterol-specific-response-in-human-macrophages-using-automated-imaged-based-analysis
#9
Deborah L Gater, Namareq Widatalla, Kinza Islam, Maryam AlRaeesi, Jeremy C M Teo, Yanthe E Pearson
BACKGROUND: The transformation of normal macrophage cells into lipid-laden foam cells is an important step in the progression of atherosclerosis. One major contributor to foam cell formation in vivo is the intracellular accumulation of cholesterol. METHODS: Here, we report the effects of various combinations of low-density lipoprotein, sterols, lipids and other factors on human macrophages, using an automated image analysis program to quantitatively compare single cell properties, such as cell size and lipid content, in different conditions...
December 13, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237455/molecular-and-histological-effects-of-mr-guided-pulsed-focused-ultrasound-to-the-rat-heart
#10
Kee W Jang, Tsang-Wei Tu, Matthew E Nagle, Bobbi K Lewis, Scott R Burks, Joseph A Frank
BACKGROUND: Image-guided high intensity focused ultrasound has been used as an extracorporeal cardiac pacing tool and to enhance homing of stem cells to targeted tissues. However, molecular changes in the myocardium after sonication have not been widely investigated. Magnetic-resonance (MR)-guided pulsed focused ultrasound (pFUS) was targeted to the rat myocardium over a range of pressures and the microenvironmental and histological effects were evaluated over time. METHODS: Eight-to-ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats received T2-weighted MR images to target pFUS to the left ventricular and septum without cardiac or respiratory gating...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237376/the-role-of-pet-in-monitoring-therapy-in-fungal-infections
#11
Alfred O Ankrah, Hans C Klein, Lambert F R Span, Erik F J de Vries, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Mike M Sathekge, Andor W J M Glaudemans
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging technique. PET allows in vivo detection of a wide variety of physiologic and pathologic phenomena and it offers a noninvasive tool for the monitoring of therapy in various diseases. Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a global concern because of the increasing population of patients at risk of IFIs and the high morbidity and mortality. Therapy with antifungal agents is long-standing and expensive. The emerging resistant fungal strains make the management of IFIs challenging...
December 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237264/dual-ratiometric-target-triggered-fluorescent-probe-for-simultaneous-quantitative-visualization-of-tumor-microenvironment-protease-activity-and-ph-in-vivo
#12
Tiancong Ma, Yi Hou, Jianfeng Zeng, Chunyan Liu, Peisen Zhang, Lihong Jing, Dihua Shangguan, Mingyuan Gao
The abnormal expression of tumor-associated proteases and lowered extracellular pH are important signatures strongly associated with cancer invasion, progression, and metastasis. However, their malignant effects were mainly identified using cell and tissue studies. To non-invasively visualize the heterogeneous distribution of these abnormal indicators in vivo and further disclose their collective behaviors, a target-triggered fluorescent nanoprobe composed of a ratiometric pH-sensitive dye, a near infrared dye (Cy5...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237239/sex-steroid-hormones-and-brain-function-pet-imaging-as-a-tool-for-research
#13
REVIEW
R Moraga-Amaro, A van Waarde, J Doorduin, E F J de Vries
Sex steroid hormones are major regulators of sexual characteristic among species. These hormones, however, are also produced in the brain. Steroidal hormone-mediated signaling via the corresponding hormone receptors can influence brain function at a cellular level and thus affect behavior and higher brain functions. Altered steroid hormone signaling has been associated with psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression. Neurosteroids are also thought to have a neuroprotective effect in neurodegenerative diseases So far, the role of steroid hormone receptors in physiological and pathological conditions have mainly been investigated post-mortem on animal or human brain tissues...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237232/3d-printed-phantoms-mimicking-cortical-bone-for-the-assessment-of-ultrashort-echo-time-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#14
Robba Rai, David Manton, Michael G Jameson, Sonal Josan, Michael B Barton, Lois C Holloway, Gary P Liney
PURPOSE: Human cortical bone has a rapid T2 * decay, and it can be visualised using ultrashort echo time (UTE) techniques in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These sequences operate at the limits of gradient and transmit-receive signal performance. Development of multicompartment anthropomorphic phantoms that can mimic human cortical bone can assist with quality assurance and optimisation of UTE sequences. The aims of this study were to 1) characterise the MRI signal properties of a photopolymer resin that can be 3D printed, 2) develop multi-compartment phantoms based on the resin, and 3) demonstrate the feasibility of using these phantoms to mimic human anatomy in the assessment of UTE sequences...
December 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236918/peri-implant-assessment-via-cone-beam-computed-tomography-and-digital-periapical-radiography-an-ex-vivo-study
#15
Nicolau Silveira-Neto, Mateus Ericson Flores, João Paulo De Carli, Max Dória Costa, Felipe de Souza Matos, Luiz Renato Paranhos, Maria Salete Sandini Linden
OBJECTIVES: This research evaluated detail registration in peri-implant bone using two different cone beam computer tomography systems and a digital periapical radiograph. METHODS: Three different image acquisition protocols were established for each cone beam computer tomography apparatus, and three clinical situations were simulated in an ex vivo fresh pig mandible: buccal bone defect, peri-implant bone defect, and bone contact. Data were subjected to two analyses: quantitative and qualitative...
November 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236358/in-vivo-imaging-the-motility-of-monocyte-macrophage-during-inflammation-in-diabetic-mice
#16
Rui Shi, Wei Feng, Chao Zhang, Tingting Yu, Zhan Fan, Zheng Liu, Zhihong Zhang, Dan Zhu
Diabetes, as a chronic metabolic disease, can impair the immune function of monocytes/macrophages (MMs). However, it is unclear how MMs immune response to inflammation with the development of diabetes, and whether immune response around the inflammatory foci depends on the depth in tissue. Footpad provides a classical physiological site for monitoring cellular behavior during inflammation, but limited to the superficial dermis due to the strong scattering of footpad. Herein, we used confocal microscopy to monitor the motility of MMs in deeper tissue around inflammatory foci with the development of type 1 diabetic (T1D) mice through a swithable footpad skin optical clearing window...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236342/longitudinal-assessment-of-rabbit-renal-fibrosis-induced-by-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-using-two-dimensional-susceptibility-weighted-imaging
#17
Jing-Gang Zhang, Zhao-Yu Xing, Ting-Ting Zha, Xiao-Juan Tian, Ya-Nan Du, Jie Chen, Wei Xing
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicated that two-dimensional-susceptibility weighted imaging (2D-SWI) could serve as a useful biomarker for differentiating the grade of liver fibrosis. PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of 2D-SWI in the dynamic quantification of renal fibrosis in a rabbit model. STUDY TYPE: Longitudinal study. ANIMAL MODEL: Twenty-Four New Zealand White Rabbits including control group (n = 4); and renal fibrosis group (n = 20), by means of a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235889/effects-of-coating-layer-and-release-medium-on-release-profile-from-coated-capsules-with-eudragit-fs-30d-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#18
Eskandar Moghimipour, Farid Abedin Dorkoosh, Mohsen Rezaei, Maryam Kouchak, Jafar Fatahiasl, Kambiz Ahmadi Angali, Zahra Ramezani, Mohsen Amini, Somayeh Handali
The aim of the present research was to evaluate the impact of coating layers on release profile from enteric coated dosage forms. Capsules were coated with Eudragit FS 30D using dipping method. The drug profile was evaluated in both phosphate buffer and Hank's solutions. Utilization X-ray imaging, gastrointestinal transmission of enteric coated capsules was traced in rats. According to the results, no release of the drug was found at pH 1.2 and the extent of release drug in pH 6.8 medium was decreased by adding the coating layers...
December 13, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235542/bone-mineral-density-measurements-in-vertebral-specimens-and-phantoms-using-dual-layer-spectral-computed-tomography
#19
Kai Mei, Benedikt J Schwaiger, Felix K Kopp, Sebastian Ehn, Alexandra S Gersing, Jan S Kirschke, Daniela Muenzel, Alexander A Fingerle, Ernst J Rummeny, Franz Pfeiffer, Thomas Baum, Peter B Noël
To assess whether phantomless calcium-hydroxyapatite (HA) specific bone mineral density (BMD) measurements with dual-layer spectral computed tomography are accurate in phantoms and vertebral specimens. Ex-vivo human vertebrae (n = 13) and a phantom containing different known HA concentrations were placed in a semi-anthropomorphic abdomen phantom with different extension rings simulating different degrees of obesity. Phantomless dual-layer spectral CT was performed at different tube current settings (500, 250, 125 and 50 mAs)...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235512/a-multimodal-biomicroscopic-system-based-on-high-frequency-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-and-multispectral-imaging-techniques-for-tumor-characterization-ex-vivo
#20
Jihun Kim, Anna Seo, Jun-Young Kim, Sung Hyouk Choi, Hyung-Jin Yoon, Eunjoo Kim, Jae Youn Hwang
We report a multimodal biomicroscopic system which offers high-frequency ultrasound B-mode, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI), and multispectral imaging for qualitative tumor characterization ex vivo. Examinations of resected tissues from diseased regions such as tumors are crucial procedures during surgical operations to treat cancer. Particularly, if tiny tumors remain at surgical sites after tumor resection, such tumors can result in unwanted outcomes, such as cancer recurrence or metastasis to other organs...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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