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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913531/volumetric-laser-endomicroscopy-in-the-biliary-and-pancreatic-ducts-a-feasibility-study-with-histological-correlation
#1
Juan E Corral, Omar Y Mousa, Murli Krishna, Iris J M Levink, Khela R Pursell, Mohammad Afsh, Paul T Kröner, Denise M Harnois, Herbert C Wolfsen, Michael B Wallace, Frank J Lukens
BACKGROUND:  Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) provides circumferential images 3 mm into the biliary and pancreatic ducts. We aimed to correlate VLE images with the normal and abnormal microstructure of these ducts. METHODS: Samples from patients undergoing hepatic or pancreatic resection were evaluated. VLE images were collected using a low-profile VLE catheter inserted manually into the biliary and pancreatic ducts ex vivo. Histological correlation was assessed by two unblinded investigators...
June 18, 2018: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913184/superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanocolloids-in-mri-studies-of-neuroinflammation
#2
Lorenzo Ugga, Valeria Romeo, Enrico Tedeschi, Arturo Brunetti, Mario Quarantelli
Iron oxide (IO) nanocolloids are being increasingly used to image cellular contribution to neuroinflammation using MRI, as these particles are capable of labeling circulating cells with phagocytic activity, allowing to assess cell trafficking from the blood to neuroinflammation sites. The use of IOs relies on the natural phagocytic properties of immune cells, allowing their labeling either in vitro or directly in vivo, following intravenous injection. Despite concerns on the specificity of the latter approach, the widespread availability and relatively low cost of these techniques, coupled to a sensitivity that allows to reach single cell detection, have promoted their use in several preclinical and clinical studies...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912743/do-well-functioning-thas-retrieved-at-autopsy-exhibit-evidence-of-fretting-and-corrosion
#3
Jeffrey Lange, Amanda Wach, Chelsea N Koch, Robert H Hopper, Henry Ho, Charles A Engh, Timothy M Wright, Douglas E Padgett
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of fretting and corrosion at head-neck junctions in modular THAs in vivo is based largely on the analysis of retrieved implants removed for various diagnoses. Little is known about the condition of head-neck tapers in well-functioning THAs. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Regarding a cohort of well-functioning autopsy-retrieved modular THAs, we asked: (1) Does trunnion geometry or femoral head material affect the pull-off force of the femoral head? (2) Is there a relationship between trunnion damage and length of implantation time, head diameter, and neck length? (3) Does visual damage scoring accurately determine the presence or absence of corrosion on cobalt-chrome trunnions? METHODS: Sixty-six femoral stems and engaged femoral heads were retrieved at autopsy from 53 patients at Anderson Orthopaedic Research Institute from 1998 to 2014...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912734/facet-joint-osteoarthritis-affects-spinal-segmental-motion-in-degenerative-spondylolisthesis
#4
Shigeyuki Kitanaka, Ryota Takatori, Yuji Arai, Masateru Nagae, Hitoshi Tonomura, Yasuo Mikami, Nozomu Inoue, Taku Ogura, Hiroyoshi Fujiwara, Toshikazu Kubo
STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective clinical case series (case-control study). OBJECTIVE: To clarify the influence of facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) on the pathology of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) using in vivo 3-dimensional image analysis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There are no radical treatments to prevent progression of DS in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis associated with DS. Therefore, an effective treatment method based on the pathology of DS should be developed...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912618/caloric-restriction-counteracts-chemotherapy-induced-inflammation-and-increases-response-to-therapy-in-a-triple-negative-breast-cancer-model
#5
Brittany A Simone, Ajay Palagani, Kimberly Strickland, Kevin Ko, Lianjin Jin, Meng Kieng Lim, Tu D Dan, Mak Sarich, Daniel A Monti, Massimo Cristofanilli, Nicole L Simone
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease that has no available targeted therapies. Previously, we have shown that caloric restriction (CR) can augment the effects of radiation therapy in a TNBC mouse model. To build upon this, we now present data regarding the combination of chemotherapy and CR in the same 4T1 model. Chemotherapy can induce inflammation that breeds resistance to therapy. We propose CR as a mechanism to decrease chemotherapy-induced inflammation and increase efficacy of therapy...
June 18, 2018: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912202/suppression-of-pro-fibrotic-signaling-potentiates-factor-mediated-reprogramming-of-mouse-embryonic-fibroblasts-into-induced-cardiomyocytes
#6
Andrew S Riching, Yuanbiao Zhao, Yingqiong Cao, Pilar Londono, Hongyan Xu, Kunhua Song
Trans-differentiation of one somatic cell type into another has enormous potential to model and treat human diseases. Previous studies have shown that mouse embryonic, dermal, and cardiac fibroblasts can be reprogrammed into functional induced-cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs) through overexpression of cardiogenic transcription factors including GATA4, Hand2, Mef2c, and Tbx5 both in vitro and in vivo. However, these previous studies have shown relatively low efficiency. In order to restore heart function following injury, mechanisms governing cardiac reprogramming must be elucidated to increase efficiency and maturation of iCMs...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912190/ex-vivo-calcium-imaging-for-visualizing-brain-responses-to-endocrine-signaling-in-drosophila
#7
Hiroshi Ishimoto, Hiroko Sano
Organ-to-organ communication by endocrine signaling, for example, from the periphery to the brain, is essential for maintaining homeostasis. As a model animal for endocrine research, Drosophila melanogaster, which has sophisticated genetic tools and genome information, is being increasingly used. This article describes a method for the calcium imaging of Drosophila brain explants. This method enables the detection of the direct signaling of a hormone to the brain. It is well known that many peptide hormones act through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), whose activation causes an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911682/contact-guidance-is-cell-cycle-dependent
#8
Kamyar Esmaeili Pourfarhangi, Edgar Cardenas De La Hoz, Andrew R Cohen, Bojana Gligorijevic
Cancer cell migration is essential for metastasis, during which cancer cells move through the tumor and reach the blood vessels. In vivo , cancer cells are exposed to contact guidance and chemotactic cues. Depending on the strength of such cues, cells will migrate in a random or directed manner. While similar cues may also stimulate cell proliferation, it is not clear whether cell cycle progression affects migration of cancer cells and whether this effect is different in random versus directed migration. In this study, we tested the effect of cell cycle progression on contact guided migration in 2D and 3D environments, in the breast carcinoma cell line, FUCCI-MDA-MB-231...
September 2018: APL bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911339/fingerprint-stimulated-raman-scattering-imaging-reveals-retinoid-coupling-lipid-metabolism-and-survival
#9
Andy Jing Chen, Junjie Li, Amber Jannasch, Sena Ozseker, Meng C Wang, Ji-Xin Cheng
Retinoids play critical roles in development, immunity and lipid metabolism, and their deficiency leads to various human disorders. Yet, tools for sensing retinoids in vivo are lacking, which limits the understanding of retinoid distribution, dynamics and functions in living organisms. Here, using hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy, we discover a previously unknown cytoplasmic store of retinoids in Caenorahbditis elegans. Following the temporal dynamics of retinoids, we reveal that their levels are positively correlated with fat storage, and their supplementation slows down fat loss during dauer starvation...
June 17, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911289/homing-and-tracking-of-iron-oxide-labelled-mesenchymal-stem-cells-after-infusion-in-traumatic-brain-injury-mice-a-longitudinal-in-vivo-mri-study
#10
Sushanta Kumar Mishra, Subash Khushu, Ajay K Singh, Gurudutta Gangenahalli
Stem cells transplantation has emerged as a promising alternative therapeutic due to its potency at injury site. The need to monitor and non-invasively track the infused stem cells is a significant challenge in the development of regenerative medicine. Thus, in vivo tracking to monitor infused stem cells is especially vital. In this manuscript, we have described an effective in vitro labelling method of MSCs, a serial in vivo tracking of implanted stem cells at traumatic brain injury (TBI) site through 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
June 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910700/protoporphyrin-ix-ppix-coated-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticle-spion-nanoclusters-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-photodynamic-therapy
#11
Lesan Yan, Ahmad Amirshaghaghi, Dennis Huang, Joann Miller, Joel M Stein, Theresa M Busch, Zhiliang Cheng, Andrew Tsourkas
The ability to produce nanotherapeutics at large-scale with high drug loading efficiency, high drug loading capacity, high stability, and high potency is critical for clinical translation. However, many nanoparticle-based therapeutics under investigation suffer from complicated synthesis, poor reproducibility, low stability, and high cost. In this work, a simple method for preparing multifunctional nanoparticles is utilized that act as both a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging and a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy for the treatment of cancer...
April 17, 2018: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910223/intravascular-ultrasound-and-angioscopy-assessment-of-coronary-plaque-components-in-chronic-totally-occluded-lesions
#12
Shigeki Kimura, Tomoyo Sugiyama, Keiichi Hishikari, Shun Nakagama, Shun Nakamura, Toru Misawa, Masafumi Mizusawa, Kazuto Hayasaka, Yosuke Yamakami, Yuichiro Sagawa, Keisuke Kojima, Hirofumi Ohtani, Hiroyuki Hikita, Atsushi Takahashi
BACKGROUND: The in vivo lesion morphologies and plaque components of coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions remain unclear.Methods and Results:We investigated 57 consecutive CTO lesions in 57 patients with stable angina pectoris undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and coronary angioscopy (CAS) examination. All CTO lesions were classified according to the proximal angiographic lumen pattern; tapered-type (T-CTO) and abrupt-type (A-CTO)...
June 15, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909997/attractor-dynamics-in-networks-with-learning-rules-inferred-from-in-vivo-data
#13
Ulises Pereira, Nicolas Brunel
The attractor neural network scenario is a popular scenario for memory storage in the association cortex, but there is still a large gap between models based on this scenario and experimental data. We study a recurrent network model in which both learning rules and distribution of stored patterns are inferred from distributions of visual responses for novel and familiar images in the inferior temporal cortex (ITC). Unlike classical attractor neural network models, our model exhibits graded activity in retrieval states, with distributions of firing rates that are close to lognormal...
June 13, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909994/the-bdnf-val66met-prodomain-disassembles-dendritic-spines-altering-fear-extinction-circuitry-and-behavior
#14
Joanna I Giza, Jihye Kim, Heidi C Meyer, Agustin Anastasia, Iva Dincheva, Crystal I Zheng, Katherine Lopez, Henrietta Bains, Jianmin Yang, Clay Bracken, Conor Liston, Deqiang Jing, Barbara L Hempstead, Francis S Lee
A human variant in the BDNF gene (Val66Met; rs6265) is associated with impaired fear extinction. Using super-resolution imaging, we demonstrate that the BDNF Met prodomain disassembles dendritic spines and eliminates synapses in hippocampal neurons. In vivo, ventral CA1 (vCA1) hippocampal neurons undergo similar morphological changes dependent on their transient co-expression of a SorCS2/p75NTR receptor complex during peri-adolescence. BDNF Met prodomain infusion into the vCA1 during this developmental time frame reduces dendritic spine density and prelimbic (PL) projections, impairing cued fear extinction...
June 2, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909457/in-vivo-tumor-imaging-by-a-%C3%AE-glutamyl-transpeptidase-activatable-near-infrared-fluorescent-probe
#15
Lihong Li, Wen Shi, Xiaofeng Wu, Xiaohua Li, Huimin Ma
γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), overexpressed in various cancer cells, has been perceived as a latent tumor biomarker. Thus, developing near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent GGT probes is highly desired for in vivo tumor imaging and studies. To our knowledge, however, such a GGT probe is still rare. Herein, we construct a new GGT-activatable NIR fluorescent probe HCAGlu by incorporating γ-glutamyl group as a recognition unit directly into a NIR hemicyanine fluorophore. HCAGlu exhibits a highly sensitive and selective NIR fluorescence off-on response to GGT...
June 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909365/histogram-profiling-of-postcontrast-t1-weighted-mri-gives-valuable-insights-into-tumor-biology-and-enables-prediction-of-growth-kinetics-and-prognosis-in-meningiomas
#16
Georg Alexander Gihr, Diana Horvath-Rizea, Patricia Kohlhof-Meinecke, Oliver Ganslandt, Hans Henkes, Cindy Richter, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Alexey Surov, Stefan Schob
BACKGROUND: Meningiomas are the most frequently diagnosed intracranial masses, oftentimes requiring surgery. Especially procedure-related morbidity can be substantial, particularly in elderly patients. Hence, reliable imaging modalities enabling pretherapeutic prediction of tumor grade, growth kinetic, realistic prognosis, and-as a consequence-necessity of surgery are of great value. In this context, a promising diagnostic approach is advanced analysis of magnetic resonance imaging data...
June 14, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909215/modeling-neurodegeneration-in-patients-with-visual-pathway-tumors-by-retinal-optical-coherence-tomography
#17
Ana Banc, Cristina Stan, Alexandra-Stefania Berghe, Tudor Catalin Drugan, Ioan-Stefan Florian
OBJECTIVE: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive high-resolution imaging technique which was suggested to be a powerful biomarker of neurodegeneration. The objective of our study is to assess the pattern of retinal OCT changes in patients with visual pathway tumors. METHODS: A prospective clinical study was conducted and patients with single cerebral tumors with potential of compression on the visual pathway were included. Patients with multiple and/or metastatic tumors were excluded...
June 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909101/lipoprotein-apheresis-acutely-reverses-coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-in-patients-with-severe-hypercholesterolemia
#18
Melinda D Wu, Federico Moccetti, Eran Brown, Brian P Davidson, Tamara Atkinson, J Todd Belcik, George Giraud, P Barton Duell, Sergio Fazio, Hagai Tavori, Sotirios Tsimikas, Jonathan R Lindner
OBJECTIVES: The study evaluated whether lipoprotein apheresis produces immediate changes in resting perfusion in subjects with severe hypercholesterolemia, and whether there is a difference in the response between peripheral and coronary microcirculations. BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein apheresis is used in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia to reduce plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. METHODS: Quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound perfusion imaging of the myocardium at rest and skeletal muscle at rest and during calibrated contractile exercise was performed before and immediately after lipoprotein apheresis in 8 subjects with severe hypercholesterolemia, 7 of whom had a diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia...
June 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909060/quantification-of-bone-microstructure-in-the-wrist-using-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#19
Karen Mys, Filip Stockmans, Evie Vereecke, G Harry van Lenthe
Due to the rising life expectancy, bone diseases (e.g. osteoporosis, osteoarthritis) and trauma (e.g. fracture) have become an important socio-economic burden. Accurate visualization and quantification of the bone microstructure in vivo is seen as an important step to enhance diagnosis and treatment. Micro-computed tomography (microCT) has become the gold standard in three-dimensional (3D) imaging of trabecular bone structure. Yet, usage is limited to ex vivo analyses, hence, it cannot be used to evaluate bone and bone adaptive responses in a patient...
June 14, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908985/biodistribution-and-toxicity-assessment-of-intratumorally-injected-arginine-glycine-aspartic-acid-peptide-conjugated-to-cdse-zns-quantum-dots-in-mice-bearing-pancreatic-neoplasm
#20
Ming-Ming Li, Jia Cao, Jia-Chun Yang, Yu-Jie Shen, Xiao-Lei Cai, Yuan-Wen Chen, Chun-Ying Qu, Yi Zhang, Feng Shen, Min Zhou, Lei-Ming Xu
Quantum dots (QDs) conjugated with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides (which are integrin antagonists) are novel nanomaterials with the unique optical property of high molar extinction coefficient, and they have potential utility as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Our group previously demonstrated significant benefits of using PDT with QD-RGD on pancreatic tumor cells. This study aimed to evaluate the biodistribution and toxicity of QD-RGD in mice prior to in vivo application. Mice with pancreatic neoplasms were intratumorally injected with varying doses of QD-RGD, and the biodistribution 0-24 h post injection was compared to that in control mice (intravenously injected with unconjugated QD)...
June 14, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
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