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cancer care, 'radiation therapy,

David Y Lee, Annabelle Teng, Rose C Pedersen, Farees R Tavangari, Vikram Attaluri, Elisabeth C McLemore, Stacey L Stern, Anton J Bilchik, Melanie R Goldfarb
INTRODUCTION: Stage II-III rectal cancer requires multidisciplinary cancer care, and adolescents and young adults (AYA, ages 15-39 years) often do not receive optimal cancer therapy. METHODS: Overall, 3295 AYAs with clinical stage II-III rectal cancer were identified in the National Cancer Database. Factors associated with the receipt of adjuvant and surgical therapies, as well as overall survival (OS), were examined. RESULTS: The majority of patients were non-Hispanic White (72...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Anil Prasad, Nagina Khudaynazar, Ramana V Tantravahi, Amanda M Gillum, Benjamin S Hoffman
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Treatment failure, drug resistance and chemoradiation toxicity have necessitated the development of alternative treatment strategies. Styryl benzyl sulfones, a family of novel small molecule inhibitors, are being evaluated as anti-neoplastic agents in multiple clinical trials. The activity of these compounds has been well characterized in several preclinical tumor studies, but their activity has yet to be fully examined in HNSCC...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Viviane B L Torres, Juliana Vassalo, Ulysses V A Silva, Pedro Caruso, André P Torelly, Eliezer Silva, José M M Teles, Marcos Knibel, Ederlon Rezende, José J S Netto, Claudio Piras, Luciano C P Azevedo, Fernando A Bozza, Nelson Spector, Jorge I F Salluh, Marcio Soares
INTRODUCTION: Cancer patients are at risk for severe complications related to the underlying malignancy or its treatment and, therefore, usually require admission to intensive care units (ICU). Here, we evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes in this subgroup of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Secondary analysis of two prospective cohorts of cancer patients admitted to ICUs. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify variables associated with hospital mortality...
2016: PloS One
Eleanor M Osborne, Cathy Eng, John M Skibber, Miguel A Rodriguez-Bigas, George J Chang, Yi-Qian Nancy You, Brian K Bednarski, Bruce D Minsky, Marc E Delclos, Eugene Koay, Sunil Krishnan, Christopher H Crane, Prajnan Das
OBJECTIVES: Although chemoradiation is the standard of care for anal cancer, limited data exist regarding pelvic reirradiation (re-RT) for recurrent disease. We investigated toxicity and outcomes in patients who received prior pelvic radiation therapy (RT), and subsequently underwent hyperfractionated accelerated re-RT to the pelvis for recurrent anal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed records of 10 patients with recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma who previously received pelvic RT to at least 30 Gy as a component of their chemoradiation and underwent re-RT in 1...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
Wsam A Ghandourh
Advanced cancer patients commonly have misunderstandings about the intentions of treatment and their overall prognosis. Several studies have shown that large numbers of patients receiving palliative radiation or chemotherapy hold unrealistic hopes of their cancer being cured by such therapies, which can affect their ability to make well-informed decisions about treatment options. This review aimed to explore this discrepancy between patients' and physicians' expectations by investigating three primary issues: (1) the factors associated with patients developing unrealistic expectations; (2) the implications of having unrealistic hopes and the effects of raising patients' awareness about prognosis; and (3) patients' and caregivers' perspective on disclosure and their preferences for communication styles...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Paola Friedrich, Catherine G Lam, Geetinder Kaur, Elena Itriago, Raul C Ribeiro, Ramandeep S Arora
BACKGROUND: Understanding and addressing treatment abandonment (TxA) is crucial for bridging the pediatric cancer survival gap between high-income (HIC) and low-and middle-income countries (LMC). In childhood cancer, TxA is defined as failure to start or complete curative cancer therapy and known to be a complex phenomenon. With rising interest on causes and consequences of TxA in LMC, this study aimed to establish the lay-of-the-land regarding determinants of TxA globally, perform and promote comparative research, and raise awareness on this subject...
2016: PloS One
Amar U Kishan, Percy Lee
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the second most common solid malignancy in the United States of America, and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Nearly 15% of patients present with early-stage disease, for which the standard of care is lobectomy. However, the median age at diagnosis ranges from 65 to 74 years, and many patients have significant comorbidities that preclude surgical treatment. Previously, the standard of care for these patients was definitive radiotherapy (RT) with conventional fractionation (i...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Jason R Cuomo, Gyanendra K Sharma, Preston D Conger, Neal L Weintraub
Radiation-induced cardiovascular disease (RICVD) is the most common nonmalignant cause of morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors who have undergone mediastinal radiation therapy (RT). Cardiovascular complications include effusive or constrictive pericarditis, cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, and coronary/vascular disease. These are pathophysiologically distinct disease entities whose prevalence varies depending on the timing and extent of radiation exposure to the heart and great vessels. Although refinements in RT dosimetry and shielding will inevitably limit future cases of RICVD, the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, including those treated with older higher-dose RT regimens, will ensure a steady flow of afflicted patients for the foreseeable future...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
David Li, Holly G Prigerson, Josephine Kang, Paul K Maciejewski
CONTEXT: Radiation therapy (RT) is used with palliative intent in patients with advanced stage cancer. Prior studies, primarily in patients with poor performance status (PS), suggest that RT is associated with aggressive medical care, which may impact patients' quality of life near death (QoD) adversely. OBJECTIVE: This study examines associations between RT use and patients' receipt of aggressive care and QoD based on patients' PS. METHODS: Multi-institutional, prospective cohort study of patients with end-stage cancers (N=312) and identified as terminally ill at study enrollment...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Shilpa Gupta, Guru Sonpavde
Penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is a rare cancer, but is more common in developing countries. Locally advanced and metastatic PSCC is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with the prognosis remaining extremely poor. The authors searched PubMed and published abstracts for metastatic PSCC studies to describe emerging therapies. Multimodality treatment using chemotherapy, radiation, and consolidative surgery are standard of care. Utilizing anti-EGFR therapies and novel immunotheraputic approaches may help improve outcomes in PSCC...
November 2016: Urologic Clinics of North America
Niels-Christian Reichardt, Manuel Martín-Lomas, Soledad Penadés
In this feature article we discuss the particular relevance of glycans as components or targets of functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) for potential applications in personalized medicine but we will not enter into descriptions for their preparation. For a more general view covering the preparation and applications of glyconanomaterials the reader is referred to a number of recent reviews. The combination of glyco- and nanotechnology is already providing promising new tools for more personalized solutions to diagnostics and therapy...
September 14, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Jun Xing, Yijun Luo, Xiaoli Wang, Min Gao, Mingping Sun, Xiuping Ding, Tingyong Fan, Jinming Yu
PURPOSE: Definitive chemoradiation therapy remains the standard of care for patients with localized esophageal carcinoma who choose nonsurgical management. However, there is no consensus regarding delineation of the nodal clinical target volume (CTVn), especially for lower cervical lymph nodes. This study aimed to map the location of metastatic supraclavicular lymph nodes in thoracic esophageal carcinoma patients with supraclavicular node involvement and generate an atlas to delineate the CTVn for elective nodal radiation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Tracy K Gosselin, Susan Beck, David H Abbott, Steven C Grambow, Dawn Provenzale, Patricia Berry, Katherine L Kahn, Jennifer L Malin
CONTEXT: As the number of rectal cancer survivors grows, it's important to understand the symptom experience posttreatment. While data show that rectal cancer survivors experience a variety of symptoms post diagnosis, little has been done to study the way these symptoms are grouped and associated. OBJECTIVES: To determine symptom prevalence and intensity in rectal cancer survivors and if clusters of survivors exist, who share similar symptom defined survivor subgroups that may vary based upon antecedent variables...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Amanda R Townsend, Li Chia Chong, Christos Karapetis, Timothy J Price
Liver metastases are often the dominant site of metastatic disease in colorectal cancer. Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) involves embolising radiolabeled spheres (SIR-Spheres) into the arterial supply of the liver. This review assesses the effectiveness and toxicity of SIRT in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer liver metastasis when given alone or with systemic or regional hepatic artery chemotherapy. We reviewed only randomised controlled trials comparing SIRT and chemotherapy (systemic and/or regional) with chemotherapy alone, or comparing SIRT alone with best supportive care...
September 10, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Kan Yonemori, Akihiro Hirakawa, Asuka Kawachi, Fumie Kinoshita, Hitomi Ohkuma, Tadaaki Nishikawa, Tamura Kenji, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Naoko Takebe
Interstitial lung disease is a serious drug related condition that can cause life threatening organ failure. The incidence and risk factors of drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) is unknown in oncology phase I trials. This study analyzed clinical information from 8,906 patients with malignancies who were enrolled in 470 phase I trials sponsored by the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, National Cancer Institute, from 1988 to 2014. Logistic and Cox statistical analyses were utilized to determine clinical differences between patients who developed DILD and patients who did not...
September 29, 2016: Cancer Science
Jan S Lewin, Leah M Baumgart, Martha P Barrow, Katherine A Hutcheson
Importance: Voice prosthesis (VP) device life is a limiting factor of tracheoesophageal (TE) voice restoration that drives patient satisfaction, health care costs, and overall burden. Historic data suggest that TE VPs have an average device life of generally 3 to 6 months, but these data are typically derived from small samples using only 1 or 2 devices. Objective: To reexamine current device life in a large, contemporary cancer hospital in the United States that uses a wide assortment of VPs...
September 29, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Andrew J Knighton, Tom Belnap, Kim Brunisholz, Kelly Huynh, Jay T Bishoff
INTRODUCTION: The introduction of the protein-specific antigen (PSA) test in care means that prostate cancer (PCa) is being detected earlier and more frequently. The result of increased screening using PSA, digital rectal examination and awareness of prostate was an increase in the number of men with low risk cancers. Active surveillance has become a viable alternative to immediate treatment with surgery, radiation and other forms of localized treatment. Evidence suggests that there is no significant difference in mortality rates between AS and surgery...
2016: EGEMS
Tomohiro Enokida, Shinya Suzuki, Tetsuro Wakasugi, Tomoko Yamazaki, Susumu Okano, Makoto Tahara
BACKGROUND: Hypomagnesemia is a common adverse event during cetuximab (Cmab) treatment. However, few reports have investigated the incidence and risk factors of hypomagnesemia in head and neck cancer patients treated with Cmab. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 131 head and neck cancer patients who received Cmab-containing therapy. Main eligibility criteria were ≥3 Cmab administrations, no prior EGFR-directed therapy, and no prophylactic Mg supplementation...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Yazid Belkacemi, Laurianne Colson-Durand, Adeline Granzotto, Shan Husheng, Nhu Hanh To, Soufya Majdoul, Saada Guet, Marie-Laure Hervé, Gloria Fonteneau, Christian Diana, Cindy Le Bret, Claude Dominique, Maryse Fayolle, Nicolas Foray
PURPOSE: After radiation therapy (RT), various radiation-induced toxicities can develop in about one-fourth of patients. An international interest in using morbidity and mortality rates to monitor the quality of care and integrate morbidity and mortality review (MMR) meetings into organizations' governance processes has arisen. We report the first results of patients included in our MMR procedure that included biological assays for individual intrinsic radiosensitivity (IIRS). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-three patients were prospectively included in the MMR database...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Erin Arthurs, Timothy P Hanna, Khaled Zaza, Yingwei Peng, Stephen F Hall
PURPOSE: A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted to determine the risk of ischemic stroke with respect to time, associated with curative radiation therapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: On the basis of data from the Ontario Cancer Registry and regional cancer treatment centers, 14,069 patients were identified with diagnoses of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, larynx, and pharynx who were treated for cure between 1990 and 2010...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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