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Chang-Gui Pan, You-Sheng Liu, Guang-Guo Ying
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of chemicals with wide industrial and commercial applications, and have been received great attentions due to their persistence in the environment. The information about their presence in urban water cycle is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and removal efficiency of eighteen PFASs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and drinking water plants (DWTPs) with different treatment processes. The results showed that both perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant compounds in the water phase of WWTPs and DWTPs, while PFOS was dominant in dewatered sludge of WWTPs...
October 19, 2016: Water Research
Damián Rodríguez Sartori, Cristian R Lillo, Juan J Romero, María Laura Dell Arciprete, Alejandro Miñán, Mónica Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica C Gonzalez
Grafting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to ultrasmall photoluminescent silicon dots (SiDs) is expected to improve and expand the applications of these particles to aqueous environments and biological systems. Herein we report a novel one-pot synthesis of robust, highly water compatible PEG-coated SiDs (denoted as PEG-SiDs) of (3.3 ± 0.5) nm size. The nanoparticles' synthesis is based on the liquid phase oxidation of magnesium silicide using PEG as reaction media and leading to high PEG density grafting. PEG-SiDs enhanced photophysical, photosensitising, and solution properties in aqueous environments are described and compared to those of 2 nm size PEG-coated SiDs with low PEG density grafting (denoted as PEG-NHSiDs) obtained from a multistep synthesis strategy...
October 24, 2016: Nanotechnology
Etienne Borré, Stéphane Bellemin-Laponnaz, Matteo Mauro
A series of amphiphilic metallopolymers is described that features zinc(II) bis-terpyridine coordination nodes and a backbone with hydrophobic azoaryl moieties and hydrophilic phenylene-ethynylene units decorated with PEG brushes. Using such metallopolymers at very low concentration, stable, photo-responsive and self-healable hydrogels are obtained. UV irradiation of the gel allows modulation of the degree of hydrophobic π-π interactions between photo-isomerizable azoaryl units and polarity switch that overall induces a fast gel-to-sol transition...
October 24, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jedrzej Kosiuk, Romina Milani, Laura Ueberham, Tobias Uhe, Clara Stegmann, Gerhard Hindricks, Andreas Bollmann
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been studied in models of different cardiovascular entities. Recently, a beneficial effect of RIPC on incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in postsurgical patients has been suggested. However, the potential impact of RIPC on electrophysiological- and thrombogenesis-related parameters in the setting of paroxysmal nonvalvular AF has not been investigated. The aim of the study is to answer the following questions: (1) Does RIPC have impact on inducibility of AF in patients with known paroxysmal AF? If yes, what are the direct electrophysiological mechanisms of this phenomenon, and could RIPC be implemented to reduce AF burden? (2) Does RIPC have the potential to minimize thrombogenic effects of simulated episodes of AF? If so, what are inhibited components of thrombogenesis and can this be used to reduce thromboembolic risk related to paroxysmal AF? The presented study is a 2-arm, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, single-center trial in a cohort of 146 patients with paroxysmal AF referred for AF ablation in sinus rhythm...
October 24, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
Tara Blakey, Assefa Melesse, Michael C Sukop, Georgio Tachiev, Dean Whitman, Fernando Miralles-Wilhelm
This study evaluated the ability to improve Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) chl-a retrieval from optically shallow coastal waters by applying algorithms specific to the pixels' benthic class. The form of the Ocean Color (OC) algorithm was assumed for this study. The operational atmospheric correction producing Level 2 SeaWiFS data was retained since the focus of this study was on establishing the benefit from the alternative specification of the bio-optical algorithm. Benthic class was determined through satellite image-based classification methods...
October 20, 2016: Sensors
Usama W Hawas, Radwan Al-Farawati, Lamia T Abou El-Kassem, Adnan J Turki
The endophytic fungus Fusarium equiseti was isolated from the brown alga Padina pavonica, collected from the Red Sea. The fungus was identified by its morphology and 18S rDNA. Cultivation of this fungal strain in biomalt-peptone medium led to isolation of 12 known metabolites of diketopeprazines and anthraquinones. The organic extract and isolated compounds were screened for their inhibition of hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease (HCV PR). As a result, the fungal metabolites showed inhibition of HCV protease (IC50 from 19 to 77 μM), and the fungus was subjected to culture on Czapek's (Cz) media, with a yield of nine metabolites with potent HCV protease inhibition ranging from IC50 10 to 37 μM...
October 20, 2016: Marine Drugs
Chang-Jie Jiang, Shoji Sugano, Akito Kaga, Sung Shin Lee, Takuma Sugimoto, Mami Takahashi, Masao Ishimoto
Stem and root rot disease caused by Phytophthora sojae is devastating to soybean crops worldwide. Developing host resistance to P. sojae, considered the most effective and stable means to control this disease, is partly hampered by limited germplasm resources. In this study, we first modified conventional methods for a P. sojae-resistance assay to a simpler and more cost-effective version in which the P. sojae-inoculum was mixed into the soil and the resistance was evaluated by survival rate (%) of soybean seedlings...
October 24, 2016: Phytopathology
Han Yang, Amir Sheikhi, Theo G M van de Ven
A novel biopolymer-based aerogel was developed by freeze-drying a hydrogel, synthesized from crosslinking bifunctional hairy nanocrystalline cellulose and carboxymethylated chitosan through a Schiff base reaction. The nanocelluloses, bearing aldehyde and carboxylic acid groups, facilitated the crosslinking with chitosan through imine bond formation while providing negatively-charged functional groups, and chitosan was modified to accommodate carboxylic acid. The potential of this bio-aerogel in environmental remediation was examined in a model system comprising methylene blue, a cationic dye...
October 24, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Christian Helbing, Robert Stößel, Dominik A Hering, Matthias Michael Lothar Arras, Jörg Bossert, Klaus D Jandt
Nanostructured surfaces have the potential to influence the assembly as well as the orientation of adsorbed proteins and may, thus, strongly influence the biomaterials performance. For the class of polymeric (bio)materials a reproducible and well characterized nanostructure is the ordered chain folded surface of a polyethylene single crystal (PE-SC). We tested the hypothesis that the trinodal-rod shaped protein human plasma fibrinogen (HPF) adsorbs on the (001) surface of PE-SCs along specific crystallographic directions...
October 24, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Niloofar Eslahi, Marjan Abdorahim, Abdolreza Arash Simchi
Stimuli responsive hydrogels (SRHs) are attractive bio-scaffolds for tissue engineering. The structural similarity of SRHs to the extracellular matrix (ECM) of many tissues offers great advantages for a minimally invasive tissue repair. Among various potential applications of SRHs, cartilage regeneration has attracted significant attention. The repair of cartilage damage is challenging in orthopedics owing to its low repair capacity. Recent advances include development of injectable hydrogels to minimize invasive surgery with nanostructured features and rapid stimuli-responsive characteristics...
October 24, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Søren B van Witteloostuijn, Søren L Pedersen, Knud J Jensen
Peptides and proteins constitute a vast pool of excellent drug candidates. Evolution has equipped these molecules with superior drug-like properties such as high specificity and potency. However, native peptides and proteins suffer from an inadequate pharmacokinetic profile, and their outstanding pharmacological potential can only be realized if this issue is addressed during drug development. To overcome this challenge, a variety of half-life extension techniques relying on covalent chemical modification have been developed...
October 24, 2016: ChemMedChem
Lorenzini Luca, Giuliani Alessandro, Sivilia Sandra, Baldassarro Vito Antonio, Fernandez Mercedes, Lotti Margotti Matteo, Giardino Luciana, Fontani Vania, Rinaldi Salvatore, Calzà Laura
The search for new therapeutic approaches to Alzheimer disease (AD) is a major goal in medicine and society, also due to the impressive economic and social costs of this disease. In this scenario, biotechnologies play an important role. Here, it is demonstrated that the Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC), an innovative technology platform for neuro- and bio-modulation, used according to the neuro-regenerative protocol (RGN-N), significantly increases astroglial reaction around the amyloid plaques in an AD mouse model, as evaluated by GFAP-immunoreactivity, and reduces microglia-associated neuroinflammation markers, as evaluated by Iba1-immunoreactivity and mRNA expression level of inflammatory cytokines TREM...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hyung-Youl Park, Sreekantha Reddy Dugasani, Dong-Ho Kang, Gwangwe Yoo, Jinok Kim, Bramaramba Gnapareddy, Jaeho Jeon, Minwoo Kim, Young Jae Song, Sungjoo Lee, Jonggon Heo, Young Jin Jeon, Sung Ha Park, Jin-Hong Park
Here, we report a high performance biosensor based on (i) a Cu(2+)-DNA/MoS2 hybrid structure and (ii) a field effect transistor, which we refer to as a bio-FET, presenting a high sensitivity of 1.7 × 10(3) A/A. This high sensitivity was achieved by using a DNA nanostructure with copper ions (Cu(2+)) that induced a positive polarity in the DNA (receptor). This strategy improved the detecting ability for doxorubicin-like molecules (target) that have a negative polarity. Very short distance between the biomolecules and the sensor surface was obtained without using a dielectric layer, contributing to the high sensitivity...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Teddy Stephen Ehianeta, Stéphane Laval, Biao Yu
Mangiferin (2C-β-d-glucopyranosyl-1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone) is a xanthone C-glycoside occurring in many plant species. Composed of a glucose unit C1→2 linked to a 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone aglycone, mangiferin exhibits a wide range of biological activities, which recently renewed its interest as a potential pharmacophore. Mangiferin is mainly isolated after extraction procedures from natural sources alongside with its isoforms isomangiferin, homomangiferin, and neomangiferin. However, enzymatic and chemical approaches have been developed to access these phytochemicals, which address the challenging construction of the C-glycosidic linkage...
September 10, 2016: BioFactors
Vaishali Yadav, Shyam Sunder Chatterjee, Muhammed Majeed, Vikas Kumar
AIM: To compare stress resistance increasing and analgesic activities of piperlongumine and a methanolic Piper longum fruit extract (PLE). METHODS: Efficacies of a single and repeated daily oral doses (1-256 mg/kg/day) of PLE, piperlongumine, and 50 mg/kg/day doxycycline against foot shock stress triggered alteration in body weights and core temperatures, and of their 11 daily doses on antidepressants like activity in tail suspension test and on pentobarbital induced sedation in male mice were compared...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Hao Wu, Fang Zeng, Hang Zhang, Jiangsheng Xu, Jianrong Qiu, Shuizhu Wu
The applications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) are usually limited by photosensitizers' side effects and singlet oxygen's short half-life. Herein, a mitochondria-targeted nanosystem is demonstrated to enhance the PDT efficacy by releasing a bio-precursor of photosensitizer under two-photon irradiation. A phototriggerable coumarin derivative is first synthesized by linking 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA, the bio-precursor) to coumarin; and the nanosystem (CD-ALA-TPP) is then fabricated by covalently incorporating this coumarin derivative and a mitochondria-targeting compound triphenylphosphonium (TPP) onto carbon dots (CDs)...
February 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Anatoliy I Yashin, Konstantin G Arbeev, Deqing Wu, Liubov Arbeeva, Alexander Kulminski, Irina Kulminskaya, Igor Akushevich, Svetlana V Ukraintseva
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To clarify mechanisms of genetic regulation of human aging and longevity traits, a number of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of these traits have been performed. However, the results of these analyses did not meet expectations of the researchers. Most detected genetic associations have not reached a genome-wide level of statistical significance, and suffered from the lack of replication in the studies of independent populations. The reasons for slow progress in this research area include low efficiency of statistical methods used in data analyses, genetic heterogeneity of aging and longevity related traits, possibility of pleiotropic (e...
2016: North American Actuarial Journal: NAAJ
Zi Long, Meiying Liu, Ruming Jiang, Guangjiang Zeng, Qing Wan, Hongye Huang, Fengjie Deng, Yiqun Wan, Xiaoyong Zhang, Yen Wei
Aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-active fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FNPs) have been extensively explored for fluorescence "turn-on" bio-imaging applications with the unique advantages over conventional FNPs. Transformation of AIE-active molecules into FNPs can greatly expand their biomedical application potential. Here we reported a novel "one-pot" strategy for fabricating AIE-active FNPs through an ultrasonic-assisted, catalysts-free and solvent-free Kabachnik-Fields (KF) reaction for the first time...
October 11, 2016: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Seifollah Gholampour, Nasser Fatouraee, Amir Saeed Seddighi, Afsoun Seddighi
In the present study, the heads of 11 normal subjects and 21 patients affected by hydrocephalus due to three different causes were simulated using fluid-structure interaction (FSI). To validate the results, the calculated diagram of CSF velocity in aqueduct of Sylvius (AS) was compared with the similar velocity diagram measured using Cine PC-MRI for the same subject. After ensuring the agreement of results, other outputs such as CSF pressure were calculated non-invasively using FSI. The intracranial pressure and CSF pressure in AS and behind the optic nerve sheath were in patients 5-5...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
M Venkataravanappa, H Nagabhushana, B Daruka Prasad, G P Darshan, R B Basavaraj, G R Vijayakumar
A novel Sr2SiO4:Eu (1-5mol %) superstructures (SS) were synthesized using bio-sacrificial A.V. gel assisted ultrasound method. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of both α and β phase formation. It was evident that the morphological growth was highly reliant on A.V. gel concentration, sonication time, pH and sonication power. The formation mechanisms for different hierarchical SS were proposed. From diffuse reflectance spectra, the energy band gap was estimated and found to be ∼4.70-5...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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