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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434057/predictive-control-of-intersegmental-tarsal-movements-in-an-insect
#1
Alicia Costalago-Meruelo, David M Simpson, Sandor M Veres, Philip L Newland
In many animals intersegmental reflexes are important for postural and movement control but are still poorly undesrtood. Mathematical methods can be used to model the responses to stimulation, and thus go beyond a simple description of responses to specific inputs. Here we analyse an intersegmental reflex of the foot (tarsus) of the locust hind leg, which raises the tarsus when the tibia is flexed and depresses it when the tibia is extended. A novel method is described to measure and quantify the intersegmental responses of the tarsus to a stimulus to the femoro-tibial chordotonal organ...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433937/perturbation-effect-of-reduced-graphene-oxide-quantum-dots-rgoqds-on-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ahr-pathway-in-zebrafish
#2
Jing-Hui Zhang, Tai Sun, Aping Niu, Yu-Mei Tang, Shun Deng, Wei Luo, Qun Xu, Dapeng Wei, De-Sheng Pei
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) has been widely used in enormous fields, however, the inherent molecular mechanism of GQDs for potential risks in biological system is still elusive to date. In this study, the outstanding reduced graphene quantum dots (rGOQDs) with the QY as high as 24.62% were successfully synthesized by the improved Hummers method and DMF hydrothermal treatment approach. The rGOQDs were N-doped photoluminescent nanomaterials with functional groups on the surface. The fluorescent bio-imaging was performed by exposing zebrafish in different concentrations of the as-prepared rGOQDs, and the distribution of rGOQDs was successfully observed...
April 15, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433920/proteomic-analysis-of-sockeye-salmon-serum-as-a-tool-for-biomarker-discovery-and-new-insight-into-the-sublethal-toxicity-of-diluted-bitumen
#3
Sarah L Alderman, Laura A Dindia, Christopher J Kennedy, Anthony P Farrell, Todd E Gillis
Pipelines carrying diluted bitumen (dilbit) from Canada's oil sands traverse North America, including the freshwater habitat of Pacific salmon, posing a risk of environmental release and aquatic exposure. Swimming performance is impacted in juvenile sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) exposed to dilbit; therefore biomarkers of dilbit exposure will be valuable for monitoring at-risk salmon stocks. This study characterized changes in the serum proteome of sockeye exposed to a sub-lethal and environmentally relevant concentration of dilbit using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ), and included a range of experimental conditions to permit identification of biomarkers that are robust across time (1 and 4wk) and exercise level (at rest and following a swim test)...
April 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433639/optimization-of-atrazine-and-imidacloprid-removal-from-water-using-biochars-designing-single-or-multi-staged-batch-adsorption-systems
#4
Abhishek Mandal, Neera Singh
BACKGROUND: Contamination of surface and ground water by pesticides from agricultural runoff and industrial discharge is one of the main causes of aqueous contaminations world over. Biochar, agricultural waste derived highly aromatic substance produced after pyrolysis and carbonification of biomass have exhibited good adsorption capacity for pesticides and can be used to develop on-site bio-purification systems for organic contaminant removal from polluted waters. However, high amounts of adsorbent required in single stage-batch sorption plant increases the cost of water treatment; therefore, multistage plant systems were investigated...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433584/electrohydrolysis-pretreatment-of-water-hyacinth-for-enhanced-hydrolysis
#5
Visva Bharati Barua, V Wilson Raju, Sophia Lippold, Ajay S Kalamdhad
This study investigates the use of electrohydrolysis pretreatment on water hyacinth to cut short the hydrolysis step and increase biogas production at the same time. Electrohydrolysis pretreatment of water hyacinth at 20V for 60min exhibited improved solubilisation (42.9%). Therefore, bio-chemical methane potential (BMP) test was carried out between water hyacinth pretreated at 20V for 60min and untreated water hyacinth. By the end of 30days, cumulative methane production of 2455±17mL CH4/g VS for electrohydrolysis pretreated substrate and 1936±27mL CH4/g VS for the untreated substrate was achieved...
April 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433556/bolus-injections-of-novel-thrombogenic-site-targeted-fusion-proteins-comprising-annexin-v-and-kunitz-protease-inhibitors-attenuate-intimal-hyperplasia-after-balloon-angioplasty
#6
Yung-Hsin Yeh, Shang-Hung Chang, Shin-Yu Chen, Chih-Jen Wen, Fu-Chan Wei, Rui Tang, Sam Achilefu, Tze-Chein Wun, Wei-Jan Chen
BACKGROUND: Systemic administrations of conventional antithrombotics reduce neointima formation after angioplasty in experimental animals. However, clinical translation of these results has not been successful due to high risk for bleeding. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether novel annexin-V (ANV)-Kunitz protease inhibitor fusion proteins, TAP-ANV and ANV-6L15, can specifically target to vascular injury site and limit neointima formation without inducing systemic hypo-coagulation in a rat carotid artery balloon angioplasty injury model...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433551/in-vitro-investigation-of-metabolic-profiling-of-newly-developed-topoisomerase-inhibitors-ethyl-fluorescein-hydrazones-etflhs-in-rlms-by-lc-ms-ms
#7
Adnan A Kadi, Nasser S Al-Shakliah, Wencui Yin, A F M Motiur Rahman
Metabolic profiling of newly reported five topoisomerase inhibitors namely ethyl fluorescein hydrazones (EtFLHs) were studied in rat liver microsomes (RLMs) and the data were acquired in a liquid chromatography (LC) ion trap mass spectrometry. Hydroxyl group containing EtFLHs derivatives (1-3) were bio-transformed into hydrolyzed, mono-hydroxylated and hydrolyzed together with mono-hydroxylated metabolites. On the other hand, nitro and methoxy groups containing EtFLHs derivatives (4-5) were bio-transformed into hydrolyzed, hydrolyzed together with mono-hydroxylated and azo-reductive metabolites in the presence of NADPH...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433437/optimal-ultrasound-exposure-conditions-for-maximizing-c2c12-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#8
Alice Rita Salgarella, Andrea Cafarelli, Leonardo Ricotti, Lorenzo Capineri, Paolo Dario, Arianna Menciassi
Described here is an in vitro systematic investigation of the effects on C2C12 myoblasts of exposure to finely controlled and repeatable low-intensity pulsed ultrasound of different frequencies (500 kHz, 1 MHz, 3 MHz and 5 MHz) and different intensities (250, 500 and 1000 mW/cm(2)). An in-house stimulation system and an ultrasound-transparent cell culture well minimized reflections and attenuations, allowing precise control of ultrasound delivery. Results indicated that a 3 MHz stimulation at 1 W/cm(2) intensity maximized cell proliferation in comparison with the other exposure conditions and untreated controls...
April 19, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433188/metabolic-engineering-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-for-production-of-spermidine-under-optimal-culture-conditions
#9
Sun-Ki Kim, Jung-Hyun Jo, Yong-Cheol Park, Yong-Su Jin, Jin-Ho Seo
Spermidine is a polyamine compound exhibiting important biological activities, such as increasing lifespan, inflammation reduction, and plant growth control. As such, many applications of spermidine as a bio-modulating agent are anticipated. However, sustainable and scalable production of spermidine has not been achieved yet. Therefore, construction of a spermidine production system using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was attempted in this study. In order to secrete spermidine into fermentation broth, TPO1 coding for the polyamine transporter was overexpressed in an engineered S...
June 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433186/characterization-and-thermal-inactivation-kinetics-of-highly-thermostable-ramie-leaf-%C3%AE-amylase
#10
Liqin He, Sung-Hoon Park, Nguyen Dang Hai Dang, Hoa Xo Duong, Thi Phung Cac Duong, Phuong Lan Tran, Jong-Tae Park, Li Ni, Kwan-Hwa Park
We characterized ramie leaf β-amylase, and determined its thermostability and kinetic parameters. The enzyme was purified 53-fold using ammonium sulfate fractionation (40-60% saturation), anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel permeation chromatography on Superdex-200. The purified enzyme was identified as β-amylase with molecular mass of 42kD. The enzyme displayed Km and kcat values for soluble potato starch of 1.1mg/mL and 7.8s(-1), respectively. The enzyme had a temperature optimum of 65°C, and its activity at 70°C was 92% of that at the optimal temperature after a 15-min incubation...
June 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433178/preparation-and-characterization-of-biodegradable-nanocomposites-derived-from-carboxymethyl-cellulose-and-hydroxyapatite
#11
K Azzaoui, E Mejdoubi, A Lamhamdi, S Jodeh, O Hamed, M Berrabah, S Jerdioui, R Salghi, N Akartasse, A Errich, Á Ríos, M Zougagh
Development of a cost-effective technology for extraction and quantification of carcinogenic and toxic organic materials which are widely used in the industry are critical to humans. Membrane technology received much attention and has already been widely used in this area. In this work, we offer a newly developed bio-based nanocomposite membrane for removal of bisphenol-A (BPA) from water. Three natural components hydroxyapatite (HAp), carboxymethyl cellulose and lysine as a diluent were used for making the bio-based membrane...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433166/chitosan-graphene-oxide-films-and-co2-dried-porous-aerogel-microspheres-interfacial-interplay-and-stability
#12
Sana Frindy, Ana Primo, Hamid Ennajih, Abou El Kacem Qaiss, Rachid Bouhfid, Mohamed Lahcini, El Mokhtar Essassi, Hermenegildo Garcia, Abdelkrim El Kadib
The intimate interplay of chitosan (CS) and graphene oxide (GO) in aqueous acidic solution has been explored to design upon casting, nanostructured "brick-and-mortar" films (CS-GO-f) and by acidic-to-basic pH inversion, porous CO2-dried aerogel microspheres (CS-GO-m). Owing to the presence of oxygenated functional groups in GO, good-quality crack-free hybrid films were obtained. Mechanical properties were improved independently of the GO content and it was found that a 20wt% loading affords hybrid film characterized with a Young modulus three times superior to that reached with the same loading of layered clay...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433149/fabrication-and-evaluation-of-thermosensitive-chitosan-collagen-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-glycerophosphate-hydrogels-for-tissue-regeneration
#13
Qifeng Dang, Kai Liu, Zhenzhen Zhang, Chengsheng Liu, Xi Liu, Ying Xin, Xiaoyu Cheng, Tao Xu, Dongsu Cha, Bing Fan
Thermosensitive hydrogels whose physiological properties are similar to extracellular matrix have been extensively used for tissue regeneration. Polysaccharides and proteins, as biocompatible substrates similar to bio-macromolecules that could be recognized by human body, are two preferred polymers for fabrication of such hydrogels. A series of novel thermosensitive hydrogels (CS-ASC-HGs) containing chitosan (CS) and acid-soluble collagen (ASC) were thus prepared, in the presence of α, β-glycerophosphate, to mimic extracellular microenvironment for tissue regeneration...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432963/health-hazards-of-child-labor-in-the-leather-products-and-surgical-instrument-manufacturing-industries-of-sialkot-pakistan
#14
Muhammad Junaid, Riffat Naseem Malik, De-Sheng Pei
Child labor is a major challenge in the developing countries and comprehensive health hazard identification studies on this issue are still lacking. Therefore, the current study is an effort to highlight the health concerns of child labor exposed in the key small scale industries of Sialkot, Pakistan. Our findings revealed jolting levels of heavy metals in the urine, blood, serum, saliva, and hair samples collected from the exposed children. For example, in the urine samples, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb were measured at the respective concentrations of 39...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432102/two-distinct-%C3%AE-l-arabinofuranosidases-in-caldicellulosiruptor-species-drive-degradation-of-arabinose-based-polysaccharides
#15
Md Abu Saleh, Wen-Jie Han, Ming Lu, Bing Wang, Huayue Li, Robert M Kelly, Fu-Li Li
Species in the extremely thermophilic genus Caldicellulosiruptor can degrade unpretreated plant biomass through the action of multi-modular glycoside hydrolases. To date, most focus with these bacteria has been on hydrolysis of glucans and xylans, while biodegradation mechanism for arabinose-based polysaccharides remains unclear. Here, putative α-L-arabinofuranosidases (AbFs) were identified in Caldicellulosiruptor species by homology to less thermophilic versions of these enzymes. From this screen, an extracellular XynF was determined to be a key factor in hydrolyzing α-1,2-, α-1,3-, and α-1,5-L-arabinofuranosyl residues of arabinose-based polysaccharides...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432037/investigating-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-6-integrin-receptor-targeting-liposomal-alendronate-for-combinatory-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-immunotherapy
#16
Naomi O Hodgins, Wafa' T Al-Jamal, Julie T-W Wang, Rebecca Klippstein, Jane K Sosabowski, John F Marshall, John Maher, Khuloud T Al-Jamal
The αvβ6 integrin receptor has been shown to be overexpressed on many types of cancer cells, resulting in a more pro-invasive and aggressive phenotype, this makes it an attractive target for selective drug delivery. In tumours that over-express the αvβ6 receptor, cellular uptake of liposomes can be enhanced using ligand-targeted liposomes. It has previously been shown in both in vitro and in vivo studies that liposomal alendronate (L-ALD) can sensitise cancer cells to destruction by Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. It is hypothesised that by using the αvβ6-specific peptide A20FMDV2 as a targeting moiety for L-ALD, the therapeutic efficacy of this therapy can be increased in αvβ6 positive tumours...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431941/bio-catalytic-performance-and-dye-based-industrial-pollutants-degradation-potential-of-agarose-immobilized-mnp-using-a-packed-bed-reactor-system
#17
Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Asgher, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Hongbo Hu, Wei Wang, Xuehong Zhang
In this study, the matrix-entrapment technique was adopted to immobilize a novel manganese peroxidase (MnP). Agarose beads developed from 3.0% agarose concentration furnished the preeminent immobilization yield (92.76%). The immobilized MnP exhibited better resistance to changes in the pH and temperature as compared to the free counterpart, with optimal conditions being pH 6.0 and 45°C. Thermal and storage stability characteristics were significantly improved after immobilization, and the immobilized-MnP displayed higher tolerance against different temperatures than free MnP state...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431482/nanozyme-applications-in-biology-and-medicine-an-overview
#18
Jafar Golchin, Kazem Golchin, Neda Alidadian, Shahrooz Ghaderi, Sajjad Eslamkhah, Masoud Eslamkhah, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh
Nanozymes, in nature, are artificial enzymes. Innovated by Ronald Breslow to mimic enzymes. Nanozymes have widespread applications including targeted cancer therapy, diagnostic medicine and bio-sensing even environmental toxicology. However, these applications are a novel research field in biomedicine, but are growing fast. Enzyme-based applications such as immune-absorbent assay (ELIZA) are expensive because of the complexity of producing enzymes and antibodies. Not only, some nanoparticles can mimic these enzymes such as superoxides, but also they can manipulate biological pathways directly like autophagy...
April 21, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431394/effect-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-vnp20009-and-vnp20009-with-restored-chemotaxis-on-4t1-mouse-mammary-carcinoma-progression
#19
Sheryl L Coutermarsh-Ott, Katherine M Broadway, Birgit E Scharf, Irving C Allen
A variety of bacterial strains have been evaluated as bio-therapeutic and immunomodulatory agents to treat cancer. One such strain, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium VNP20009, which is attenuated by a purine auxotrophic mutation and modified lipid A, is characterized in previous models as a safely administered, tumor colonizing agent. However, earlier work tended to use less aggressive cancer cell lines and immunocompromised animal models. Here, we investigated the safety and efficacy of VNP20009 in a highly malignant murine model of human breast cancer...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431384/sediment-and-salinity-effects-on-the-bioaccumulation-of-sulfamethoxazole-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#20
Y Chen, J L Zhou, L Cheng, Y Y Zheng, J Xu
The dynamic distribution of a widely used antibiotic sulfamethoxazole between water, sediment and aquatic organisms (zebrafish) was studied in microcosms. Sulfamethoxazole concentrations in water were gradually reduced, while in sediment and zebrafish gradually increased, suggesting active adsorption and bioaccumulation processes occurring. The presence of sediment particles and their interactions with water reduced the bioaccumulation of sulfamethoxazole in zebrafish by 13-28%. The sediment of smaller particle size with more organic carbon content and higher surface area, adsorbed sulfamethoxazole more extensively and decreased its bioaccumulation most significantly...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
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