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Paramyxovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129019/genetic-characterization-of-bank-vole-virus-bavv-a-new-paramyxovirus-isolated-from-kidneys-of-bank-voles-in-russia
#1
Sergey Alkhovsky, Alexander Butenko, Aykaz Eremyan, Alexey Shchetinin
A genome of bank vole virus (BaVV), isolated from kidney tissues of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in Russia in 1973, was sequenced. The genomic organization of BaVV (3'-N-P/V/C-M-F-G-L-5', 16,992 nt in length; GenBank accession number MF943130) is most similar to that of Mossman virus (MoV) and Nariva virus (NarPV), two ungrouped paramyxoviruses isolated from rodents in Australia and Trinidad, respectively. The proteins of BaVV have the highest level of sequence identity (ranging from 23-28% for G protein to 66-73% for M protein) to proteins of MoV and NarPV...
November 11, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110978/mumps-an-emergency-medicine-focused-update
#2
Chelsea Bockelman, Thomas C Frawley, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Mumps is a Paramyxoviridae virus. This disease was rampant prior to introduction of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, resulting in decreased incidence. This disease has demonstrated several outbreaks. OBJECTIVE: This review provides a focused evaluation of mumps, an update on outbreaks, management recommendations, and ways to decrease transmission. DISCUSSION: Clusters of mumps outbreaks continue to occur. The virus is a paramyxovirus, a single-stranded RNA virus...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108516/clinical-outcomes-of-paramyxovirus-infections-in-lung-transplant-recipients-treated-with-oral-ribavirin-a-two-center-case-series
#3
Bryan Garcia, Nirmal Sharma, Kevin Johnson, Juan Salgado, Keith Wille
OBJECTIVES: Paramyxoviruses contribute to morbidity and mortality after lung transplant and are associated with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Oral ribavirin has been used off-label for treatment of paramyxoviruses in immunosuppressed patients; however, data supporting its use for this purpose are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review to evaluate clinical outcomes of lung transplant recipients infected with paramyxoviruses and received treatment with oral ribavirin at 2 tertiary referral centers...
October 31, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098490/avian-viral-pathogens-in-swallows-zimbabwe-infectious-diseases-in-hirundinidae-a-risk-to-swallow
#4
A Caron, N Chiweshe, J Mundava, C Abolnik, A Capobianco Dondona, M Scacchia, N Gaidet
We sampled 417 swallows in a wetland ecosystem of Zimbabwe in February 2010 and October 2011. RT-PCR tests revealed circulation of avian paramyxovirus type I, avian influenza and West Nile disease viruses in these populations. We discuss the relevance of these findings in relation to what is known on the epidemiology of these viruses in these hosts and in relation to the host ecology. We conclude with recommendations to focus more research on Passeriformes in disease ecology and in particular on the hirundinidae family...
November 2, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073020/tectonic-conformational-changes-of-a-coronavirus-spike-glycoprotein-promote-membrane-fusion
#5
Alexandra C Walls, M Alejandra Tortorici, Joost Snijder, Xiaoli Xiong, Berend-Jan Bosch, Felix A Rey, David Veesler
The tremendous pandemic potential of coronaviruses was demonstrated twice in the past few decades by two global outbreaks of deadly pneumonia. The coronavirus spike (S) glycoprotein initiates infection by promoting fusion of the viral and cellular membranes through conformational changes that remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report the cryoEM structure of a coronavirus S glycoprotein in the postfusion state, showing large-scale secondary, tertiary, and quaternary rearrangements compared with the prefusion trimer and rationalizing the free-energy landscape of this conformational machine...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058150/next-generation-sequencing-of-five-new-avian-paramyxoviruses-8-isolates-from-kazakhstan-indicates-a-low-genetic-evolution-rate-over-four-decades
#6
Sasan Fereidouni, M Jenckel, A Seidalina, K Karamendin, M Beer, E Starick, S Asanova, E Kasymbekov, M Sayatov, A Kydyrmanov
Five avian paramyxoviruses of serotype 8 (APMV-8) were isolated during a study monitoring wild birds in Kazakhstan in 2013 and each was further characterized. The viruses were isolated from three White-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), one Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus), and one Little stint (Calidris minuta). Before our study, only two complete APMV-8 sequences had been reported worldwide since their discovery in the USA and Japan in the 1970s. We report the complete genome sequences of the newly detected viruses and analyze the genetic evolution of the APMV-8 viruses over four decades...
October 22, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038866/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-novel-avian-paramyxovirus-isolated-from-wild-birds-in-south-korea
#7
Jipseol Jeong, Youngsik Kim, Injung An, Seung-Jun Wang, Yongkwan Kim, Hyun-Jeong Lee, Kang-Seuk Choi, Se-Pyeong Im, Wongi Min, Jae-Ku Oem, Weonhwa Jheong
A novel avian paramyxovirus (APMV), Cheonsu1510, was isolated from wild bird feces in South Korea and serologically and genetically characterized. In hemagglutination inhibition tests, antiserum against Cheonsu1510 showed low reactivity with other APMVs and vice versa. The complete genome of Cheonsu1510 comprised 15,408 nucleotides, contained six open reading frames (3'-N-P-M-F-HN-L-5'), and showed low sequence identity to other APMVs (< 63%) and a unique genomic composition. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Cheonsu1510 was related to but distinct from APMV-1, -9, and -15...
October 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988534/biochemical-variations-in-cytolytic-activity-of-ortho-and-paramyxoviruses-in-human-lung-tumor-cell-culture
#8
O P Zhirnov
Human lung cancer cells (Calu-3 line) were studied for the development of apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy in response to infection with ortho- and paramyxoviruses. Biochemical pathways underlying various mechanisms of cell death differed for different viruses. When infected with murine Sendai paramyxovirus, Calu-3 cells demonstrated typical necrotic features such as cell swelling (but not shrinkage), lack of chromatin DNA laddering, of caspase 3 and 8 activation, and of apoptotic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein; an activation of antiapoptotic protein kinase Akt was also revealed...
September 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986577/replication-defective-viral-genomes-exploit-a-cellular-pro-survival-mechanism-to-establish-paramyxovirus-persistence
#9
Jie Xu, Yan Sun, Yize Li, Gordon Ruthel, Susan R Weiss, Arjun Raj, Daniel Beiting, Carolina B López
Replication defective viral genomes (DVGs) generated during virus replication are the primary triggers of antiviral immunity in many RNA virus infections. However, DVGs can also facilitate viral persistence. Why and how these two opposing functions of DVGs are achieved remain unknown. Here we report that during Sendai and respiratory syncytial virus infections DVGs selectively protect a subpopulation of cells from death, thereby promoting the establishment of persistent infections. We find that during Sendai virus infection this phenotype results from DVGs stimulating a mitochondrial antiviral-signaling (MAVS)-mediated TNF response that drives apoptosis of highly infected cells while extending the survival of cells enriched in DVGs...
October 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982603/in-vitro-infectivity-of-oncolytic-newcastle-disease-virus-correlation-between-plaque-and-fluorescent-focus-assays
#10
Benjamin S Rush, Melissa L Coughlin, Gautam Sanyal
Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) is an avian paramyxovirus that has no significant pathogenicity in humans. Cancer cells with impaired immune defense mechanisms are susceptible to infection and lysis by NDV. A recombinant construct of a lentogenic form of NDV (rNDV) containing an insertion of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) transgene was earlier reported and shown to have acceptably low avian pathogenicity as well as oncolytic potential. Reliable measurement of infectious titer is key to determining the effectiveness of virus preparations to infect and lyse cells...
January 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974687/monomeric-ephrinb2-binding-induces-allosteric-changes-in-nipah-virus-g-that-precede-its-full-activation
#11
Joyce J W Wong, Tracy A Young, Jiayan Zhang, Shiheng Liu, George P Leser, Elizabeth A Komives, Robert A Lamb, Z Hong Zhou, Joshua Salafsky, Theodore S Jardetzky
Nipah virus is an emergent paramyxovirus that causes deadly encephalitis and respiratory infections in humans. Two glycoproteins coordinate the infection of host cells, an attachment protein (G), which binds to cell surface receptors, and a fusion (F) protein, which carries out the process of virus-cell membrane fusion. The G protein binds to ephrin B2/3 receptors, inducing G conformational changes that trigger F protein refolding. Using an optical approach based on second harmonic generation, we show that monomeric and dimeric receptors activate distinct conformational changes in G...
October 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962631/phylogenetic-antigenic-and-biological-characterization-of-pigeon-paramyxovirus-type-1-circulating-in-china
#12
Xusheng Qiu, Chunchun Meng, Yuan Zhan, Shengqing Yu, Shichao Li, Tingting Ren, Weifeng Yuan, Shuqin Xu, Yingjie Sun, Lei Tan, Cuiping Song, Ying Liao, Zhuang Ding, Xiufan Liu, Chan Ding
BACKGROUND: For many years, ND has been one of the most important infectious pigeon diseases in China. In recent years, a high mortality has been observed in ND-infected pigeons in China. Mortality is from 40% to 80% or 100% in some cases. METHODS: The full-length genomes of four pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) strains, which were isolated from infected pigeons in China in 2012 and 2013, were sequenced and analyzed to determine the phylogenetic characteristics of PPMV-1 circulating in pigeons of China in recent years...
September 29, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957006/recombinant-avian-paramyxovirus-serotypes-2-6-and-10-as-vaccine-vectors-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-chickens-with-antibodies-against-newcastle-disease-virus
#13
Ryota Tsunekuni, Hirokazu Hikono, Taichiro Tanikawa, Riho Kurata, Takaaki Nakaya, Takehiko Saito
Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) expressing the hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV HA) induces protective immunity against HPAIV in chickens. However, the efficacy of rNDV vectors is hampered when chickens are pre-immune to NDV, and most commercial chickens are routinely vaccinated against NDV. We recently showed that avian paramyxovirus serotypes 2, 6, and 10 (APMV-2, APMV-6, and APMV-10), which belong to the same genus as NDV, have low cross-reactivity with anti-NDV antisera...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950869/phylogenetic-assessment-reveals-continuous-evolution-and-circulation-of-pigeon-derived-virulent-avian-avulaviruses-1-in-eastern-europe-asia-and-africa
#14
Mahmoud Sabra, Kiril M Dimitrov, Iryna V Goraichuk, Abdul Wajid, Poonam Sharma, Dawn Williams-Coplin, Asma Basharat, Shafqat F Rehmani, Denys V Muzyka, Patti J Miller, Claudio L Afonso
BACKGROUND: The remarkable diversity and mobility of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) includes virulent viruses of genotype VI. These viruses are often referred to as pigeon paramyxoviruses 1 because they are normally isolated and cause clinical disease in birds from the Columbidae family. Genotype VI viruses occasionally infect, and may also cause clinical disease in poultry. Thus, the evolution, current spread and detection of these viruses are relevant to avian health. RESULTS: Here, we describe the isolation and genomic characterization of six Egyptian (2015), four Pakistani (2015), and two Ukrainian (2007, 2013) recent pigeon-derived NDV isolates of sub-genotype VIg...
September 26, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884293/human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2-polymerase-complex-recognizes-leader-promoters-of-other-species-belonging-to-the-genus-rubulavirus
#15
Yusuke Matsumoto, Keisuke Ohta, Machiko Nishio
Leader sequence, located at the 3' terminus of paramyxovirus genomes, determines the degree of viral transcription and replication. The essential nucleotides in the leader sequence that influence viral propagation, however, have not been investigated in detail. In the present study, we show that polymerase complex of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) uses a luciferase-encoding hPIV2 mini-genome possessing the leader sequence from other closely related viruses as a template. Furthermore, we demonstrate that although hPIV2 polymerase complex can recognize the leader sequence of hPIV4B, mumps virus (MuV) and PIV5 as well as Newcastle disease virus (NDV), it cannot recognize measles virus, hPIV1, Sendai virus (SeV) or hPIV3...
December 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860100/a-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-detection-of-virulent-and-attenuated-strains-of-duck-plague-virus
#16
Liji Xie, Zhixun Xie, Li Huang, Sheng Wang, Jiaoling Huang, Yanfang Zhang, Tingting Zeng, Sisi Luo
Sequence analysis of duck plague virus (DPV) revealed that there was a 528bp (B fragment) deletion within the UL2 gene of DPV attenuated vaccine strain in comparison with field virulent strains. The finding of gene deletion provides a potential differentiation test between DPV virulent strain and attenuated strain based on their UL2 gene sizes. Thus we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting to the DPV UL2 gene for simultaneous detection of DPV virulent strain and attenuated strain, 827bp for virulent strain and 299bp for attenuated strain...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842134/reciprocal-complementation-of-bovine-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-lacking-either-the-membrane-or-fusion-gene
#17
Marina Takada, Ryosuke Matsuura, Takehiro Kokuho, Takamitsu Tsuboi, Ken-Ichiro Kameyama, Kaoru Takeuchi
Two defective bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) strains were generated, one lacking the membrane (M) protein gene and expressing EGFP (ΔM-EGFP) and the other lacking the fusion (F) protein gene and expressing mStrawberry (ΔF-mSB), by supplying deficient proteins in trans. When Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells were co-infected with ΔM-EGFP and ΔF-mSB at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1, complemented viruses were easily obtained. Complemented viruses grew as efficiently as wild-type BPIV3 and could be passaged in MDBK cell cultures even at an MOI of 0...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840181/measles-virus-nucleocapsid-protein-modulates-the-signal-regulatory-protein-%C3%AE-1-sirp%C3%AE-1-to-enhance-osteoclast-differentiation-in-paget-s-disease-of-bone
#18
Kumaran Sundaram, Yuvaraj Sambandam, Srinivasan Shanmugarajan, D Sudhaker Rao, Sakamuri V Reddy
Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a chronic localized bone disorder in an elderly population. Environmental factors such as paramyxovirus are implicated in PDB and measles virus nucleocapsid protein (MVNP) has been shown to induce pagetic osteoclasts (OCLs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying MVNP stimulation of OCL differentiation in the PDB are unclear. We therefore determined the MVNP regulated gene expression profiling during OCL differentiation. Agilent microarray analysis of gene expression identified high levels of SIRPβ1 (353-fold) expression in MVNP transduced human bone marrow mononuclear cells stimulated with RANKL...
December 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835499/nipah-and-hendra-virus-nucleoproteins-inhibit-nuclear-accumulation-of-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-1-stat1-and-stat2-by-interfering-with-their-complex-formation
#19
Akihiro Sugai, Hiroki Sato, Ikuyo Takayama, Misako Yoneda, Chieko Kai
Henipaviruses, such as Nipah (NiV) and Hendra (HeV) viruses, are highly pathogenic zoonotic agents within the Paramyxoviridae family. The phosphoprotein (P) gene products of the paramyxoviruses have been well characterized for their interferon (IFN) antagonist activity and their contribution to viral pathogenicity. In this study, we demonstrated that the nucleoprotein (N) of henipaviruses also prevents the host IFN signaling response. Reporter assays demonstrated that the NiV and HeV N proteins (NiV-N and HeV-N, respectively) dose-dependently suppressed both type I and type II IFN responses and that the inhibitory effect was mediated by their core domains...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818890/complete-genome-sequences-of-mumps-and-measles-virus-isolates-from-three-states-in-the-united-states
#20
Laura C Magaña, Alex Espinosa, Rachel L Marine, Terry Fei Fan Ng, Christina J Castro, Anna M Montmayeur, Jill K Hacker, Samantha Scott, Thomas Whyte, Bettina Bankamp, M Steven Oberste, Paul A Rota
We report here the full coding sequence of nine paramyxovirus genomes, including two full-length mumps virus genomes (genotypes G and H) and seven measles virus genomes (genotypes B3 and D4, D8, and D9), from respiratory samples of patients from California, Virginia, and Alabama obtained between 2010 and 2014.
August 17, 2017: Genome Announcements
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