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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301247/different-duck-species-infected-intramuscularly-with-duck-origin-genotype-ix-apmv-1-show-discrepant-mortality-and-indicate-another-fatal-genotype-apmv-1-to-ducks
#1
Guanghua Fu, Longfei Cheng, Qiuling Fu, Baomin Qi, Cuiteng Chen, Shaohua Shi, Hongmei Chen, Chunhe Wan, Rongchang Liu, Yu Huang
Isolations of genotype IX (gIX) avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) from various bird species have been more common recently, with isolates showing variable pathogenicity in different species of poultry. Here we sequenced the genome of a Muscovy duck origin gIX virus strain XBT14 and characterized the virulence and pathogenicity of this isolate in chickens and ducks. The genome sequence of strain XBT14 is 15,192 nt in length, containing multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. The XBT14 strain shared 91...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301239/pathotyping-and-phylogenetic-characterization-of-newcastle-disease-viruses-isolated-in-peru-defining-two-novel-subgenotypes-within-genotype-xii
#2
Ana Chumbe, Ray Izquierdo-Lara, Luis Tataje, Rosa Gonzalez, Giovana Cribillero, Armando E González, Manolo Fernández-Díaz, Eliana Icochea
Infections of poultry with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1), also known as Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs), cause Newcastle disease (ND). This highly contagious disease affects poultry and many other species of birds worldwide. In countries where the disease is prevalent, constant monitoring and characterization of isolates causing outbreaks are necessary. In this study, we report the results of pathogenicity testing and phylogenetic analyses of seven NDVs isolated from several regions of Peru between 2004 and 2015...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284556/morphology-and-morphometry-of-the-lung-in-corn-snakes-pantherophis-guttatus-infected-with-three-different-strains-of-ferlavirus
#3
J M Starck, A Neul, V Schmidt, T Kolb, S Franz-Guess, D Balcecean, M Pees
Ophidian paramyxovirus (ferlavirus) is a global threat to reptilian sauropsids in herpetological collections, with occasional but fatal effects. This study characterizes the effects of three different genetic strains of ferlavirus on the dynamic changes of histology and morphometry of the lung of corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus). Lungs from 42 corn snakes were either sham-infected or infected experimentally under standardized conditions. From 4 to 49 days after intratracheal inoculation, the lungs were examined qualitatively and quantitatively...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283855/the-role-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-infections-in-the-immunopathology-of-the-respiratory-tract
#4
REVIEW
Malgorzata Pawełczyk, Marek Leszek Kowalski
Viral infections are leading causes of both upper and lower airway acute illness in all age groups of healthy persons, and have also been implicated in the acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disorders like asthma and COPD. Human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus and coronavirus have been considered as the most important respiratory pathogens and relatively little attention has been paid to the role of parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs). Human parainfluenza viruses are single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family that may evoke lower respiratory infections in infants, children and immunocompromised individuals...
March 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277776/immunogenicity-and-protection-efficacy-evaluation-of-avian-paramyxovirus-serotype-1-apmv-1-isolates-in-experimentally-infected-chicken
#5
John Bosco Omony, Agnes Wanyana, Halid Kirunda, Kizito K Mugimba, Jessica Lukanga Nakavuma, Otim-Onapa Maxwell, Denis Karuhize Byarugaba
Vaccine failures against Newcastle disease vaccinated with the current commercial vaccines have been reported which are associated with many factors, including genotypic and antigenic differences between vaccine isolates and outbreaks strains, although all APMV-1 members belong to one serotype. We assessed the immunoprotection ability of four thermostable, low-virulent ND-virus isolates from Ugandan waterfowl against challenge with a virulent strain (MDT = 36.8h, ICPI = 1.78) isolated from morbid chicken. Six-week-old commercial Leghorn layers, challenged at 21 days post immunization (dpi) were used...
March 2, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262699/gs-5734-and-its-parent-nucleoside-analog-inhibit-filo-pneumo-and-paramyxoviruses
#6
Michael K Lo, Robert Jordan, Aaron Arvey, Jawahar Sudhamsu, Punya Shrivastava-Ranjan, Anne L Hotard, Mike Flint, Laura K McMullan, Dustin Siegel, Michael O Clarke, Richard L Mackman, Hon C Hui, Michel Perron, Adrian S Ray, Tomas Cihlar, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou
GS-5734 is a monophosphate prodrug of an adenosine nucleoside analog that showed therapeutic efficacy in a non-human primate model of Ebola virus infection. It has been administered under compassionate use to two Ebola patients, both of whom survived, and is currently in Phase 2 clinical development for treatment of Ebola virus disease. Here we report the antiviral activities of GS-5734 and the parent nucleoside analog across multiple virus families, providing evidence to support new indications for this compound against human viruses of significant public health concern...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253898/assessment-of-contemporary-genetic-diversity-and-inter-taxa-inter-region-exchange-of-avian-paramyxovirus-serotype-1-in-wild-birds-sampled-in-north-america
#7
Andrew M Ramey, Iryna V Goraichuk, Joseph T Hicks, Kiril M Dimitrov, Rebecca L Poulson, David E Stallknecht, Justin Bahl, Claudio L Afonso
BACKGROUND: Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) viruses are globally distributed, infect wild, peridomestic, and domestic birds, and sometimes lead to outbreaks of disease. Thus, the maintenance, evolution, and spread of APMV-1 viruses are relevant to avian health. METHODS: In this study we sequenced the fusion gene from 58 APMV-1 isolates recovered from thirteen species of wild birds sampled throughout the USA during 2007-2014. We analyzed sequence information with previously reported data in order to assess contemporary genetic diversity and inter-taxa/inter-region exchange of APMV-1 in wild birds sampled in North America...
March 3, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250132/cytoplasmic-motifs-in-the-nipah-virus-fusion-protein-modulate-virus-particle-assembly-and-egress
#8
Gunner P Johnston, Erik M Contreras, Jeffrey Dabundo, Bryce A Henderson, Keesha M Matz, Victoria Ortega, Alfredo Ramirez, Arnold Park, Hector C Aguilar
Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus in the genus Henipavirus, has a mortality rate in humans of approximately 75%. While several studies have begun our understanding of NiV particle formation, the mechanism of this process remains to be fully elucidated. For many paramyxoviruses, M proteins drive viral assembly and egress; however, some paramyxoviral glycoproteins have been reported as important or essential in budding. For NiV the matrix protein (M), the fusion glycoprotein (F), and to a much lesser extent the attachment glycoprotein (G), autonomously induce the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213515/hendra-virus-fusion-protein-transmembrane-domain-contributes-to-pre-fusion-protein-stability
#9
Stacy Webb, Tamas Nagy, Hunter Moseley, Michael Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch
Enveloped viruses utilize fusion (F) proteins studding the surface of the virus to facilitate membrane fusion with a target cell membrane. Fusion of the viral envelope with a cellular membrane is required for release of viral genomic material so the virus can ultimately reproduce and spread. To drive fusion, the F protein undergoes an irreversible conformational change, transitioning from a meta-stable pre-fusion conformation to a more thermodynamically stable post-fusion structure. Understanding the elements which control stability of the pre-fusion state and triggering to the post-fusion conformation is important for understanding F protein function...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168220/the-structurally-disordered-paramyxovirus-nucleocapsid-protein-tail-domain-is-a-regulator-of-the-mrna-transcription-gradient
#10
Robert M Cox, Stefanie A Krumm, Vidhi D Thakkar, Maximilian Sohn, Richard K Plemper
The paramyxovirus RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) complex loads onto the nucleocapsid protein (N)-encapsidated viral N:RNA genome for RNA synthesis. Binding of the RdRp of measles virus (MeV), a paramyxovirus archetype, is mediated through interaction with a molecular recognition element (MoRE) located near the end of the carboxyl-terminal Ntail domain. The structurally disordered central Ntail section is thought to add positional flexibility to MoRE, but the functional importance of this Ntail region for RNA polymerization is unclear...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138419/paramyxovirus-glycoproteins-and-the-membrane-fusion-process
#11
Hector C Aguilar, Bryce A Henderson, J Lizbeth Zamora, Gunner P Johnston
The family Paramyxoviridae includes many viruses that significantly affect human and animal health. An essential step in the paramyxovirus life cycle is viral entry into host cells, mediated by virus-cell membrane fusion. Upon viral entry, infection results in expression of the paramyxoviral glycoproteins on the infected cell surface. This can lead to cell-cell fusion (syncytia formation), often linked to pathogenesis. Thus membrane fusion is essential for both viral entry and cell-cell fusion and an attractive target for therapeutic development...
September 2016: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134915/structural-basis-for-antibody-cross-neutralization-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus
#12
Xiaolin Wen, Jarrod J Mousa, John T Bates, Robert A Lamb, James E Crowe, Theodore S Jardetzky
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two closely related viruses that cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and the elderly(1), with a significant health burden(2-6). There are no licensed vaccines or small-molecule antiviral treatments specific to these two viruses at present. A humanized murine monoclonal antibody (palivizumab) is approved to treat high-risk infants for RSV infection(7,8), but other treatments, as well as vaccines, for both viruses are still in development...
January 30, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129374/il-27-limits-type-2-immunopathology-following-parainfluenza-virus-infection
#13
Gaia Muallem, Sagie Wagage, Yan Sun, Jonathan H DeLong, Alex Valenzuela, David A Christian, Gretchen Harms Pritchard, Qun Fang, Elizabeth L Buza, Deepika Jain, M Merle Elloso, Carolina B López, Christopher A Hunter
Respiratory paramyxoviruses are important causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly of infants and the elderly. In humans, a T helper (Th)2-biased immune response to these infections is associated with increased disease severity; however, little is known about the endogenous regulators of these responses that may be manipulated to ameliorate pathology. IL-27, a cytokine that regulates Th2 responses, is produced in the lungs during parainfluenza infection, but its role in disease pathogenesis is unknown...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116911/co-circulation-of-paramyxo-and-influenza-viruses-in-pigeons-in-egypt
#14
Shimaa M G Mansour, Fakry F Mohamed, Amal A M Eid, Sunil K Mor, Sagar M Goyal
In recent years, avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have caused large-scale outbreaks in many countries, including Egypt. The culling and vaccination strategies have failed to control both viruses in Egypt. In this study, we investigated the outbreaks of nervous manifestations and deaths in pigeons between 2013 and 2015. The H5N1 subtype of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1), an antigenic variant of NDV, were found to be the cause; AIV and PPMV-1 were isolated from 61...
January 24, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110247/a-novel-chimeric-newcastle-disease-virus-vectored-vaccine-against-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus
#15
Shin-Hee Kim, Anandan Paldurai, Siba K Samal
Avian influenza (AI) is an economically-important disease of poultry worldwide. The use of vaccines to control AI has increased because of frequent outbreaks of the disease in endemic countries. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectored vaccine has shown to be effective in protecting chickens against a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection. However, preexisting antibodies to NDV vector might affect protective efficacy of the vaccine in the field. As an alternative strategy, we evaluated vaccine efficacy of a chimeric NDV vectored vaccine in which the ectodomains of F and HN proteins were replaced by those of avian paramyxovirus serotype-2...
March 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106111/broad-range-antiviral-activity-of-hydrogen-sulfide-against-highly-pathogenic-rna-viruses
#16
Nikolay Bazhanov, Olivier Escaffre, Alexander N Freiberg, Roberto P Garofalo, Antonella Casola
Hydrogen sulfide is an important endogenous mediator that has been the focus of intense investigation in the past few years, leading to the discovery of its role in vasoactive, cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory responses. Recently, we made a critical observation that H2S also has a protective role in paramyxovirus infection by modulating inflammatory responses and viral replication. In this study we tested the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity of the H2S slow-releasing donor GYY4137 on enveloped RNA viruses from Ortho-, Filo-, Flavi- and Bunyavirus families, for which there is no FDA-approved vaccine or therapeutic available, with the exception of influenza...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104450/polymerases-of-paramyxoviruses-and-pneumoviruses
#17
REVIEW
Rachel Fearns, Richard K Plemper
The paramyxo- and pneumoviruses are members of the order Mononegavirales, a group of viruses with non-segmented, negative strand RNA genomes. The polymerases of these viruses are multi-functional complexes, capable of transcribing subgenomic capped and polyadenylated mRNAs and replicating the genome. Although there is no native structure available for any complete paramyxo- or pneumovirus polymerase, functional and structural studies of a fragment of a pneumovirus polymerase protein and mutation analyses and resistance profiling of small-molecule inhibitors have generated a wealth of mechanistic information...
January 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103156/antibodies-against-henipa-like-viruses-in-brazilian-bats
#18
Jansen de Araujo, Michael K Lo, Azaibi Tamin, Tatiana L Ometto, Luciano M Thomazelli, Marcello S Nardi, Renata F Hurtado, Alessandra Nava, Christina F Spiropoulou, Paul A Rota, Edison L Durigon
Bats are reservoir hosts for many paramyxoviruses, some of which cause human and zoonotic diseases of public health importance. We developed a Nipah virus nucleoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect cross-reactive antibodies in serum samples from several bat species in Brazil. Our results warrant further investigation of henipa-like virus reservoirs in the Western hemisphere.
January 19, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088124/nipah-virus-transmission-of-a-zoonotic-paramyxovirus
#19
REVIEW
Bronwyn Anne Clayton
Nipah virus is a recently-recognised, zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe disease and high fatality rates in people. Outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, Singapore, India and Bangladesh, and a putative Nipah virus was also recently associated with human disease in the Philippines. Worryingly, human-to-human transmission is common in Bangladesh, where outbreaks occur with near-annual frequency. Onward human transmission of Nipah virus in Bangladesh is associated with close contact with clinically-unwell patients or their infectious secretions...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069071/sporadic-cases-of-adult-measles-a-research-article
#20
Ranjan Premaratna, Nathasha Luke, Harsha Perera, Mahesh Gunathilake, Pubudu Amarasena, T G A Nilmini Chandrasena
BACKGROUND: Measles caused by a paramyxovirus, characterized by fever, malaise, cough, coryza conjunctivitis, a maculopapular rash is known to result in pneumonia, encephalitis and death. Fatal cases of measles in Sri Lanka are rare after implementation of the National Immunization Programme in 1984. Thereafter 0.1% case fatality rate was observed during October 1999-June 2000 which is a very low figure compared to other regional countries. Immunization guidelines were further revised in 2001, 2011 and in 2012 when additional immunization was recommended to age group 4-21 years; who are likely to have inadequate immunization, in order to achieve elimination of Measles by 2020...
January 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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