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Sofia Morfopoulou, Edward T Mee, Sarah M Connaughton, Julianne R Brown, Kimberly Gilmour, W K 'Kling' Chong, W Paul Duprex, Deborah Ferguson, Mike Hubank, Ciaran Hutchinson, Marios Kaliakatsos, Stephen McQuaid, Simon Paine, Vincent Plagnol, Christopher Ruis, Alex Virasami, Hong Zhan, Thomas S Jacques, Silke Schepelmann, Waseem Qasim, Judith Breuer
Routine childhood vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella has virtually abolished virus-related morbidity and mortality. Notwithstanding this, we describe here devastating neurological complications associated with the detection of live-attenuated mumps virus Jeryl Lynn (MuV(JL5)) in the brain of a child who had undergone successful allogeneic transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This is the first confirmed report of MuV(JL5) associated with chronic encephalitis and highlights the need to exclude immunodeficient individuals from immunisation with live-attenuated vaccines...
October 21, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
B P C Hoppe, E de Jongh, A Griffioen-Keijzer, J M Zijlstra-Baalbergen, E P F IJzerman, F Baboe
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a paramyxovirus that causes respiratory tract infections ranging from mild upper airway infection to severe pneumonia. Patients with haematological disease, especially haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients, are more likely to develop more severe infections. We describe three cases of hMPV infection in HSCT patients. The most reliable diagnostic procedure for hMPV is multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) on a nasopharyngeal swab. Sensitivity and specificity of MLPA to detect hMPV is high and time to diagnosis is short...
October 2016: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Priyanka Dutta, Ahnaf Siddiqui, Mohsen Botlani, Sameer Varma
Nipah is an emerging paramyxovirus that is of serious concern to human health. It invades host cells using two of its membrane proteins-G and F. G binds to host ephrins and this stimulates G to activate F. Upon activation, F mediates virus-host membrane fusion. Here we focus on mechanisms that underlie the stimulation of G by ephrins. Experiments show that G interacts with ephrin and F through separate sites located on two different domains, the receptor binding domain (RBD) and the F activation domain (FAD)...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Gila Kazimirsky, Wei Jiang, Shimon Slavin, Amotz Ziv-Av, Chaya Brodie
BACKGROUND: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an avian paramyxovirus, which selectively exerts oncolytic effects in cancer cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to affect tumor growth and deliver anti-tumor agents to experimental glioblastoma (GBM). Here, we explored the effects of NDV-infected MSCs derived from different sources, on glioma cells and glioma stem cells (GSCs) and the mechanisms involved in their effects. METHODS: The glioma cell lines (A172 and U87) and primary GSCs that were generated from GBM tumors were used in this study...
October 10, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Eun-Sil Park, Michio Suzuki, Masanobu Kimura, Hiroshi Mizutani, Ryuichi Saito, Nami Kubota, Youko Hasuike, Jungo Okajima, Hidemi Kasai, Yuko Sato, Noriko Nakajima, Keiji Maruyama, Koichi Imaoka, Shigeru Morikawa
BACKGROUND: Feline morbillivirus (FmoPV) is a novel paramyxovirus found to infect domestic cats. FmoPV has been isolated in several countries in Asia and Europe and is considered to have genetic diversity. Also, it is suspected to be associated with feline renal diseases including tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), which affects domestic cats with a high incidence rate. RESULTS: To clarify the state of FmoPV infection among domestic cats in Japan, an epidemiological survey was conducted...
October 11, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Perumal Arumugam Desingu, Shambhu Dayal Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Obli Rajendran Vinodhkumar, Rajamani Barathidasan, Yashpal Singh Malik, Rajendra Singh, Raj Kumar Singh
Disease outbreak investigations were carried out in three states of Northern India namely Haryana (Rewari), Uttar Pradesh (Noida) and Delhi, where a total of 110 Indian peafowls (Pavo cristatus) showed sudden onset of nervous signs and died within a period of two weeks during June, 2012. The F (fusion) gene-based RT-PCR detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in affected tissues confirmed the presence of the virus. Three NDV isolates were selected (one from each area under investigation) and further characterized...
October 11, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Lee McMichael, Daniel Edson, David Mayer, Alice Broos, Steven Kopp, Joanne Meers, Hume Field
Bats of the genus Pteropus (Pteropodidae), colloquially known as flying foxes, are recognized as the natural reservoir of Hendra virus, a zoonotic paramyxovirus responsible for mortality in horses and humans. Some previous studies have suggested that physiologic and ecologic factors promote Hendra virus infection in flying foxes, and by extension, spillover to horses and humans. However, the impact of Hendra virus infection on relevant physiologic biomarkers in flying foxes has not been measured. Over 12 mo in eastern Australia, we captured and sampled 446 individual black flying foxes ( Pteropus alecto ), a putative primary reservoir host species, and measured a suite of hematologic, plasma biochemistry, and urinary biomarkers...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Muhammad Munir, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Sameera Akhtar, Yi Tang, Tahir Yaqub, Arfan Ahmad, Ghulam Mustafa, Muhammad Azhar Alam, Diwakar Santhakumar, Venugopal Nair
Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a prototype avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1), causes economically devastating disease in avian species around the world. ND is enzootic in Pakistan and recurrent outbreaks are frequent in multiple avian species even after continuous and extensive use of vaccines. A number of APMV-1 and pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) strains have been isolated and genetically characterized in recent years. However, the impact of recently characterized wild bird-origin APMVs in domestic poultry, and the potency of routinely used vaccines against these novel and genetically diverse viruses remain unknown...
September 29, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Farah El Najjar, Nicolás Cifuentes-Muñoz, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Ursula J Buchholz, Carole L Moncman, Rebecca Ellis Dutch
Paramyxovirus spread generally involves assembly of individual viral particles which then infect target cells. We show that infection of human bronchial airway cells with human metapneumovirus (HMPV), a recently identified paramyxovirus which causes significant respiratory disease, results in formation of intercellular extensions and extensive networks of branched cell-associated filaments. Formation of these structures is dependent on actin, but not microtubule, polymerization. Interestingly, using a co-culture assay we show that conditions which block regular infection by HMPV particles, including addition of neutralizing antibodies or removal of cell surface heparan sulfate, did not prevent viral spread from infected to new target cells...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Marie Kubota, Kaoru Takeuchi, Shumpei Watanabe, Shinji Ohno, Rei Matsuoka, Daisuke Kohda, Shin-Ichi Nakakita, Hiroaki Hiramatsu, Yasuo Suzuki, Tetsuo Nakayama, Tohru Terada, Kentaro Shimizu, Nobutaka Shimizu, Mitsunori Shiroishi, Yusuke Yanagi, Takao Hashiguchi
Mumps virus (MuV) remains an important pathogen worldwide, causing epidemic parotitis, orchitis, meningitis, and encephalitis. Here we show that MuV preferentially uses a trisaccharide containing α2,3-linked sialic acid in unbranched sugar chains as a receptor. Crystal structures of the MuV attachment protein hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (MuV-HN) alone and in complex with the α2,3-sialylated trisaccharide revealed that in addition to the interaction between the MuV-HN active site residues and sialic acid, other residues, including an aromatic residue, stabilize the third sugar of the trisaccharide...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Takahiro Hiono, Keita Matsuno, Kotaro Tuchiya, Zhifeng Lin, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Yoshihiro Sakoda
Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 5 strain APMV-5/budgerigar/Japan/TI/75, which was determined using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The determined sequence shares 97% homology and similar genetic features with the previously known genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus serotype 5 strain APMV-5/budgerigar/Japan/Kunitachi/74.
2016: Genome Announcements
Preeti Bharaj, Yao E Wang, Brian E Dawes, Tatyana E Yun, Arnold Park, Benjamin Yen, Christopher F Basler, Alexander N Freiberg, Benhur Lee, Ricardo Rajsbaum
For efficient replication, viruses have developed mechanisms to evade innate immune responses, including the antiviral type-I interferon (IFN-I) system. Nipah virus (NiV), a highly pathogenic member of the Paramyxoviridae family (genus Henipavirus), is known to encode for four P gene-derived viral proteins (P/C/W/V) with IFN-I antagonist functions. Here we report that NiV matrix protein (NiV-M), which is important for virus assembly and budding, can also inhibit IFN-I responses. IFN-I production requires activation of multiple signaling components including the IκB kinase epsilon (IKKε)...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Michelle D Audsley, David A Jans, Gregory W Moseley
Paramyxoviruses replicate in the cytoplasm with no obvious requirement to interact with the nucleus. Nevertheless, the W protein of the highly lethal bat-borne paramyxovirus Nipah virus (NiV) is known to undergo specific targeting to the nucleus, mediated by a single nuclear localisation signal (NLS) within the C-terminal domain. Here, we report for the first time that additional sites modulate nucleocytoplasmic localisation of W. We show that the N-terminal domain interacts with importin α1 and contributes to nuclear accumulation of W, indicative of a novel N-terminal NLS...
October 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
M Peghin, H H Hirsch, Ó Len, G Codina, C Berastegui, B Sáez, J Solé, E Cabral, A Solé, F Zurbano, F López-Medrano, A Román, J Gavaldá
The epidemiology of respiratory viruses (RVs) in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) and the relationship of RVs to lung function, acute rejection (AR) and opportunistic infections in these patients are not well known. We performed a prospective cohort study (2009-2014) by collecting nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) from asymptomatic LTRs during seasonal changes and from LTRs with upper respiratory tract infectious disease (URTID), lower respiratory tract infectious disease (LRTID) and AR. NPSs were analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction...
September 12, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Vicente Más, Laura Rodriguez, Eduardo Olmedillas, Olga Cano, Concepción Palomo, María C Terrón, Daniel Luque, José A Melero, Jason S McLellan
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a paramyxovirus that is a common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children less than five years of age. The hMPV fusion (F) glycoprotein is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies and is thus a critical vaccine antigen. To facilitate structure-based vaccine design, we stabilized the ectodomain of the hMPV F protein in the postfusion conformation and determined its structure to a resolution of 3.3 Å by X-ray crystallography. The structure resembles an elongated cone and is very similar to the postfusion F protein from the related human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV)...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Arnold Park, Patrick Hong, Sohui T Won, Patricia A Thibault, Frederic Vigant, Kasopefoluwa Y Oguntuyo, Justin D Taft, Benhur Lee
The advent of RNA-guided endonuclease (RGEN)-mediated gene editing, specifically via CRISPR/Cas9, has spurred intensive efforts to improve the efficiency of both RGEN delivery and targeted mutagenesis. The major viral vectors in use for delivery of Cas9 and its associated guide RNA, lentiviral and adeno-associated viral systems, have the potential for undesired random integration into the host genome. Here, we repurpose Sendai virus, an RNA virus with no viral DNA phase and that replicates solely in the cytoplasm, as a delivery system for efficient Cas9-mediated gene editing...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Haixu Xu, Zhiqiang Duan, Yu Chen, Jiajia Liu, Xin Cheng, Jingjing Liu, Jie Zhu, Xiaoquan Wang, Xiaowen Liu, Shunlin Hu, Xiufan Liu
The matrix (M) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a highly conserved hydrophobic viral protein. In some paramyxoviruses (measles virus and Sendai virus), the paired glycine (G) near the C terminus of the M protein may form a turn that mediates the specific interaction with the cell membrane. Similar amino acids (glycine-proline [GP], at position 275-276) exist in the M protein of NDV. However, the role of these residues in the replication and pathogenicity of NDV is unknown. In this study, recombinant NDV with the sequence GP/AA or LGP/GGL in the M protein was generated to investigate the role of this conserved sequence...
December 2016: Archives of Virology
Ivan A Sobolev, Kirill Sharshov, Kseniya Yurchenko, Denis Korneev, Alexandra Glushchenko, Tatyana Alikina, Marsel Kabilov, Yuhai Bi, Wenjun Liu, Natalia Gubanova, Alexander Shestopalov
The complete genome sequence was determined for avian paramyxovirus (APMV-6) serotype 6 strain teal/Chany/455/2009, isolated from a teal (Anas crecca) in Siberia. Siberia is crossed by four major migration flyways and represents the major breeding area for many wild bird species in the Palearctic. Strain teal/Chany/455/2009 is genetically closely related to Kazakh and Chinese strains and belongs to the genetic group of duck/Hong Kong/18/199/77-like APMV-6 viruses. We show that the virus has low pathogenic potential according to genetic markers and animal model experiments...
November 2016: Archives of Virology
Daniel Kolakofsky
The recent flurry of high resolution structures of Negative Strand RNA Virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases has rekindled interest in the manner in which these polymerases, and in particular those of the nonsegmented viruses, recognize the RNA sequences that control mRNA synthesis and genome replication. In the light of these polymerase structures, we re-examine some unusual aspects of the Paramyxoviridae, namely bipartite replication promoters and mRNA editing, and the manner in which these properties are governed by genome hexamer phase...
November 2016: Virology
Sameera Akhtar, Muhammad Akram Muneer, Khushi Muhammad, Muhammad Yasin Tipu, Masood Rabbani, Aziz Ul-Rahman, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir
BACKGROUND: Knowing the genome characteristics of circulating Newcastle disease viruses [avian paramyxoviruses (APMV-1) and pigeon paramyxoviruses (PPMV-1)] is important to devise appropriate diagnostics and control strategies. APMVs originating from chicken and wildlife in Pakistan are well-elucidated; nevertheless, molecular characterization for the circulating PPMV-1 is largely unknown. FINDINGS: Here, we have performed fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (HN) gene based characterization of PPMV-1 isolated from an outbreak in a pigeon flock...
2016: SpringerPlus
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