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Stephen R Welch, Ayan K Chakrabarti, Lisa Wiggleton Guerrero, Harley M Jenks, Michael K Lo, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou, César G Albariño
Sosuga virus (SOSV) is a recently discovered zoonotic paramyxovirus isolated from a single human case in 2012; it has been ecologically and epidemiologically associated with transmission by the Egyptian rousette bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). Bats have long been recognized as sources of novel zoonotic pathogens, including highly lethal paramyxoviruses like Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV). The ability of SOSV to cause severe human disease supports the need for studies on SOSV pathogenesis to better understand the potential impact of this virus and to identify effective treatments...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kang-Seuk Choi, Ji-Ye Kim, Hyun-Jeong Lee, Min-Jun Jang, Hyuk-Moo Kwon, Haan-Woo Sung
Eleven avian paramyxovirus type 6 (APMV-6) isolates from Eurasian Wigeon ( n=5; Anas penelope), Mallards ( n=2; Anas platyrhynchos), and unknown species of wild ducks ( n=4) from Korea were analyzed based on the nucleotide (nt) and deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the fusion (F) gene. Fecal samples were collected in 2010-2014. Genotypes were assigned based on phylogenetic analyses. Our results revealed that APMV-6 could be classified into at least two distinct genotypes, G1 and G2. The open reading frame (ORF) of the G1 genotype was 1,668 nt in length, and the putative F0 cleavage site sequence was113 PAPEPRL119 ...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Anamarija Slovic, Tanja Kosutic-Gulija, Maja Santak, Jelena Ivancic-Jelecki, Maja Jagusic, Sunčanica Ljubin-Sternak, Gordana Mlinarić-Galinović, Tatjana Vilibić-Čavlek, Irena Tabain, Dubravko Forcic
BACKGROUND: The families Paramyxoviridae and Pneumoviridae comprise a broad spectrum of viral pathogens that affect human health. The matrix (M) protein of these viruses has a central role in their life cycle. In line with this, molecular characteristics of the M proteins from variable viruses that circulated in Croatia were investigated. METHODS: Sequences of the M proteins of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) 1-3 within the family Paramyxoviridae, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and human respiratory syncytial virus from the family Pneumoviridae were obtained and analyzed...
March 6, 2018: Intervirology
Eun-Jung Bak, Yeonsook Jho, Gye-Hyeong Woo
Over a period of 7 years (2004-2011), samples from 34 diseased reptiles provided by local governments, zoos, and pet shops were tested for viral infection. Animals were diagnosed based on clinical signs, including loss of appetite, diarrhea, rhinorrhea, and unexpected sudden death. Most of the exotic animals had gastrointestinal problems, such as mucosal redness and ulcers, while the native animals had no clinical symptoms. Viral sequences were found in seven animals. Retroviral genes were amplified from samples from five Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus), an adenovirus was detected in a panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis), and an adenovirus and a paramyxovirus were detected in a tropical girdled lizard (Cordylus tropidosternum)...
February 19, 2018: Archives of Virology
Mona C Gjessing, Maria Aamelfot, William N Batts, Sylvie L Benestad, Ole B Dale, Even Thoen, Simon C Weli, James R Winton
Gill disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., causes big losses in the salmon farming industry. Until now, tools to cultivate microorganisms causing gill disease and models to study the gill responses have been lacking. Here we describe the establishment and characterization of two cell lines from the gills of Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon gill cell ASG-10 consisted of cells staining for cytokeratin and e-cadherin and with desmosomes as seen by transmission electron microscopy suggesting the cells to be of epithelial origin...
2018: PloS One
Vidhi D Thakkar, Robert M Cox, Bevan Sawatsky, Renata da Fontoura Budaszewski, Julien Sourimant, Katrin Wabbel, Negar Makhsous, Alexander L Greninger, Veronika von Messling, Richard K Plemper
The paramyxovirus replication machinery comprises the viral large (L) and phospho-(P) proteins in addition to the nucleocapsid (N) protein that encapsidates the single-stranded RNA genome. Common to paramyxovirus N proteins is a C-terminal tail (Ntail). The mechanistic role and relevance for virus replication of the structurally disordered central Ntail section are unknown. Focusing initially on members of the Morbillivirus genus, a series of measles virus (MeV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) N proteins were generated with internal deletions in the unstructured tail section...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Paul C Jordan, Cheng Liu, Pauline Raynaud, Michael K Lo, Christina F Spiropoulou, Julian A Symons, Leo Beigelman, Jerome Deval
Paramyxoviruses represent a family of RNA viruses causing significant human diseases. These include measles virus, the most infectious virus ever reported, in addition to parainfluenza virus, and other emerging viruses. Paramyxoviruses likely share common replication machinery but their mechanisms of RNA biosynthesis activities and details of their complex polymerase structures are unknown. Mechanistic and functional details of a paramyxovirus polymerase would have sweeping implications for understanding RNA virus replication and for the development of new antiviral medicines...
February 9, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Claudia Kohl, Mary Tachedjian, Shawn Todd, Paul Monaghan, Victoria Boyd, Glenn A Marsh, Gary Crameri, Hume Field, Andreas Kurth, Ina Smith, Lin-Fa Wang
In 2011, an unusually large number of independent Hendra virus outbreaks were recorded on horse properties in Queensland and New South Wales, Australia. Urine from bat colonies adjacent to the outbreak sites were sampled and screened for Hendra and other viruses. Several novel paramyxoviruses were also isolated at different locations. Here one of the novel viruses, named Hervey virus (HerPV), is fully characterized by genome sequencing, annotation, phylogeny and in vitro host range, and its serological cross-reactivity and neutralization patterns are examined...
2018: PloS One
Gayatri Subramanian, Teodora Kuzmanovic, Ying Zhang, Cara Beate Peter, Manoj Veleeparambil, Ritu Chakravarti, Ganes C Sen, Saurabh Chattopadhyay
The interferon (IFN) system represents the first line of defense against a wide range of viruses. Virus infection rapidly triggers the transcriptional induction of IFN-β and IFN Stimulated Genes (ISGs), whose protein products act as viral restriction factors by interfering with specific stages of virus life cycle, such as entry, transcription, translation, genome replication, assembly and egress. Here, we report a new mode of action of an ISG, IFN-induced TDRD7 (tudor domain containing 7) inhibited paramyxovirus replication by inhibiting autophagy...
January 30, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Thijs Kuiken, Mya Breitbart, Martin Beer, Christian Grund, Dirk Höper, Bernadette van den Hoogen, Jean-Louis H Kerkhoffs, Aloys C M Kroes, Karyna Rosario, Peter van Run, Matthias Schwarz, Sanela Svraka, Jens Teifke, Marion Koopmans
The characteristics and risk factors of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) infection in humans are poorly known. We performed virological, pathological and epidemiological analyses of a Dutch case, and compared the results with those of a US case. Both infections occurred in transplant patients under immunosuppressive therapy and caused fatal respiratory failure. Both virus isolates clustered with avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) genotype VIb/1, which has pigeons and doves as reservoir. Experimentally inoculated pigeons became infected and transmitted the virus to naïve pigeons...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Bert Rima, Peter Collins, Andrew Easton, Ron Fouchier, Gael Kurath, Robert A Lamb, Benhur Lee, Andrea Maisner, Paul Rota, Lin-Fa Wang
A number of unassigned viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae need to be classified either as a new genus or placed into one of the seven genera currently recognized in this family. Furthermore, numerous new paramyxoviruses continue to be discovered. However, attempts at classification have highlighted the difficulties that arise by applying historic criteria or criteria based on sequence alone to the classification of the viruses in this family. While the recent taxonomic change that elevated the previous subfamily Pneumovirinae into a separate family Pneumoviridae is readily justified on the basis of RNA dependent -RNA polymerase (RdRp or L protein) sequence motifs, using RdRp sequence comparisons for assignment to lower level taxa raises problems that would require an overhaul of the current criteria for assignment into genera in the family Paramyxoviridae...
January 25, 2018: Archives of Virology
Yusuke Matsumoto, Keisuke Ohta, Daniel Kolakofsky, Machiko Nishio
The unusual ability of a human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) nucleoprotein point mutation (NPQ202A) to strongly enhance minigenome replication was found to depend on the absence of a functional, internal element of the bipartite replication promoter (CRII). This point mutation allows relatively robust CRII-minus minigenome replication in a CRII-independent manner, under conditions in which NPwt is essentially inactive. The nature of the aa at position 202 apparently controls whether viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp) can, or cannot, initiate RNA synthesis in a CRII-independent manner...
January 22, 2018: RNA
Candace R Fox, Griffith D Parks
We have previously shown that the Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) mutant P/V-CPI- is restricted for spread in normal cells but not in cancer cells in vitro and is effective at reducing tumor burden in mouse model systems. Here we show that P/V-CPI- infection of human laryngeal cancer HEp-2 cells results in the majority of the cells dying, but unexpectedly, over time there is an emergence of a population of cells which survive as P/V-CPI- persistently infected (PI) cells. P/V-CPI- PI cells had elevated levels of basal caspase activation, and viability was highly dependent on activity of cellular inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) such as Survivin and XIAP...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
Mathieu Bourgarel, Davies M Pfukenyi, Vanina Boué, Loïc Talignani, Ngoni Chiweshe, Fodé Diop, Alexandre Caron, Gift Matope, Dorothée Missé, Florian Liégeois
Bats carry a great diversity of zoonotic viruses with a high-impact on human health and livestock. Since the emergence of new coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses in humans (e.g. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Nipah virus), numerous studies clearly established that bats can maintain some of these viruses. Improving our understanding on the role of bats in the epidemiology of the pathogens they harbour is necessary to prevent cross-species spill over along the wild/domestic/human gradient...
January 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Ying He, Tonya L Taylor, Kiril M Dimitrov, Salman L Butt, James B Stanton, Iryna V Goraichuk, Heather Fenton, Rebecca Poulson, Jian Zhang, Corrie C Brown, Hon S Ip, Marcos Isidoro-Ayza, Claudio L Afonso
BACKGROUND: Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are highly contagious and cause disease in both wild birds and poultry. A pigeon-adapted variant of genotype VI NDV, often termed pigeon paramyxovirus 1, is commonly isolated from columbids in the United States and worldwide. Complete genomic characterization of these genotype VI viruses circulating in wild columbids in the United States is limited, and due to the genetic variability of the virus, failure of rapid diagnostic detection has been reported...
January 12, 2018: Virology Journal
Na Zhao, Christian Grund, Martin Beer, Timm C Harder
BACKGROUND: Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV, avian Avulavirus-1, APMV-1) induces a highly contagious and lethal systemic disease in gallinaceous poultry. APMV-1 antibody detection is used for surveillance and to control vaccination, but is hampered by cross-reactivity to other subtypes of avian Avulaviruses. Data are lacking concerning the applicability of NDV V proteins as differential diagnostic marker to distinguish vaccinated from virus-infected birds (DIVA strategy). METHODS: Full length and C-terminally truncated nucleocapsid (NP) protein, and the unique C-terminal regions of the phospho- (P) and V proteins of the NDV LaSota strain were bacterially expressed as fusion proteins with the multimerization domain of the human C4 binding protein, and used as diagnostic antigens in indirect ELISA...
January 11, 2018: Virology Journal
Charles J Russell, Eric A F Simões, Julia L Hurwitz
Human parainfluenza viruses (family Paramyxoviridae), human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (family Pneumoviridae) infect most infants and children within the first few years of life and are the etiologic agents for many serious acute respiratory illnesses. These virus infections are also associated with long-term diseases that impact quality of life, including asthma. Despite over a half-century of vaccine research, development, and clinical trials, no vaccine has been licensed to date for the paramyxoviruses or pneumoviruses for the youngest infants...
January 11, 2018: Viral Immunology
Sarah C Atkinson, Michelle D Audsley, Kim G Lieu, Glenn A Marsh, David R Thomas, Steven M Heaton, Jason J Paxman, Kylie M Wagstaff, Ashley M Buckle, Gregory W Moseley, David A Jans, Natalie A Borg
Hendra virus (HeV) is a paramyxovirus that causes lethal disease in humans, for which no vaccine or antiviral agent is available. HeV V protein is central to pathogenesis through its ability to interact with cytoplasmic host proteins, playing key antiviral roles. Here we use immunoprecipitation, siRNA knockdown and confocal laser scanning microscopy to show that HeV V shuttles to and from the nucleus through specific host nuclear transporters. Spectroscopic and small angle X-ray scattering studies reveal HeV V undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon binding to either importin α/β1 or exportin-1/Ran-GTP, dependent on the V N-terminus...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maria T Sanchez-Aparicio, Leighland J Feinman, Adolfo García-Sastre, Megan L Shaw
Paramyxovirus V proteins are known antagonists of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-mediated interferon induction pathway, interacting with and inhibiting the RLR MDA5. We report interactions between the Nipah virus V protein and both the RIG-I regulatory protein, TRIM25, and RIG-I. We also observed interactions between these host proteins and the V proteins of measles virus, Sendai virus and parainfluenza virus. These interactions are mediated by the conserved C-terminal domain of the V protein, which binds to the tandem CARDs of RIG-I (the region of TRIM25-ubiquitination) and to the SPRY domain of TRIM25, which mediates TRIM25 interaction with the RIG-I CARDs...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
Erdene-Ochir Tseren-Ochir, Seong-Su Yuk, Bodisaikhan Khishgee, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Jin-Yong Noh, Woo-Tack Hong, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Gyeong-Bin Gwon, Sol Jeong, Yu-Jin Kim, Jun-Beom Kim, Ji-Ho Lee, Kyu-Jik Kim, Batchuluun Damdinjav, Chang-Seon Song
Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) constitute some of the most globally prevalent avian viruses and are frequently isolated from wild migratory bird species. Using 1,907 fresh fecal samples collected during the 2012 avian influenza surveillance program, we identified two serotypes of APMV: APMV-4 ( n=10) and APMV-8 ( n=1). Sequences for these isolates phylogenetically clustered with Asian APMV-4 and APMV-8 recently isolated from wild birds in Korea, Japan, China, and Kazakhstan. Analysis by DNA barcoding indicated that the Mongolian APMV-4 and APMV-8 strains were isolated from Anseriformes species including Mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos) and Whooper Swans ( Cygnus cygnus)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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