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Paramyxovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331670/circulation-of-alphacoronavirus-betacoronavirus-and-paramyxovirus-in-hipposideros-bat-species-in-zimbabwe
#1
Mathieu Bourgarel, Davies M Pfukenyi, Vanina Boué, Loïc Talignani, Ngoni Chiweshe, Fodé Diop, Alexandre Caron, Gift Matope, Dorothée Missé, Florian Liégeois
Bats carry a great diversity of zoonotic viruses with a high-impact on human health and livestock. Since the emergence of new coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses in humans (e.g. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Nipah virus), numerous studies clearly established that bats can maintain some of these viruses. Improving our understanding on the role of bats in the epidemiology of the pathogens they harbour is necessary to prevent cross-species spill over along the wild/domestic/human gradient...
January 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329546/whole-genome-sequencing-of-genotype-vi-newcastle-disease-viruses-from-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues-from-wild-pigeons-reveals-continuous-evolution-and-previously-unrecognized-genetic-diversity-in-the-u-s
#2
Ying He, Tonya L Taylor, Kiril M Dimitrov, Salman L Butt, James B Stanton, Iryna V Goraichuk, Heather Fenton, Rebecca Poulson, Jian Zhang, Corrie C Brown, Hon S Ip, Marcos Isidoro-Ayza, Claudio L Afonso
BACKGROUND: Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are highly contagious and cause disease in both wild birds and poultry. A pigeon-adapted variant of genotype VI NDV, often termed pigeon paramyxovirus 1, is commonly isolated from columbids in the United States and worldwide. Complete genomic characterization of these genotype VI viruses circulating in wild columbids in the United States is limited, and due to the genetic variability of the virus, failure of rapid diagnostic detection has been reported...
January 12, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325564/engineered-recombinant-protein-products-of-the-avian-paramyxovirus-type-1-nucleocapsid-and-phosphoprotein-genes-for-serological-diagnosis
#3
Na Zhao, Christian Grund, Martin Beer, Timm C Harder
BACKGROUND: Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV, avian Avulavirus-1, APMV-1) induces a highly contagious and lethal systemic disease in gallinaceous poultry. APMV-1 antibody detection is used for surveillance and to control vaccination, but is hampered by cross-reactivity to other subtypes of avian Avulaviruses. Data are lacking concerning the applicability of NDV V proteins as differential diagnostic marker to distinguish vaccinated from virus-infected birds (DIVA strategy). METHODS: Full length and C-terminally truncated nucleocapsid (NP) protein, and the unique C-terminal regions of the phospho- (P) and V proteins of the NDV LaSota strain were bacterially expressed as fusion proteins with the multimerization domain of the human C4 binding protein, and used as diagnostic antigens in indirect ELISA...
January 11, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323621/vaccines-for-the-paramyxoviruses-and-pneumoviruses-successes-candidates-and-hurdles
#4
Charles J Russell, Eric A F Simões, Julia L Hurwitz
Human parainfluenza viruses (family Paramyxoviridae), human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (family Pneumoviridae) infect most infants and children within the first few years of life and are the etiologic agents for many serious acute respiratory illnesses. These virus infections are also associated with long-term diseases that impact quality of life, including asthma. Despite over a half-century of vaccine research, development, and clinical trials, no vaccine has been licensed to date for the paramyxoviruses or pneumoviruses for the youngest infants...
January 11, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321677/recognition-by-host-nuclear-transport-proteins-drives-disorder-to-order-transition-in-hendra-virus-v
#5
Sarah C Atkinson, Michelle D Audsley, Kim G Lieu, Glenn A Marsh, David R Thomas, Steven M Heaton, Jason J Paxman, Kylie M Wagstaff, Ashley M Buckle, Gregory W Moseley, David A Jans, Natalie A Borg
Hendra virus (HeV) is a paramyxovirus that causes lethal disease in humans, for which no vaccine or antiviral agent is available. HeV V protein is central to pathogenesis through its ability to interact with cytoplasmic host proteins, playing key antiviral roles. Here we use immunoprecipitation, siRNA knockdown and confocal laser scanning microscopy to show that HeV V shuttles to and from the nucleus through specific host nuclear transporters. Spectroscopic and small angle X-ray scattering studies reveal HeV V undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon binding to either importin α/β1 or exportin-1/Ran-GTP, dependent on the V N-terminus...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321315/paramyxovirus-v-proteins-interact-with-the-rig-i-trim25-regulatory-complex-and-inhibit-rig-i-signaling
#6
Maria T Sanchez-Aparicio, Leighland J Feinman, Adolfo García-Sastre, Megan L Shaw
Paramyxovirus V proteins are known antagonists of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-mediated interferon induction pathway, interacting with and inhibiting the RLR MDA5. We report interactions between the Nipah virus V protein and both the RIG-I regulatory protein, TRIM25, and RIG-I. We also observed interactions between these host proteins and the V proteins of measles virus, Sendai virus and parainfluenza virus. These interactions are mediated by the conserved C-terminal domain of the V protein, which binds to the tandem CARDs of RIG-I (the region of TRIM25-ubiquitination) and to the SPRY domain of TRIM25, which mediates TRIM25 interaction with the RIG-I CARDs...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286260/molecular-characterization-of-avian-paramyxovirus-types-4-and-8-isolated-from-wild-migratory-waterfowl-in-mongolia
#7
Erdene-Ochir Tseren-Ochir, Seong-Su Yuk, Bodisaikhan Khishgee, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Jin-Yong Noh, Woo-Tack Hong, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Gyeong-Bin Gwon, Sol Jeong, Yu-Jin Kim, Jun-Beom Kim, Ji-Ho Lee, Kyu-Jik Kim, Batchuluun Damdinjav, Chang-Seon Song
Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) constitute some of the most globally prevalent avian viruses and are frequently isolated from wild migratory bird species. Using 1,907 fresh fecal samples collected during the 2012 avian influenza surveillance program, we identified two serotypes of APMV: APMV-4 ( n=10) and APMV-8 ( n=1). Sequences for these isolates phylogenetically clustered with Asian APMV-4 and APMV-8 recently isolated from wild birds in Korea, Japan, China, and Kazakhstan. Analysis by DNA barcoding indicated that the Mongolian APMV-4 and APMV-8 strains were isolated from Anseriformes species including Mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos) and Whooper Swans ( Cygnus cygnus)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284037/novel-avian-paramyxovirus-isolated-from-gulls-in-caspian-seashore-in-kazakhstan
#8
Kobey Karamendin, Aidyn Kydyrmanov, Yermukhammet Kasymbekov, Saule Asanova, Klara Daulbayeva, Aigerim Seidalina, Elizaveta Khan, Sally M Harrison, Ian M Carr, Simon J Goodman, Alibek Moldakozhayev, Marat Sayatov
Three isolates APMV/gull/Kazakhstan/5976/2014, APMV/gull/Kazakhstan/ 5977/2014 and APMV/gull/Kazakhstan/5979/2014, were obtained from independent samples during annual surveillance for avian influenza and paramyxoviruses in wild birds from the Caspian Sea coast in Western Kazakhstan, and were initially identified as putative paramyxoviruses on the basis of electron microscopy. Hemagglutination Inhibition Assays with antisera to nine known APMV serotypes (APMV1-9) indicated no relation to any of them. Next generation sequencing of whole genome sequences indicated the three isolates were genetically identical, and had a nucleotide structure typical for all APMVs, consisting of six genes 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279280/the-path-towards-effective-antivirals-against-rabies
#9
Dirk Jochmans, Johan Neyts
Rabies virus remains an important burden of disease claiming an estimated 60,000 lives each year, mainly children, and having a huge economical and societal cost. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is highly effective, however in patients that present with neurological symptoms the case-fatality ratio is extremely high (>99%). During the last decades several attempts to identify potent and effective antivirals were made. Only a few of these demonstrated improvement in clinical signs in animal studies and none of the trials in humans showed significant efficacy...
December 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273042/coronavirus-and-paramyxovirus-in-bats-from-northwest-italy
#10
Francesca Rizzo, Kathryn M Edenborough, Roberto Toffoli, Paola Culasso, Simona Zoppi, Alessandro Dondo, Serena Robetto, Sergio Rosati, Angelika Lander, Andreas Kurth, Riccardo Orusa, Luigi Bertolotti, Maria Lucia Mandola
BACKGROUND: Bat-borne virus surveillance is necessary for determining inter-species transmission risks and is important due to the wide-range of bat species which may harbour potential pathogens. This study aimed to monitor coronaviruses (CoVs) and paramyxoviruses (PMVs) in bats roosting in northwest Italian regions. Our investigation was focused on CoVs and PMVs due to their proven ability to switch host and their zoonotic potential. Here we provide the phylogenetic characterization of the highly conserved polymerase gene fragments...
December 22, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237838/a-single-amino-acid-substitution-within-the-paramyxovirus-sendai-virus-nucleoprotein-is-a-critical-determinant-for-production-of-ifn-beta-inducing-copyback-type-defective-interfering-genomes
#11
Asuka Yoshida, Ryoko Kawabata, Tomoyuki Honda, Kouji Sakai, Yasushi Ami, Takemasa Sakaguchi, Takashi Irie
One of the first defenses against infecting pathogens is the innate immune system activated by cellular recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Although virus-derived RNA species, especially copyback (cb)-type defective-interfering (DI) genomes, have been shown to serve as real PAMPs, which strongly induce interferon (IFN)-beta during mononegavirus infection, the mechanisms underlying DI generation remain unclear. Here, for the first time, we identified a single amino acid substitution causing production of cbDI genomes by successful isolation of two distinct types of viral clones with cbDI-producing and cbDI-non-producing phenotypes, from the stock Sendai virus (SeV) strain Cantell, which is widely used in a number of studies on anti-viral innate immunity as a representative IFN-beta-inducing virus...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237836/structure-of-the-paramyxovirus-piv5-nucleoprotein-in-complex-with-an-amino-terminal-peptide-of-the-phosphoprotein
#12
Megha Aggarwal, George P Leser, Christopher A Kors, Robert A Lamb
Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae, which consists of enveloped viruses with a non-segmented negative strand RNA genome encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N). Paramyxovirus replication is regulated by the phosphoprotein (P) through protein-protein interactions with N and the RNA polymerase (L). The chaperone activity of P is essential to maintain the unassembled RNA-free form of N in order to prevent non-specific RNA binding and premature N oligomerization. Here, we determined the crystal structure of unassembled PIV5 N in complex with a P peptide (N0P) derived from the N-terminus of P (P50) at 2...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234115/the-glutamic-residue-at-position-402-in-the-c-terminus-of-newcastle-disease-virus-nucleoprotein-is-critical-for-the-virus
#13
Xiaohui Yu, Jinlong Cheng, Zirong He, Chuang Li, Yang Song, Jia Xue, Huiming Yang, Rui Zhang, Guozhong Zhang
The nucleocapsid proteins (NPs) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and other paramyxoviruses play an important functional role during genomic RNA replication. Our previous study showed that the NP-encoding gene significantly influenced viral replication. Here, we investigated the roles of certain amino acid residues in the NP C-terminus in viral replication and virulence. Results showed that the glutamic acid residue at position 402 (E402) in the C-terminus of the NP is critical for RNA synthesis in the NDV mini-genome system...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231283/new-potent-inhibitors-against-newcastle-disease-virus-haemagglutinin-neuraminidase
#14
Paola Rota, Paolo La Rocca, Marco Piccoli, Marco Montefiori, Federica Cirillo, Lars Olsen, Marica Orioli, Pietro Allevi, Luigi Anastasia
Neuraminidase activity is essential for the infection and propagation of Paramyxoviruses, including human parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs) and the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). Thus, many inhibitors have been developed based on the 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid inhibitor (DANA) backbone. Along this line, we report here a series of neuraminidase inhibitors, having C-4 (ptoluensulfonamide and azido substituents) and C-5 (N-perfluorinated chains) modifications to the DANA backbone, that resulted 5- to 15-folds more potent than the current most active compound, the Ntrifluoroacetyl derivative of DANA (FANA), on the NDV haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (NDV-HN)...
December 12, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212450/the-impact-of-virus-infections-on-pneumonia-mortality-is-complex-in-adults-a-prospective-multicentre-observational-study
#15
Naoko Katsurada, Motoi Suzuki, Masahiro Aoshima, Makito Yaegashi, Tomoko Ishifuji, Norichika Asoh, Naohisa Hamashige, Masahiko Abe, Koya Ariyoshi, Konosuke Morimoto
BACKGROUND: Various viruses are known to be associated with pneumonia. However, the impact of viral infections on adult pneumonia mortality remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the effect of virus infection on pneumonia mortality among adults stratified by virus type and patient comorbidities. METHODS: This multicentre prospective study enrolled pneumonia patients aged ≥15 years from September 2011 to August 2014. Sputum samples were tested by in-house multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays to identify 13 respiratory viruses...
December 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187536/inflammasome-antagonism-by-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-c-protein
#16
Niraj K Shil, Swechha M Pokharel, Amiya K Banerjee, Michael Hoffman, Santanu Bose
Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the paramyxoviridae family. HPIV3 is a lung tropic virus causing airway diseases including pneumonia, croup, and bronchiolitis during infancy and childhood. Activation of inflammasome by pathogens results in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β during infection. Thus, inflammasome mediated pro-inflammatory response plays a critical role in regulating immune response and virus clearance. Inflammasome is a multimeric protein complex triggering caspase-1 activation...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182728/an-evaluation-of-the-impact-of-aloe-vera-and-licorice-extracts-on-the-course-of-experimental-pigeon-paramyxovirus-type-1-infection-in-pigeons
#17
D Dziewulska, T Stenzel, M Smialek, B Tykalowski, A Koncicki
The progressive decrease in the efficiency of synthetic drugs has prompted research into phytogenic feed additives with potentially immunomodulatory and anti-infective properties. Complex diseases with a mixed etiology, including viral, pose a growing problem in domestic pigeons. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of various doses of aloe vera and licorice extracts on the course of experimental PPMV-1 infection in pigeons. The experiment was performed on pigeons divided into 5 groups, including one control group and 4 experimental groups, which were orally administered aloe vera or licorice extracts at 300 or 500 mg/kg BW for 7 d after experimental inoculation with PPMV-1...
November 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162154/pigeon-paramyxovirus-type-1-from-a-fatal-human-case-induces-pneumonia-in-experimentally-infected-cynomolgus-macaques-macaca-fascicularis
#18
Thijs Kuiken, Pascal Buijs, Peter van Run, Geert van Amerongen, Marion Koopmans, Bernadette van den Hoogen
Although avian paramyxovirus type 1 is known to cause mild transient conjunctivitis in human beings, there are two recent reports of fatal respiratory disease in immunocompromised human patients infected with the pigeon lineage of the virus (PPMV-1). In order to evaluate the potential of PPMV-1 to cause respiratory tract disease, we inoculated a PPMV-1 isolate (hPPMV-1/Netherlands/579/2003) from an immunocompromised human patient into three healthy cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and examined them by clinical, virological, and pathological assays...
November 21, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129019/genetic-characterization-of-bank-vole-virus-bavv-a-new-paramyxovirus-isolated-from-kidneys-of-bank-voles-in-russia
#19
Sergey Alkhovsky, Alexander Butenko, Aykaz Eremyan, Alexey Shchetinin
A genome of bank vole virus (BaVV), isolated from kidney tissues of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in Russia in 1973, was sequenced. The genomic organization of BaVV (3'-N-P/V/C-M-F-G-L-5', 16,992 nt in length; GenBank accession number MF943130) is most similar to that of Mossman virus (MoV) and Nariva virus (NarPV), two ungrouped paramyxoviruses isolated from rodents in Australia and Trinidad, respectively. The proteins of BaVV have the highest level of sequence identity (ranging from 23-28% for G protein to 66-73% for M protein) to proteins of MoV and NarPV...
November 11, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110978/mumps-an-emergency-medicine-focused-update
#20
Chelsea Bockelman, Thomas C Frawley, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Mumps is a Paramyxoviridae virus. This disease was rampant prior to introduction of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, resulting in decreased incidence. This disease has demonstrated several outbreaks. OBJECTIVE: This review provides a focused evaluation of mumps, an update on outbreaks, management recommendations, and ways to decrease transmission. DISCUSSION: Clusters of mumps outbreaks continue to occur. The virus is a paramyxovirus, a single-stranded RNA virus...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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