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Disseminated Valley Fever

Isabelle Dietrich, Stephanie Jansen, Gamou Fall, Stephan Lorenzen, Martin Rudolf, Katrin Huber, Anna Heitmann, Sabine Schicht, El Hadji Ndiaye, Mick Watson, Ilaria Castelli, Benjamin Brennan, Richard M Elliott, Mawlouth Diallo, Amadou A Sall, Anna-Bella Failloux, Esther Schnettler, Alain Kohl, Stefanie C Becker
The emerging bunyavirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is transmitted to humans and livestock by a large number of mosquito species. RNA interference (RNAi) has been characterized as an important innate immune defense mechanism used by mosquitoes to limit replication of positive-sense RNA flaviviruses and togaviruses; however, little is known about its role against negative-strand RNA viruses such as RVFV. We show that virus-specific small RNAs are produced in infected mosquito cells, in Drosophila melanogaster cells, and, most importantly, also in RVFV vector mosquitoes...
May 2017: MSphere
John Randolph Dryden, Michael David Starsiak, Mickaila James Johnston, Eugene David Silverman
Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is a systemic fungal infection resulting from inhalation of the Coccidioides immitis or posadasii spores. In many cases, infection causes a self-limited community-acquired pneumonia; however, in patients with risk factors, such as immunosuppression or African or Pacific Island ancestry, significant morbidity and mortality from disseminated disease may occur. Presented here are comparative images using Tc-MDP bone scan, F-FDG PET/CT, and MRI. Each demonstrates particular strengths, which aid in assessing the extent of systemic involvement of a biopsy-proven case of disseminated coccidioidomycosis...
April 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Hayriye Gulbudak, Vincent L Cannataro, Necibe Tuncer, Maia Martcheva
Vector-borne disease transmission is a common dissemination mode used by many pathogens to spread in a host population. Similar to directly transmitted diseases, the within-host interaction of a vector-borne pathogen and a host's immune system influences the pathogen's transmission potential between hosts via vectors. Yet there are few theoretical studies on virulence-transmission trade-offs and evolution in vector-borne pathogen-host systems. Here, we consider an immuno-epidemiological model that links the within-host dynamics to between-host circulation of a vector-borne disease...
December 28, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Joseph D Forrester, Haiwei Henry Guo, Thomas G Weiser
BACKGROUND: Coccidioidomycosis, commonly called "valley fever," "San Joaquin fever," "desert fever," or "desert rheumatism," is a multi-system illness caused by infection with Coccidioides fungi (C. immitis or C. posadasii). This organism is endemic to the desert Southwest regions of the United States and Mexico and to parts of South America. The manifestations of infection occur along a spectrum from asymptomatic to mild self-limited fever to severe disseminated disease. METHODS: Review of the English-language literature...
December 2016: Surgical Infections
Hammami Pachka, Tran Annelise, Kemp Alan, Tshikae Power, Kgori Patrick, Chevalier Véronique, Paweska Janusz, Jori Ferran
BACKGROUND: In Northern Botswana, rural communities, livestock, wildlife and large numbers of mosquitoes cohabitate around permanent waters of the Okavango Delta. As in other regions of sub-Saharan Africa, Rift Valley Fever (RVF) virus is known to circulate in that area among wild and domestic animals. However, the diversity and composition of potential RVF mosquito vectors in that area are unknown as well as the climatic and ecological drivers susceptible to affect their population dynamics...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Alessio Di Lorenzo, Daria Di Sabatino, Valeria Blanda, Daniela Cioci, Annamaria Conte, Rossana Bruno, Francesca Sauro, Paolo Calistri, Lara Savini
The Arbo‑zoonet Information System has been developed as part of the 'International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector Borne Zoonotic Diseases (Arbo‑zoonet)' project. The project aims to create common knowledge, sharing data, expertise, experiences, and scientific information on West Nile Disease (WND), Crimean‑Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), and Rift Valley fever (RVF). These arthropod‑borne diseases of domestic and wild animals can affect humans, posing great threat to public health...
June 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Michael Loudin, Daniel R Clayburgh, Morgan Hakki
Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is caused by the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. Most infections are asymptomatic or result in self-limited pneumonia; extrapulmonary dissemination via either hematogenous or lymphatic spread is rare. Here, we present a case of cervical C. immitis lymphadenitis that resulted in fistula formation to the esophagus via mediastinal extension. This case highlights a very unusual extrapulmonary manifestation of coccidioidomycosis, the difficulty in diagnosing coccidioidal infection when it is not suspected, and the importance of obtaining a thorough exposure history to assist with diagnosis...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Birgit Makoschey, Emma van Kilsdonk, Willem R Hubers, Mieke P Vrijenhoek, Marianne Smit, Paul J Wichgers Schreur, Jeroen Kortekaas, Véronique Moulin
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that affects domesticated ruminants and occasionally humans. Classical RVF vaccines are based on formalin-inactivated virus or the live-attenuated Smithburn strain. The inactivated vaccine is highly safe but requires multiple administrations and yearly re-vaccinations. Although the Smithburn vaccine provides solid protection after a single vaccination, this vaccine is not safe for pregnant animals. An alternative live-attenuated vaccine, named Clone 13, carries a large natural deletion in the NSs gene which encodes the major virulence factor of the virus...
March 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
El Hadji Ndiaye, Gamou Fall, Alioune Gaye, Ndeye Sakha Bob, Cheikh Talla, Cheikh Tidiane Diagne, Diawo Diallo, Yamar B A, Ibrahima Dia, Alain Kohl, Amadou Alpha Sall, Mawlouth Diallo
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic pathogen. In Senegal, RVFV was first isolated in 1974 from Aedes dalzieli (Theobald) and thereafter from Ae. fowleri (de Charmoy), Ae. ochraceus Theobald, Ae. vexans (Meigen), Culex poicilipes (Theobald), Mansonia africana (Theobald) and Ma. uniformis (Theobald). However, the vector competence of these local species has never been demonstrated making hypothetical the transmission cycle proposed for West Africa based on serological data and mosquito isolates...
February 20, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Amber M Riblett, Vincent A Blomen, Lucas T Jae, Louis A Altamura, Robert W Doms, Thijn R Brummelkamp, Jason A Wojcechowskyj
UNLABELLED: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes recurrent insect-borne epizootics throughout the African continent, and infection of humans can lead to a lethal hemorrhagic fever syndrome. Deep mutagenesis of haploid human cells was used to identify host factors required for RVFV infection. This screen identified a suite of enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) biogenesis and transport, including several components of the cis-oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex, one of the central components of Golgi complex trafficking...
November 18, 2015: Journal of Virology
Lisa F Shubitz, Hien T Trinh, John N Galgiani, Maria L Lewis, Annette W Fothergill, Nathan P Wiederhold, Bridget M Barker, Eric R G Lewis, Adina L Doyle, William J Hoekstra, Robert J Schotzinger, Edward P Garvey
Coccidioidomycosis, or valley fever, is a growing health concern endemic to the southwestern United States. Safer, more effective, and more easily administered drugs are needed especially for severe, chronic, or unresponsive infections. The novel fungal CYP51 inhibitor VT-1161 demonstrated in vitro antifungal activity, with MIC50 and MIC90 values of 1 and 2 μg/ml, respectively, against 52 Coccidioides clinical isolates. In the initial animal study, oral doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg VT-1161 significantly reduced fungal burdens and increased survival time in a lethal respiratory model in comparison with treatment with a placebo (P < 0...
December 2015: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Michael J Turell, Seth C Britch, Robert L Aldridge, Rui-De Xue, Mike L Smith, Lee W Cohnstaedt, Kenneth J Linthicum
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) continues to pose a threat to much of the world. Unlike many arboviruses, numerous mosquito species have been associated with RVFV in nature, and many species have been demonstrated as competent vectors in the laboratory. In this study, we evaluated two field-collected Psorophora species, Psorophora columbiae (Dyar and Knab) and Psorophora ciliata (F.) for their potential to transmit RVFV in North America. Both species were susceptible to infection after feeding on a hamster with a viremia of 10(7) plaque-forming units/ml, with infection rates of 65 and 83% for Ps...
September 2015: Journal of Medical Entomology
Natalya Azadeh, Matthew A Rank, John C Lewis, Lewis J Wesselius, Meng-Ru Cheng, Janis E Blair
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate interactive effects of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis and asthma. METHODS: We identified three groups of 33 age- and sex-matched patients: Group 1 (both asthma and coccidioidomycosis), Group 2 (asthma only), and Group 3 (pulmonary coccidioidomycosis only). Predetermined end points included: rate of disseminated coccidioidomycosis, duration of symptoms and antifungal therapy, hospitalization, death, and escalation of asthma therapies. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar across groups...
2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Kourosh Alavi, Pradeep R Atla, Tahmina Haq, Muhammad Y Sheikh
Endemic to the southwestern parts of the United States, coccidioidomycosis, also known as "Valley Fever," is a common fungal infection that primarily affects the lungs in both acute and chronic forms. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is the most severe but very uncommon and usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. It can affect the central nervous system, bones, joints, skin, and, very rarely, the abdomen. This is the first case report of a patient with coccidioidal dissemination to the peritoneum presenting as eosinophilic ascites (EA)...
2015: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Felix Kreher, Carole Tamietti, Céline Gommet, Laurent Guillemot, Myriam Ermonval, Anna-Bella Failloux, Jean-Jacques Panthier, Michèle Bouloy, Marie Flamand
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an enzootic virus circulating in Africa that is transmitted to its vertebrate host by a mosquito vector and causes severe clinical manifestations in humans and ruminants. RVFV has a tripartite genome of negative or ambisense polarity. The M segment contains five in-frame AUG codons that are alternatively used for the synthesis of two major structural glycoproteins, GN and GC, and at least two accessory proteins, NSm, a 14-kDa cytosolic protein, and P78/NSm-GN, a 78-kDa glycoprotein...
October 2014: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Michael J Turell, David J Dohm, Dina M Fonseca
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, has been responsible for large outbreaks in Africa that have resulted in hundreds of thousands of human infections and major economic disruption due to loss of livestock and to trade restrictions. Culex pipiens was implicated as the principal vector of the Egyptian outbreak in 1977 that affected about 200,000 people. In the northern USA, Cx. pipiens occurs both as a mix of forms pipiens and molestus (i.e., US Culex pipiens) as well as pure Cx. pipiens form molestus, the latter mostly in underground locations such as sewers and basements...
December 2014: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
Shengmei Zhou, Yanling Ma, Parakrama Chandrasoma
Gastrointestinal coccidioidomycosis is extremely rare, with less than 10 cases reported in the literature. We report a case of small bowel dissemination of coccidioidomycosis in a 21-year-old African American male with a history of living in San Joaquin Valley. The patient presented with one week of abdominal pain, nausea, shortness of breath, intermittent fever, and sweat, and one month of abdominal distention. A chest radiograph revealed complete effusion of left lung. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed diffuse small bowel thickening and enhancement, as well as omental and peritoneal nodules, and ascites...
2015: Case Reports in Pathology
Joel Lutomiah, David Omondi, Daniel Masiga, Collins Mutai, Paul O Mireji, Juliette Ongus, Ken J Linthicum, Rosemary Sang
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis of domestic ruminants in Africa. Blood-fed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya were analyzed to determine the virus infection status and animal source of the blood meals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood meals from individual mosquito abdomens were screened for viruses using Vero cells and RT-PCR. DNA was also extracted and the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes amplified by PCR...
September 2014: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Paul J Wichgers Schreur, Nadia Oreshkova, Rob J M Moormann, Jeroen Kortekaas
UNLABELLED: Bunyavirus genomes comprise a small (S), a medium (M), and a large (L) RNA segment of negative polarity. Although the untranslated regions have been shown to comprise signals required for transcription, replication, and encapsidation, the mechanisms that drive the packaging of at least one S, M, and L segment into a single virion to generate infectious virus are largely unknown. One of the most important members of the Bunyaviridae family that causes devastating disease in ruminants and occasionally humans is the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV)...
September 2014: Journal of Virology
Nicola Marsden-Haug, Heather Hill, Anastasia P Litvintseva, David M Engelthaler, Elizabeth M Driebe, Chandler C Roe, Cindy Ralston, Steven Hurst, Marcia Goldoft, Lalitha Gade, Ron Wohrle, George R Thompson, Mary E Brandt, Tom Chiller
Coccidioidomycosis ("valley fever") is caused by inhaling spores of the soil-dwelling fungi Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. Most infections are subclinical. When clinical manifestations do occur (typically 1-4 weeks after exposure), they are similar to those associated with influenza or community-acquired pneumonia. Disseminated disease is rare. Residual pulmonary nodules can lead to chronic lung disease. Fluconazole or other triazoles often are used for treatment, but mild cases often resolve without specific therapy...
May 23, 2014: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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