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Dientamoeba fragilis

Simone M Cacciò, Anna Rosa Sannella, Antonella Bruno, Christen R Stensvold, Erica Boarato David, Semiramis Guimarães, Elisabetta Manuali, Chiara Magistrali, Karim Mahdad, Miles Beaman, Roberta Maserati, Fabio Tosini, Edoardo Pozio
The flagellated protozoan Dientamoeba fragilis is often detected in humans with gastrointestinal symptoms, but it is also commonly found in healthy subjects. As for other intestinal protozoa, the hypothesis that genetically dissimilar parasite isolates differ in their ability to cause symptoms has also been raised for D. fragilis. To date, only two D. fragilis genotypes (1 and 2) have been described, of which genotype 1 largely predominates worldwide. However, very few markers are available for genotyping studies and therefore the extent of genetic variation among isolates remains largely unknown...
August 20, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Douglas Chan, Joel Barratt, Tamalee Roberts, Owen Phillips, Jan Šlapeta, Una Ryan, Deborah Marriott, John Harkness, John Ellis, Damien Stark
Dientamoeba fragilis is a potentially pathogenic, enteric, protozoan parasite with a worldwide distribution. While clinical case reports and prevalence studies appear regularly in the scientific literature, little attention has been paid to this parasite's biology, life cycle, host range, and possible transmission routes. Overall, these aspects of Dientamoeba biology remain poorly understood at best. In this study, a total of 420 animal samples, collected from Australia, were surveyed for the presence of Dientamoeba fragilis using PCR...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Shifra Ken Dror, Elsa Pavlotzky, Mira Barak
Infectious gastroenteritis is a global health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial to allow appropriate and timely treatment. Current laboratory stool testing has a long turnaround time (TAT) and demands highly qualified personnel and multiple techniques. The need for high throughput and the number of possible enteric pathogens compels the implementation of a molecular approach which uses multiplex technology, without compromising performance requirements...
2016: PloS One
George Vasquez-Rios, Jorge D Machicado, Angelica Terashima, Luis A Marcos
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder of uncertain etiology. Several studies have proposed the possible role of intestinal parasites in the pathogenesis of IBS. We aimed to summarize the epidemiological studies that describe a possible link between intestinal parasites and IBS, with special interest in endemic areas for intestinal parasitism such as South America. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted by using the keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal parasites, protozoan infection, soil-transmitted helminths and South America...
April 2016: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
M Heusinkveld, L Mughini-Gras, R Pijnacker, H Vennema, R Scholts, K W van Huisstede-Vlaanderen, T Kortbeek, M Kooistra-Smid, W van Pelt
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) morbidity remains high amongst preschool children, posing a significant societal burden. Empirical data on AGE-causing agents is needed to gauge their clinical relevance and identify agent-specific targets for control. We assessed the prevalence, risk factors and association with symptoms for enteropathogens in households with preschool children. A monthly-repeated cross-sectional survey of enteropathogens in households with preschool children was performed. A parent-child pair per household (n = 907 households) provided faecal samples and reported their symptoms and potential risk exposures...
October 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Joakim Forsell, Margareta Granlund, Linn Samuelsson, Satu Koskiniemi, Helén Edebro, Birgitta Evengård
BACKGROUND: Blastocystis is a common intestinal parasite with worldwide distribution but the distribution of Blastocystis and its subtypes in East Africa is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the distribution of Blastocystis subtypes in Zanzibar, Tanzania and report the prevalence of intestinal parasites using both molecular methods and microscopy. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from both diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic outpatients in Zanzibar. In addition to microscopy, real-time PCR for Blastocystis, Entamoeba histolytica and E...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Salih Maçin, Filiz Kaya, Deniz Çağdaş, Hayriye Hizarcioglu-Gulsen, Inci Nur Saltik-Temizel, İlhan Tezcan, Hülya Demir, Sibel Ergüven, Yakut Akyön
The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients with chronic diarrhea and clarify the importance of these parasitic pathogens in such cases. A total of 60 pediatric patients with chronic diarrhea between June 2012 and October 2014 were enrolled in the study. Out of 60 stool samples, five were positive for Giardia lamblia, two, Dientamoeba fragilis, and one, Blastocystis hominis. One stool sample was positive for Entamoeba hartmanni and B. hominis, another one was positive for G...
June 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
José A Boga, Susana Rojo, Jonathan Fernández, Mercedes Rodríguez, Carmen Iglesias, Pablo Martínez-Camblor, Fernando Vázquez, Azucena Rodríguez-Guardado
OBJECTIVES: Dientamoeba fragilis is a pathogenic protozoan of the human gastrointestinal tract with a worldwide distribution, which has emerged as an important and misdiagnosed cause of chronic gastrointestinal illnesses such as diarrhea and 'irritable-bowel-like' gastrointestinal disease. Very little research has been conducted on the use of suitable antimicrobial compounds. Furthermore, higher rates of co-infection with Enterobius vermicularis have been described, suggesting that E...
August 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
L O'Brien Andersen, A B Karim, H M Roager, L K Vigsnæs, K A Krogfelt, T R Licht, C R Stensvold
Several studies have shown associations between groups of intestinal bacterial or specific ratios between bacterial groups and various disease traits. Meanwhile, little is known about interactions and associations between eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms in the human gut. In this work, we set out to investigate potential associations between common single-celled parasites such as Blastocystis spp. and Dientamoeba fragilis and intestinal bacteria. Stool DNA from patients with intestinal symptoms were selected based on being Blastocystis spp...
September 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Damien Stark, Joel Barratt, Douglas Chan, John T Ellis
Dientamoeba fragilis is a protozoan parasite of the human bowel, commonly reported throughout the world in association with gastrointestinal symptoms. Despite its initial discovery over 100 years ago, arguably, we know less about this peculiar organism than any other pathogenic or potentially pathogenic protozoan that infects humans. The details of its life cycle and mode of transmission are not completely known, and its potential as a human pathogen is debated within the scientific community. Recently, several major advances have been made with respect to this organism's life cycle and molecular biology...
July 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Jessica Ögren, Song Van Nguyen, Minh Khac Nguyen, Jan Dimberg, Andreas Matussek
We surveyed the prevalence of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Cryptosporidium spp in individuals with and without gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms residing in and around Da Nang city, Vietnam. Fecal samples were collected from children (n = 100) and adults (n = 80) with GI symptoms and from healthy individuals (n = 88) reporting no GI symptoms. Parasite detection was performed by multiplex real-time PCR. Overall, except for G. duodenalis, we found a low prevalence (<5%) of D...
June 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Lynne S Garcia
Dientamoeba fragilis is a single-celled protozoan, closely related to the trichomonads. Reported worldwide as causing human gastrointestinal symptoms, D. fragilis is very common and is second only to Blastocystis spp. Dientamoebiasis equals or exceeds the incidence of giardiasis. This minireview includes diagnostic options, clinical relevance, therapy, an animal model, the confirmed cyst stage, and sequencing data. The development of a rodent model, fulfilling Koch's postulates, and the confirmation of a cyst stage have clarified transmission routes, including fecal-oral transmission...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Marwan Osman, Dima El Safadi, Amandine Cian, Sadia Benamrouz, Céline Nourrisson, Philippe Poirier, Bruno Pereira, Romy Razakandrainibe, Anthony Pinon, Céline Lambert, Ivan Wawrzyniak, Fouad Dabboussi, Frederic Delbac, Loïc Favennec, Monzer Hamze, Eric Viscogliosi, Gabriela Certad
BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoan infections are confirmed as major causes of diarrhea, particularly in children, and represent a significant, but often neglected, threat to public health. No recent data were available in Lebanon concerning the molecular epidemiology of protozoan infections in children, a vulnerable population at high risk of infection. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of intestinal pathogenic protozoa, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a general pediatric population including both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects...
March 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tengku Shahrul Anuar, Liyana Hasim, Norhayati Moktar, Fatmah Md Salleh, Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi
Dientamoeba fragilis is a trichomonad parasite that can infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans causing gastrointestinal disease. Little is known about its epidemiology. We evaluated the prevalence of D. fragilis by conducting a cross sectional study of an Orang Asli population in rural Malaysia. We examined stool samples from 150 participants for D. fragilis using Wheatley's trichrome stain and collected demographic data from each participant using a structured questionnaire. Five participants (3.3%) had D...
September 2015: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
E Vassalou, C M Vassalos, G Spanakos, A Fotopoulos, G Dounias, P Kalofolias, G Vrioni, A Tsakris
Dientamoeba fragilis is now considered a potentially emerging gastrointestinal pathogen in both developing and developed countries. We first report an autochthonous case of D. fragilis infection in Greece. A 49-year-old female with acute non-specific abdominal pain required emergency surgical admission for active observation and repeated assessment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of acute unexplained abdominal pain finally attributed to D. fragilis infection using microscopic and molecular methods...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Djursun Karasartova, A Semra Gureser, Musa Zorlu, Buse Turegun-Atasoy, Aysegul Taylan-Ozkan, Mete Dolapci
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and significance of intestinal protozoa, specially Blastocystis spp., and to perform PCR-based subtype classification for understanding the importance of Blastocystis spp. in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disorders in post-traumatic splenectomized patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 stool samples were obtained from 30 post-traumatic splenectomized patients and 30 healthy controls...
December 14, 2015: Parasitology International
C Júlio, C Furtado, R Rocha, C Escobar, M J Brito, M Oleastro
Dientamoeba fragilis is an inhabitant of human gastrointestinal tract with a worldwide distribution. The first description considered this protozoan a rare and harmless commensal, since then it has struggled to gain recognition as a pathogen. Commercial multiplex real-time PCR was used to detect D. fragilis in fecal samples from hospitalized children (⩽18 years) with acute gastrointestinal disease, admitted to two hospitals of Lisbon area, with different demographic characteristics. A total of 176 children were studied, 103 (58·5%) male, 144 (81·8%) children between 0 and 5 years and 32 (18·2%) above 6 years old...
September 2015: Parasitology
Joel L N Barratt, Maisie Cao, Damien J Stark, John T Ellis
Dientamoeba fragilis is a human bowel parasite with a worldwide distribution. Dientamoeba was once described as a rare and harmless commensal though recent reports suggest it is common and potentially pathogenic. Molecular data on Dientamoeba is scarce which limits our understanding of this parasite. To address this, sequencing of the Dientamoeba transcriptome was performed. Messenger RNA was extracted from cultured Dientamoeba trophozoites originating from clinical stool specimens, and sequenced using Roche GS FLX and Illumina HiSeq technologies...
September 2015: Protist
J Ögren, O Dienus, S Löfgren, I-M Einemo, P Iveroth, A Matussek
Dientamoeba fragilis is a protozoan with a debated role in gastrointestinal (GI) disease. Although correlated to GI symptoms, no virulence factors have been described. In this study, we evaluated the cause of GI symptoms in children at two schools, with children aged 1 to 10 years, in the county of Jönköping, Sweden. D. fragilis infection correlated to GI symptoms in children and Enterobius vermicularis correlated to D. fragilis infection.
October 2015: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Sudarshan Paramsothy, Thomas J Borody, Enmoore Lin, Sarah Finlayson, Alissa J Walsh, Douglas Samuel, Johan van den Bogaerde, Rupert W L Leong, Susan Connor, Watson Ng, Hazel M Mitchell, Nadeem Kaakoush, Michael A Kamm
BACKGROUND: Increasing demand for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has created a need for stool banks sourced from long-term healthy donors. Here, we describe our experience in recruiting and screening fecal donors. METHODS: Mailbox, newspaper, and online advertisements were used. Potential donors were required to satisfy a prescreen telephone conversation, pass blood and stool investigations, then undertake a screening interview including medical history, physical examination, and evaluation of donor selection criteria...
July 2015: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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