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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739511/revisiting-venom-of-the-sea-anemone-stichodactyla-haddoni-omics-techniques-reveal-the-complete-toxin-arsenal-of-a-well-studied-sea-anemone-genus
#1
Bruno Madio, Eivind A B Undheim, Glenn F King
More than a century of research on sea anemone venoms has shown that they contain a diversity of biologically active proteins and peptides. However, recent omics studies have revealed that much of the venom proteome remains unexplored. We used, for the first time, a combination of proteomic and transcriptomic techniques to obtain a holistic overview of the venom arsenal of the well-studied sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni. A purely search-based approach to identify putative toxins in a transcriptome from tentacles regenerating after venom extraction identified 508 unique toxin-like transcripts grouped into 63 families...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714513/in-vivo-evaluation-of-tumour-acidosis-for-assessing-the-early-metabolic-response-and-onset-of-resistance-to-dichloroacetate-by-using-magnetic-resonance-ph-imaging
#2
Annasofia Anemone, Lorena Consolino, Laura Conti, Francesca Reineri, Federica Cavallo, Silvio Aime, Dario Livio Longo
Dichloroacetate (DCA) can reverse the glycolytic phenotype that is responsible of increased lactate production and extracellular pH acidification in cancer cells. Magnetic resonance imaging-chemical exchange saturation transfer (MRI-CEST) pH mapping is a novel non-invasive imaging approach that can measure in vivo extracellular tumour pH. We examined whether MRI-CEST pH mapping can monitor in vivo changes in tumour acidosis for assessing treatment response to DCA. Cell viability and extracellular pH were assessed in TS/A breast cancer cells treated with 1-10 mM DCA for 24 h in normoxia or hypoxia (1% O2) conditions...
August 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710031/zoantharian-mitochondrial-genomes-contain-unique-complex-group-i-introns-and-highly-conserved-intergenic-regions
#3
Sylvia Ighem Chi, Steinar D Johansen
Complex group I introns represent hallmarks of hexacoral mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs). These intron elements are expected to influence the gene organization and gene expression. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome and transcriptome of Zoanthus sansibariscus and Palythoa heliodiscus, two zoantharian species (colonial anemones) representing different families within the suborder Brachycnemina. The circular and approximately 21kb mtDNAs contained two group I introns, one in ND5 and another in COI. The ND5-717 intron harbored two conventional mitochondrial genes (ND1 and ND3) within its structure and revealed several conserved features compared to ND5-717 in sea anemones...
July 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695745/treating-autoimmune-disorders-with-venom-derived-peptides
#4
Bingzheng Shen, Zhijian Cao, Wenxin Li, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Yingliang Wu
The effective treatment of autoimmune diseases remains a challenge. Voltage-gated potassium Kv1.3 channels, which are expressed in lymphocytes, are a new therapeutic target for treating autoimmune disease. Consequently, Kv1.3 channel-inhibiting venom-derived peptides are a prospective resource for new drug discovery and clinical application. Area covered: Preclinical and clinical studies have produced a wealth of information on Kv1.3 channel-inhibiting venom-derived peptides, especially from venomous scorpions and sea anemones...
July 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690821/the-mitochondrial-genome-of-a-sea-anemone-bolocera-sp-exhibits-novel-genetic-structures-potentially-involved-in-adaptation-to-the-deep-sea-environment
#5
Bo Zhang, Yan-Hong Zhang, Xin Wang, Hui-Xian Zhang, Qiang Lin
The deep sea is one of the most extensive ecosystems on earth. Organisms living there survive in an extremely harsh environment, and their mitochondrial energy metabolism might be a result of evolution. As one of the most important organelles, mitochondria generate energy through energy metabolism and play an important role in almost all biological activities. In this study, the mitogenome of a deep-sea sea anemone (Bolocera sp.) was sequenced and characterized. Like other metazoans, it contained 13 energy pathway protein-coding genes and two ribosomal RNAs...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689025/venom-derived-peptide-inhibitors-of-voltage-gated-potassium-channels
#6
REVIEW
Raymond S Norton, K George Chandy
Voltage-gated potassium channels play a key role in human physiology and pathology. Reflecting their importance, numerous channelopathies have been characterised that arise from mutations in these channels or from autoimmune attack on the channels. Voltage-gated potassium channels are also the target of a broad range of peptide toxins from venomous organisms, including sea anemones, scorpions, spiders, snakes and cone snails; many of these peptides bind to the channels with high potency and selectivity. In this review we describe the various classes of peptide toxins that block these channels and illustrate the broad range of three-dimensional structures that support channel blockade...
July 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662520/regulation-of-ap-1-by-mapk-signaling-in-metal-stressed-sea-anemone
#7
Maayan Agron, Vera Brekhman, David Morgenstern, Tamar Lotan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: AP-1 transcription factor plays a conserved role in the immediate response to stress. Activation of AP-1 members jun and fos is mediated by complex signaling cascades to control cell proliferation and survival. To understand the evolution of this broadly-shared pathway, we studied AP-1 regulation by MAPK signaling in a basal metazoan. METHODS: Metal- stressed cnidarian Nematostella vectensis anemones were tested with kinase inhibitors and analyzed for gene expression levels and protein phosphorylation...
June 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630155/haemolytic-actinoporins-interact-with-carbohydrates-using-their-lipid-binding-module
#8
Koji Tanaka, Jose M M Caaveiro, Koldo Morante, Kouhei Tsumoto
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are proteins endowed with metamorphic properties that enable them to stably fold in water solutions as well as in cellular membranes. PFTs produce lytic pores on the plasma membranes of target cells conducive to lesions, playing key roles in the defensive and offensive molecular systems of living organisms. Actinoporins are a family of potent haemolytic toxins produced by sea anemones vigorously studied as a paradigm of α-helical PFTs, in the context of lipid-protein interactions, and in connection with nanopore technologies...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627075/chemistry-of-two-distinct-aeolid-spurilla-species-ecological-implications
#9
M Letizia Ciavatta, Stella García-Matucheski, Marianna Carbone, Guido Villani, Claudia Muniain, Margherita Gavagnin
The lipophilic extracts of two marine aeolid nudibranch molluscs of the genus Spurilla collected in distinct geographical areas have been chemically analysed. The Et2 O extracts of the nudibranchs were dominated by the presence of usual fatty acids and sterols and contained terpenoid compounds 1-3 as minor metabolites. Spurillin A (1) and spurillin B (3) were new molecules whereas cis-γ-monocyclo-farnesol (2) was already reported in the literature as a synthesis product. Interestingly, bursatellin (4), previously isolated from anaspidean molluscs of the genus Bursatella, was found in the butanol extract of both Spurilla species...
June 19, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603496/anhuienoside-c-ameliorates-collagen-induced-arthritis-through-inhibition-of-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#10
Qing Liu, Xu-Hui Xiao, Liu-Bing Hu, Hui-Yang Jie, Ying Wang, Wen-Cai Ye, Man-Mei Li, Zhong Liu
Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt (Ranunculaceae) (Di Wu in Chinese) is used to treat punch injuries and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our previous report has shown that crude triterpenoid saponins from Anemone flaccida exhibited anti-arthritic effects on type II collagen-induced arthritis in rats. Furthermore, anhuienoside C (AC), a saponin compound isolated from A. flaccida, was observed to suppress the nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. In this study, we examined the effects of AC on the prevention and treatment of collagen-induced arthritis in a mouse model and evaluated the potential mechanisms involved...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602952/a-novel-technique-to-combine-and-analyse-spatial-and-temporal-expression-datasets-a-case-study-with-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis-to-identify-potential-gene-interactions
#11
Amir M Abdol, Eric Röttinger, Fredrik Jansson, Jaap A Kaandorp
Understanding genetic interactions during early development of a given organism, is the first step toward unveiling gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that govern a biological process of interest. Predicting such interactions from large expression datasets by performing targeted knock-down/knock-out approaches is a challenging task. We use the currently available expression datasets (in situ hybridization images & qPCR time series) for a basal anthozoan the sea anemone N. vectensis to construct continuous spatiotemporal gene expression patterns during its early development...
August 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600507/global-gene-expression-defines-faded-whorl-specification-of-double-flower-domestication-in-camellia
#12
Xinlei Li, Jiyuan Li, Zhengqi Fan, Zhongchi Liu, Takayuki Tanaka, Hengfu Yin
Double flowers in cultivated camellias are divergent in floral patterns which present a rich resource for demonstrating molecular modifications influenced by the human demands. Despite the key principle of ABCE model in whorl specification, the underlying mechanism of fine-tuning double flower formation remains largely unclear. Here a comprehensive comparative transcriptomics interrogation of gene expression among floral organs of wild type and "formal double" and "anemone double" is presented. Through a combination of transcriptome, small RNA and "degradome" sequencing, we studied the regulatory gene expression network underlying the double flower formation...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596383/reinvestigation-of-the-biological-activity-of-d-allo-shk-protein
#13
Bobo Dang, Sandeep Chhabra, Michael W Pennington, Raymond S Norton, Stephen B H Kent
ShK toxin from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus is a 35-residue protein that binds to the Kv1.3 ion channel with high affinity. Recently we determined the X-ray structure of ShK toxin by racemic crystallography, in the course of which we discovered that D-ShK has a near-background IC50 value ~50,000 times lower than that of the L-ShK toxin. This lack of activity was at odds with previously reported results for an ShK diastereomer designated D-allo-ShK for which significant biological activity had been observed in a similar receptor-blocking assay...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579525/evolutionary-conserved-mechanisms-pervade-structure-and-transcriptional-modulation-of-allograft-inflammatory-factor-1-from-sea-anemone-anemonia-viridis
#14
Angela Cuttitta, Maria Antonietta Ragusa, Salvatore Costa, Carmelo Bennici, Paolo Colombo, Salvatore Mazzola, Fabrizio Gianguzza, Aldo Nicosia
Gene family encoding allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is well conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge in lower organisms. In this study, the first AIF-1 homologue from cnidarians was identified and characterised in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. The full-length cDNA of AvAIF-1 was of 913 bp with a 5' -untranslated region (UTR) of 148 bp, a 3'-UTR of 315 and an open reading frame (ORF) of 450 bp encoding a polypeptide with149 amino acid residues and predicted molecular weight of about 17 kDa...
August 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544363/expression-patterns-of-sterol-transporters-npc1-and-npc2-in-the-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#15
Vincent Dani, Fabrice Priouzeau, Marjolijn Mertz, Magali Mondin, Sophie Pagnotta, Sandra Lacas-Gervais, Simon K Davy, Cécile Sabourault
The symbiotic interaction between cnidarians (e.g. corals and sea anemones) and photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is triggered by both host-symbiont recognition processes and metabolic exchange between the two partners. The molecular communication is crucial for homeostatic regulation of the symbiosis, both under normal conditions and during stresses that further lead to symbiosis collapse. It is therefore important to identify and fully characterize the key players of this intimate interaction at the symbiotic interface...
May 22, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539458/how-does-environment-influence-fighting-the-effects-of-tidal-flow-on-resource-value-and-fighting-costs-in-sea-anemones
#16
Alexandre V Palaoro, Mariana Velasque, Sandro Santos, Mark Briffa
An animal's decision to enter into a fight depends on the interaction between perceived resource value (V) and fighting costs (C). Both could be altered by predictable environmental fluctuations. For intertidal marine animals, such as the sea anemone Actinia equina, exposure to high flow during the tidal cycle may increase V by bringing more food. It may also increase C via energy expenditure needed to attach to the substrate. We asked whether simulated tidal cycles would alter decisions in fighting A. equina We exposed some individuals to still water and others to simulated tidal cycles...
May 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533949/worldwide-exploration-of-the-microbiome-harbored-by-the-cnidarian-model-exaiptasia-pallida-agassiz-in-verrill-1864-indicates-a-lack-of-bacterial-association-specificity-at-a-lower-taxonomic-rank
#17
Tanya Brown, Christopher Otero, Alejandro Grajales, Estefania Rodriguez, Mauricio Rodriguez-Lanetty
Examination of host-microbe interactions in early diverging metazoans, such as cnidarians, is of great interest from an evolutionary perspective to understand how host-microbial consortia have evolved. To address this problem, we analyzed whether the bacterial community associated with the cosmopolitan and model sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida shows specific patterns across worldwide populations ranging from the Caribbean Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. By comparing sequences of the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, we revealed that anemones host a complex and diverse microbial community...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528674/sodium-channels-and-venom-peptide-pharmacology
#18
Mathilde R Israel, Bryan Tay, Jennifer R Deuis, Irina Vetter
Venomous animals including cone snails, spiders, scorpions, anemones, and snakes have evolved a myriad of components in their venoms that target the opening and/or closing of voltage-gated sodium channels to cause devastating effects on the neuromuscular systems of predators and prey. These venom peptides, through design and serendipity, have not only contributed significantly to our understanding of sodium channel pharmacology and structure, but they also represent some of the most phyla- and isoform-selective molecules that are useful as valuable tool compounds and drug leads...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501690/toxicity-estimates-for-diuron-and-atrazine-for-the-tropical-marine-cnidarian-exaiptasia-pallida-and-in-hospite-symbiodinium-spp-using-pam-chlorophyll-a-fluorometry
#19
Pelli Louise Howe, Amanda Jean Reichelt-Brushett, Malcolm William Clark, Cliff Ross Seery
Effective ecotoxicological risk assessments for herbicides in tropical marine environments are restricted by a lack of toxicity data, sensitive test methods and endpoints for relevant species, and this requires rectification. The symbiotic sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida is a suitable test species, representing the phylum Cnidaria and allowing for assessments of toxicological responses of both the animal host and in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. Pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll-a fluorometry is recognised as a valuable ecotoxicological tool, and here newly-developed test methods are presented using PAM fluorometry to measure herbicide effects on photosynthetic efficiency of in-hospite Symbiodinium spp...
June 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498358/three-new-indole-diterpenoids-from-the-sea-anemone-derived-fungus-penicillium-sp-as-79
#20
Xue-Yi Hu, Ling-Hong Meng, Xin Li, Sui-Qun Yang, Xiao-Ming Li, Bin-Gui Wang
Three new indolediterpenoids, namely, 22-hydroxylshearinine F (1), 6-hydroxylpaspalinine (2), and 7-O-acetylemindole SB (3), along with eight related known analogs (4-11), were isolated from the sea-anemone-derived fungus Penicillium sp. AS-79. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by a detailed interpretation of the spectroscopic data, and their absolute configurations were determined by ECD calculations (1 and 2) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (3). Some of these compounds exhibited prominent activity against aquatic and human pathogenic microbes...
May 12, 2017: Marine Drugs
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