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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544363/expression-patterns-of-sterol-transporters-npc1-and-npc2-in-the-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#1
Vincent Dani, Fabrice Priouzeau, Marjolijn Mertz, Magali Mondin, Sophie Pagnotta, Sandra Lacas-Gervais, Simon K Davy, Cécile Sabourault
The symbiotic interaction between cnidarians (e.g. corals and sea anemones) and photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is triggered by both host-symbiont recognition processes and metabolic exchange between the two partners. The molecular communication is crucial for homeostatic regulation of the symbiosis, both under normal conditions and during stresses that further lead to symbiosis collapse. It is therefore important to identify and fully characterize the key players of this intimate interaction at the symbiotic interface...
May 22, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539458/how-does-environment-influence-fighting-the-effects-of-tidal-flow-on-resource-value-and-fighting-costs-in-sea-anemones
#2
Alexandre V Palaoro, Mariana Velasque, Sandro Santos, Mark Briffa
An animal's decision to enter into a fight depends on the interaction between perceived resource value (V) and fighting costs (C). Both could be altered by predictable environmental fluctuations. For intertidal marine animals, such as the sea anemone Actinia equina, exposure to high flow during the tidal cycle may increase V by bringing more food. It may also increase C via energy expenditure needed to attach to the substrate. We asked whether simulated tidal cycles would alter decisions in fighting A. equina We exposed some individuals to still water and others to simulated tidal cycles...
May 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533949/worldwide-exploration-of-the-microbiome-harbored-by-the-cnidarian-model-exaiptasia-pallida-agassiz-in-verrill-1864-indicates-a-lack-of-bacterial-association-specificity-at-a-lower-taxonomic-rank
#3
Tanya Brown, Christopher Otero, Alejandro Grajales, Estefania Rodriguez, Mauricio Rodriguez-Lanetty
Examination of host-microbe interactions in early diverging metazoans, such as cnidarians, is of great interest from an evolutionary perspective to understand how host-microbial consortia have evolved. To address this problem, we analyzed whether the bacterial community associated with the cosmopolitan and model sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida shows specific patterns across worldwide populations ranging from the Caribbean Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. By comparing sequences of the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, we revealed that anemones host a complex and diverse microbial community...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528674/sodium-channels-and-venom-peptide-pharmacology
#4
Mathilde R Israel, Bryan Tay, Jennifer R Deuis, Irina Vetter
Venomous animals including cone snails, spiders, scorpions, anemones, and snakes have evolved a myriad of components in their venoms that target the opening and/or closing of voltage-gated sodium channels to cause devastating effects on the neuromuscular systems of predators and prey. These venom peptides, through design and serendipity, have not only contributed significantly to our understanding of sodium channel pharmacology and structure, but they also represent some of the most phyla- and isoform-selective molecules that are useful as valuable tool compounds and drug leads...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501690/toxicity-estimates-for-diuron-and-atrazine-for-the-tropical-marine-cnidarian-exaiptasia-pallida-and-in-hospite-symbiodinium-spp-using-pam-chlorophyll-a-fluorometry
#5
Pelli Louise Howe, Amanda Jean Reichelt-Brushett, Malcolm William Clark, Cliff Ross Seery
Effective ecotoxicological risk assessments for herbicides in tropical marine environments are restricted by a lack of toxicity data, sensitive test methods and endpoints for relevant species, and this requires rectification. The symbiotic sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida is a suitable test species, representing the phylum Cnidaria and allowing for assessments of toxicological responses of both the animal host and in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. Pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll-a fluorometry is recognised as a valuable ecotoxicological tool, and here newly-developed test methods are presented using PAM fluorometry to measure herbicide effects on photosynthetic efficiency of in-hospite Symbiodinium spp...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498358/three-new-indole-diterpenoids-from-the-sea-anemone-derived-fungus-penicillium-sp-as-79
#6
Xue-Yi Hu, Ling-Hong Meng, Xin Li, Sui-Qun Yang, Xiao-Ming Li, Bin-Gui Wang
Three new indolediterpenoids, namely, 22-hydroxylshearinine F (1), 6-hydroxylpaspalinine (2), and 7-O-acetylemindole SB (3), along with eight related known analogs (4-11), were isolated from the sea-anemone-derived fungus Penicillium sp. AS-79. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by a detailed interpretation of the spectroscopic data, and their absolute configurations were determined by ECD calculations (1 and 2) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (3). Some of these compounds exhibited prominent activity against aquatic and human pathogenic microbes...
May 12, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484634/comparative-behavioural-observations-demonstrate-the-cleaner-shrimp-periclimenes-yucatanicus-engages-in-true-symbiotic-cleaning-interactions
#7
Benjamin M Titus, Clayton Vondriska, Marymegan Daly
Cleaner shrimps are ecologically important members of coral reef communities, but for many species, cleaner status (i.e. dedicated, facultative and mimic), clientele and ecological role remain unverified or described. On Caribbean coral reefs, the spotted 'cleaner' shrimp Periclimenes yucatanicus forms symbioses with sea anemones that may serve as cleaning stations for reef fishes. The status of this species as a cleaner is ambiguous: only a single in situ cleaning interaction has been reported, and in the only test of its efficacy as a cleaner, it did not effectively reduce parasite loads from surgeonfish...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481198/a-diverse-host-thrombospondin-type-1-repeat-protein-repertoire-promotes-symbiont-colonization-during-establishment-of-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#8
Emilie-Fleur Neubauer, Angela Z Poole, Philipp Neubauer, Olivier Detournay, Kenneth Tan, Simon K Davy, Virginia M Weis
The mutualistic endosymbiosis between cnidarians and dinoflagellates is mediated by complex inter-partner signaling events, where the host cnidarian innate immune system plays a crucial role in recognition and regulation of symbionts. To date, little is known about the diversity of thrombospondin-type-1 repeat (TSR) domain proteins in basal metazoans and or their potential role in regulation of cnidarian-dinoflagellate mutualisms. We reveal a large and diverse repertoire of TSR proteins in seven anthozoan species, and show that in the model sea anemone Aiptasia pallida the TSR domain promotes colonization of the host by the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium minutum...
May 8, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475608/trpv1-activation-power-can-switch-an-action-mode-for-its-polypeptide-ligands
#9
Maxim V Nikolaev, Natalia A Dorofeeva, Margarita S Komarova, Yuliya V Korolkova, Yaroslav A Andreev, Irina V Mosharova, Eugene V Grishin, Denis B Tikhonov, Sergey A Kozlov
TRPV1 (vanilloid) receptors are activated by different types of stimuli including capsaicin, acidification and heat. Various ligands demonstrate stimulus-dependent action on TRPV1. In the present work we studied the action of polypeptides isolated from sea anemone Heteractis crispa (APHC1, APHC2 and APHC3) on rat TRPV1 receptors stably expressed in CHO cells using electrophysiological recordings, fluorescent Ca2+ measurements and molecular modeling. The APHCs potentiated TRPV1 responses to low (3-300 nM) concentrations of capsaicin but inhibited responses to high (>3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474894/thermal-shock-induces-host-proteostasis-disruption-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-the-model-symbiotic-cnidarian-aiptasia
#10
Clinton A Oakley, Elysanne Durand, Shaun P Wilkinson, Lifeng Peng, Virginia M Weis, Arthur R Grossman, Simon K Davy
Coral bleaching has devastating effects on coral survival and reef ecosystem function, but many of the fundamental cellular effects of thermal stress on cnidarian physiology are unclear. We used label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to compare the effects of rapidly (33.5 °C, 24 h) and gradually (30 and 33.5 °C, 12 days) elevated temperatures on the proteome of the model symbiotic anemone Aiptasia. We identified 2133 proteins in Aiptasia, 136 of which were differentially abundant between treatments...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468269/new-disulfide-stabilized-fold-provides-sea-anemone-peptide-to-exhibit-both-antimicrobial-and-trpa1-potentiating-properties
#11
Yulia A Logashina, Runar Gjerp Solstad, Konstantin S Mineev, Yuliya V Korolkova, Irina V Mosharova, Igor A Dyachenko, Victor A Palikov, Yulia A Palikova, Arkadii N Murashev, Alexander S Arseniev, Sergey A Kozlov, Klara Stensvåg, Tor Haug, Yaroslav A Andreev
A novel bioactive peptide named τ-AnmTx Ueq 12-1 (short name Ueq 12-1) was isolated and characterized from the sea anemone Urticina eques. Ueq 12-1 is unique among the variety of known sea anemone peptides in terms of its primary and spatial structure. It consists of 45 amino acids including 10 cysteine residues with an unusual distribution and represents a new group of sea anemone peptides. The 3D structure of Ueq 12-1, determined by NMR spectroscopy, represents a new disulfide-stabilized fold partly similar to the defensin-like fold...
April 29, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457973/acid-sensing-ion-channel-asic-structure-and-function-insights-from-spider-snake-and-sea-anemone-venoms
#12
REVIEW
Ben Cristofori-Armstrong, Lachlan D Rash
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-activated cation channels that are expressed in a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. As proton-gated channels, they have been implicated in many pathophysiological conditions where pH is perturbed. Venom derived compounds represent the most potent and selective modulators of ASICs described to date, and thus have been invaluable as pharmacological tools to study ASIC structure, function, and biological roles. There are now ten ASIC modulators described from animal venoms, with those from snakes and spiders favouring ASIC1, while the sea anemones preferentially target ASIC3...
April 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457868/cell-cycle-coupled-oscillations-in-apical-polarity-and-intercellular-contact-maintain-order-in-embryonic-epithelia
#13
Katerina Ragkousi, Kendra Marr, Sean McKinney, Lacey Ellington, Matthew C Gibson
Throughout animals, embryonic cells must ultimately organize into polarized epithelial layers that provide the structural basis for gastrulation or subsequent developmental events [1]. Precisely how this primary epithelium maintains continuous integrity during rapid and repeated cell divisions has never been directly addressed, particularly in cases where early cleavages are driven in synchrony. Representing the early-branching non-bilaterian phylum Cnidaria, embryos of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis undergo rapid synchronous cell divisions and ultimately give rise to a diploblastic epithelial body plan after gastrulation [2, 3]...
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454263/investigation-of-the-cytotoxicity-apoptosis-and-pharmacokinetics-of-raddeanin-a
#14
Guiying Gu, Huanhuan Qi, Tianyue Jiang, Bo Ma, Zheng Fang, Hong Xu, Qi Zhang
Raddeanin A, one of the triterpenoid saponins extracted from Anemone raddeana rhizome of the Ranunculaceae family, has demonstrated the ability to inhibit the growth of human hepatic and gastric cancer cells. However, the effects of Raddeanin A on human colon cancer cells have not been investigated extensively. The present study aimed to examine the antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of Raddeanin A on the HCT-116 human colon cancer cell line in vitro, and evaluate the pharmacokinetic and biodistribution properties of Raddeanin A in mice following a single oral administration...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433532/exci-cest-exploiting-pharmaceutical-excipients-as-mri-cest-contrast-agents-for-tumor-imaging
#15
Dario Livio Longo, Fatima Zzahra Moustaghfir, Alexandre Zerbo, Lorena Consolino, Annasofia Anemone, Martina Bracesco, Silvio Aime
Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) approach is a novel tool within magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that allows visualization of molecules possessing exchangeable protons with water. Many molecules, employed as excipients for the formulation of finished drug products, are endowed with hydroxyl, amine or amide protons, thus can be exploitable as MRI-CEST contrast agents. Their high safety profiles allow them to be injected at very high doses. Here we investigated the MRI-CEST properties of several excipients (ascorbic acid, sucrose, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, meglumine and 2-pyrrolidone) and tested them as tumor-detecting agents in two different murine tumor models (breast and melanoma cancers)...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428531/-effective-anticoagulation-therapy-prior-to-surgical-excision-of-an-aortic-valve-papillary-fibroelastoma-diagnosed-after-a-transient-cerebral-ischemic-attack-report-of-a-case
#16
Masashi Toyama, Tomonobu Abe, Masato Nakayama, Bummei Sato, Osamu Ohno
Cardiac papillary fibroelastoma is reported to be the 2nd most common cardiac tumor following myxoma. Owing to the risk of embolism, early surgical excision is the treatment of choice. We report a case of effective anticoagulation therapy prior to surgical excision of an aortic valve papillary fibroelastoma. A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of transient cerebral ischemic attack. The symptom was relieved in a short period. Echocardiography revealed a tumor at the aortic valve. Cardiac computed tomography revealed a sea-anemone-like appearance of the tumor...
April 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420183/anti-proliferative-effect-of-triterpenoidal-glycosides-from-the-roots-of-anemone-vitifolia-through-a-pro-apoptotic-way
#17
Changcai Bai, Yunyun Ye, Xiao Feng, Ruifeng Bai, Lu Han, Xiuping Zhou, Xinyao Yang, Pengfei Tu, Xingyun Chai
A cytotoxicity-guided phytochemical investigation of Anemone vitifolia roots led to the isolation of six oleanane saponins (1-6), which were reported from the species for the first time. Their structures were determined by comparing its MS and NMR data with those in literature. Compounds 1-4 showed significant inhibitory effects on the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells with IC50 values ranging from 2.0 to 8.5 μM, compared to positive control methotrexate with IC50 value of 15.8 μM. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that compounds 1-4 exerted anti-proliferative effects through a pro-apoptotic way of hepatocellular carcinoma cells...
April 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416444/the-pharmacology-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-activators
#18
REVIEW
Jennifer R Deuis, Alexander Mueller, Mathilde R Israel, Irina Vetter
Toxins and venom components that target voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels have evolved numerous times due to the importance of this class of ion channels in the normal physiological function of peripheral and central neurons as well as cardiac and skeletal muscle. NaV channel activators in particular have been isolated from the venom of spiders, wasps, snakes, scorpions, cone snails and sea anemone and are also produced by plants, bacteria and algae. These compounds have provided key insight into the molecular structure, function and pathophysiological roles of NaV channels and are important tools due to their at times exquisite subtype-selectivity...
April 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412597/peptide-blockers-of-kv1-3-channels-in-t-cells-as-therapeutics-for-autoimmune-disease
#19
REVIEW
K George Chandy, Raymond S Norton
The voltage-gated Kv1.3 channel in T lymphocytes is a validated therapeutic target for diverse autoimmune diseases. Here we review the discovery of Kv1.3, its physiological role in T cells, and why it is an attractive target for modulating autoimmune responses. We focus on peptide inhibitors because the first Kv1.3-selective inhibitor in human trials is a peptide derived from a marine organism. Two broad classes of peptides block Kv1.3, the first from scorpions and the second from sea anemones. We describe their structures, their binding site in the external vestibule of Kv1...
April 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407448/draft-genomes-of-the-corallimorpharians-amplexidiscus-fenestrafer-and-discosoma-sp
#20
Xin Wang, Yi Jin Liew, Yong Li, Didier Zoccola, Sylvie Tambutte, Manuel Aranda
Corallimorpharia are the closest non-calcifying relatives of reef-building corals. Aside from their popularity among aquarium hobbyists, their evolutionary position between the Actiniaria (sea anemones) and the Scleractinia (hard corals) makes them ideal candidates for comparative studies aiming at understanding the evolution of hexacorallian orders in general and reef-building corals in particular. Here we have sequenced and assembled two draft genomes for the Corallimorpharia species Amplexidiscus fenestrafer and Discosoma sp...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
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