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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433532/exci-cest-exploiting-pharmaceutical-excipients-as-mri-cest-contrast-agents-for-tumor-imaging
#1
Dario Livio Longo, Fatima Zzahra Moustaghfir, Alexandre Zerbo, Lorena Consolino, Annasofia Anemone, Martina Bracesco, Silvio Aime
Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) approach is a novel tool within magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that allows visualization of molecules possessing exchangeable protons with water. Many molecules, employed as excipients for the formulation of finished drug products, are endowed with hydroxyl, amine or amide protons, thus can be exploitable as MRI-CEST contrast agents. Their high safety profiles allow them to be injected at very high doses. Here we investigated the MRI-CEST properties of several excipients (ascorbic acid, sucrose, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, meglumine and 2-pyrrolidone) and tested them as tumor-detecting agents in two different murine tumor models (breast and melanoma cancers)...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428531/-effective-anticoagulation-therapy-prior-to-surgical-excision-of-an-aortic-valve-papillary-fibroelastoma-diagnosed-after-a-transient-cerebral-ischemic-attack-report-of-a-case
#2
Masashi Toyama, Tomonobu Abe, Masato Nakayama, Bummei Sato, Osamu Ohno
Cardiac papillary fibroelastoma is reported to be the 2nd most common cardiac tumor following myxoma. Owing to the risk of embolism, early surgical excision is the treatment of choice. We report a case of effective anticoagulation therapy prior to surgical excision of an aortic valve papillary fibroelastoma. A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of transient cerebral ischemic attack. The symptom was relieved in a short period. Echocardiography revealed a tumor at the aortic valve. Cardiac computed tomography revealed a sea-anemone-like appearance of the tumor...
April 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420183/anti-proliferative-effect-of-triterpenoidal-glycosides-from-the-roots-of-anemone-vitifolia-through-a-pro-apoptotic-way
#3
Changcai Bai, Yunyun Ye, Xiao Feng, Ruifeng Bai, Lu Han, Xiuping Zhou, Xinyao Yang, Pengfei Tu, Xingyun Chai
A cytotoxicity-guided phytochemical investigation of Anemone vitifolia roots led to the isolation of six oleanane saponins (1-6), which were reported from the species for the first time. Their structures were determined by comparing its MS and NMR data with those in literature. Compounds 1-4 showed significant inhibitory effects on the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells with IC50 values ranging from 2.0 to 8.5 μM, compared to positive control methotrexate with IC50 value of 15.8 μM. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that compounds 1-4 exerted anti-proliferative effects through a pro-apoptotic way of hepatocellular carcinoma cells...
April 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416444/the-pharmacology-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-activators
#4
REVIEW
Jennifer R Deuis, Alexander Mueller, Mathilde R Israel, Irina Vetter
Toxins and venom components that target voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels have evolved numerous times due to the importance of this class of ion channels in the normal physiological function of peripheral and central neurons as well as cardiac and skeletal muscle. NaV channel activators in particular have been isolated from the venom of spiders, wasps, snakes, scorpions, cone snails and sea anemone and are also produced by plants, bacteria and algae. These compounds have provided key insight into the molecular structure, function and pathophysiological roles of NaV channels and are important tools due to their at times exquisite subtype-selectivity...
April 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412597/peptide-blockers-of-kv1-3-channels-in-t-cells-as-therapeutics-for-autoimmune-disease
#5
REVIEW
K George Chandy, Raymond S Norton
The voltage-gated Kv1.3 channel in T lymphocytes is a validated therapeutic target for diverse autoimmune diseases. Here we review the discovery of Kv1.3, its physiological role in T cells, and why it is an attractive target for modulating autoimmune responses. We focus on peptide inhibitors because the first Kv1.3-selective inhibitor in human trials is a peptide derived from a marine organism. Two broad classes of peptides block Kv1.3, the first from scorpions and the second from sea anemones. We describe their structures, their binding site in the external vestibule of Kv1...
April 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407448/draft-genomes-of-the-corallimorpharians-amplexidiscus-fenestrafer-and-discosoma-sp
#6
Xin Wang, Yi Jin Liew, Yong Li, Didier Zoccola, Sylvie Tambutte, Manuel Aranda
Corallimorpharia are the closest non-calcifying relatives of reef-building corals. Aside from their popularity among aquarium hobbyists, their evolutionary position between the Actiniaria (sea anemones) and the Scleractinia (hard corals) makes them ideal candidates for comparative studies aiming at understanding the evolution of hexacorallian orders in general and reef-building corals in particular. Here we have sequenced and assembled two draft genomes for the Corallimorpharia species Amplexidiscus fenestrafer and Discosoma sp...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398099/enhancing-the-therapeutic-potential-of-peptide-toxins
#7
Raymond S Norton
Peptide toxins are potent and often exquisitely selective probes of the structure and function of ion channels and receptors, and as such are of significant interest to the pharmaceutical and biotech industries as both therapeutic leads and pharmacological tools. Their progression as clinical candidates, however, faces many of the challenges that are common to peptide drugs generally. Areas covered: The attributes of peptide toxins as therapeutic leads are outlined, as well as some of the limiting factors that have hampered the clinical development of many promising candidates...
April 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396016/differential-binding-and-activity-of-the-pore-forming-toxin-sticholysin-ii-in-model-membranes-containing-diverse-ceramide-derived-lipids
#8
Carmen Soto, Anaixis Del Valle, Pedro A Valiente, Uris Ros, María E Lanio, Ana M Hernández, Carlos Alvarez
Sticholysin II is a pore-forming toxin produced by the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus that belongs to the actinoporin protein family. The high affinity of actinoporins for sphingomyelin (SM)-containing membranes has been well documented. However, the molecular determinants that define this affinity have not been fully clarified. Here, we have examined the binding and permeabilizing activity of StII to different single and mixed lipidic systems by combining lipid monolayers, liposomes, and permeabilizing assays...
April 7, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379176/ostreolysin-a-pleurotolysin-b-and-equinatoxins-structure-function-and-pathophysiological-effects-of-these-pore-forming-proteins
#9
REVIEW
Robert Frangež, Dušan Šuput, Jordi Molgó, Evelyne Benoit
Acidic ostreolysin A/pleurotolysin B (OlyA/PlyB, formerly known as ostreolysin (Oly), and basic 20 kDa equinatoxins (EqTs) are cytolytic proteins isolated from the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus and the sea anemone Actinia equina, respectively. Both toxins, although from different sources, share many similar biological activities: (i) colloid-osmotic shock by forming pores in cellular and artificial membranes enriched in cholesterol and sphingomyelin; (ii) increased vascular endothelial wall permeability in vivo and perivascular oedema; (iii) dose-dependent contraction of coronary vessels; (iv) haemolysis with pronounced hyperkalaemia in vivo; (v) bradycardia, myocardial ischemia and ventricular extrasystoles accompanied by progressive fall of arterial blood pressure and respiratory arrest in rodents...
April 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362811/phylogenetic-reassessment-of-tribe-anemoneae-ranunculaceae-non-monophyly-of-anemone-s-l-revealed-by-plastid-datasets
#10
Nan Jiang, Zhuang Zhou, Jun-Bo Yang, Shu-Dong Zhang, Kai-Yun Guan, Yun-Hong Tan, Wen-Bin Yu
Morphological and molecular evidence strongly supported the monophyly of tribe Anemoneae DC.; however, phylogenetic relationships among genera of this tribe have still not been fully resolved. In this study, we sampled 120 specimens representing 82 taxa of tribe Anemoneae. One nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) and six plastid markers (atpB-rbcL, matK, psbA-trnQ, rpoB-trnC, rbcL and rps16) were amplified and sequenced. Both Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods were used to reconstruct phylogenies for this tribe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349286/epipodial-tentacle-gene-expression-and-predetermined-resilience-to-summer-mortality-in-the-commercially-important-greenlip-abalone-haliotis-laevigata
#11
Brett P Shiel, Nathan E Hall, Ira R Cooke, Nicholas A Robinson, Jan M Strugnell
"Summer mortality" is a phenomenon that occurs during warm water temperature spikes that results in the mass mortality of many ecologically and economically important mollusks such as abalone. This study aimed to determine whether the baseline gene expression of abalone before a laboratory-induced summer mortality event was associated with resilience to summer mortality. Tentacle transcriptomes of 35 greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) were sequenced prior to the animals being exposed to an increase in water temperature-simulating conditions which have previously resulted in summer mortality...
March 27, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341246/anemone-rivularis-inhibits-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-activity-and-tumor-growth
#12
Tae-Wook Chung, Jung Hee Lee, Hee-Jung Choi, Mi-Ju Park, Eun-Yeong Kim, Jung Ho Han, Se Bok Jang, Syng-Ook Lee, Sang Woo Lee, Jin Hang, Li Wan Yi, Ki-Tae Ha
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. (Ranunculaceae) have been used as a traditional remedy for treatment of inflammation and cancer. However, there is no report demonstrating experimental evidence on anti-tumor action of A. rivularis. AIM OF STUDY: The Warburg's effect, preference of aerobic glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) even in oxygen rich condition, is focused as one of major characteristics of malignant tumor...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315771/evidence-for-two-populations-of-hair-bundles-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#13
Shelcie S Menard, Glen M Watson
Cytochalasin D (CD) was employed to disrupt F-actin within stereocilia of anemone hair bundles. CD treatment decreases the abundance of hair bundles (by 85%) while significantly impairing predation. The remaining hair bundles are 'CD-resistant.' Surprisingly, the morphology and F-actin content of resistant hair bundles are comparable to those of untreated controls. However, the resistant hair bundles fail to respond normally to the N-acetylated sugar, NANA, by elongating. Instead, they remain at resting length...
March 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304352/in-vitro-anti-inflammatory-and-cytotoxic-effects-of-aqueous-extracts-from-the-edible-sea-anemones-anemonia-sulcata-and-actinia-equina
#14
Tânia Costa Silva, Paula Branquinho de Andrade, Fátima Paiva-Martins, Patrícia Valentão, David Micael Pereira
Marine invertebrates have been attracting the attention of researchers for their application in nutrition, agriculture, and the pharmaceutical industry, among others. Concerning sea anemones (Cnidaria), little is known regarding their metabolic profiles and potential value as a source of pharmacologically-active agents. In this work, the chemical profiles of two species of sea anemones Actinia equina and Anemonia sulcata, were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) and its impact upon immune and gastric cells was evaluated...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303220/anemone-medicinal-plants-ethnopharmacology-phytochemistry-and-biology
#15
REVIEW
Da-Cheng Hao, Xiaojie Gu, Peigen Xiao
The Ranunculaceae genus Anemone (order Ranunculales), comprising more than 150 species, mostly herbs, has long been used in folk medicine and worldwide ethnomedicine. Various medicinal compounds have been found in Anemone plants, especially triterpenoid saponins, some of which have shown anti-cancer activities. Some Anemone compounds and extracts display immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. More than 50 species have ethnopharmacological uses, which provide clues for modern drug discovery...
March 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299647/runx-in-invertebrates
#16
S Hughes, A Woollard
Runx genes have been identified in all metazoans and considerable conservation of function observed across a wide range of phyla. Thus, insight gained from studying simple model organisms is invaluable in understanding RUNX biology in higher animals. Consequently, this chapter will focus on the Runx genes in the diploblasts, which includes sea anemones and sponges, as well as the lower triploblasts, including the sea urchin, nematode, planaria and insect. Due to the high degree of functional redundancy amongst vertebrate Runx genes, simpler model organisms with a solo Runx gene, like C...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287181/a-new-group-of-glycoside-hydrolase-family-13-%C3%AE-amylases-with-an-aberrant-catalytic-triad
#17
Fean D Sarian, Štefan Janeček, Tjaard Pijning, Ihsanawati, Zeily Nurachman, Ocky K Radjasa, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Dessy Natalia, Marc J E C van der Maarel
α-Amylases are glycoside hydrolase enzymes that act on the α(1→4) glycosidic linkages in glycogen, starch, and related α-glucans, and are ubiquitously present in Nature. Most α-amylases have been classified in glycoside hydrolase family 13 with a typical (β/α)8-barrel containing two aspartic acid and one glutamic acid residue that play an essential role in catalysis. An atypical α-amylase (BmaN1) with only two of the three invariant catalytic residues present was isolated from Bacillus megaterium strain NL3, a bacterial isolate from a sea anemone of Kakaban landlocked marine lake, Derawan Island, Indonesia...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286876/diversity-as-opportunity-insights-from-600-million-years-of-ahr-evolution
#18
Mark E Hahn, Sibel I Karchner, Rebeka R Merson
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) was for many years of interest only to pharmacologists and toxicologists. However, this protein has fundamental roles in biology that are being revealed through studies in diverse animal species. The AHR is an ancient protein. AHR homologs exist in most major groups of modern bilaterian animals, including deuterostomes (chordates, hemichordates, echinoderms) and the two major clades of protostome invertebrates [ecdysozoans (e.g. arthropods and nematodes) and lophotrochozoans (e...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270243/predation-on-transmission-stages-reduces-parasitism-sea-anemones-consume-transmission-stages-of-a-barnacle-parasite
#19
Caitlin R Fong, Armand M Kuris
While parasites serve as prey, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of parasite predators provides transmission control and influences patterns of parasitism. Because many of its organisms are sessile, the rocky intertidal zone is a valuable but little used system to understand spatial patterns of parasitism and elucidate the underlying mechanisms driving these patterns. Sea anemones and barnacles are important space competitors in the rocky intertidal zone along the Pacific coast of North America. Anemones are voracious, indiscriminate predators; thus, they may intercept infectious stages of parasites before they reach a host...
March 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258198/novel-adjuvant-based-on-the-pore-forming-protein-sticholysin-ii-encapsulated-into-liposomes-effectively-enhances-the-antigen-specific-ctl-mediated-immune-response
#20
Rady J Laborde, Oraly Sanchez-Ferras, María C Luzardo, Yoelys Cruz-Leal, Audry Fernández, Circe Mesa, Liliana Oliver, Liem Canet, Liane Abreu-Butin, Catarina V Nogueira, Mayra Tejuca, Fabiola Pazos, Carlos Álvarez, María E Alonso, Ieda M Longo-Maugéri, Michael N Starnbach, Darren E Higgins, Luis E Fernández, María E Lanio
Vaccine strategies to enhance CD8(+) CTL responses remain a current challenge because they should overcome the plasmatic and endosomal membranes for favoring exogenous Ag access to the cytosol of APCs. As a way to avoid this hurdle, sticholysin (St) II, a pore-forming protein from the Caribbean Sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, was encapsulated with OVA into liposomes (Lp/OVA/StII) to assess their efficacy to induce a CTL response. OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells transferred to mice immunized with Lp/OVA/StII experienced a greater expansion than when the recipients were injected with the vesicles without St, mostly exhibiting a memory phenotype...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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