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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630155/haemolytic-actinoporins-interact-with-carbohydrates-using-their-lipid-binding-module
#1
Koji Tanaka, Jose M M Caaveiro, Koldo Morante, Kouhei Tsumoto
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are proteins endowed with metamorphic properties that enable them to stably fold in water solutions as well as in cellular membranes. PFTs produce lytic pores on the plasma membranes of target cells conducive to lesions, playing key roles in the defensive and offensive molecular systems of living organisms. Actinoporins are a family of potent haemolytic toxins produced by sea anemones vigorously studied as a paradigm of α-helical PFTs, in the context of lipid-protein interactions, and in connection with nanopore technologies...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627075/chemistry-of-two-distinct-aeolid-spurilla-species-ecological-implications
#2
M Letizia Ciavatta, Stella García-Matucheski, Marianna Carbone, Guido Villani, Claudia Muniain, Margherita Gavagnin
The lipophilic extracts of two marine aeolid nudibranch molluscs of the genus Spurilla collected in distinct geographical areas have been chemically analysed. The Et2 O extracts of the nudibranchs were dominated by the presence of usual fatty acids and sterols and contained terpenoid compounds 1-3 as minor metabolites. Spurillin A (1) and spurillin B (3) were new molecules whereas cis-γ-monocyclo-farnesol (2) was already reported in the literature as a synthesis product. Interestingly, bursatellin (4), previously isolated from anaspidean molluscs of the genus Bursatella, was found in the butanol extract of both Spurilla species...
June 19, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603496/anhuienoside-c-ameliorates-collagen-induced-arthritis-through-inhibition-of-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#3
Qing Liu, Xu-Hui Xiao, Liu-Bing Hu, Hui-Yang Jie, Ying Wang, Wen-Cai Ye, Man-Mei Li, Zhong Liu
Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt (Ranunculaceae) (Di Wu in Chinese) is used to treat punch injuries and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our previous report has shown that crude triterpenoid saponins from Anemone flaccida exhibited anti-arthritic effects on type II collagen-induced arthritis in rats. Furthermore, anhuienoside C (AC), a saponin compound isolated from A. flaccida, was observed to suppress the nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. In this study, we examined the effects of AC on the prevention and treatment of collagen-induced arthritis in a mouse model and evaluated the potential mechanisms involved...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602952/a-novel-technique-to-combine-and-analyse-spatial-and-temporal-expression-datasets-a-case-study-with-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis-to-identify-potential-gene-interactions
#4
Amir M Abdol, Eric Röttinger, Fredrik Jansson, Jaap A Kaandorp
Understanding genetic interactions during early development of a given organism, is the first step toward unveiling gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that govern a biological process of interest. Predicting such interactions from large expression datasets by performing targeted knock-down/knock-out approaches is a challenging task. We use the currently available expression datasets (in situ hybridization images & qPCR time series) for a basal anthozoan the sea anemone N. vectensis to construct continuous spatiotemporal gene expression patterns during its early development...
June 8, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600507/global-gene-expression-defines-faded-whorl-specification-of-double-flower-domestication-in-camellia
#5
Xinlei Li, Jiyuan Li, Zhengqi Fan, Zhongchi Liu, Takayuki Tanaka, Hengfu Yin
Double flowers in cultivated camellias are divergent in floral patterns which present a rich resource for demonstrating molecular modifications influenced by the human demands. Despite the key principle of ABCE model in whorl specification, the underlying mechanism of fine-tuning double flower formation remains largely unclear. Here a comprehensive comparative transcriptomics interrogation of gene expression among floral organs of wild type and "formal double" and "anemone double" is presented. Through a combination of transcriptome, small RNA and "degradome" sequencing, we studied the regulatory gene expression network underlying the double flower formation...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596383/reinvestigation-of-the-biological-activity-of-d-allo-shk-protein
#6
Bobo Dang, Sandeep Chhabra, Michael W Pennington, Raymond S Norton, Stephen B H Kent
ShK toxin from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus is a 35-residue protein that binds to the Kv1.3 ion channel with high affinity. Recently we determined the X-ray structure of ShK toxin by racemic crystallography, in the course of which we discovered that D-ShK has a near-background IC50 value ~50,000 times lower than that of the L-ShK toxin. This lack of activity was at odds with previously reported results for an ShK diastereomer designated D-allo-ShK for which significant biological activity had been observed in a similar receptor-blocking assay...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579525/evolutionary-conserved-mechanisms-pervade-structure-and-transcriptional-modulation-of-allograft-inflammatory-factor-1-from-sea-anemone-anemonia-viridis
#7
Angela Cuttitta, Maria Antonietta Ragusa, Salvatore Costa, Carmelo Bennici, Paolo Colombo, Salvatore Mazzola, Fabrizio Gianguzza, Aldo Nicosia
Gene family encoding allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is well conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge in lower organisms. In this study, the first AIF-1 homologue from cnidarians was identified and characterised in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. The full-length cDNA of AvAIF-1 was of 913 bp with a 5' -untranslated region (UTR) of 148 bp, a 3'-UTR of 315 and an open reading frame (ORF) of 450 bp encoding a polypeptide with149 amino acid residues and predicted molecular weight of about 17 kDa...
June 1, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544363/expression-patterns-of-sterol-transporters-npc1-and-npc2-in-the-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#8
Vincent Dani, Fabrice Priouzeau, Marjolijn Mertz, Magali Mondin, Sophie Pagnotta, Sandra Lacas-Gervais, Simon K Davy, Cécile Sabourault
The symbiotic interaction between cnidarians (e.g. corals and sea anemones) and photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is triggered by both host-symbiont recognition processes and metabolic exchange between the two partners. The molecular communication is crucial for homeostatic regulation of the symbiosis, both under normal conditions and during stresses that further lead to symbiosis collapse. It is therefore important to identify and fully characterize the key players of this intimate interaction at the symbiotic interface...
May 22, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539458/how-does-environment-influence-fighting-the-effects-of-tidal-flow-on-resource-value-and-fighting-costs-in-sea-anemones
#9
Alexandre V Palaoro, Mariana Velasque, Sandro Santos, Mark Briffa
An animal's decision to enter into a fight depends on the interaction between perceived resource value (V) and fighting costs (C). Both could be altered by predictable environmental fluctuations. For intertidal marine animals, such as the sea anemone Actinia equina, exposure to high flow during the tidal cycle may increase V by bringing more food. It may also increase C via energy expenditure needed to attach to the substrate. We asked whether simulated tidal cycles would alter decisions in fighting A. equina We exposed some individuals to still water and others to simulated tidal cycles...
May 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533949/worldwide-exploration-of-the-microbiome-harbored-by-the-cnidarian-model-exaiptasia-pallida-agassiz-in-verrill-1864-indicates-a-lack-of-bacterial-association-specificity-at-a-lower-taxonomic-rank
#10
Tanya Brown, Christopher Otero, Alejandro Grajales, Estefania Rodriguez, Mauricio Rodriguez-Lanetty
Examination of host-microbe interactions in early diverging metazoans, such as cnidarians, is of great interest from an evolutionary perspective to understand how host-microbial consortia have evolved. To address this problem, we analyzed whether the bacterial community associated with the cosmopolitan and model sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida shows specific patterns across worldwide populations ranging from the Caribbean Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. By comparing sequences of the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, we revealed that anemones host a complex and diverse microbial community...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528674/sodium-channels-and-venom-peptide-pharmacology
#11
Mathilde R Israel, Bryan Tay, Jennifer R Deuis, Irina Vetter
Venomous animals including cone snails, spiders, scorpions, anemones, and snakes have evolved a myriad of components in their venoms that target the opening and/or closing of voltage-gated sodium channels to cause devastating effects on the neuromuscular systems of predators and prey. These venom peptides, through design and serendipity, have not only contributed significantly to our understanding of sodium channel pharmacology and structure, but they also represent some of the most phyla- and isoform-selective molecules that are useful as valuable tool compounds and drug leads...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501690/toxicity-estimates-for-diuron-and-atrazine-for-the-tropical-marine-cnidarian-exaiptasia-pallida-and-in-hospite-symbiodinium-spp-using-pam-chlorophyll-a-fluorometry
#12
Pelli Louise Howe, Amanda Jean Reichelt-Brushett, Malcolm William Clark, Cliff Ross Seery
Effective ecotoxicological risk assessments for herbicides in tropical marine environments are restricted by a lack of toxicity data, sensitive test methods and endpoints for relevant species, and this requires rectification. The symbiotic sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida is a suitable test species, representing the phylum Cnidaria and allowing for assessments of toxicological responses of both the animal host and in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. Pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll-a fluorometry is recognised as a valuable ecotoxicological tool, and here newly-developed test methods are presented using PAM fluorometry to measure herbicide effects on photosynthetic efficiency of in-hospite Symbiodinium spp...
June 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498358/three-new-indole-diterpenoids-from-the-sea-anemone-derived-fungus-penicillium-sp-as-79
#13
Xue-Yi Hu, Ling-Hong Meng, Xin Li, Sui-Qun Yang, Xiao-Ming Li, Bin-Gui Wang
Three new indolediterpenoids, namely, 22-hydroxylshearinine F (1), 6-hydroxylpaspalinine (2), and 7-O-acetylemindole SB (3), along with eight related known analogs (4-11), were isolated from the sea-anemone-derived fungus Penicillium sp. AS-79. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by a detailed interpretation of the spectroscopic data, and their absolute configurations were determined by ECD calculations (1 and 2) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (3). Some of these compounds exhibited prominent activity against aquatic and human pathogenic microbes...
May 12, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484634/comparative-behavioural-observations-demonstrate-the-cleaner-shrimp-periclimenes-yucatanicus-engages-in-true-symbiotic-cleaning-interactions
#14
Benjamin M Titus, Clayton Vondriska, Marymegan Daly
Cleaner shrimps are ecologically important members of coral reef communities, but for many species, cleaner status (i.e. dedicated, facultative and mimic), clientele and ecological role remain unverified or described. On Caribbean coral reefs, the spotted 'cleaner' shrimp Periclimenes yucatanicus forms symbioses with sea anemones that may serve as cleaning stations for reef fishes. The status of this species as a cleaner is ambiguous: only a single in situ cleaning interaction has been reported, and in the only test of its efficacy as a cleaner, it did not effectively reduce parasite loads from surgeonfish...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481198/a-diverse-host-thrombospondin-type-1-repeat-protein-repertoire-promotes-symbiont-colonization-during-establishment-of-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#15
Emilie-Fleur Neubauer, Angela Z Poole, Philipp Neubauer, Olivier Detournay, Kenneth Tan, Simon K Davy, Virginia M Weis
The mutualistic endosymbiosis between cnidarians and dinoflagellates is mediated by complex inter-partner signaling events, where the host cnidarian innate immune system plays a crucial role in recognition and regulation of symbionts. To date, little is known about the diversity of thrombospondin-type-1 repeat (TSR) domain proteins in basal metazoans or their potential role in regulation of cnidarian-dinoflagellate mutualisms. We reveal a large and diverse repertoire of TSR proteins in seven anthozoan species, and show that in the model sea anemone Aiptasia pallida the TSR domain promotes colonization of the host by the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium minutum...
May 8, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475608/trpv1-activation-power-can-switch-an-action-mode-for-its-polypeptide-ligands
#16
Maxim V Nikolaev, Natalia A Dorofeeva, Margarita S Komarova, Yuliya V Korolkova, Yaroslav A Andreev, Irina V Mosharova, Eugene V Grishin, Denis B Tikhonov, Sergey A Kozlov
TRPV1 (vanilloid) receptors are activated by different types of stimuli including capsaicin, acidification and heat. Various ligands demonstrate stimulus-dependent action on TRPV1. In the present work we studied the action of polypeptides isolated from sea anemone Heteractis crispa (APHC1, APHC2 and APHC3) on rat TRPV1 receptors stably expressed in CHO cells using electrophysiological recordings, fluorescent Ca2+ measurements and molecular modeling. The APHCs potentiated TRPV1 responses to low (3-300 nM) concentrations of capsaicin but inhibited responses to high (>3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474894/thermal-shock-induces-host-proteostasis-disruption-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-the-model-symbiotic-cnidarian-aiptasia
#17
Clinton A Oakley, Elysanne Durand, Shaun P Wilkinson, Lifeng Peng, Virginia M Weis, Arthur R Grossman, Simon K Davy
Coral bleaching has devastating effects on coral survival and reef ecosystem function, but many of the fundamental cellular effects of thermal stress on cnidarian physiology are unclear. We used label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to compare the effects of rapidly (33.5 °C, 24 h) and gradually (30 and 33.5 °C, 12 days) elevated temperatures on the proteome of the model symbiotic anemone Aiptasia. We identified 2133 proteins in Aiptasia, 136 of which were differentially abundant between treatments...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468269/new-disulfide-stabilized-fold-provides-sea-anemone-peptide-to-exhibit-both-antimicrobial-and-trpa1-potentiating-properties
#18
Yulia A Logashina, Runar Gjerp Solstad, Konstantin S Mineev, Yuliya V Korolkova, Irina V Mosharova, Igor A Dyachenko, Victor A Palikov, Yulia A Palikova, Arkadii N Murashev, Alexander S Arseniev, Sergey A Kozlov, Klara Stensvåg, Tor Haug, Yaroslav A Andreev
A novel bioactive peptide named τ-AnmTx Ueq 12-1 (short name Ueq 12-1) was isolated and characterized from the sea anemone Urticina eques. Ueq 12-1 is unique among the variety of known sea anemone peptides in terms of its primary and spatial structure. It consists of 45 amino acids including 10 cysteine residues with an unusual distribution and represents a new group of sea anemone peptides. The 3D structure of Ueq 12-1, determined by NMR spectroscopy, represents a new disulfide-stabilized fold partly similar to the defensin-like fold...
April 29, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457973/acid-sensing-ion-channel-asic-structure-and-function-insights-from-spider-snake-and-sea-anemone-venoms
#19
REVIEW
Ben Cristofori-Armstrong, Lachlan D Rash
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-activated cation channels that are expressed in a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. As proton-gated channels, they have been implicated in many pathophysiological conditions where pH is perturbed. Venom derived compounds represent the most potent and selective modulators of ASICs described to date, and thus have been invaluable as pharmacological tools to study ASIC structure, function, and biological roles. There are now ten ASIC modulators described from animal venoms, with those from snakes and spiders favouring ASIC1, while the sea anemones preferentially target ASIC3...
April 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457868/cell-cycle-coupled-oscillations-in-apical-polarity-and-intercellular-contact-maintain-order-in-embryonic-epithelia
#20
Katerina Ragkousi, Kendra Marr, Sean McKinney, Lacey Ellington, Matthew C Gibson
Throughout animals, embryonic cells must ultimately organize into polarized epithelial layers that provide the structural basis for gastrulation or subsequent developmental events [1]. Precisely how this primary epithelium maintains continuous integrity during rapid and repeated cell divisions has never been directly addressed, particularly in cases where early cleavages are driven in synchrony. Representing the early-branching non-bilaterian phylum Cnidaria, embryos of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis undergo rapid synchronous cell divisions and ultimately give rise to a diploblastic epithelial body plan after gastrulation [2, 3]...
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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