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Jan D Brüwer, Christian R Voolstra
Current research posits that all multicellular organisms live in symbioses with associated microorganisms and form so-called metaorganisms or holobionts. Cnidarian metaorganisms are of specific interest given that stony corals provide the foundation of the globally threatened coral reef ecosystems. To gain first insight into viruses associated with the coral model system Aiptasia ( sensu Exaiptasia pallida ), we analyzed an existing RNA-Seq dataset of aposymbiotic, partially populated, and fully symbiotic Aiptasia CC7 anemones with Symbiodinium ...
2018: PeerJ
Ivona Horká, Sammy De Grave, Charles H J M Fransen, Adam Petrusek, Zdeněk Ďuriš
Several species of palaemonid shrimps are known to act as fish-cleaning symbionts, with cleaning interactions ranging from dedicated (obligate) to facultative. We confirmed five evolutionarily independent origins of fish cleaning symbioses within the family Palaemonidae based on a phylogenetic analysis and the ancestral state reconstruction of 68 species, including 13 fish-cleaners from the genera Ancylomenes, Brachycarpus, Palaemon, Periclimenes, and Urocaridella. We focus in particular on two distantly related lineages of fish cleaning shrimps with allopatric distributions, the Indo-West Pacific Ancylomenes and the western Atlantic monophyletic Ancylomenes/Periclimenes group, which exhibit striking similarities in morphology, colouration and complex behaviour...
February 28, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Daniel Stec, Kazuharu Arakawa, Łukasz Michalczyk
Tardigrade research in Japan dates back over 100 years, and to date, 167 species of this ecdysozoan phylum have been reported from the country. Of these species, the Macrobiotus hufelandi complex has been represented only by the nominal taxon of this group, Macrobiotus hufelandi. In this article, a new species of the hufelandi group from Japan, Macrobiotus shonaicus sp. nov., is described using integrative taxonomy. In addition to the detailed morphological and morphometric data, obtained using phase contrast light microscopy (PCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we provide DNA sequences of four molecular markers (both nuclear and mitochondrial)...
2018: PloS One
Longhua Guo, Alice Accorsi, Shuonan He, Carlos Guerrero-Hernández, Shamilene Sivagnanam, Sean McKinney, Matthew Gibson, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
BACKGROUND: The ability to efficiently visualize and manipulate chromosomes is fundamental to understanding the genome architecture of organisms. Conventional chromosome preparation protocols developed for mammalian cells and those relying on species-specific conditions are not suitable for many invertebrates. Hence, a simple and inexpensive chromosome preparation protocol, adaptable to multiple invertebrate species, is needed. RESULTS: We optimized a chromosome preparation protocol and applied it to several planarian species (phylum Platyhelminthes), the freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (phylum Mollusca), and the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (phylum Cnidaria)...
February 26, 2018: BMC Biology
T F Sutherland, A M Sterling, M Ou
Benthic video surveys were carried out at two marine finfish aquaculture and associated reference sites in Jervis Inlet (JI), British Columbia. Substrate composition, epifaunal diversity, mat-forming taxa (primary indicators: opportunistic polychaete complexes (OPCs) and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria) and waste pellets were quantitatively assessed. Hard-bottom substrates were dominated by rock wall, skeletal sponge matrix, graded bedrock, rock-veneer, and cobble. Aquaculture waste outputs (modelled depositional carbon fluxes and observations of waste feed/faecal pellets) were correlated with benthic organic enrichment indicators (OPC and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria)...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Xiao-Yang Wang, Hui Gao, Xiao-Jie Xie, Jirimubatu Jurhiin, Mu-Zi-He Zhang, Yan-Ping Zhou, Rui Liu, Meng Ning, Jin Han, Hai-Feng Tang
Five previously undescribed triterpenoid saponins ( 1 - 5 ), along with eight known ones ( 6 - 13 ), were isolated from the whole plants of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore . Their structures were clarified by extensive spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. For the first time, the lupane-type saponins ( 3 and 12 ) were reported from the Anemone genus. The anti-proliferative activity of all isolated saponins was evaluated on hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6). Saponins 12 and 13 , which possess more monosaccharides than the others, displayed potent anti-proliferative activity, with IC50 values of 18...
February 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yuu Ishii, Shinichiro Maruyama, Konomi Fujimura-Kamada, Natsumaro Kutsuna, Shunichi Takahashi, Masakado Kawata, Jun Minagawa
Coral reef ecosystems rely on stable symbiotic relationship between the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium spp. and host cnidarian animals. The collapse of such symbiosis could cause coral 'bleaching' and subsequent host death. Despite huge interest on Symbiodinium, lack of mutant strains and readily available genetic tools have hampered molecular research. A major issue was the tolerance to marker antibiotics. Here, we isolated Symbiodinium mutants requiring uracil for growth, and hence, useful in transformation screening...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anna Marcionetti, Victor Rossier, Joris A M Bertrand, Glenn Litsios, Nicolas Salamin
Clownfishes (or anemonefishes) form an iconic group of coral reef fishes, principally known for their mutualistic interaction with sea anemones. They are characterized by particular life-history traits, such as a complex social structure and mating system involving sequential hermaphroditism, coupled with an exceptionally long lifespan. Additionally, clownfishes are considered to be one of the rare group to have experienced an adaptive radiation in the marine environment. Here, we assembled and annotated the first genome of a clownfish species, the tomato clownfish (Amphiprion frenatus)...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Kyoung Hwan Lee, Guidenn Sulbarán, Shixin Yang, Ji Young Mun, Lorenzo Alamo, Antonio Pinto, Osamu Sato, Mitsuo Ikebe, Xiong Liu, Edward D Korn, Floyd Sarsoza, Sanford I Bernstein, Raúl Padrón, Roger Craig
Electron microscope studies have shown that the switched-off state of myosin II in muscle involves intramolecular interaction between the two heads of myosin and between one head and the tail. The interaction, seen in both myosin filaments and isolated molecules, inhibits activity by blocking actin-binding and ATPase sites on myosin. This interacting-heads motif is highly conserved, occurring in invertebrates and vertebrates, in striated, smooth, and nonmuscle myosin IIs, and in myosins regulated by both Ca 2+ binding and regulatory light-chain phosphorylation...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Michael J Layden
To understand the ancestral and evolved roles of zic homologs, it is important to reconstruct the putative roles of ancient zic homologs in the animal phylogeny. Most studies of zic genes have been conducted in model systems that are members of the bilaterian phylum. However, two additional phyla have zic homologs encoded in their genomes. The three animal phyla that contain zic homologs all share a common ancestor and collectively are termed the parahoxozoans (cnidarians (corals, sea anemones, and jellyfish), placozoans (Trichoplax adhaerens), and bilaterians (chordates, insects, nematodes, annelids, echinoderms, etc...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Anastasia Kirillova, Grigory Genikhovich, Ekaterina Pukhlyakova, Adrien Demilly, Yulia Kraus, Ulrich Technau
Robust morphogenetic events are pivotal for animal embryogenesis. However, comparison of the modes of development of different members of a phylum suggests that the spectrum of developmental trajectories accessible for a species might be far broader than can be concluded from the observation of normal development. Here, by using a combination of microsurgery and transgenic reporter gene expression, we show that, facing a new developmental context, the aggregates of dissociated embryonic cells of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis take an alternative developmental trajectory...
February 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yaara Y Columbus-Shenkar, Maria Y Sachkova, Jason Macrander, Arie Fridrich, Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Adam M Reitzel, Kartik Sunagar, Yehu Moran
Little is known about venom in young developmental stages of animals. The appearance of toxins and stinging cells during early embryonic stages in the sea anemone Nematostellavectensis suggests that venom is already expressed in eggs and larvae of this species. Here we harness transcriptomic, biochemical and transgenic tools to study venom production dynamics in Nematostella. We find that venom composition and arsenal of toxin-producing cells change dramatically between developmental stages of this species...
February 9, 2018: ELife
Armando Alexei Rodríguez, Anoland Garateix, Emilio Salceda, Steve Peigneur, André Junqueira Zaharenko, Tirso Pons, Yúlica Santos, Roberto Arreguín, Ludger Ständker, Wolf-Georg Forssmann, Jan Tytgat, Rosario Vega, Enrique Soto
Sea anemones produce proteinaceous toxins for predation and defense, including peptide toxins that act on a large variety of ion channels of pharmacological and biomedical interest. Phymanthus crucifer is commonly found in the Caribbean Sea; however, the chemical structure and biological activity of its toxins remain unknown, with the exception of PhcrTx1, an acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) inhibitor. Therefore, in the present work, we focused on the isolation and characterization of new P. crucifer toxins by chromatographic fractionation, followed by a toxicity screening on crabs, an evaluation of ion channels, and sequence analysis...
February 7, 2018: Toxins
Charlotte R Dromard, Yolande Bouchon-Navaro, Sébastien Cordonnier, Mathilde Guéné, Mireille Harmelin-Vivien, Claude Bouchon
Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide used in the banana fields of the French West Indies from 1972 to 1993. Three marine habitats (mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs) of two study sites located downstream contaminated rivers were chosen to evaluate the level of contamination of marine food webs. On each habitat, the food chain collected included suspended organic matter, primary producers (macroalgae, algal turf, seagrass), zooplankton, symbiotic organisms (corals, sea anemones), primary consumers (herbivores, suspension feeders, biofilm feeders), omnivores and detritivores (lobsters, fish), secondary consumers (carnivores 1: invertebrate feeders, planktivores) and tertiary consumers (carnivores 2: invertebrate and fish feeders, piscivores)...
2018: PloS One
Ilona Urbarova, Hardip Patel, Sylvain Forêt, Bård Ove Karlsen, Tor Erik Jørgensen, Jason M Hall-Spencer, Steinar D Johansen
Cnidarians harbour a variety of small regulatory RNAs that include microRNAs (miRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), but detailed information is limited. Here we report the identification and expression of novel miRNAs and putative piRNAs, as well as their genomic loci, in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. We generated a draft assembly of the A. viridis genome with putative size of 313 Mb that appeared to be composed of about 36% repeats, including known transposable elements. We detected approximately equal fractions of DNA transposons and retrotransposons...
January 27, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Milena Srdic, Marijana Pejic, Dario Jelic, Mina Radosavljevic-Radovanovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2018: European Heart Journal
Lauren E Friedman, Thomas D Gilmore, John R Finnerty
Nematostella vectensis is a member of the phylum Cnidaria, a lineage that includes anemones, corals, hydras, and jellyfishes. This estuarine anemone is an excellent model system for investigating the evolution of stress tolerance because it is easy to collect in its natural habitat and to culture in the laboratory, and it has a sequenced genome. Additionally, there is evidence of local adaptation to environmental stress in different N. vectensis populations, and abundant protein-coding polymorphisms have been identified, including polymorphisms in proteins that are implicated in stress responses...
2018: PloS One
Emily S Bellis, Dee R Denver
Rising ocean temperatures disrupt the symbiosis between corals and their microalgae, accelerating global decline of coral reef ecosystems. Because of the difficulty of performing laboratory experiments with corals, the sea anemone Aiptasia has emerged as an important model system for molecular studies of coral bleaching and symbiosis. Here, we investigate natural variation in bleaching responses among different genetic lineages of Aiptasia. Both heat- and cold-induced paths to symbiosis breakdown were analyzed...
October 2017: Biological Bulletin
Sylvia Ighem Chi, Ilona Urbarova, Steinar D Johansen
The mitochondrial genomes of sea anemones are dynamic in structure. Invasion by genetic elements, such as self-catalytic group I introns or insertion-like sequences, contribute to sea anemone mitochondrial genome expansion and complexity. By using next generation sequencing we investigated the complete mtDNAs and corresponding transcriptomes of the temperate sea anemone Anemonia viridis and its closer tropical relative Anemonia majano. Two versions of fused homing endonuclease gene (HEG) organization were observed among the Actiniidae sea anemones; in-frame gene fusion and pseudo-gene fusion...
January 20, 2018: Gene
Dany Domínguez-Pérez, Alexandre Campos, Armando Alexei Rodríguez, Maria V Turkina, Tiago Ribeiro, Hugo Osorio, Vítor Vasconcelos, Agostinho Antunes
Cnidarian toxic products, particularly peptide toxins, constitute a promising target for biomedicine research. Indeed, cnidarians are considered as the largest phylum of generally toxic animals. However, research on peptides and toxins of sea anemones is still limited. Moreover, most of the toxins from sea anemones have been discovered by classical purification approaches. Recently, high-throughput methodologies have been used for this purpose but in other Phyla. Hence, the present work was focused on the proteomic analyses of whole-body extract from the unexplored sea anemone Bunodactis verrucosa...
January 24, 2018: Marine Drugs
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