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Depressive symptoms

Sabato Santaniello, John T Gale, Sridevi V Sarma
Over the last 30 years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used to treat chronic neurological diseases like dystonia, obsessive-compulsive disorders, essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and more recently, dementias, depression, cognitive disorders, and epilepsy. Despite its wide use, DBS presents numerous challenges for both clinicians and engineers. One challenge is the design of novel, more efficient DBS therapies, which are hampered by the lack of complete understanding about the cellular mechanisms of therapeutic DBS...
March 20, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Xinyuan Li, Lijun Zhu, Chunkui Zhou, Jing Liu, Heqian Du, Chenglin Wang, Shaokuan Fang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of duloxetine during short-term treatment in adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature review of the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials databases for randomized controlled trials(RCTs) comparing duloxetine or duloxetine plus other antipsychotics with placebo for the treatment of GAD in adults...
2018: PloS One
E K Hopper, L D Gonzalez
Human trafficking is a form of interpersonal trauma that has significant mental health impacts on survivors. This study examined psychological symptoms in 131 survivors of sex and labor trafficking, including people trafficked into or within the U.S. High rates of depression (71%) and PTSD (61%) were identified. Two thirds of survivors also met criteria for multiple categories of Complex PTSD (C-PTSD), including affect dysregulation and impulsivity; alterations in attention and consciousness; changes in interpersonal relationships; revictimization; somatic dysregulation; and alterations in self-perception...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Patricia Sobradillo Ecenarro, Marta Inchausti Iguiñiz, Sandra Pedrero Tejada, Nuria Marina Malanda, María Alfonso Imizcoz, Laura Ansola Marlasca, Bernardino Alcázar Navarrete
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is progressive and in its advanced stage is associated with major disability. Previous studies suggest that patients with this disease receive little palliative care, even in very advanced stages. Given this, our objectives were to describe the clinical practice of Spanish pulmonologists in the care of patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, to identify potential barriers to implementing palliative care in these patients and to correlate these responses with doctor's years of experience...
March 20, 2018: COPD
Morgan Walls, Howard Cabral, Emily Feinberg, Michael Silverstein
OBJECTIVE: Depression is highly prevalent among caregivers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We examined the association between caregiver depressive symptom trajectories and changes in child ADHD symptoms. METHODS: We analyzed data from a randomized trial of 2 ADHD care management systems for children aged 6 to 12 years and their caregivers (n = 156 dyads). Child ADHD symptoms were measured using the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham rating scale (SNAP-IV)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Stephanie Vandentorren, Philippe Pirard, Alice Sanna, Lyderic Aubert, Yvon Motreff, Nicolas Dantchev, Sophie Lesieur, Pierre Chauvin, Thierry Baubet
BACKGROUND: Terrorist attacks occurred in Paris in January 2015. Aims To assess the mental health impact and the access to psychomedical care of people exposed to the attacks. METHOD: We implemented an open-cohort design 6 and 18 months after the attacks. Exposed civilians and rescue workers were included according to the exposure criteria A for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in DSM-5. A face-to-face questionnaire conducted by trained psychologists was used to collect sociodemographic characteristics, exposure level, scores on psychometric scales, an international neuropsychiatric interview and access to care...
April 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Floriana Caccamo, Simone Saltini, Enrico Carella, Roberto Carlon, Cristina Marogna, Vito Sava
Research on heart disease have found a strong and consistent evidence of association between some psychosocial risk factors, including depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, lack of social support and outcome of disease. Depression increases the risk of cardiac death and is highly predictive of reduced adherence to recommended treatments; anxiety appears to be linked to adverse cardiac outcomes. It was demonstrated that Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) leads to substantial improvements and positive outcomes because combines the prescription of physical activity with the modification of risk factors and aims to reduce symptoms related to the disease and the risk of new cardiovascular events...
January 29, 2018: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Yeonjung Lee, Alex Bierman
This study examines whether loneliness explains the association between perceived everyday discrimination and depressive symptoms among older adults as well as whether this indirect pathway differs by education. Three waves (2006, 2010, and 2014) of the Health and Retirement Study ( N = 7,130) are analyzed with random-effects models that adjust for repeated observations and fixed-effects models that control for all time-stable influences. Everyday discrimination is associated with loneliness and depressive symptoms but more weakly in fixed-effects models...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
Kristen Anzaldi, Kim Shifren
Few published studies exist on how individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) deal with their disease. We conducted this study to examine the relationship between optimism, pessimism, coping strategies, and depressive symptoms in individuals with PD. Specifically, we assessed the possible mediator role of optimism and pessimism on the relation between coping strategies and depressive symptoms in those with PD. Seventy individuals with PD (35 females and 35 males) were assessed with the Brief COPE scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
Kristina Adorjan, Carmen Thoma, Elitza Tchipeva, Klaudia Janjic, Anne Leidger, Eva Hoch, Gabriele Koller, Peter Falkai, Oliver Pogarell, Susanne Karch
BACKGROUND: At the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the University of Munich a "day clinic for substance use disorders" was opened in 2014. A multimodal treatment concept for patients with addictions was developed. Employees of the clinic performed a first scientific study to assess the effects of treatment approaches on the course of the disease. METHOD: Data were collected over two years to evaluate the treatment concept. I. a., the severity of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, craving and several aspects of the subjective quality of life were documented...
October 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
Bogdan I Voinescu
PURPOSE: A wide range of health problems was investigated, aiming to identify the presence and severity of a set of self-reported and common sleep, psychiatric, and somatic health problems among working professionals in four different shift schedules (morning, evening, rotating, and day) in several cities in Romania. METHODS: A heterogeneous sample of 488 workers of different professions completed online a battery of tests, namely the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire, the Parasomnia Questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire, designed to identity symptoms of insomnia, sleepiness, snoring, parasomnia, as well as of depression, anxiety, eating, somatoform, and alcohol use disorders, respectively...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Erika M Manczak, Bryn Dougherty, Edith Chen
Depressive symptoms in parents and in youths have been found to relate to disease comorbidity processes in children, including greater disease-related impairment and poorer clinical outcomes. The current study sought to assess whether coming from a family characterized by more depressive symptoms on average would potentiate the effects of changes in youths' own negative mood on the expression of two receptor genes relevant to asthma that are the primary targets of asthma medication, such that the combination of low child negative mood in the context of greater parental depressive symptoms would relate to the lowest levels of gene expression...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Jonathan Davies, Sarah Sullivan, Stanley Zammit
PURPOSE: To investigate whether psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms at ages 12 and 18 years are associated with adverse life outcomes across a range of functional domains between 16 and 20 years of age. METHODS: Data were gathered from ALSPAC, a UK birth cohort. Individuals were assessed with the semi-structured Psychosis-Like Symptoms Interview and the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at ages 12 and 18 years. Logistic regression was used to explore associations with outcomes in education, occupation, social functioning, substance use (alcohol, cannabis, smoking, and other drugs), and illegal behaviour between the ages of 16 and 20 years...
March 19, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Satoshi Nobusako, Ayami Sakai, Taeko Tsujimoto, Takashi Shuto, Yuki Nishi, Daiki Asano, Emi Furukawa, Takuro Zama, Michihiro Osumi, Sotaro Shimada, Shu Morioka, Akio Nakai
The neurological basis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is thought to be deficits in the internal model and mirror-neuron system (MNS) in the parietal lobe and cerebellum. However, it is not clear if the visuo-motor temporal integration in the internal model and automatic-imitation function in the MNS differs between children with DCD and those with typical development (TD). The current study aimed to investigate these differences. Using the manual dexterity test of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (second edition), the participants were either assigned to the probable DCD (pDCD) group or TD group...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Katrin Elisabeth Giel, Sarah Paganini, Irena Schank, Paul Enck, Stephan Zipfel, Florian Junne
Objective: Problems in emotion processing potentially contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Theories focusing on attentional processing have suggested that dysfunctional attention deployment toward emotional information, i.e., attentional biases for negative emotions, might entail one potential developmental and/or maintenance factor of chronic pain. Methods: We assessed self-reported alexithymia, attentional orienting to and maintenance on emotional stimuli using eye tracking in 17 patients with chronic pain disorder (CP) and two age- and sex-matched control groups, 17 healthy individuals (HC) and 17 individuals who were matched to CP according to depressive symptoms (DC)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Huixia Zhou, Bibing Dai, Sonja Rossi, Juan Li
Background: Depressed populations demonstrate a greater tendency to have negative interpretations on ambiguous situations. Cognitive theories concerning depression proposed that such a negative bias plays an important role in developing and maintaining depression. There is now fairly consistent evidence arising from different stimuli and assessment methods that depression is featured by such a bias. The current study aimed to explore the neural signatures associated with the interpretation bias in the elderly with depressive symptoms confronted with different facial expressions using event-related brain potentials (ERPs)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Stephen P Becker, Matthew A Jarrett, Aaron M Luebbe, Annie A Garner, G Leonard Burns, Michael J Kofler
OBJECTIVES: To (1) describe sleep problems in a large, multi-university sample of college students; (2) evaluate sex differences; and (3) examine the unique associations of mental health symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention [ADHD-IN], ADHD hyperactivity-impulsivity [ADHD-HI]) in relation to sleep problems. METHODS: 7,626 students (70% female; 81% White) ages 18-29 years (M=19.14, SD=1.42) from six universities completed measures assessing mental health symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Dayna A Johnson, Lisa J Meltzer, Talan Zhang, Mei Lu, Andrea E Cassidy-Bushrow, Stephanie Stokes-Buzzelli, Elizabeth Duffy, Brittany McKinnon, Prashant Mahajan, Susan Redline, Christine Lm Joseph
OBJECTIVE: Insufficient sleep is common among caregivers and is associated with worse health outcomes; however, the contributors to poor sleep among caregivers are unknown. We investigated the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic status (SES), psychosocial stressors, and sleep among caregivers. METHODS: Caregivers (n=98) of teenagers with asthma self-reported sleep duration (hours), sleep quality (very good to very bad), education (<high school to college graduate), income ($15,000 to $50,000), and psychosocial stressors (stress, worry, social support, depressive symptoms, nightly awakenings due to caregiving)...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: I review the historical antecedents of the two key features of the bereavement exclusion (BE) for major depression (MD) criteria initially proposed in DSM-III: (i) a context-dependent approach to the evaluation of MD which required that the diagnosis be given only when course, symptoms and signs are 'out of proportion' to experienced adversities, and (ii) bereavement is the sole adversity for which this context-dependent approach should be utilized. METHODS: A review of 49 textbook and review articles on depression or melancholia published 1880-1960...
March 20, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Dickens Akena, John Joska, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Visual scales may be particularly useful in screening for depression in patients with low literacy. However, few have been validated and none are in common use. Aim Modification and validation of a visual scale to screen for depression in low literacy settings. METHOD: We assessed the validity, reliability and factor loading of a 28-item visual depression inventory using pictorial items depicting depression signs and symptoms. We validated a revised scale comprised of 18 items known as the Akena Visual Depression Inventory (AViDI-18) against a structured diagnostic interview (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Inventory) in 343 patients in Kampala (Uganda) and Cape Town (South Africa)...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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