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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897989/periodization-of-carbohydrate-intake-short-term-effect-on-performance
#1
Laurie-Anne Marquet, Christophe Hausswirth, Odeline Molle, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke, Eve Tiollier, Jeanick Brisswalter
BACKGROUND: "Sleep-low" consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability-low glycogen recovery after "train high" glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training ("train low") the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867696/quantification-of-extra-cerebral-and-cerebral-hemoglobin-concentrations-during-physical-exercise-using-time-domain-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#2
Héloïse Auger, Louis Bherer, Étienne Boucher, Richard Hoge, Frédéric Lesage, Mathieu Dehaes
Fitness is known to have beneficial effects on brain anatomy and function. However, the understanding of mechanisms underlying immediate and long-term neurophysiological changes due to exercise is currently incomplete due to the lack of tools to investigate brain function during physical activity. In this study, we used time-domain near infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) to quantify and discriminate extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation (SO2) in young adults at rest and during incremental intensity exercise...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856807/paradoxical-dissociation-between-heart-rate-and-heart-rate-variability-following-different-modalities-of-exercise-in-individuals-with-metabolic-syndrome-the-resolve-study
#3
Gil Boudet, Guillaume Walther, Daniel Courteix, Philippe Obert, Bruno Lesourd, Bruno Pereira, Robert Chapier, Agnès Vinet, Alain Chamoux, Geraldine Naughton, Paul Poirier, Frédéric Dutheil
AIMS: To analyse the effects of different modalities of exercise training on heart rate variability (HRV) in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty MetS participants (aged 50-70 years) were housed and managed in an inpatient medical centre for 21 days, including weekends. Physical activity and food intake/diet were intensively monitored. Participants were randomly assigned into three training groups, differing only by intensity of exercise: moderate-endurance-moderate-resistance (re), high-resistance-moderate-endurance (Re), and moderate-resistance-high-endurance (rE)...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852718/high-intensity-interval-training-versus-moderate-intensity-steady-state-training-in-uk-cardiac-rehabilitation-programmes-hiit-or-miss-uk-study-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-and-economic-evaluation
#4
Gordon McGregor, Simon Nichols, Thomas Hamborg, Lucy Bryning, Rhiannon Tudor-Edwards, David Markland, Jenny Mercer, Stefan Birkett, Stuart Ennis, Richard Powell, Brian Begg, Mark J Haykowsky, Prithwish Banerjee, Lee Ingle, Rob Shave, Karianne Backx
INTRODUCTION: Current international guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) advocate moderate-intensity exercise training (MISS, moderate-intensity steady state). This recommendation predates significant advances in medical therapy for coronary heart disease (CHD) and may not be the most appropriate strategy for the 'modern' patient with CHD. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) appears to be a safe and effective alternative, resulting in greater improvements in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak)...
November 16, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834812/high-intensity-interval-training-for-overweight-adolescents-program-acceptance-of-a-media-supported-intervention-and-changes-in-body-composition
#5
Sabine Herget, Sandra Reichardt, Andrea Grimm, David Petroff, Jakob Käpplinger, Michael Haase, Jana Markert, Susann Blüher
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) consists of short intervals of exercise at high intensity intermitted by intervals of lower intensity and is associated with improvement of body composition and metabolic health in adults. Studies in overweight adolescents are scarce. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in overweight adolescents to compare acceptance and attendance of HIIT with or without weekly motivational encouragement through text messages and access to a study website. HIIT was offered for six months (including summer vacation) twice a week (60 min/session)...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834492/single-and-combined-effects-of-beetroot-crystals-and-sodium-bicarbonate-on-4-km-cycling-time-trial-performance
#6
Marcus J Callahan, Evelyn B Parr, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke
When ingested alone, beetroot juice and sodium bicarbonate are ergogenic for high-intensity exercise performance. This study sought to determine the independent and combined effects of these supplements. Eight endurance trained (V̇O2max 65 mL·kg·min(-1)) male cyclists completed four x 4-km time trials (TT) in a double-blind Latin square design supplementing with beetroot crystals (BC) for 3 days (15 g.day(-1) + 15 g 1 h prior to TT, containing 300 mg nitrate per 15 g), bicarbonate (Bi 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass [BM] in 5 doses every 15 min from 2...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829967/does-virtual-reality-based-kinect-dance-training-paradigm-improve-autonomic-nervous-system-modulation-in-individuals-with-chronic-stroke
#7
Luciana Maria Malosá Sampaio, Savitha Subramaniam, Ross Arena, Tanvi Bhatt
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity and low resting heart rate variability (HRV) are associated with an increased cardiovascular deconditioning, risk of secondary stroke and mortality. Aerobic dance is a multidimensional physical activity and recent research supports its application as a valid alternative cardiovascular training. Furthermore, technological advances have facilitated the emergence of new approaches for exercise training holding promise, especially those methods that integrate rehabilitation with virtual gaming...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826654/physiological-responses-to-interval-endurance-exercise-at-different-levels-of-blood-flow-restriction
#8
Rogério B Corvino, Harry B Rossiter, Thiago Loch, Jéssica C Martins, Fabrizio Caputo
PURPOSE: We aimed to identify a blood flow restriction (BFR) endurance exercise protocol that would both maximize cardiopulmonary and metabolic strain, and minimize the perception of effort. METHODS: Twelve healthy males (23 ± 2 years, 75 ± 7 kg) performed five different exercise protocols in randomized order: HI, high-intensity exercise starting at 105% of the incremental peak power (P peak); I-BFR30, intermittent BFR at 30% P peak; C-BFR30, continuous BFR at 30% P peak; CON30, control exercise without BFR at 30% P peak; I-BFR0, intermittent BFR during unloaded exercise...
November 8, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824451/frequency-comb-spectrum-of-periodic-patterned-signals
#9
Johannes L Steinmann, Edmund Blomley, Miriam Brosi, Erik Bründermann, Michele Caselle, Jeffrey L Hesler, Nicole Hiller, Benjamin Kehrer, Yves-Laurent Mathis, Michael J Nasse, Juliane Raasch, Manuel Schedler, Patrik Schönfeldt, Marcel Schuh, Markus Schwarz, Michael Siegel, Nigel Smale, Marc Weber, Anke-Susanne Müller
Using arbitrary periodic pulse patterns we show the enhancement of specific frequencies in a frequency comb. The envelope of a regular frequency comb originates from equally spaced, identical pulses and mimics the single pulse spectrum. We investigated spectra originating from the periodic emission of pulse trains with gaps and individual pulse heights, which are commonly observed, for example, at high-repetition-rate free electron lasers, high power lasers, and synchrotrons. The ANKA synchrotron light source was filled with defined patterns of short electron bunches generating coherent synchrotron radiation in the terahertz range...
October 21, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806004/the-validity-and-contributing-physiological-factors-to-30-15-intermittent-fitness-test-performance-in-rugby-league
#10
Tannath J Scott, Grant M Duthie, Jace A Delaney, Colin E Sanctuary, David A Ballard, Jeremy A Hickmans, Ben J Dascombe
This study examined the validity of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT) within rugby league. Sixty-three Australian elite and junior-elite rugby league players (22.5 ± 4.5 yr, 96.1. kg ± 9.5 kg, Σ7 skinfolds: 71.0 ± 18.7 mm) from a professional club participated in this study. Players were assessed for anthropometry (body mass, Σ7 skinfolds, lean mass index), prolonged high-intensity intermittent running (PHIR; measured by 30-15IFT), predicted aerobic capacity (MSFT) and power (AAS), speed (40 m sprint), repeated sprint and change of direction (COD - 505 agility test) ability prior to and following an 11 week pre-season training period...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774458/short-term-high-intensity-interval-training-on-body-composition-and-blood-glucose-in-overweight-and-obese-young-women
#11
Zhaowei Kong, Shengyan Sun, Min Liu, Qingde Shi
This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of [Formula: see text]...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771800/changes-in-resting-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-following-resistance-exercise-overreaching-and-overtraining
#12
Justin X Nicoll, Andrew C Fry, Andrew J Galpin, Adam J Sterczala, Donald B Thomason, Christopher A Moore, Lawrence W Weiss, Loren Z F Chiu
PURPOSE: Many physiological maladaptations persist after overreaching and overtraining resistance exercise (RE). However, no studies have investigated changes in mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) after overtraining in humans, despite their critical role regulating exercise-induced muscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to describe the changes in total and resting phosphorylation status of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-MAPK following a period of RE overreaching or overtraining...
October 22, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760844/injuries-in-an-extreme-conditioning-program
#13
Kyle T Aune, Joseph M Powers
BACKGROUND: Extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) are fitness training regimens relying on aerobic, plyometric, and resistance training exercises, often with high levels of intensity for a short duration of time. These programs have grown rapidly in popularity in recent years, but science describing the safety profile of these programs is lacking. HYPOTHESIS: The rate of injury in the extreme conditioning program is greater than the injury rate of weightlifting and the majority of injuries occur to the shoulder and back...
October 19, 2016: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748983/moderate-intensity-endurance-training-improves-endothelial-glycocalyx-layer-in-healthy-young-men
#14
Joanna Majerczak, Marcin Grandys, Krzysztof Duda, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Aneta Balcerczyk, Leszek Kolodziejski, Dorota Szymoniak-Chochol, Ryszard T Smolenski, Grzegorz Bartosz, Stefan Chlopicki, Jerzy A Zoladz
In this study we have evaluated the effect of 20-weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relation to the training-induced changes in antioxidant defence. Eleven healthy young, untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion before and after 20 weeks of ET. Endurance training consisted of 40- minute sessions, mainly of moderate-intensity (∼50% of VO2max ), performed 4 times per week. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and at the end of the maximal exercise test...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742804/influence-of-training-intensity-on-adaptations-in-acid-base-transport-proteins-muscle-buffer-capacity-and-repeated-sprint-ability-in-active-men
#15
Cian McGinley, David J Bishop
McGinley C, Bishop DJ. Influence of training intensity on adaptations in acid/base transport proteins, muscle buffer capacity, and repeated-sprint ability in active men. J Appl Physiol 121: 1290-1305, 2016. First published October 14, 2016; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00630.2016-This study measured the adaptive response to exercise training for each of the acid-base transport protein families, including providing isoform-specific evidence for the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1/4 chaperone protein basigin and for the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe)1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689626/distinct-protein-and-mrna-kinetics-of-skeletal-muscle-proton-transporters-following-exercise-can-influence-interpretation-of-adaptations-to-training
#16
Cian McGinley, David J Bishop
What is the central question of this study? Following a training intervention, how is the interpretation of adaptations in skeletal muscle H(+) transporters influenced by biopsy timing in the context of individual protein and mRNA kinetics after the final exercise bout? What is the main finding and its importance? We show that distinct postexercise protein and mRNA kinetics for monocarboxylate transporter 1/4 and sodium-hydrogen exchanger 1 indicate that timing of a single end-point biopsy after a training intervention can influence the inferences made...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689020/influence-of-aerobic-exercise-training-on-the-neural-correlates-of-motor-learning-in-parkinson-s-disease-individuals
#17
C Duchesne, F Gheysen, A Bore, G Albouy, A Nadeau, M E Robillard, F Bobeuf, A L Lafontaine, O Lungu, L Bherer, J Doyon
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise training (AET) has been shown to provide general health benefits, and to improve motor behaviours in particular, in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the influence of AET on their motor learning capacities, as well as the change in neural substrates mediating this effect remains to be explored. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we employed functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to assess the effect of a 3-month AET program on the neural correlates of implicit motor sequence learning (MSL)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677081/the-effect-of-active-versus-passive-recovery-periods-during-high-intensity-intermittent-exercise-on-local-tissue-oxygenation-in-18-30-year-old-sedentary-men
#18
Yuri Kriel, Hugo A Kerhervé, Christopher D Askew, Colin Solomon
PURPOSE: High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient format of exercise to reduce the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Changes in oxygen utilisation at the local tissue level during an acute session of HIIT could be the primary stimulus for the health benefits associated with this format of exercise. The recovery periods of HIIT effect the physiological responses that occur during the session. It was hypothesised that in sedentary individuals, local and systemic oxygen utilisation would be higher during HIIT interspersed with active recovery periods, when compared to passive recovery periods...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673449/limitations-in-intense-exercise-performance-of-athletes-effect-of-speed-endurance-training-on-ion-handling-and-fatigue-development
#19
Morten Hostrup, Jens Bangsbo
Mechanisms underlying fatigue development and limitations for performance during intense exercise have been intensively studied during the past couple of decades. Fatigue development may involve several interacting factors and depends on type of exercise undertaken and training level of the individual. Intense exercise (½-6 min) causes major ionic perturbations (Ca(2+) , Cl(-) , H(+) , K(+) , lactate(-) , and Na(+) ) that may reduce sarcolemmal excitability, Ca(2+) release, and force production of skeletal muscle...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669447/high-intensity-interval-training-increases-cardiac-output-and-vo2max
#20
Todd A Astorino, Ross M Edmunds, Amy Clark, Leesa King, Rachael M Gallant, Samantha Namm, Anthony Fischer, Kimi A Wood
: Increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) frequently occur with high-intensity interval training (HIIT), yet the specific adaptation explaining this result remains elusive. PURPOSE: This study examined changes in VO2max and cardiac output (CO) in response to periodized HIIT. METHODS: Thirty nine active men and women (mean age and VO2max = 22.9 ± 5.4 yr and 39.6 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) performed HIIT and 32 men and women (age and VO2max = 25...
September 16, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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