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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095069/the-evolution-of-champion-cross-country-skier-training-from-lumberjacks-to-professional-athletes
#1
Øyvind Sandbakk
Competitive cross-country (XC) skiing has traditions extending back to the mid-19th century, and was included as a men's event in the first Winter Games in 1924. Since then, tremendous improvements in equipment, track preparation, and knowledge about training have prompted greater increases in XC skiing speeds than in any other Olympic sport. In response, this commentary focuses on how the training of successful XC skiers has evolved, with interviews and training data from surviving Norwegian world and Olympic XC champions as primary sources...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094408/large-area-tungsten-disulfide-for-ultrafast-photonics
#2
Peiguang Yan, Hao Chen, Jinde Yin, Zihan Xu, Jiarong Li, Zike Jiang, Wenfei Zhang, Jinzhang Wang, Irene Ling Li, Zhipei Sun, Shuangchen Ruan
Two-dimensional (2D) layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted significant interest in various optoelectronic applications due to their excellent nonlinear optical properties. One of the most important applications of TMDs is to be employed as an extraordinary optical modulation material (e.g., the saturable absorber (SA)) in ultrafast photonics. The main challenge arises while embedding TMDs into fiber laser systems to generate ultrafast pulse trains and thus constraints their practical applications...
January 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081223/high-intensity-jump-training-is-tolerated-during-60-days-of-bed-rest-and-is-very-effective-in-preserving-leg-power-and-lean-body-mass-an-overview-of-the-cologne-rsl-study
#3
Andreas Kramer, Jakob Kümmel, Edwin Mulder, Albert Gollhofer, Petra Frings-Meuthen, Markus Gruber
PURPOSE: Space agencies are looking for effective and efficient countermeasures for the degrading effects of weightlessness on the human body. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a novel jump exercise countermeasure during bed rest on vitals, body mass, body composition, and jump performance. METHODS: 23 male participants (29±6 years, 181±6 cm, 77±7 kg) were confined to a bed rest facility for 90 days: a 15-day ambulatory measurement phase, a 60-day six-degree head-down-tilt bed rest phase (HDT), and a 15-day ambulatory recovery phase...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081017/lattice-parameters-guide-superconductivity-in-iron-arsenides
#4
Lance M N Konzen, Athena S Sefat
The discovery of superconducting materials has led to their use in technological marvels such as magnetic-field sensors in MRI machines, powerful research magnets, short transmission cables, and high-speed trains. Despite such applications, the uses of superconductors are not widespread because they function much below room-temperature, hence the costly cooling. Since the discovery of Cu- and Fe-based high-temperature superconductors (HTS), much intense effort has tried to explain and understand the superconducting phenomenon...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080323/oral-adenosine-5-triphosphate-atp-administration-increases-postexercise-atp-levels-muscle-excitability-and-athletic-performance-following-a-repeated-sprint-bout
#5
Martin Purpura, John A Rathmacher, Matthew H Sharp, Ryan P Lowery, Kevin A Shields, Jeremy M Partl, Jacob M Wilson, Ralf Jäger
OBJECTIVE: Oral adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) administration has failed to increase plasma ATP levels; however, chronic supplementation with ATP has shown to increase power, strength, lean body mass, and blood flow in trained athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ATP supplementation on postexercise ATP levels and on muscle activation and excitability and power following a repeated sprint bout. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized design, 42 healthy male individuals were given either 400 mg of ATP as disodium salt or placebo for 2 weeks prior to an exercise bout...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078878/vitamin-a-decreases-after-a-maximal-incremental-stress-test-in-non-professional-male-runners-with-low-aerobic-performance
#6
P Izzicupo, B Ghinassi, M A D'Amico, T Bucciarelli, S Gallina, A Di Baldassarre
The data on the effects of aerobic training on plasma antioxidant vitamins are conflicting. Additionally, most studies focus on the oxidative profiles of professional athletes, but limited information is available for amateur athlete populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-intensity exercise on antioxidant vitamins in non-professional runners with varying levels of aerobic power. Eighty-one male runners underwent an incremental test to exhaustion. The study population was then divided into the following tertiles according to VO2max: Group L (LowVO2max, less than 44...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051345/how-does-interval-training-prescription-impact-physiological-and-perceptual-responses
#7
Stephen Seiler, Øystein Sylta
The purpose of this study was to compare physiological responses and perceived exertion among well trained cyclists (n=63) performing three different high intensity interval training (HIIT) prescriptions differing in work bout duration and accumulated duration, but all prescribed with maximal session effort. Data are presented as mean(Standard Deviation). Subjects (male, 38(8) y, VO2peak 62(6) mL.kg(-1) min(-1)) completed up to 24 HIIT sessions over 12 weeks as part of a training intervention study. Sessions were prescribed as 4x16 min, 4x8 min, or 4x4 min with 2 min recovery periods (8 sessions of each prescription, balanced over time)...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008239/effects-of-different-doses-of-high-speed-resistance-training-on-physical-performance-and-quality-of-life-in-older-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Daniela Diaz, Cristian Martinez-Salazar, Pablo Valdés-Badilla, Pedro Delgado-Floody, Guillermo Méndez-Rebolledo, Rodrigo Cañas-Jamet, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Antonio García-Hermoso, Carlos Celis-Morales, Jason Moran, Thomas W Buford, Leocadio Rodriguez-Mañas, Alicia M Alonso-Martinez, Mikel Izquierdo
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effects of two frequencies of high-speed resistance training (HSRT) on physical performance and quality of life of older women. METHODS: A total of 24 older women participated in a 12-week HSRT program composed of either two or three sessions/week (equated for volume and intensity). Women were randomized into three arms: a control group (CG, n=8), a resistance training group performing two sessions/week (RT2, n=8), and a resistance training group performing three sessions/week (RT3, n=8)...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994826/crossfit-%C3%A2-instructor-demographics-and-practice-trends
#9
Gregory R Waryasz, Vladimir Suric, Alan H Daniels, Joseph A Gil, Craig P Eberson
CrossFit(®) is an increasingly popular exercise modality that uses high intensity power training. The literature to date regarding CrossFit(®) has focused on its benefits to VO2 Max, body composition and the motivational variables of participants of CrossFit(®). A computerized survey was distributed to CrossFit(®) instructors using Survey Monkey(®) (Palo Alto, CA, USA). One hundred and ninety-three CrossFit(®) instructors responded to the survey. Of these 86.6% (155/179) reported being a certified CrossFit(®) instructor with 26...
November 17, 2016: Orthopedic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977854/effects-of-high-intensity-physical-training-on-muscle-fiber-characteristics-in-post-stroke-patients
#10
J L Andersen, J R Jørgensen, P Zeeman, D T Bech-Pedersen, J Sørensen, I Ara, L L Andersen
INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. High-intensity physical training can improve muscle strength and gait speed, but adaptive mechanisms at the muscle cellular level are largely unknown. METHODS: Outpatients with post-stroke hemiparesis participated in a 3-month rehabilitation program combining high-intensity strength and body-weight supported treadmill-training. Biopsies sampled bilaterally from vastus lateralis muscles, before, after, and at 1-year follow-up after intervention, were analyzed for fiber size, type, and capillarization...
December 15, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939089/the-resolve-trial-for-people-with-chronic-low-back-pain-protocol-for-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#11
Matthew K Bagg, Markus Hübscher, Martin Rabey, Benedict M Wand, Edel O'Hagan, G Lorimer Moseley, Tasha R Stanton, Chris G Maher, Stephen Goodall, Sopany Saing, Neil E O'Connell, Hannu Luomajoki, James H McAuley
INTRODUCTION: Low back pain is the leading worldwide cause of disability, and results in significant personal hardship. Most available treatments, when tested in high-quality randomised, controlled trials, achieve only modest improvements in pain, at best. Recently, treatments that target central nervous system function have been developed and tested in small studies. Combining treatments that target central nervous system function with traditional treatments directed towards functioning of the back is a promising approach that has yet to be tested in adequately powered, prospectively registered, clinical trials...
January 2017: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930706/do-reported-effects-of-acute-aerobic-exercise-on-subsequent-higher-cognitive-performances-remain-if-tested-against-an-instructed-self-myofascial-release-training-control-group-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Max Oberste, Wilhelm Bloch, Sven T Hübner, Philipp Zimmer
A substantial body of evidence suggests positive effects of acute aerobic exercise (AAE) on subsequent higher cognitive functions in healthy young adults. These effects are widely understood as a result of the ongoing physiological adaptation processes induced by the preceding AAE. However, designs of published studies do not control for placebo, Hawthorne and subject expectancy effects. Therefore, these studies do not, at a high degree of validity, allow attributing effects of AEE on subsequent cognitive performance to exercise induced physical arousal...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897989/periodization-of-carbohydrate-intake-short-term-effect-on-performance
#13
Laurie-Anne Marquet, Christophe Hausswirth, Odeline Molle, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke, Eve Tiollier, Jeanick Brisswalter
BACKGROUND: "Sleep-low" consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability-low glycogen recovery after "train high" glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training ("train low") the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867696/quantification-of-extra-cerebral-and-cerebral-hemoglobin-concentrations-during-physical-exercise-using-time-domain-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#14
Héloïse Auger, Louis Bherer, Étienne Boucher, Richard Hoge, Frédéric Lesage, Mathieu Dehaes
Fitness is known to have beneficial effects on brain anatomy and function. However, the understanding of mechanisms underlying immediate and long-term neurophysiological changes due to exercise is currently incomplete due to the lack of tools to investigate brain function during physical activity. In this study, we used time-domain near infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) to quantify and discriminate extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation (SO2) in young adults at rest and during incremental intensity exercise...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856807/paradoxical-dissociation-between-heart-rate-and-heart-rate-variability-following-different-modalities-of-exercise-in-individuals-with-metabolic-syndrome-the-resolve-study
#15
Gil Boudet, Guillaume Walther, Daniel Courteix, Philippe Obert, Bruno Lesourd, Bruno Pereira, Robert Chapier, Agnès Vinet, Alain Chamoux, Geraldine Naughton, Paul Poirier, Frédéric Dutheil
AIMS: To analyse the effects of different modalities of exercise training on heart rate variability (HRV) in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty MetS participants (aged 50-70 years) were housed and managed in an inpatient medical centre for 21 days, including weekends. Physical activity and food intake/diet were intensively monitored. Participants were randomly assigned into three training groups, differing only by intensity of exercise: moderate-endurance-moderate-resistance (re), high-resistance-moderate-endurance (Re), and moderate-resistance-high-endurance (rE)...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852718/high-intensity-interval-training-versus-moderate-intensity-steady-state-training-in-uk-cardiac-rehabilitation-programmes-hiit-or-miss-uk-study-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-and-economic-evaluation
#16
Gordon McGregor, Simon Nichols, Thomas Hamborg, Lucy Bryning, Rhiannon Tudor-Edwards, David Markland, Jenny Mercer, Stefan Birkett, Stuart Ennis, Richard Powell, Brian Begg, Mark J Haykowsky, Prithwish Banerjee, Lee Ingle, Rob Shave, Karianne Backx
INTRODUCTION: Current international guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) advocate moderate-intensity exercise training (MISS, moderate-intensity steady state). This recommendation predates significant advances in medical therapy for coronary heart disease (CHD) and may not be the most appropriate strategy for the 'modern' patient with CHD. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) appears to be a safe and effective alternative, resulting in greater improvements in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak)...
November 16, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834812/high-intensity-interval-training-for-overweight-adolescents-program-acceptance-of-a-media-supported-intervention-and-changes-in-body-composition
#17
Sabine Herget, Sandra Reichardt, Andrea Grimm, David Petroff, Jakob Käpplinger, Michael Haase, Jana Markert, Susann Blüher
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) consists of short intervals of exercise at high intensity intermitted by intervals of lower intensity and is associated with improvement of body composition and metabolic health in adults. Studies in overweight adolescents are scarce. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in overweight adolescents to compare acceptance and attendance of HIIT with or without weekly motivational encouragement through text messages and access to a study website. HIIT was offered for six months (including summer vacation) twice a week (60 min/session)...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834492/single-and-combined-effects-of-beetroot-crystals-and-sodium-bicarbonate-on-4-km-cycling-time-trial-performance
#18
Marcus J Callahan, Evelyn B Parr, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke
When ingested alone, beetroot juice and sodium bicarbonate are ergogenic for high-intensity exercise performance. This study sought to determine the independent and combined effects of these supplements. Eight endurance trained (V̇O2max 65 mL·kg·min(-1)) male cyclists completed four x 4-km time trials (TT) in a double-blind Latin square design supplementing with beetroot crystals (BC) for 3 days (15 g.day(-1) + 15 g 1 h prior to TT, containing 300 mg nitrate per 15 g), bicarbonate (Bi 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass [BM] in 5 doses every 15 min from 2...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829967/does-virtual-reality-based-kinect-dance-training-paradigm-improve-autonomic-nervous-system-modulation-in-individuals-with-chronic-stroke
#19
Luciana Maria Malosá Sampaio, Savitha Subramaniam, Ross Arena, Tanvi Bhatt
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity and low resting heart rate variability (HRV) are associated with an increased cardiovascular deconditioning, risk of secondary stroke and mortality. Aerobic dance is a multidimensional physical activity and recent research supports its application as a valid alternative cardiovascular training. Furthermore, technological advances have facilitated the emergence of new approaches for exercise training holding promise, especially those methods that integrate rehabilitation with virtual gaming...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826654/physiological-responses-to-interval-endurance-exercise-at-different-levels-of-blood-flow-restriction
#20
Rogério B Corvino, Harry B Rossiter, Thiago Loch, Jéssica C Martins, Fabrizio Caputo
PURPOSE: We aimed to identify a blood flow restriction (BFR) endurance exercise protocol that would both maximize cardiopulmonary and metabolic strain, and minimize the perception of effort. METHODS: Twelve healthy males (23 ± 2 years, 75 ± 7 kg) performed five different exercise protocols in randomized order: HI, high-intensity exercise starting at 105% of the incremental peak power (P peak); I-BFR30, intermittent BFR at 30% P peak; C-BFR30, continuous BFR at 30% P peak; CON30, control exercise without BFR at 30% P peak; I-BFR0, intermittent BFR during unloaded exercise...
November 8, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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