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High intensity power training

Jarred G Gillett, Glen A Lichtwark, Roslyn N Boyd, Lee A Barber
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of a 12-week combined functional anaerobic and strength training program on neuromuscular properties and functional capacity in young adults with spastic-type CP. METHODS: 17 young adults (21±4 years, 9 males, GMFCS I=11, II=6) were randomized to 12 weeks, 3 sessions per week, of high intensity functional anaerobic and progressive resistance training of the lower limbs (n=8), or a waitlist control group (n=9). Pre- and post-training plantar flexor and tibialis anterior muscle volumes and composition, passive and active plantar flexor muscle properties, and functional capacity outcomes were assessed...
March 20, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Naser Naser, Ajmol Ali, Paul Macadam
Futsal, the 5-a-side version of soccer (i.e. 1 goalkeeper and 4 outfield players), was introduced in 1930 and continues to grow in popularity around the world. Competitive games comprise of two 20-min periods of high-intensity and intermittent activities requiring substantial physical, tactical, and technical efforts from the players. A greater understanding of the physical and skill requirements will aid the development of futsal and enable practitioners to undertake appropriate training regimes for the demands of the sport...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
R A Briggs, J R Houck, P C LaStayo, J M Fritz, M J Drummond, R L Marcus
OBJECTIVES: Post rehabilitation, older adults with hip fracture display low vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) on the involved lower extremity during a sit-to-stand task and low physical function. The purpose of this study was to test whether muscle performance, involved side vGRF during a sit-to-stand task, and physical function improved following multimodal high-intensity resistance training, when initiated after usual care (2 to 6 months after hip fracture). DESIGN: Case series study, 12 weeks extended high-intensity strength training intervention following hip fracture...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Wei-Lun Liang, Guo-Dung J Su
We propose a train headlamp system using dual half-circular parabolic aluminized reflectors. Each half-circular reflector contains five high-efficiency and small-package light-emitting diode (LED) chips, and the halves are 180° rotationally symmetric. For traffic safety, the headlamp satisfies the Code of Federal Regulations. To predict the pattern of illumination, an analytical derivation is developed for the optical path of a ray that is perpendicular to and emitted from the center of an LED chip. This ray represents the main ray emitted from the LED chip and is located at the maximum illuminance of the spot projected by the LED source onto a screen...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Raphael José Perrier-Melo, Fernando Augusto Marinho Dos Santos Figueira, Guilherme Veiga Guimarães, Manoel da Cunha Costa
Heart transplantation (HTx) is considered an efficient and gold-standard procedure for patients with end-stage heart failure. After surgery, patients have lower aerobic power (VO2max) and compensatory hemodynamic responses. The aim of the present study was to assess through a systematic review with meta-analysis whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can provide benefits for those parameters. This is a systematic review with meta-analysis, which searched the databases and data portals PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct and Wiley until December 2016 (pairs)...
February 19, 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Pedro L Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrentegi, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia, Pedro de la Villa
PURPOSE: The use of enhanced external counter-pulsation (EECP) as a recovery strategy has increased in recent years owing to its benefits in the clinical setting. However, its claimed effectiveness for the enhancement of exercise recovery has not been analyzed in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of EECP on short-term recovery after a fatiguing exercise bout. METHODS: 12 elite junior triathletes (16 ± 2 years) participated in this cross-over counterbalanced study...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Sjors Groot, Lars Hj van de Westelaken, Dionne A Noordhof, Koen Levels, Jos J de Koning
It has been shown that gross efficiency (GE) declines during high-intensity exercise, but currently, the time course of the recovery of GE after high-intensity exercise is not yet investigated. PURPOSE: To determine the time course of the recovery of GE after time trials of different length. METHODS: Nineteen trained male cyclists participated in this study. Before and after time trials of 2000 and 20,000 m, subjects performed submaximal exercise at 55% of the power output attained at the maximal oxygen uptake (PVO2max )...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Masanobu Taya, Eisuke Amiya, Masaru Hatano, Hisataka Maki, Daisuke Nitta, Akihito Saito, Masaki Tsuji, Yumiko Hosoya, Shun Minatsuki, Atsuko Nakayama, Takayuki Fujiwara, Yuto Konishi, Kazuhiko Yokota, Masafumi Watanabe, Hiroyuki Morita, Nobuhiko Haga, Issei Komuro
In the original publication of the article, the unit of hand in Fig. 2 was wrongly given as "N/kg" instead of "kg".
February 20, 2018: Heart and Vessels
Stefan Heschl, Ben Meadley, Emily Andrew, Warwick Butt, Stephen Bernard, Karen Smith
INTRODUCTION: Prehospital airway management of the paediatric patient with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is controversial. Endotracheal intubation of children in the field requires specific skills and has potential benefits but also carries potentially serious complications. We aimed to compare mortality and functional outcomes after six months between children with TBI who either underwent prehospital rapid sequence intubation (RSI) by trained Intensive Care paramedics (ICP) or received no intubation...
February 12, 2018: Injury
Heikki Kyröläinen, Kai Pihlainen, Jani P Vaara, Tommi Ojanen, Matti Santtila
OBJECTIVES: Worldwide decreases in physical fitness and increases in body fat among youth have set challenges for armed forces to recruit physically capable soldiers. Therefore, knowledge of optimizing physical adaptation and performance through physical training is vital. In addition, maintaining or improving physical performance among professional soldiers in various military environments is crucial for overall military readiness. The present review focuses on the effects of military training on physical performance by searching for optimal methods to do it...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
K L Jonvik, J Nyakayiru, J W van Dijk, K Maase, S B Ballak, J M G Senden, L J C van Loon, L B Verdijk
PURPOSE: There is an ongoing debate whether highly trained athletes are less responsive to the ergogenic properties of nitrate. We assessed the effects of nitrate supplementation on plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and repeated-sprint performance in recreational, competitive and elite sprint athletes. METHODS: In a randomized double-blinded cross-over design, recreational cyclists (n = 20), national talent speed-skaters (n = 22) and Olympic-level track cyclists (n = 10) underwent two 6-day supplementation periods; 140 mL/d nitrate-rich (BR; ∼800 mg/d) and nitrate-depleted (PLA; ∼0...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Pinelopi S Stavrinou, Gregory C Bogdanis, Christoforos D Giannaki, Gerasimos Terzis, Marios Hadjicharalambous
The effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) frequency on cardiometabolic health and quality of life were examined in 35 healthy inactive adults (age: 31.7±2.6 yrs, VO2 peak: 32.7±7.4 ml·: kg-1 ·: min-1 ). Participants were randomly assigned to a control (CON) and two training groups, which performed 10×60-s cycling at ~83% of peak power, two (HIIT-2) or three times per week (HIIT-3) for eight weeks. Compared with CON, both training regimes resulted in similar improvements in VO2 peak (HIIT-2: 10...
February 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Richard C Blagrove, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
The warm-up is an integral component of a middle- and long-distance athlete's pre-performance routine. The use of a loaded conditioning activity (LCA), which elicits a post-activation potentiation (PAP) response to acutely enhance explosive power performance, is well-researched. A similar approach incorporated into the warm-up of a middle- or long-distance athlete potentially provides a novel strategy to augment performance. Mechanisms that underpin a PAP response, relating to acute adjustments within the neuromuscular system, should theoretically improve middle- and long-distance performance via improvements in sub-maximal force-generating ability...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Caitlin Hitchcock, Siobhan Gormley, Cliodhna O'Leary, Evangeline Rodrigues, Isobel Wright, Kirsty Griffiths, Julia Gillard, Peter Watson, Emily Hammond, Aliza Werner-Seidler, Tim Dalgleish
INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic condition. Although current treatment approaches are effective in reducing acute depressive symptoms, rates of relapse are high. Chronic and inflexible retrieval of autobiographical memories, and in particular a bias towards negative and overgeneral memories, is a reliable predictor of relapse. This randomised controlled single-blind trial will determine whether a therapist-guided self-help intervention to ameliorate autobiographical memory biases using Memory Flexibility training (MemFlex) will increase the experience of depression-free days, relative to a psychoeducation control condition, in the 12 months following intervention...
January 29, 2018: BMJ Open
Rohit C Philip, Jeffrey J Rodriguez, Maki Niihori, Ross H Francis, Jordan A Mudery, Justin S Caskey, Elizabeth Krupinski, Abraham Jacob
Zebrafish have emerged as a powerful biological system for drug development against hearing loss. Zebrafish hair cells, contained within neuromasts along the lateral line, can be damaged with exposure to ototoxins, and therefore, pre-exposure to potentially otoprotective compounds can be a means of identifying promising new drug candidates. Unfortunately, anatomical assays of hair cell damage are typically low-throughput and labor intensive, requiring trained experts to manually score hair cell damage in fluorescence or confocal images...
January 30, 2018: Zebrafish
Matthew S Stone, Jordan M Glenn, Jennifer L Vincenzo, Michelle Gray
Stone, MS, Glenn, JM, Vincenzo, JL, and Gray, M. Comparison of exercise performance in recreationally active and masters athlete women. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 565-571, 2018-Master athletes (MA) are an understudied, ever-growing cohort. As such, it is important to examine how age affects muscular power and fatigability. Of particular interest is muscular power maintenance and fatigue mitigation of MA compared with young, healthy adults. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the differences in peak power, average power, total work (WRK), and fatigue index (FI) between recreationally active (RA) younger adults and female MA during anaerobic cycling exercise...
February 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Kate A Wickham, Lawrence L Spriet
There has been recent interest in the ergogenic effects of caffeine delivered in low doses (~ 200 mg or ~ 3 mg/kg body mass) and administered in forms other than capsules, coffee and sports drinks, including chewing gum, bars, gels, mouth rinses, energy drinks and aerosols. Caffeinated chewing gum is absorbed quicker through the buccal mucosa compared with capsule delivery and absorption in the gut, although total caffeine absorption over time is not different. Rapid absorption may be important in many sporting situations...
January 24, 2018: Sports Medicine
Davide Ferioli, Andrea Bosio, Johann C Bilsborough, Antonio La Torre, Michele Tornaghi, Ermanno Rampinini
PURPOSE: To investigate the 1) effect of the preparation period on the neuromuscular characteristics of 12 professional (PRO) and 16 semi-professional (SEMI-PRO) basketball players; 2) relationships between training load indices and changes in neuromuscular physical performance. METHODS: Prior to and following the preparation period, players underwent a counter-movement jump (CMJ) test, followed by a repeated change of direction (COD) test consisting of 4 levels with increasing intensities...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Zoran Milanović, Goran Sporiš, Nic James, Nebojša Trajković, Aleksandar Ignjatović, Hugo Sarmento, Athos Trecroci, Bruno Miguel Borges Mendes
The popularity of female soccer is increasing as well as the number of females playing soccer. Similarly, over the last twenty or so years, research in soccer has increased significantly, but a large disparity exists in the volume of studies involving male and female players. As a consequence of this, female players remain less well understood compared to males. The purpose of the present narrative review was to describe morphological characteristics, physiological demands, physical abilities and injuries in female soccer players...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
Masanobu Taya, Eisuke Amiya, Masaru Hatano, Hisataka Maki, Daisuke Nitta, Akihito Saito, Masaki Tsuji, Yumiko Hosoya, Shun Minatsuki, Astuko Nakayama, Takayuki Fujiwara, Yuto Konishi, Kazuhiko Yokota, Masafumi Watanabe, Hiroyuki Morita, Nobuhiko Haga, Issei Komuro
This study investigated the effectiveness and safety of interval training during in-hospital treatment of patients with advanced heart failure. Twenty-four consecutive patients with advanced symptomatic heart failure who were referred for cardiac transplant evaluation were recruited. After performing aerobic exercise for approximate intensity, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) was performed. The protocol consisted of 3 or 4 sessions of 1-min high-intensity exercise aimed at 80% of peak VO2 or 80% heart rate reserve, followed by 4-min recovery periods of low intensity...
January 15, 2018: Heart and Vessels
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