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High intensity power training

Kyle T Aune, Joseph M Powers
BACKGROUND: Extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) are fitness training regimens relying on aerobic, plyometric, and resistance training exercises, often with high levels of intensity for a short duration of time. These programs have grown rapidly in popularity in recent years, but science describing the safety profile of these programs is lacking. HYPOTHESIS: The rate of injury in the extreme conditioning program is greater than the injury rate of weightlifting and the majority of injuries occur to the shoulder and back...
October 19, 2016: Sports Health
Joanna Majerczak, Marcin Grandys, Krzysztof Duda, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Aneta Balcerczyk, Leszek Kolodziejski, Dorota Szymoniak-Chochol, Ryszard T Smolenski, Grzegorz Bartosz, Stefan Chlopicki, Jerzy A Zoladz
In this study we have evaluated the effect of 20-weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relation to the training-induced changes in antioxidant defence. Eleven healthy young, untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion before and after 20 weeks of ET. Endurance training consisted of 40- minute sessions, mainly of moderate-intensity (∼50% of VO2max ), performed 4 times per week. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and at the end of the maximal exercise test...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Cian McGinley, David John Bishop
This study measured the adaptive response to exercise training for each of the acid/base transport protein families, including providing isoform-specific evidence for the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1/4 chaperone protein basigin and for the electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe)1. We investigated whether 4 weeks of work-matched, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), performed either just above the lactate threshold (HIITΔ20; n = 8), or close to peak aerobic power (HIITΔ90; n = 8), influenced adaptations in acid/base transport protein abundance, non-bicarbonate muscle buffer capacity (βmin vitro), and exercise capacity in active men...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Cian McGinley, David J Bishop
To better understand training-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle pH regulation, this study measured protein and mRNA kinetics of proton (H(+) ) transporters for 72 h following a bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), conducted after 4 weeks of similar training. We also assayed muscle buffer capacity (βm) by titration technique (βmin vitro ) over the same period. Sixteen active men cycled for 7 × 2 min at ∼80% of peak aerobic power, interspersed with 1 min rest. Compared to the first 9 h post-exercise, monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1 protein content was ∼1...
September 30, 2016: Experimental Physiology
C Duchesne, F Gheysen, A Bore, G Albouy, A Nadeau, M E Robillard, F Bobeuf, A L Lafontaine, O Lungu, L Bherer, J Doyon
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise training (AET) has been shown to provide general health benefits, and to improve motor behaviours in particular, in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the influence of AET on their motor learning capacities, as well as the change in neural substrates mediating this effect remains to be explored. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we employed functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to assess the effect of a 3-month AET program on the neural correlates of implicit motor sequence learning (MSL)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Yuri Kriel, Hugo A Kerhervé, Christopher D Askew, Colin Solomon
PURPOSE: High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient format of exercise to reduce the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Changes in oxygen utilisation at the local tissue level during an acute session of HIIT could be the primary stimulus for the health benefits associated with this format of exercise. The recovery periods of HIIT effect the physiological responses that occur during the session. It was hypothesised that in sedentary individuals, local and systemic oxygen utilisation would be higher during HIIT interspersed with active recovery periods, when compared to passive recovery periods...
2016: PloS One
Morten Hostrup, Jens Bangsbo
Mechanisms underlying fatigue development and limitations for performance during intense exercise have been intensively studied during the past couple of decades. Fatigue development may involve several interacting factors and depends on type of exercise undertaken and training level of the individual. Intense exercise (½-6 min) causes major ionic perturbations (Ca(2+) , Cl(-) , H(+) , K(+) , lactate(-) , and Na(+) ) that may reduce sarcolemmal excitability, Ca(2+) release, and force production of skeletal muscle...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Todd A Astorino, Ross M Edmunds, Amy Clark, Leesa King, Rachael M Gallant, Samantha Namm, Anthony Fischer, Kimi A Wood
: Increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) frequently occur with high-intensity interval training (HIIT), yet the specific adaptation explaining this result remains elusive. PURPOSE: This study examined changes in VO2max and cardiac output (CO) in response to periodized HIIT. METHODS: Thirty nine active men and women (mean age and VO2max = 22.9 ± 5.4 yr and 39.6 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) performed HIIT and 32 men and women (age and VO2max = 25...
September 16, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Luis Manuel Martinez-Aranda, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo
Exercise load is a key component in determining end-point adaptations to resistance exercise. Yet, there is no information regarding the use of different inertia (i.e. loads) during iso-inertial flywheel resistance exercise, a very popular high-intensity training model. Thus, this study examined power, work, force and eccentric-overload produced during flywheel resistance exercise with different inertial settings in men and women. Twenty-two women (n=11) and men (n=11) performed unilateral (in both legs) isolated concentric (CON) and coupled CON and eccentric (ECC) exercise in a flywheel knee extension device employing six inertias (0...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
E Rindom, M H Nielsen, K Kececi, M E Jensen, K Vissing, J Farup
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of high- versus low-quality protein supplementation on the regain of exercise performance during recovery from a period of high-intensity resistance training. METHODS: In a diet-controlled crossover study, 12 resistance-trained participants performed two identical training periods, with each training period including four sessions of high-intensity resistance exercise during 5 days, while receiving either high- or low-quality protein...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Hui C Choo, Kazunori Nosaka, Jeremiah J Peiffer, Mohammed Ihsan, Chow C Yeo, Chris R Abbiss
This study examined the test-retest reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and Doppler ultrasound to assess exercise-induced haemodynamics. Nine men completed two identical trials consisting of 25-min submaximal cycling at first ventilatory threshold followed by repeated 30-s bouts of high-intensity (90% of peak power) cycling in 32.8 ± 0.4°C and 32 ± 5% relative humidity (RH). NIRS (tissue oxygenation index [TOI] and total haemoglobin [tHb]) and LDF (perfusion units [PU]) signals were monitored continuously during exercise, and leg blood flow was assessed by Doppler ultrasound at baseline and after exercise...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch, Meredith G Mock
The effects of pomegranate extract (PE) supplementation were evaluated on high-intensity exercise performance, blood flow, vessel diameter, oxygen saturation (SPO2), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP). In a randomized, crossover design, nineteen recreationally resistance-trained participants were randomly assigned to PE (1000 mg) or placebo (PL), which were consumed 30 min prior to a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test and repetitions to fatigue (RTF) on bench and leg press. The RSA consisted of ten six-second sprints on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer with 30 s recovery...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Jonathan M Oliver, Anthony L Almada, Leighsa E Van Eck, Meena Shah, Joel B Mitchell, Margaret T Jones, Andrew R Jagim, David S Rowlands
Athletes in sports demanding repeat maximal work outputs frequently train concurrently utilizing sequential bouts of intense endurance and resistance training sessions. On a daily basis, maximal work within subsequent bouts may be limited by muscle glycogen availability. Recently, the ingestion of a unique high molecular weight (HMW) carbohydrate was found to increase glycogen re-synthesis rate and enhance work output during subsequent endurance exercise, relative to low molecular weight (LMW) carbohydrate ingestion...
2016: PloS One
Nicola Lamberti, Sofia Straudi, Anna M Malagoni, Matteo ARGIRò, Michele Felisatti, Eleonora Nardini, Christel Zambon, Nino Basaglia, Fabio Manfredini
BACKGROUND: Chronic stroke survivors are exposed to long-term disability and physical deconditioning, effects that may impact their independence and quality of life. Community-based programs optimizing the dose of exercise therapy that are simultaneously low risk and able to achieve high adherence should be identified. AIM: We tested the hypothesis that an 8-week, community-based, progressive mixed endurance- resistance exercise program at lower cardiovascular and muscular load yielded more mobility benefits than a higher-intensity program in chronic stroke survivors...
September 14, 2016: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Norman R Morris, James Walsh, Lewis Adams, Jennifer Alision
Most of the current guidelines for pulmonary rehabilitation recommend higher, over lower, intensity exercise training for COPD. Typically, we consider intensity of exercise training to be a key component of any exercise training programme. Whilst studies of young individuals have demonstrated that higher exercise training intensity results in greater improvements in exercise capacity, the evidence for older patients is not so clear cut. In COPD, there is limited evidence regarding the optimal intensity of exercise training...
October 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
James Furness, Wayne Hing, Jeremy M Sheppard, Sean Newcomer, Ben Schram, Mike Climstein
Surfing consists of both high and low intensity paddling of varying durations, utilizing both the aerobic and anaerobic systems. Surf specific physiological studies lack adequate group sample sizes and VO2peak values are yet to determine differences between competitive and recreational surfers. The purpose of this study was therefore to provide a comprehensive physiological profile of both recreational and competitive surfers. This multi-site study involved 62 male surfers, recreational (n = 47) and competitive (n = 15)...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Yvonne Kilian, Florian Engel, Patrick Wahl, Silvia Achtzehn, Billy Sperlich, Joachim Mester
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs high-volume training (HVT) on salivary stress markers [cortisol (sC), testosterone (sT), alpha-amylase (sAA)], metabolic and cardiorespiratory response in young athletes. METHODS: Twelve young male cyclists (14 ± 1 years; 57.9 ± 9.4 mL min(-1) kg(-1) peak oxygen uptake) performed one session of HIIT (4 × 4 min intervals at 90-95 % peak power output separated by 3 min of active rest) and one session of HVT (90 min constant load at 60 % peak power output)...
September 10, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Shan Pang, Xinyi Yang
In recent years, some deep learning methods have been developed and applied to image classification applications, such as convolutional neuron network (CNN) and deep belief network (DBN). However they are suffering from some problems like local minima, slow convergence rate, and intensive human intervention. In this paper, we propose a rapid learning method, namely, deep convolutional extreme learning machine (DC-ELM), which combines the power of CNN and fast training of ELM. It uses multiple alternate convolution layers and pooling layers to effectively abstract high level features from input images...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Natalie J Forde, Ahmad S Kanaan, Joanna Widomska, Shanmukha S Padmanabhuni, Ester Nespoli, John Alexander, Juan I Rodriguez Arranz, Siyan Fan, Rayan Houssari, Muhammad S Nawaz, Francesca Rizzo, Luca Pagliaroli, Nuno R Zilhäo, Tamas Aranyi, Csaba Barta, Tobias M Boeckers, Dorret I Boomsma, Wim R Buisman, Jan K Buitelaar, Danielle Cath, Andrea Dietrich, Nicole Driessen, Petros Drineas, Michelle Dunlap, Sarah Gerasch, Jeffrey Glennon, Bastian Hengerer, Odile A van den Heuvel, Cathrine Jespersgaard, Harald E Möller, Kirsten R Müller-Vahl, Thaïra J C Openneer, Geert Poelmans, Petra J W Pouwels, Jeremiah M Scharf, Hreinn Stefansson, Zeynep Tümer, Dick J Veltman, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Pieter J Hoekstra, Andrea Ludolph, Peristera Paschou
Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by the presence of multiple motor and phonic tics with a fluctuating course of intensity, frequency, and severity. Up to 90% of patients with GTS present with comorbid conditions, most commonly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), thus providing an excellent model for the exploration of shared etiology across disorders. TS-EUROTRAIN (FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN, Grant Agr.No. 316978) is a Marie Curie Initial Training Network (http://ts-eurotrain...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
T Turnes, R A de Aguiar, R S de Oliveira Cruz, K Pereira, A F Salvador, F Caputo
In order to compare the effects of two 4-week interval training programs performed at the lower (Critical Power, CP) or at the higher (The highest intensity at which V˙O2max is attained, IHIGH) intensities of the severe exercise domain on sprint and endurance cycling performance, 21 recreationally trained cyclists performed the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) and a 250-kJ time trial. Accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD), surface electromyography (RMS), and blood lactate kinetics were measured during the WAnT. Subjects were assigned to 105% CP or IHIGH groups...
August 23, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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