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Yibin Hao, Jianhua Zhang, Guoyong Shan, Ning Zhang, Wenwen Jin, Kejun Nan
Objective: to establish regulatory network of colorectal cancer involving p42.3 protein and to provide theoretical evidence for deep functional exploration of p42.3 protein in the onset and development of colorectal cancer. Methods: with protein similarity algorithm, reference protein set of p42.3 cell apoptosis was built according to structural features of p42.3. GO and KEGG databases were used to establish regulatory network of tumor cell apoptosis involving p42.3; meanwhile, the largest possible working pathway that involves p42...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Muhammad Naveed, Lei Han, Ghulam Jilany Khan, Sufia Yasmeen, Reyaj Mikrani, Muhammad Abbas, Li Cunyu, Zhou Xiaohui
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a complicated pathophysiological syndrome, leading cause of hospitalization as well as mortalities in developed countries wherein an irregular function of the heart leads to the insufficient blood supply to the body organs. It is an accumulative slackening of various complications including myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CAD), hypertension, valvular heart disease (VHD) and cardiomyopathy; its hallmarks include hypertrophy, increased interstitial fibrosis and loss of myocytes...
March 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
J J Brudvig, J T Cain, G G Schmidt-Grimminger, D J Stumpo, K J Roux, P J Blackshear, J M Weimer
Axons of the corpus callosum (CC), the white matter tract that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain, receive instruction from a number of chemoattractant and chemorepulsant cues during their initial navigation towards and across the midline. While it has long been known that the CC is malformed in the absence of Myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), evidence for a direct role of MARCKS in axon navigation has been lacking. Here, we show that MARCKS is necessary for Netrin-1 (NTN1) signaling through the DCC receptor, which is critical for axon guidance decisions...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Zbynĕk Straňák, Simona Feyereislová, Peter Korček, Eugene Dempsey
Postnatal adaptation in preterm newborn comprises complex physiological processes that involve significant changes in the circulatory and respiratory system. Increasing hemoglobin level and blood volume following placental transfusion may be of importance in enhancing arterial oxygen content, increasing cardiac output, and improving oxygen delivery. The European consensus on resuscitation of preterm infants recommends delayed cord clamping (DCC) for at least 60 s to promote placenta-fetal transfusion in uncompromised neonates...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Trevor W Stone, Megan McPherson, L Gail Darlington
Existing explanations of obesity-associated cancer emphasise direct mutagenic effects of dietary components or hormonal imbalance. Some of these hypotheses are reviewed briefly, but recent evidence suggests a major role for chronic inflammation in cancer risk, possibly involving dietary content. These ideas include the inflammation-induced activation of the kynurenine pathway and its role in feeding and metabolism by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and by modulating synaptic transmission in the brain...
February 27, 2018: EBioMedicine
Arpitha Chiruvolu, Elise Elliott, Diana Rich, Genna Leal Stone, Huanying Qin, Robert W Inzer
BACKGROUND: In the range of timing suggested by American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 30 to 60 s, preterm infants may potentially derive more short and long-term benefits with delayed cord clamping (DCC) for at least 60 s. However, there are concerns with longer resuscitation delay in this vulnerable population. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical consequences of 45 versus 60 s delay in umbilical cord clamping in singleton infants born between 230/7 to 316/7 weeks gestation...
March 5, 2018: Early Human Development
Sofia Golenkina, Vishal Chaturvedi, Robert Saint, Michael J Murray
Netrin receptors of the DCC/NEO/UNC-40/Frazzled family have well established roles in cell migration and axon guidance but can also regulate epithelial features such as adhesion, polarity and adherens junction (AJ) stability. Previously, we have shown that overexpression of Drosophila Frazzled (Fra) in the peripodial epithelium (PE) inhibits wing disc eversion and also generates cellular protrusions typical of motile cells. Here, we tested whether the molecular pathways by which Fra inhibits eversion are distinct from those driving motility...
2018: PloS One
Michael P Meyer, Elizabeth Nevill, Maisie M Wong
BACKGROUND: Placental transfusion (by means of delayed cord clamping (DCC), cord milking, or cord stripping) confers benefits for preterm infants. It is not known if providing respiratory support to preterm infants before cord clamping improves outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of respiratory support provided during DCC compared with no respiratory support during placental transfusion (in the form of DCC, milking, or stripping) in preterm infants immediately after delivery...
March 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ying Liu, Tuhin Bhowmick, Yiqiong Liu, Xuefan Gao, Haydyn D T Mertens, Dmitri I Svergun, Junyu Xiao, Yan Zhang, Jia-Huai Wang, Rob Meijers
Axon guidance involves the spatiotemporal interplay between guidance cues and membrane-bound cell-surface receptors, present on the growth cone of the axon. Netrin-1 is a prototypical guidance cue that binds to deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), and it has been proposed that the guidance cue Draxin modulates this interaction. Here, we present structural snapshots of Draxin/DCC and Draxin/Netrin-1 complexes, revealing a triangular relationship that affects Netrin-mediated haptotaxis and fasciculation. Draxin interacts with DCC through the N-terminal four immunoglobulin domains, and Netrin-1 through the EGF-3 domain, in the same region where DCC binds...
February 20, 2018: Neuron
Mouwei Zheng, Ronghua Chen, Hongbin Chen, Yixian Zhang, Jianhao Chen, Peiqiang Lin, Quan Lan, Qilin Yuan, Yongxing Lai, Xinhong Jiang, Xiaodong Pan, Nan Liu
As a secreted axon guidance molecule, Netrin-1 has been documented to be a neuroprotective factor, which can reduce infarct volume, promote angiogenesis and anti-apoptosis after stroke in rodents. However, its role in axonal regeneration and synaptic formation after cerebral ischemic injury, and the related underlying mechanisms remain blurred. In this study, we used Adeno-associated vectors carrying Netrin-1 gene (AAV-NT-1) to up-regulate the expression level of Netrin-1 in rats' brain after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Shutong Xu, Yiqiong Liu, Xiaolong Li, Ying Liu, Rob Meijers, Yan Zhang, Jia-Huai Wang
Netrin-1 plays a key role in axon guidance through binding to its receptor, Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC). The initial step of signaling inside the cell after netrin-1/DCC ligation is the binding of DCC cytoplasmic P3 motif to focal adhesion targeting (FAT) domain of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Here we report the crystal structure of P3/FAT complex. The helical P3 peptide interacts with a helix-swapped FAT dimer in a 2:2 ratio. Dimeric FAT binding is P3-specific and stabilized by a calcium ion. Biochemical studies showed that DCC-P3 motif and calcium ion could facilitate FAT dimerization in solution...
2018: Cell Discovery
Zobair M Younossi, Atsushi Tanaka, Yuichiro Eguchi, Linda Henry, Rachel Beckerman, Masashi Mizokami
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious complication of hepatitis B and (HBV) C virus (HCV) infection. Sustained virologic response (SVR) for HCV is associated with a reduction in cirrhosis, HCC and mortality and their associated costs. Japanese HCV patients are older with higher prevalence of HCC. Here we used a decision analytic Markov model to estimate the economic benefit of HCV cure by reducing HCC and DCC in Japan. A cohort of 10,000 HCV genotype 1b (GT1b) Japanese patients was modeled with a hybrid decision tree and Markov state-transition model capturing natural history of HCV over a lifetime horizon...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Qian Bian, Erika C Anderson, Katjuša Brejc, Barbara J Meyer
The function of chromatin modification in establishing higher-order chromosome structure during gene regulation has been elusive. We dissected the machinery and mechanism underlying the enrichment of histone modification H4K20me1 on hermaphrodite X chromosomes during Caenorhabditis elegans dosage compensation and discovered a key role for H4K20me1 in regulating X-chromosome topology and chromosome-wide gene expression. Structural and functional analysis of the dosage compensation complex (DCC) subunit DPY-21 revealed a novel Jumonji C demethylase subfamily that converts H4K20me2 to H4K20me1 in worms and mammals...
February 22, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
Liisa T Chisty, Daniela Quaglia, Martin R Webb
Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is a product of many cellular processes that involve double-stranded DNA, for example during DNA replication and repair, and is formed transiently in many others. Measurement of ssDNA formation is fundamental for understanding many such processes. The availability of a fluorescent biosensor for the determination of single-stranded DNA provides an important route to achieve this. Single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSBs) protect ssDNA from degradation, but can be displaced to allow processing of the ssDNA...
2018: PloS One
Andrea R Yung, Noah R Druckenbrod, Jean-François Cloutier, Zhuhao Wu, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Lisa V Goodrich
During brainstem development, newborn neurons originating from the rhombic lip embark on exceptionally long migrations to generate nuclei important for audition, movement, and respiration. Along the way, this highly motile population passes several cranial nerves yet remains confined to the CNS. We found that Ntn1 accumulates beneath the pial surface separating the CNS from the PNS, with gaps at nerve entry sites. In mice null for Ntn1 or its receptor DCC, hindbrain neurons enter cranial nerves and migrate into the periphery...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Mathias Schneeweiss, Barbara Peter, Siham Bibi, Gregor Eisenwort, Dubravka Smiljkovic, Katharina Blatt, Mohamad Jawhar, Daniela Berger, Gabriele Stefanzl, Susanne Herndlhofer, Georg Greiner, Gregor Hoermann, Emir Hadzijusufovic, Karoline V Gleixner, Peter Bettelheim, Klaus Geissler, Wolfgang R Sperr, Andreas Reiter, Michel Arock, Peter Valent
Systemic mastocytosis is a complex disease defined by abnormal growth and accumulation of neoplastic mast cells in various organs. Most patients exhibit a D816V-mutated variant of KIT, which confers resistance against imatinib. Clinical problems in systemic mastocytosis arise from mediator-related symptoms and/or organ destruction caused by malignant expansion of neoplastic mast cells and/or other myeloid cells in various organ systems. DCC-2618 is a spectrum-selective pan KIT and PDGFRA inhibitor which blocks KIT D816V and multiple other kinase-targets relevant to systemic mastocytosis...
February 8, 2018: Haematologica
Peter Weinberg, Matthew Berkseth, David Zarkower, Oliver Hobert
Nervous systems display intriguing patterns of sexual dimorphisms across the animal kingdom, but the mechanisms that generate such dimorphisms remain poorly characterized. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a number of neurons present in both sexes are synaptically connected to one another in a sexually dimorphic manner as a result of sex-specific synaptic pruning and maintenance [1-3]. We define here a mechanism for the male-specific maintenance of the synaptic connections of the phasmid sensory neuron PHB and its male-specific target, the sex-shared AVG interneuron...
February 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Honghai Yu, Libing Fang, Boyang Sun
We investigate how Global Economic Policy Uncertainty (GEPU) drives the long-run components of volatilities and correlations in crude oil and U.S. industry-level stock markets. Using the modified generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity mixed data sampling (GARCH-MIDAS) and dynamic conditional correlation mixed data sampling (DCC-MIDAS) specifications, we find that GEPU is positively related to the long-run volatility of Financials and Consumer Discretionary industries; however, it is negatively related to Information Technology, Materials, Telecommunication Services and Energy...
2018: PloS One
Benjamin C Mac Murray, Chaim C Futran, Jeanne Lee, Kevin W O'Brien, Amir A Amiri Moghadam, Bobak Mosadegh, Meredith N Silberstein, James K Min, Robert F Shepherd
We introduce the use of buckled foam for soft pneumatic actuators. A moderate amount of residual compressive strain within elastomer foam increases the applied force ∼1.4 × or stroke ∼2 × compared with actuators without residual strain. The origin of these improved characteristics is explained analytically. These actuators are applied in a direct cardiac compression (DCC) device design, a type of implanted mechanical circulatory support that avoids direct blood contact, mitigating risks of clot formation and stroke...
February 2018: Soft Robotics
Bikramjit Das, Venkataseshan Sundaram, William Tarnow-Mordi, Alpana Ghadge, Lakhbir Kaur Dhaliwal, Praveen Kumar
OBJECTIVES: To compare effect of placental transfusion by delayed cord clamping (DCC) or cord milking (CM) with early cord clamping (ECC) on a composite of mortality or abnormal neurological status at 40 weeks' post-menstrual age (PMA) and 24-30 months' chronological age in neonates of 30-33 weeks' gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. OUTCOMES: A composite of mortality or abnormal neurological status at 40 weeks PMA and survival free of neurodevelopmental abnormalities at 24-30 months' chronological age...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
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