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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429780/insulin-analogues-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-getting-better-all-the-time
#1
REVIEW
Chantal Mathieu, Pieter Gillard, Katrien Benhalima
The treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus consists of external replacement of the functions of β cells in an attempt to achieve blood levels of glucose as close to the normal range as possible. This approach means that glucose sensing needs to be replaced and levels of insulin need to mimic physiological insulin-action profiles, including basal coverage and changes around meals. Training and educating patients are crucial for the achievement of good glycaemic control, but having insulin preparations with action profiles that provide stable basal insulin coverage and appropriate mealtime insulin peaks helps people with type 1 diabetes mellitus to live active lives without sacrificing tight glycaemic control...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428368/erratum-efficacy-and-safety-of-lixilan-a-titratable-fixed-ratio-combination-of-insulin-glargine-plus-lixisenatide-in-type-2-diabetes-inadequately-controlled-on-basal-insulin-and-metformin-the-lixilan-l-randomized-trial-diabetes-care-2016-39-1972-1980
#2
Vanita R Aroda, Julio Rosenstock, Carol Wysham, Jeffrey Unger, Diego Bellido, Guillermo González-Gálvez, Akane Takami, Hailing Guo, Elisabeth Niemoeller, Elisabeth Souhami, Richard M Bergenstal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425167/continuous-subcutaneous-insulin-infusion-special-needs-for-children
#3
REVIEW
Peter Adolfsson, Ralph Ziegler, Ragnar Hanas
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is a very common therapy for children with type 1 diabetes. Due to physiological differences they have other requirements for their insulin pump than adults. The main difference is the need for very low basal rates. Even though most available insulin pumps reach a high accuracy at usual basal rates, accuracy decreases for lower rates. In addition, the lowest delivered amount at 1 time is limiting the fine tuning of the basal rate as well as the option for temporary basal rates...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421968/chronic-toxicology-studies-of-basal-insulin-peglispro-in-rats-and-dogs-a-novel-pegylated-insulin-lispro-analog-with-a-prolonged-duration-of-action
#4
Richard A Byrd, Jamie L Blackbourne, Mary Pat Knadler, Albert E Schultze, John L Vahle
Basal insulin peglispro (BIL) consists of insulin lispro with a 20-kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety covalently attached to lysine B28. Because chronic parenteral administration of PEGylated proteins to animals has sometimes resulted in PEG vacuolation of tissue macrophages, renal tubular cells, and choroid plexus ependymal cells, we investigated whether chronic subcutaneous (sc) injection of BIL in rats (52 weeks) and dogs (39 weeks) was associated with systemic toxicities or other changes, including vacuolation of tissue macrophages, renal tubular cells, and ependymal cells...
April 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420259/seasonality-of-insulin-use-in-german-outpatients-with-diabetes-a-retrospective-analysis
#5
Karel Kostev, Sarah Gläser, Louis Jacob
BACKGROUND: Seasonality in insulin sensitivity has been the focus of controversial literature in the past decades. The aim of this study was to analyze seasonality of insulin use in patients with diabetes who were followed in German general practices. METHODS: This study included patients affected by type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who received intensified conventional insulin therapy over a period of at least 12 months between 2013 and 2015. The main outcome was the median insulin dose per day (calculated daily insulin doses, CDDs) between June and August (summer) and between December and February (winter)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417535/rates-of-hypoglycaemia-are-lower-in-patients-treated-with-insulin-degludec-liraglutide-ideglira-than-with-ideg-or-insulin-glargine-regardless-of-the-hypoglycaemia-definition-used
#6
P Norwood, R Chen, E Jaeckel, I Lingvay, H Jarlov, L Lehmann, S Heller
AIMS: The rates of hypoglycaemia reported in clinical trials are affected by the definitions of hypoglycaemia used. This post-hoc analysis took data from two trials comparing the once-daily, fixed ratio combination of insulin degludec/liraglutide (IDegLira) with basal insulin regimens, and re-analysed these data using alternative hypoglycaemia definitions and stratified outcomes by dosing time and baseline characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Post hoc analyses of the DUAL I (patients uncontrolled on oral antidiabetic drugs) and DUAL V (patients uncontrolled on insulin glargine (IGlar) U100) trials were carried out using different definitions of hypoglycaemia and by whether treatments were administered in the AM or PM...
April 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417532/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-prevalence-and-its-metabolic-associations-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-and-type-2-diabetes
#7
Kenneth Cusi, Arun J Sanyal, Shuyu Zhang, Mark L Hartman, Juliana M Bue-Valleskey, Byron J Hoogwerf, Axel Haupt
We investigated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence and its metabolic associations in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and in insulin-naïve and insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Baseline data from patients who had liver fat content (LFC) evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging in 4 phase 3 studies of basal insulin peglispro (BIL) were analyzed. Associations of NAFLD with clinical characteristics, glycemic control and diabetes therapy were evaluated. The prevalence of NAFLD (defined as LFC ≥6%) was low in T1D (8...
April 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405346/safety-and-efficacy-of-saxagliptin-for-glycemic-control-in-non-critically-ill-hospitalized-patients
#8
Rajesh Garg, Brooke Schuman, Shelley Hurwitz, Cheyenne Metzger, Shreya Bhandari
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether saxagliptin is non-inferior to basal-bolus insulin therapy for glycemic control in patients with controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) admitted to hospital with non-critical illnesses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was an open-label, randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients received either saxagliptin or basal-bolus insulin, both with correctional insulin doses. The main study outcome was the mean daily blood glucose (BG) after the first day of randomization...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403644/the-effect-of-basal-insulin-glargine-on-the-fibrinolytic-system-and-von-willebrand-factor-in-people-with-dysglycaemia-and-high-risk-for-cardiovascular-events-swedish-substudy-of-the-outcome-reduction-with-an-initial-glargine-intervention-trial
#9
Aslak Rautio, Kurt Boman, Hertzel C Gerstein, Jenny Hernestål-Boman, Shun Fu Lee, Mona Olofsson, Linda Garcia Mellbin
INTRODUCTION: Fibrinolytic factors, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tissue plasminogen activator, tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator-complex and the haemostatic factor von Willebrand factor are known markers of cardiovascular disease. Their plasma levels are adversely affected in patients with dysglycaemia, and glucose normalization with insulin glargine might improve the levels of these factors. METHODS: Prespecified Swedish substudy of the Outcome Reduction with an Initial Glargine Intervention trial (ClinicalTrials...
April 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401453/erratum-to-adding-prandial-insulin-to-basal-insulin-plus-oral-antidiabetic-drugs-in-chinese-patients-with-poorly-controlled-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-an-open-label-single-arm-study
#10
Yujing Jin, Xiaowei Sun, Xichen Zhao, Tiehong Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401444/fixed-ratio-combinations-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-with-basal-insulin-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Paraskevi Liakopoulou, Aris Liakos, Despoina Vasilakou, Eleni Athanasiadou, Eleni Bekiari, Kyriakos Kazakos, Apostolos Tsapas
PURPOSE: Basal insulin controls primarily fasting plasma glucose but causes hypoglycaemia and weight gain, whilst glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists induce weight loss without increasing risk for hypoglycaemia. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to investigate the efficacy and safety of fixed ratio combinations of basal insulin with glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library as well as conference abstracts up to December 2016...
April 12, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401400/glucose-uptake-of-the-muscle-and-adipose-tissues-in-diabetes-and-obesity-disease-models-evaluation-of-insulin-and-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-agonist-effects-by-18-f-fdg
#12
Seigo Ishino, Taku Sugita, Yusuke Kondo, Mika Okai, Kazue Tsuchimori, Masanori Watanabe, Ikuo Mori, Masaki Hosoya, Takashi Horiguchi, Hidenori Kamiguchi
OBJECTIVE: One of the major causes of diabetes and obesity is abnormality in glucose metabolism and glucose uptake in the muscle and adipose tissue based on an insufficient action of insulin. Therefore, many of the drug discovery programs are based on the concept of stimulating glucose uptake in these tissues. Improvement of glucose metabolism has been assessed based on blood parameters, but these merely reflect the systemic reaction to the drug administered. We have conducted basic studies to investigate the usefulness of glucose uptake measurement in various muscle and adipose tissues in pharmacological tests using disease-model animals...
April 11, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394183/assessing-the-impact-of-insulin-glargine-and-detemir-treatment-to-serum-total-igf1-levels-in-the-insulin-naive-type-2-diabetic-patients
#13
Soner Cander, Ozen Oz Gul, Oguzhan Sitki Dizdar, Nizameddin Koca, Taner Aydın, Emre Sarandol, Canan Ersoy
AIM: The mitogenic potential of analog insulins due to their different insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) receptor affinity is a situation that causes concern related to cancer risk. We aimed to examine the changes in the serum IGF1 levels formed by insulin glargine and detemir in the insulin-naive type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: The serum total IGF1 levels of the 62 insulin-naive type 2 diabetic patients were studied before and after 12 weeks of the started treatment with basal insulin analogs...
April 10, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393573/persistence-with-rapid-acting-insulin-and-its-association-with-a1c-level-and-severe-hypoglycemia-among-elderly-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#14
Usha Sambamoorthi, Rahul Garg, Arijita Deb, Tao Fan, Anders Boss
OBJECTIVE: To examine the persistence with rapid-acting insulin (RAI) and its association with clinical outcomes among elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: This observational, retrospective cohort study analyzed RAI persistence and its association with change in A1C and risk of severe hypoglycemia among elderly (≥65 years) Medicare beneficiaries with T2D who added RAI to their basal insulin regimen. RESULTS: Among T2D patients with >1 RAI prescriptions (n = 3,927), only 21% were persistent...
April 10, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392242/development-of-microdialysis-methodology-for-interstitial-insulin-measurement-in-rodents
#15
Ann E Griffin, Ruth Macdonald, Anton J M Wagenmakers, Janice M Marshall, Simon M Poucher
INTRODUCTION: Accurate assessment of muscle insulin sensitivity requires measurement of insulin concentration in interstitial fluid (ISF), but has proved difficult. We aimed to optimise measurement of ISF insulin concentrations in rat muscles in vivo using microdialysis. METHODS: Factorial experimental design experiments were performed in vitro to determine optimal conditions for insulin recovery with microdialysis probes. These conditions were tested in vivo, adjusted appropriately and used in lean and obese Zucker rats to compare ISF insulin concentrations basally and during hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic (HE) clamp...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390265/acute-exposure-of-primary-rat-soleus-muscle-to-zilpaterol-hcl-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-agonist-tnf%C3%AE-or-il-6-in-culture-increases-glucose-oxidation-rates-independent-of-the-impact-on-insulin-signaling-or-glucose-uptake
#16
Caitlin N Cadaret, Kristin A Beede, Hannah E Riley, Dustin T Yates
Recent studies show that adrenergic agonists and inflammatory cytokines can stimulate skeletal muscle glucose uptake, but it is unclear if glucose oxidation is similarly increased. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of ractopamine HCl (β1 agonist), zilpaterol HCl (β2 agonist), TNFα, and IL-6 on glucose uptake and oxidation rates in unstimulated and insulin-stimulated soleus muscle strips from adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Effects on phosphorylation of Akt (phospho-Akt), p38 MAPK (phospho-p38), and p44/42 MAPK (phospho-p44/42) was also determined...
April 5, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389215/clock-gene-dysregulation-induced-by-chronic-er-stress-disrupts-%C3%AE-cell-function
#17
Yasuharu Ohta, Akihiko Taguchi, Takuro Matsumura, Hiroko Nakabayashi, Masaru Akiyama, Kaoru Yamamoto, Ruriko Fujimoto, Risa Suetomi, Akie Yanai, Koh Shinoda, Yukio Tanizawa
In Wfs1(-/-)A(y)/a islets, in association with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, D-site-binding protein (Dbp) expression decreased and Nuclear Factor IL-3 (Nfil3)/E4 Promoter-binding protein 4 (E4bp4) expression increased, leading to reduced DBP transcriptional activity. Similar alterations were observed with chemically-induced ER stress. Transgenic mice expressing E4BP4 under the control of the mouse insulin I gene promoter (MIP), in which E4BP4 in β-cells is expected to compete with DBP for D-box, displayed remarkable glucose intolerance with severely impaired insulin secretion...
March 30, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389158/association-between-mild-and-severe-hypoglycemia-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-initiating-insulin
#18
Andreas Festa, Simon R Heller, Elizabeth Seaquist, Ran Duan, Irene Hadjiyianni, Haoda Fu
AIMS: Primary objective: Identify risk factors associated with severe hypoglycemia (SH) and investigate the association between mild hypoglycemia and SH in people with type 2 diabetes starting insulin. Secondary objectives: Investigate the association of demographics and clinical factors with SH incidence. METHODS: Integrated trial database data were obtained for 3 randomized controlled trials that included insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes initiating basal (insulin glargine) versus biphasic (insulin lispro mixture) insulin...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387898/relationship-of-serum-novel-adipokine-chemerin-levels-with-body-composition-insulin-resistance-dyslipidemia-and-diabesity-in-saudi-women
#19
S S Habib, A Eshki, B AlTassan, D Fatani, H Helmi, S AlSaif
OBJECTIVE: Chemerin is believed to be a mediator for the adipose tissue inflammation that occurs in obesity. The present study compared chemerin levels between healthy and type 2 diabetic women matched for age and body composition. We also aimed to assess the relationship of serum chemerin levels with body composition, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and diabesity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This observational case-control study was conducted at the Departments of Physiology and Medicine, Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from September 2013 to April 2014...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387494/-optimizing-basal-insulin-therapy-in-type-2-diabetes
#20
A J Scheen, N Paquot
Because of the natural history of type 2 diabetes and the increasing life expectancy, more and more patients are treated with insulin after failure of oral therapy. International guidelines give the preference to basal insulin, most often while maintaining metformin. If this treatment does not allow to reach the glycaemic objectives, optimizing therapy is mandatory. This clinical case offers the opportunity of discussing both advantages and disadvantages of three therapeutic options : the shift from basal insulin to a basal-plus or a basal-bolus insulin regimen, the addition of another oral glucose-lowering agent, either a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (gliptin) or an inhibitor of cotransporters sodium-glucose type 2 cotransporters (gliflozin), or the combination of basal insulin and a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist...
March 2017: Revue Médicale de Liège
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