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Basal insulin

Claudia Boucher-Berry, Elaine A Parton, Ramin Alemzadeh
BACKGROUND: While higher total daily dose (TDD) of insulin has been associated with excess weight gain on insulin pump therapy, the role of higher total basal dose (TBD) of insulin on weight gain has not been studied. We evaluated the impact of higher TBD on weight gain in relationship to glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), hypoglycemic episodes, and change in body mass index (BMI) z score in a group of pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: One-year data from 91 (54 Female/37 Male) patients (2...
2016: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
Markolf Hanefeld, Denis Raccah, Louis Monnier
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disease associated with hyperglycemia, which can lead to serious vascular complications. Current treatment guidelines place particular emphasis on personalization of therapy. Within this guidance, the use of various second-line therapies, including glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), is recommended under certain circumstances. Areas covered: Factors influencing glucose homeostasis, including gastric emptying and the associated cardiovascular (CV) risk when homeostasis is not maintained, are reviewed...
October 25, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Silvia Beatriz Gorban de Lapertosa, Gustavo Frechtel, Elise Hardy, Leobardo Sauque-Reyna
AIMS: Socioeconomic changes in Latin American countries have led to an increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined the effects of exenatide twice daily (BID) or insulin lispro, each added to insulin glargine, in Latin American patients with T2D. METHODS: This was a subgroup analysis of patients from Argentina and Mexico in the 4B study (N=114). Patients with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 7.0-10.0% (53-86mmol/mol) after 12weeks of intensive basal insulin optimization were randomized to exenatide BID or thrice-daily insulin lispro added to insulin glargine and metformin...
October 8, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Shiho Fujisaka, Siegfried Ussar, Clary Clish, Suzanne Devkota, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Masaji Sakaguchi, Marion Soto, Masahiro Konishi, Samir Softic, Emrah Altindis, Ning Li, Georg Gerber, Lynn Bry, C Ronald Kahn
Interactions of diet, gut microbiota, and host genetics play important roles in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we have investigated the molecular links between gut microbiota, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism in 3 inbred mouse strains with differing susceptibilities to metabolic syndrome using diet and antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic treatment altered intestinal microbiota, decreased tissue inflammation, improved insulin signaling in basal and stimulated states, and improved glucose metabolism in obesity- and diabetes-prone C57BL/6J mice on a high-fat diet (HFD)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Gerald J Pepe, Adina Maniu, Graham Aberdeen, Terrie J Lynch, Soon Ok Kim, Jerry Nadler, Eugene D Albrecht
We recently demonstrated that offspring delivered to baboons deprived of estrogen during the second half of gestation exhibited insulin resistance prior to onset of puberty. Because gonadal hormones have a profound effect on insulin action and secretion in adults, we determined whether insulin resistance is retained after initiation of gonadal secretion of testosterone and estradiol. Glucose tolerance tests were performed in postpubertal baboon offspring of untreated and letrozole-treated animals (serum estradiol reduced >95 %)...
October 21, 2016: Endocrine
L Blonde, P Chava, T Dex, J Lin, E Nikonova, R Goldenberg
AIMS: To explore the treatment outcomes in adult patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) enrolled in the GetGoal trials of lixisenatide (LIXI), and the predictive effects of baseline characteristics on outcomes. METHODS: This study was a pooled analysis of patient-level data from LIXI GetGoal studies comparing LIXI and placebo. Patients were divided into baseline therapy groups: oral antihyperglycaemic drugs (OADs) at baseline (n = 2,760) or basal insulin at baseline (n = 1,198)...
October 21, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Yeoree Yang, Jeong Ah Shin, Hae Kyung Yang, Seung Hwan Lee, Seung Hyun Ko, Yu Bae Ahn, Kun Ho Yoon, Jae Hyoung Cho
BACKGROUND: There were a limited number of studies about β-cell function after insulin initiation in patients exposed to long durations of sulfonylurea treatment. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the recovery of β-cell function and the efficacy of concurrent sulfonylurea use after the start of long-acting insulin. METHODS: In this randomized controlled study, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), receiving sulfonylurea for at least 2 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >7%, were randomly assigned to two groups: sulfonylurea maintenance (SM) and sulfonylurea reduction (SR)...
October 11, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
James Weatherall, Lisa Bloudek, Sarah Buchs
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the annual budget impact if all United States (US) commercially insured type 1 diabetes mellitus patients on basal-bolus therapy (T1DMBBT), type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on basal-oral therapy (T2DMBOT), and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on basal-bolus therapy (T2DMBBT) switched from insulin glargine (IGlar) to insulin degludec (IDeg). METHODS: A short-term (1-year) budget impact model was developed to evaluate the costs of IDeg vs...
October 21, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Fabio Broglio, Edoardo Mannucci, Raffaele Napoli, Antonio Nicolucci, Francesco Purrello, Elena Nikonova, William Stager, Roberto Trevisan
AIMS: To evaluate long term efficacy and safety of lixisenatide, a short-acting, prandial GLP-1 RA (Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists) as add-on therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A meta-analysis of 76-week results of five placebo-controlled clinical trials from the GetGoal program was performed including 3,000 inadequately controlled adult diabetic patients where lixisenatide 20 µg once-daily was administered in combination with metformin (GetGoal-M and GetGoal-F1), sulphonylurea ± metformin (GetGoal-S), basal insulin ± metformin (GetGoal-L) or pioglitazone ± metformin (GetGoal-P)...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Fumitaka Okajima, Tomoko Nagamine, Yuko Nakamura, Naomi Hattori, Hitoshi Sugihara, Naoya Emoto
The efficacy of the administration of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2I) or the co-administration of SGLT2I and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4I) to insulin therapy is not well known. Fifty-eight patients with type 2 diabetes, admitted for glycemic control, were randomized to basal-bolus insulin therapy (BBT) alone or BBT plus 50 mg ipragliflozin and/or 20 mg teneligliptin. Insulin doses were adjusted to maintain normal blood glucose levels. Plasma glucose profiles were estimated by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) before discharge...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Usha Sambamoorthi, Arijita Deb, Steve Zhou, Rahul Garg, Tao Fan, Anders Boss
We examined the real-world utilization and persistence of rapid acting insulin (RAI) in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes who added RAI to their drug (OAD) regimen. Insulin-naïve patients aged ≥65 years, with ≥1 OAD prescription during the baseline period, who were continuously enrolled in the US Humana Medicare Advantage insurance plan for 18 months and initiated RAI were included. Among patients with ≥2 RAI prescriptions (RAIp), persistence during the 12-month follow-up was assessed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified factors affecting RAI use and persistence...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Daniel A De Luis, Rocío Aller, Olatz Izaola, David Primo, E Romero
INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study was to analyze the relationship of the rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism with insulin resistance and serum adipokine levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population of 610 patients with obesity was analyzed in a cross sectional design. Weight, blood pressure, basal glucose, c-reactive protein (CRP), insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA), lipid profile and adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, TNF alpha, and interleukin 6) levels were measured...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Lola Corzo, Susana Rodríguez, Ramón Alejo, Lucía Fernández-Novoa, Gjumrakch Aliev, Ramón Cacabelos
Menopause is a natural event in women´s lives leading to the cessation of menstruation and the reproductive function due to loss of the ovarian follicular function. Menopause-derived estrogen deprivation and related endocrine factors are linked to some symptoms of middle-aged women, such as hot flashes, aches, joint pain, stiffness, depressed mood, bone degeneration, nutritional dysfunction, or difficulty to maintain body mass. Clinical approaches to these problems often involve hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and other modalities of therapeutic intervention...
October 14, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
G S M Paula, L L Souza, N O S Bressane, R Maravalhas, M Wilieman, T Bento-Bernardes, K R Silva, L S Mendonca, K J Oliveira, C C Pazos-Moura
Neuromedin B (NB) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) are bombesin-like peptides, found in the gastrointestinal tube and pancreas, among other tissues. Consistent data proposed that GRP stimulates insulin secretion, acting directly in pancreatic cells or in the release of gastrointestinal hormones that are incretins. However, the role of NB remains unclear. We examined the glucose homeostasis in mice with deletion of NB receptor (NBR-KO). Female NBR-KO exhibited similar fasting basal glucose with lower insulinemia (48...
October 18, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Jody K Takemoto, Tracie L Miller, Jiajia Wang, Denise L Jacobson, Mitchell E Geffner, Russell B Van Dyke, Mariana Gerschenson
OBJECTIVE: To identify relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and mitochondrial respiration in perinatally HIV-infected (pHIV) youth. DESIGN: Case-control study METHODS:: Mitochondrial respiration was assessed in pHIV youth in Tanner stages 2-5, 25 youth with IR (IR+) and 50 without IR (IR-) who were enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS). IR was defined as a Homeostatic Model of Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) value ≥4.0. A novel, high-throughput oximetry method was used to evaluate cellular respiration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Jeniece Trast Ilkowitz, Steven Choi, Michael L Rinke, Kathy Vandervoot, Rubina A Heptulla
BACKGROUND: Diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Reducing DKA admissions in children with T1DM requires a coordinated, comprehensive management plan. We aimed to decrease DKA admissions, 30-day readmissions, and length of stay (LOS) for DKA admissions. METHODS: A multipronged intervention was designed in 2011 to reach all patients: (1) increase insulin pump use and basal-bolus regimen versus sliding scales, (2) transform educational program, (3) increased access to medical providers, and (4) support for patients and families...
October 2016: Quality Management in Health Care
Z B Lopéz-Cedillo, A M Rosales-Torres, G D Mendoza, Y Heuze, A E Ávila-Espítia, A Guzmán
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of methionine supplementation on energy metabolism and reproductive performance during the early post-partum period in primiparous does. Forty nulliparous New Zealand White does were used. Females were randomized in two groups at calving: the control group (n = 20) was fed with the basal diet, and the methionine group (n = 20) was fed the basal diet plus 1 g/animal/day of methionine from the day of calving to 4 days post-partum. Results showed that methionine supplementation increased (p = 0...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
J L Chen, P Zheng, C Zhang, B Yu, J He, J Yu, J Q Luo, X B Mao, Z Q Huang, D W Chen
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of benzoic acid (BA) on growth performance, intestinal development and intestinal barrier function in weaned pigs. Ninety weaned pigs were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: a basal diet (CON), the basal diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA1) and 5000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA2). At the end of days 14 and 42, six pigs per treatment were randomly selected to collect plasma and intestinal samples. Results showed that BA supplementation not only improved final body weight, daily growth and feed conversion ratio from days 15 to 42 and days 1 to 42, but also decreased the activity of plasma diamine oxidase (day 42) and the pH values of jejunal contents (day 14) (p < 0...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Tatsuhiko Urakami, Yusuke Mine, Masako Aoki, Misako Okuno, Junichi Suzuki
This study implemented a randomized crossover design to evaluate the efficacy and safety of switching from insulin glargine (IGlar) to insulin degludec (IDeg) in 18 children (11 males, 7 females; age 11.0 ± 0.5 years) with type 1 diabetes. All subjects had previously used IGlar once daily at bedtime. We compared fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c levels, frequencies of overall and nocturnal (2200 h - 0659 h) hypoglycemia, and basal insulin dose at the baseline with those measured during a 24-week period during which IGlar or IDeg was administered in combination with pre-meal rapid acting insulin analogues...
October 14, 2016: Endocrine Journal
Nagendra Yaluri, Shalem Modi, Tarja Kokkola
Simvastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Recent data indicates that simvastatin increases the risk of new-onset diabetes by impairing both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. However, systematic evaluation of mechanistic pathways is lacking. We aimed to explore the effects of simvastatin on glucose uptake and underlying mechanisms using L6 skeletal muscle myotubes. We performed our experiments at basal and insulin-stimulated conditions, at normal (5...
October 12, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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