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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096541/the-mucosal-immune-system-master-regulator-of-bidirectional-gut-brain-communications
#1
REVIEW
Nick Powell, Marjorie M Walker, Nicholas J Talley
Communication between the brain and gut is not one-way, but a bidirectional highway whereby reciprocal signals between the two organ systems are exchanged to coordinate function. The messengers of this complex dialogue include neural, metabolic, endocrine and immune mediators responsive to diverse environmental cues, including nutrients and components of the intestinal microbiota (microbiota-gut-brain axis). We are now starting to understand how perturbation of these systems affects transition between health and disease...
January 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096522/control-of-food-intake-by-gastrointestinal-peptides-mechanisms-of-action-and-possible-modulation-in-the-treatment-of-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Philip Prinz, Andreas Stengel
This review focuses on the control of appetite by food intake-regulatory peptides secreted from the gastrointestinal tract, namely cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide YY, ghrelin, and the recently discovered nesfatin-1 via the gut-brain axis. Additionally, we describe the impact of external factors such as intake of different nutrients or stress on the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides. Finally, we highlight possible conservative-physical activity and pharmacotherapy-treatment strategies for obesity as well as surgical techniques such as deep brain stimulation and bariatric surgery also altering these peptidergic pathways...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094019/the-first-model-of-keeping-energy-balance-and-optimal-psycho-affective-development-breastfed-infants
#3
REVIEW
Carlo Agostoni, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Ludovica Leone, Valentina Ciappolino, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Carlo A Altamura, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Breastfed infants follow a peculiar growth fashion characterized by a rapid weight gain in the first weeks of life, then followed by a fast decrease in growth rates, a capacity to self-regulate the sense of hungry and satiety, and a minor propensity towards overweight and obesity later on, in parallel with a better neurodevelopmental performance. METHODS: We searched studies investigating the relationship between the feeding mode in infancy and the energy balance, so the possible associations with total energy expenditure and intake regulation...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093256/effects-of-gut-microbiota-on-the-microrna-and-mrna-expression-in-the-hippocampus-of-mice
#4
Jian-Jun Chen, Ben-Hua Zeng, Wen-Wen Li, Chan-Juan Zhou, Song-Hua Fan, Ke Cheng, Li Zeng, Peng Zheng, Liang Fang, Hong Wei, Peng Xie
BACKGROUNDS: Gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as an important environmental factor that could influence the brain function and behaviors through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. METHOD: Here, we used the germ-free (GF) mice to explore the effect of gut microbiota on hippocampal microRNA (miRNA) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) expression. RESULTS: Behavioral tests showed that, compared to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice, the GF mice displayed more center time, center distance and less latency to familiar food...
January 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092661/interactions-between-the-microbiota-immune-and-nervous-systems-in-health-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Thomas C Fung, Christine A Olson, Elaine Y Hsiao
The diverse collection of microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, collectively called the gut microbiota, profoundly influences many aspects of host physiology, including nutrient metabolism, resistance to infection and immune system development. Studies investigating the gut-brain axis demonstrate a critical role for the gut microbiota in orchestrating brain development and behavior, and the immune system is emerging as an important regulator of these interactions. Intestinal microbes modulate the maturation and function of tissue-resident immune cells in the CNS...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073356/gut-microbiota-disturbance-during-helminth-infection-can-it-affect-cognition-and-behaviour-of-children
#6
Vanina Guernier, Bradley Brennan, Laith Yakob, Gabriel Milinovich, Archie C A Clements, Ricardo J Soares Magalhaes
BACKGROUND: Bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract is regulated at neural, hormonal, and immunological levels. Recent studies have shown that helminth infections can alter the normal gut microbiota. Studies have also shown that the gut microbiota is instrumental in the normal development, maturation and function of the brain. The pathophysiological pathways by which helminth infections contribute to altered cognitive function remain poorly understood...
January 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069755/influence-of-the-gut-microbiome-on-autoimmunity-in-the-central-nervous-system
#7
REVIEW
Sara L Colpitts, Lloyd H Kasper
Autoimmune disorders of the CNS have complex pathogeneses that are not well understood. In multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, T cells destroy CNS tissue, resulting in severe disabilities. Mounting evidence suggests that reducing inflammation in the CNS may start with modulation of the gut microbiome. The lymphoid tissues of the gut are specialized for the induction of regulatory cells, which are directly responsible for the suppression of CNS-damaging autoreactive T cells. Whether cause or effect, the onset of dysbiosis in the gut of patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica provides evidence of communication along the gut-brain axis...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065795/rational-identification-of-a-novel-soy-derived-anxiolytic-like-undecapeptide-acting-via-gut-brain-axis-after-oral-administration
#8
Ami Ota, Akane Yamamoto, Saeko Kimura, Yukiha Mori, Takafumi Mizushige, Yoshiki Nagashima, Masaru Sato, Hideyuki Suzuki, Saori Odagiri, Daisuke Yamada, Masayuki Sekiguchi, Keiji Wada, Ryuhei Kanamoto, Kousaku Ohinata
Here we found that the chymotryptic digest of soy β-conglycinin, a major storage protein, exhibited anxiolytic-like effects in mice. We then searched for anxiolytic-like peptides in the digest. Based on a comprehensive peptide analysis of the chymotryptic digest by high performance liquid chromatograph connected to an LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer and the structure-activity relationship of known peptides, we explored anxiolytic-like peptides present in the digest. FLSSTEAQQSY, which corresponds to 323-333 of the β-conglycinin α subunit [βCGα(323-333)] emerged as a candidate...
January 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065740/bacterial-signaling-to-the-nervous-system-via-toxins-and-metabolites
#9
REVIEW
Nicole J Yang, Isaac M Chiu
Mammalian hosts interface intimately with commensal and pathogenic bacteria. It is increasingly clear that molecular interactions between the nervous system and microbes contribute to health and disease. Both commensal and pathogenic bacteria are capable of producing molecules that act on neurons and affect essential aspects of host physiology. Here we highlight several classes of physiologically important molecular interactions that occur between bacteria and the nervous system. First, clostridial neurotoxins block neurotransmission to or from neurons by targeting the SNARE complex, causing the characteristic paralyses of botulism and tetanus during bacterial infection...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064384/gut-microbiota-composition-associated-with-alterations-in-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-psychosocial-outcomes-among-breast-cancer-survivors
#10
Jesseca A Paulsen, Travis S Ptacek, Stephen J Carter, Nianjun Liu, Ranjit Kumar, LaKeshia Hyndman, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Casey D Morrow, Laura Q Rogers
PURPOSE: In this proof-of-concept pilot study, our purpose was to determine correlations between gut microbiota composition and alterations in cardiorespiratory fitness and psychosocial outcomes among post-primary treatment breast cancer survivors (BCS). METHODS: Composition of the gut microbiota in BCS (n = 12) was assessed at baseline (M0) and at the end of 3 months (M3) using Illumina MiSeq DNA Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Gut microbiota composition was analyzed using the QIIME bioinformatics software and represented through diversity metrics and taxa analyses...
January 7, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061975/the-place-of-stress-and-emotions-in-the-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#11
S Pellissier, B Bonaz
Our emotional state can have many consequences on our somatic health and well-being. Negative emotions such as anxiety play a major role in gut functioning due to the bidirectional communications between gut and brain, namely, the brain-gut axis. The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), characterized by an unusual visceral hypersensitivity, is the most common disorder encountered by gastroenterologists. Among the main symptoms, the presence of current or recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with bloating and altered bowel habits characterizes this syndrome that could strongly alter the quality of life...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061687/new-targets-for-drug-treatment-of-obesity
#12
Georgios Valsamakis, Panagiota Konstantakou, George Mastorakos
Antiobesity medical management has shown unsatisfactory results to date in terms of efficacy, safety, and long-term maintenance of weight loss. This poor performance could be attributed to the complexity of appetite regulation mechanisms; the serious drug side effects; and, crucially, the lack of profile-matching treatment strategies and individualized, multidisciplinary follow-up. Nevertheless, antiobesity pharmacotherapy remains a challenging, exciting field of intensive scientific interest. According to the latest studies, the future of bariatric medicine lies in developing drugs acting at multiple levels of the brain-gut axis...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055028/the-role-of-gut-brain-axis-in-regulating-glucose-metabolism-after-acute-pancreatitis
#13
Sayali A Pendharkar, Varsha M Asrani, Rinki Murphy, Richard Cutfield, John A Windsor, Maxim S Petrov
OBJECTIVES: Diabetes has become an epidemic in developed and developing countries alike, with an increased demand for new efficacious treatments. A large body of pre-clinical evidence suggests that the gut-brain axis may be exploited as a potential therapeutic target for defective glucose homeostasis. This clinical study aimed to investigate a comprehensive panel of glucoregulatory peptides, released by both the gut and brain, in individuals after acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Fasting levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glicentin, oxyntomodulin, peptide YY, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and secretin were studied...
January 5, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053341/gut-brain-axis-in-2016-brain-gut-microbiota-axis-mood-metabolism-and-behaviour
#14
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035535/the-role-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-visceral-pain
#15
Kieran Rea, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
A growing body of preclinical and clinical evidence supports a relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit our gut (human gastrointestinal microbiota) and health status. Under normal homeostatic conditions this microbial population helps maintain intestinal peristalsis, mucosal integrity, pH balance, immune priming and protection against invading pathogens. Furthermore, these microbes can influence centrally regulated emotional behaviour through mechanisms including microbially derived bioactive molecules (amino acid metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters), mucosal immune and enteroendocrine cell activation, as well as vagal nerve stimulation...
December 30, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029077/editorial-thematic-issue-brain-gut-axis-new-view
#16
EDITORIAL
Predrag Sikiric
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027925/impact-of-prebiotics-on-metabolic-and-behavioral-alterations-in-a-mouse-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Lourdes Fernández de Cossío, Célia Fourrier, Julie Sauvant, Amandine Everard, Lucile Capuron, Patrice D Cani, Sophie Layé, Nathalie Castanon
Mounting evidence shows that the gut microbiota, an important player within the gut-brain communication axis, can affect metabolism, inflammation, brain function and behavior. Interestingly, gut microbiota composition is known to be altered in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), who also often display neuropsychiatric symptoms. The use of prebiotics, which beneficially alters the microbiota, may therefore be a promising way to potentially improve physical and mental health in MetS patients. This hypothesis was tested in a mouse model of MetS, namely the obese and type-2 diabetic db/db mice, which display emotional and cognitive alterations associated with changes in gut microbiota composition and hippocampal inflammation compared to their lean db/+ littermates...
December 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995391/irritable-bowel-syndrome-pathophysiology-and-current-therapeutic-approaches
#18
Michael Camilleri, Alexander C Ford
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent condition affecting 10-20% of adults in most countries; IBS results in significant morbidity and health care costs. IBS is a disorder of the brain-gut axis, and recent insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms include altered bile acid metabolism, neurohormonal regulation, immune dysfunction, alterations in the epithelial barrier, and secretory properties of the gut. There remains a significant unmet need for effective treatments, particularly for the pain component of IBS, although the introduction of drugs directed at secretion, motility, and a nonabsorbable antibiotic provides an option for the bowel dysfunction in IBS...
December 20, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981187/the-microbiome-a-key-regulator-of-stress-and-neuroinflammation
#19
REVIEW
Kieran Rea, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing emphasis on the relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit our gut (human gastrointestinal microbiota) and health/disease, including brain health and disorders of the central nervous system. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a dynamic matrix of tissues and organs including the brain, glands, gut, immune cells and gastrointestinal microbiota that communicate in a complex multidirectional manner to maintain homeostasis. Changes in this environment can lead to a broad spectrum of physiological and behavioural effects including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and altered activity of neurotransmitter systems and immune function...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965654/the-neuro-endocrinological-role-of-microbial-glutamate-and-gaba-signaling
#20
REVIEW
Roberto Mazzoli, Enrica Pessione
Gut microbiota provides the host with multiple functions (e.g., by contributing to food digestion, vitamin supplementation, and defense against pathogenic strains) and interacts with the host organism through both direct contact (e.g., through surface antigens) and soluble molecules, which are produced by the microbial metabolism. The existence of the so-called gut-brain axis of bi-directional communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system (CNS) also supports a communication pathway between the gut microbiota and neural circuits of the host, including the CNS...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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