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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438462/butyrate-a-double-edged-sword-for-health
#1
Hu Liu, Ji Wang, Ting He, Sage Becker, Guolong Zhang, Defa Li, Xi Ma
Butyrate, a four-carbon short-chain fatty acid, is produced through microbial fermentation of dietary fibers in the lower intestinal tract. Endogenous butyrate production, delivery, and absorption by colonocytes have been well documented. Butyrate exerts its functions by acting as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor or signaling through several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, butyrate has received particular attention for its beneficial effects on intestinal homeostasis and energy metabolism...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428595/galanin-enhances-systemic-glucose-metabolism-through-enteric-nitric-oxide-synthase-expressed-neurons
#2
Anne Abot, Alexandre Lucas, Tereza Bautzova, Arnaud Bessac, Audren Fournel, Sophie Le-Gonidec, Philippe Valet, Cédric Moro, Patrice D Cani, Claude Knauf
OBJECTIVE: Decreasing duodenal contraction is now considered as a major focus for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, identifying bioactive molecules able to target the enteric nervous system, which controls the motility of intestinal smooth muscle cells, represents a new therapeutic avenue. For this reason, we chose to study the impact of oral galanin on this system in diabetic mice. METHODS: Enteric neurotransmission, duodenal contraction, glucose absorption, modification of gut-brain axis, and glucose metabolism (glucose tolerance, insulinemia, glucose entry in tissue, hepatic glucose metabolism) were assessed...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427583/a-gut-feeling-microbiome-brain-immune-interactions-modulate-social-and-affective-behaviors
#3
REVIEW
Kristyn E Sylvia, Gregory E Demas
The expression of a wide range of social and affective behaviors, including aggression and investigation, as well as anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, involves interactions among many different physiological systems, including the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Recent work suggests that the gut microbiome may also play a critical role in modulating behavior and likely functions as an important integrator across physiological systems. Microbes within the gut may communicate with the brain via both neural and humoral pathways, providing numerous avenues of research in the area of the gut-brain axis...
February 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425908/enteric-glia-diversity-or-plasticity
#4
Simon Valès, Melissa Touvron, Laurianne Van Landeghem
Glial cells of the enteric nervous system correspond to a unique glial lineage distinct from other central and peripheral glia and form a vast and abundant network spreading throughout all the layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Research over the last two decades has demonstrated that enteric glia regulates all major gastrointestinal functions via multiple bi-directional crosstalk with enteric neurons and other neighboring cell types. Recent studies propose that enteric glia represents a heterogeneous population associated with distinct localization within the gut wall, phenotype and activity...
February 6, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423662/environmental-exposures-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-what-role-does-the-gut-immune-brain-axis-play
#5
REVIEW
Shannon Delaney, Mady Hornig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evidence is growing that environmental exposures-including xenobiotics as well as microbes-play a role in the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Underlying mechanisms are likely to be complex, involving the developmentally sensitive interplay of genetic/epigenetic, detoxification, and immune factors. Here, we review evidence supporting a role for environmental factors and disrupted gut-immune-brain axis function in some neuropsychiatric conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies suggesting the involvement of an altered microbiome in triggering CNS-directed autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disturbances are presented as an intriguing example of the varied mechanisms by which environmentally induced gut-immune-brain axis dysfunction may contribute to adverse brain outcomes...
February 8, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409860/feeding-the-developing-brain-juvenile-rats-fed-diet-rich-in-prebiotics-and-bioactive-milk-fractions-exhibit-reduced-anxiety-related-behavior-and-modified-gene-expression-in-emotion-circuits
#6
Agnieszka Mika, Michelle Gaffney, Rachel Roller, Abigail Hills, Courtney A Bouchet, Kristina A Hulen, Robert S Thompson, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Monika Fleshner
Early life nutrition is critical for brain development. Dietary prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions support brain development by increasing plasticity and altering activity in brain regions important for cognition and emotion regulation, perhaps through the gut-microbiome-brain axis. Here we examined the impact of a diet containing prebiotics, lactoferrin, and milk fat globule membrane (test diet) on beneficial gut bacteria, basal gene expression for activity and plasticity markers within brain circuits important for cognition and anxiety, and anxiety-related behavior in the open field...
January 30, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388674/pain-self-management-plus-nurse-led-support-in-young-adults-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomized-control-trial
#7
Xiaomei Cong, Divya Ramesh, Mallory Perry, Wanli Xu, Katherine M Bernier, Erin E Young, Stephen Walsh, Angela Starkweather
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gut disorder that typically manifests in early adult years. IBS patients report that pain is the most distressing symptom with the greatest impact on quality of life. Pain-sensitivity genes and the gut microbiome may influence severity of symptoms as well as response to self-management (SM) interventions. Based on current understanding of the science of SM, pain neurophysiology, and the gut-brain axis, our team developed a pain SM intervention to be added to evidence-based self-management instruction to increase the individual's SM knowledge and skills (self-efficacy, self-regulation, and goal-setting)...
February 1, 2018: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383983/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-schizophrenia-current-and-future-perspectives
#8
Daniela Rodrigues-Amorim, Tania Rivera-Baltanás, Benito Regueiro, Carlos Spuch, María Elena de Las Heras, Raul Váquez-Noguerol Méndez, Maria Nieto-Araujo, C Barreiro-Villar, Jose M Olivares, Roberto C Agís-Balboa
OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia is a poorly understood chronic disease. Its pathophysiology is complex, dynamic, and linked to epigenetic mechanisms and microbiota involvement. Nowadays, correlating schizophrenia with the environment makes sense owing, to its multidimensional implications: temporal and spatial variability. Microbiota involvement and epigenetic mechanisms are factors that are currently being considered to better understand another dimension of schizophrenia. METHODS: This review summarizes and discusses currently available information, focusing on the microbiota, epigenetic mechanisms, technological approaches aimed at performing exhaustive analyses of the microbiota, and psychotherapies, to establish future perspectives...
January 31, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382834/metabolite-identification-in-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-mouse-livers-and-combined-proteomics-with-chronic-unpredictive-mild-stress-mouse-livers
#9
Bo Li, Kenan Guo, Li Zeng, Benhua Zeng, Ran Huo, Yuanyuan Luo, Haiyang Wang, Meixue Dong, Peng Zheng, Chanjuan Zhou, Jianjun Chen, Yiyun Liu, Zhao Liu, Liang Fang, Hong Wei, Peng Xie
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mood disorder. Gut microbiota may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression via the microbe-gut-brain axis. Liver is vulnerable to exposure of bacterial products translocated from the gut via the portal vein and may be involved in the axis. In this study, germ-free mice underwent fecal microbiota transplantation from MDD patients and healthy controls. Behavioral tests verified the depression model. Metabolomics using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry determined the influence of microbes on liver metabolism...
January 31, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380303/gut-microbiota-and-the-neuroendocrine-system
#10
REVIEW
Aitak Farzi, Esther E Fröhlich, Peter Holzer
The microbial ecosystem that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of all mammals-the gut microbiota-has been in a symbiotic relationship with its hosts over many millennia. Thanks to modern technology, the myriad of functions that are controlled or modulated by the gut microbiota are beginning to unfold. One of the systems that is emerging to closely interact with the gut microbiota is the body's major neuroendocrine system that controls various body processes in response to stress, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
January 27, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360479/screening-of-quorum-sensing-peptides-for-biological-effects-in-neuronal-cells
#11
Yorick Janssens, Evelien Wynendaele, Frederick Verbeke, Nathan Debunne, Bert Gevaert, Kurt Audenaert, Christophe Van DeWiele, Bart De Spiegeleer
Quorum sensing peptides (QSP) are an important class of bacterial peptides which can have an effect on human host cells. These peptides are used by bacteria to communicate with each other. Some QSP are able to cross the blood-brain barrier and reach the brain parenchyma. However, nothing is known about the effects of these peptides in the brain. Therefore, 85 quorum sensing peptides were screened on six different neuronal cell lines using MTT toxicity, neurite differentiation, cytokine production and morphology as biological outcomes...
January 19, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353471/a-strategy-for-association-study-on-intestinal-microbiome-and-brain-metabolome-across-lifespan-of-rats
#12
Tianlu Chen, Yijun You, Guoxiang Xie, Xiaojiao Zheng, Aihua Zhao, Jiajian Liu, Qing Zhao, Shouli Wang, Huang Fengjie, Cynthia Rajani, Chongchong Wang, Shaoqiu Chen, Yan Ni, Herbert Yu, Youping Deng, Xiaoyan Wang, Wei Jia
There is increased appreciation for the diverse roles of the microbiome-gut-brain axis on mammalian growth and health throughout the lifespan. Numerous studies demonstrated that gut microbiome and their metabolites were involved extensively in the communication of brain and gut. Association study of brain metabolome and gut microbiome is an active field offering large amount of information on the interaction of microbiome, brain and gut while data size and complicated hierarchical relationships were the major obstacles...
January 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352076/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-permeability-the-yin-and-yang-in-alcohol-dependence-and-alcoholic-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Peter Stärkel, Sophie Leclercq, Philippe de Timary, Bernd Schnabl
Alcohol dependence and alcoholic liver disease represent a major public health problem with substantial morbidity and mortality. By yet incompletely understood mechanisms, chronic alcohol abuse is associated with increased intestinal permeability and alterations of the gut microbiota composition, allowing bacterial components, bacteria, and metabolites to reach the portal and the systemic circulation. These gut-derived bacterial products are recognized by immune cells circulating in the blood or residing in remote organs such as the liver leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines which are considered important mediators of the liver-gut-brain communication...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351398/visceral-hypersensitivity-induced-by-optogenetic-activation-of-the-amygdala-in-conscious-rats
#14
Anthony C Johnson, Rocco Latorre, Casey O Ligon, Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld
In vivo optogenetics identifies brain circuits controlling behaviors in conscious animals by using light to alter neuronal function and offers a novel tool to study the brain-gut axis. Using adenoviral-mediated expression, we aimed to investigate whether photoactivation with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) or photoinhibition with halorhodopsin (HR3.0) of fibers originating from the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) at the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) had any effect on colonic sensitivity. We also investigated whether that there was any deleterious effect of the adenovirus on the neuronal population or the neuronal phenotype within the CeA-BNST circuitry activated during the optogenetic stimulation...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344328/management-of-functional-dyspepsia-state-of-the-art-and-emerging-therapies
#15
REVIEW
Hiroshi Yamawaki, Seiji Futagami, Mako Wakabayashi, Noriko Sakasegawa, Shuhei Agawa, Kazutoshi Higuchi, Yasuhiro Kodaka, Katsuhiko Iwakiri
Patients with functional dyspepsia, defined in the 2016 Rome IV criteria as bothersome clinical dyspepsia symptoms, experience markedly reduced quality of life. Several etiologies have been associated with the disorder. In the Rome IV criteria, the brain-gut axis was acknowledged as an important factor in the etiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The distinct subgroups of functional dyspepsia, epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) and postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), are treated differently: acid secretion inhibitors are recommended with patients with EPS, whereas prokinetic drugs as mosapride and acotiamide are recommended for patients with PDS...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340928/microbiota-signaling-pathways-that-influence-neurologic-disease
#16
REVIEW
Laura M Cox, Howard L Weiner
Though seemingly distinct and autonomous, emerging evidence suggests there is a bidirectional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. This crosstalk may play a substantial role in neurologic diseases, including anxiety, depression, autism, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and, potentially, Alzheimer's disease. Long hypothesized by Metchnikoff and others well over 100 years ago, investigations into the mind-microbe axis is now seeing a rapid resurgence of research. If specific pathways and mechanisms of interaction are understood, it could have broad therapeutic potential, as the microbiome is environmentally acquired and can be modified to promote health...
January 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338008/interactions-between-species-introduce-spurious-associations-in-microbiome-studies
#17
Rajita Menon, Vivek Ramanan, Kirill S Korolev
Microbiota contribute to many dimensions of host phenotype, including disease. To link specific microbes to specific phenotypes, microbiome-wide association studies compare microbial abundances between two groups of samples. Abundance differences, however, reflect not only direct associations with the phenotype, but also indirect effects due to microbial interactions. We found that microbial interactions could easily generate a large number of spurious associations that provide no mechanistic insight. Using techniques from statistical physics, we developed a method to remove indirect associations and applied it to the largest dataset on pediatric inflammatory bowel disease...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335605/dietary-salt-promotes-neurovascular-and-cognitive-dysfunction-through-a-gut-initiated-th17-response
#18
Giuseppe Faraco, David Brea, Lidia Garcia-Bonilla, Gang Wang, Gianfranco Racchumi, Haejoo Chang, Izaskun Buendia, Monica M Santisteban, Steven G Segarra, Kenzo Koizumi, Yukio Sugiyama, Michelle Murphy, Henning Voss, Joseph Anrather, Costantino Iadecola
A diet rich in salt is linked to an increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases and dementia, but it remains unclear how dietary salt harms the brain. We report that, in mice, excess dietary salt suppresses resting cerebral blood flow and endothelial function, leading to cognitive impairment. The effect depends on expansion of TH17 cells in the small intestine, resulting in a marked increase in plasma interleukin-17 (IL-17). Circulating IL-17, in turn, promotes endothelial dysfunction and cognitive impairment by the Rho kinase-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and reduced nitric oxide production in cerebral endothelial cells...
January 15, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327435/impact-of-dietary-induced-precocious-gut-maturation-on-cecal-microbiota-and-its-relation-to-the-blood-brain-barrier-during-the-postnatal-period-in-rats
#19
N Marungruang, E Arévalo Sureda, A Lefrançoise, B Weström, M Nyman, O Prykhodko, F Fåk Hållenius
BACKGROUND: Precocious maturation of the gastrointestinal barrier (GIB) in newborn mammals can be induced by dietary provocation, but how this affects the gut microbiota and the gut-brain axis remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of induced GIB maturation on gut microbiota composition and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. METHODS: Suckling rats were studied at 72 h after gavage with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or microbial protease (PT) to induce maturation of GIB...
January 12, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324833/evidence-for-pmat-and-oct-like-biogenic-amine-transporters-in-a-probiotic-strain-of-lactobacillus-implications-for-interkingdom-communication-within-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#20
Mark Lyte, David R Brown
The ability of prokaryotic microbes to produce and respond to neurochemicals that are more often associated with eukaryotic systems is increasingly recognized through the concept of microbial endocrinology. Most studies have described the phenomena of neurochemical production by bacteria, but there remains an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms by which microbe- or host-derived neuroactive substances can be recognized by bacteria. Based on the evolutionary origins of eukaryotic solute carrier transporters, we hypothesized that bacteria may possess an analogous uptake function for neuroactive biogenic amines...
2018: PloS One
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