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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930222/the-role-of-microbiota-in-depression-a-brief-review
#1
Bojan Zalar, Alexander Haslberger, Borut Peterlin
The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bidirectional homeostatic route of communication between both of the organs direct via receptors of the CNS or via epigenetic mechanisms of divers metabolites e.g. SCFA, GABA, β-hydroxybutyrate. Thus, a modulation of gut microbiota via nutrition, lifestyle etc. might be effective for emotional status and depressive disorders. The dietary composition has an influence on gut microbiota composition, microbial metabolite profile and the according consequences on emotional status and depression within a system biologic approach...
June 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927688/stress-and-obesity
#2
A Janet Tomiyama
Many pathways connect stress and obesity, two highly prevalent problems facing society today. First, stress interferes with cognitive processes such as executive function and self-regulation. Second, stress can affect behavior by inducing overeating and consumption of foods that are high in calories, fat, or sugar; by decreasing physical activity; and by shortening sleep. Third, stress triggers physiological changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, reward processing in the brain, and possibly the gut microbiome...
June 21, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921825/a-review-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-the-gut-microbiome-insights-into-novel-mechanisms-of-secondary-brain-injury-and-promising-targets-for-neuroprotection
#3
REVIEW
Caroline S Zhu, Ramesh Grandhi, Thomas Tyler Patterson, Susannah E Nicholson
The gut microbiome and its role in health and disease have recently been major focus areas of research. In this review, we summarize the different ways in which the gut microbiome interacts with the rest of the body, with focus areas on its relationships with immunity, the brain, and injury. The gut⁻brain axis, a communication network linking together the central and enteric nervous systems, represents a key bidirectional pathway with feed-forward and feedback mechanisms. The gut microbiota has a central role in this pathway and is significantly altered following injury, leading to a pro-inflammatory state within the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 19, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906208/feed-efficient-pigs-exhibit-molecular-patterns-allowing-a-timely-circulation-of-hormones-and-nutrients
#4
Henry Reyer, Michael Oster, Elizabeth Magowan, Eduard Murani, Helga Sauerwein, Dirk Dannenberger, Björn Kuhla, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Klaus Wimmers
Feed efficiency (FE) is a measure of the rate between feed intake and body weight gain and is subject to constant progress in pigs, based on extensive performance tests and analyses of physiological parameters. However, endocrine regulatory circuits which comprise the sensation and perception of intrinsic requirements and appropriate systemic responses have not yet been fully elucidated. It is hypothesized that the gut-brain-axis, which is a network of hierarchical anterior regulatory tissues, contributes largely to variations in FE...
June 15, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903617/roles-for-gut-vagal-sensory-signals-in-determining-energy-availability-and-energy-expenditure
#5
REVIEW
Gary J Schwartz
The gut sensory vagus transmits a wide range of meal-related mechanical, chemical and gut peptide signals from gastrointestinal and hepatic tissues to the central nervous system at the level of the caudal brainstem. Results from studies using neurophysiological, behavioral physiological and metabolic approaches that challenge the integrity of this gut-brain axis support an important role for these gut signals in the negative feedback control of energy availability by limiting food intake during a meal. These experimental approaches have now been applied to identify important and unanticipated contributions of the vagal sensory gut-brain axis to the control of two additional effectors of overall energy balance: the feedback control of endogenous energy availability through hepatic glucose production and metabolism, and the control of energy expenditure through brown adipose tissue thermogenesis...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903615/neurotransmitter-modulation-by-the-gut-microbiota
#6
Philip Strandwitz
The gut microbiota - the trillions of bacteria that reside within the gastrointestinal tract - has been found to not only be an essential component immune and metabolic health, but also seems to influence development and diseases of the enteric and central nervous system, including motility disorders, behavioral disorders, neurodegenerative disease, cerebrovascular accidents, and neuroimmune-mediated disorders. By leveraging animal models, several different pathways of communication have been identified along the "gut-brain-axis" including those driven by the immune system, the vagus nerve, or by modulation of neuroactive compounds by the microbiota...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896479/impact-of-rye-kernel-based-evening-meal-on-microbiota-composition-of-young-healthy-lean-volunteers-with-an-emphasis-on-their-hormonal-and-appetite-regulations-and-blood-levels-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#7
Olena Prykhodko, Jonna Sandberg, Stephen Burleigh, Inger Björck, Anne Nilsson, Frida Fåk Hållenius
Rye kernel bread (RKB) evening meals improve glucose tolerance, enhance appetite regulation and increase satiety in healthy volunteers. These beneficial effects on metabolic responses have been shown to be associated with increased gut fermentation. The present study aimed to elucidate if RKB evening meals may cause rapid alterations in microbiota composition that might be linked to metabolic-, immune-, and appetite- parameters. Gut-brain axis interaction was also studied by relating microbiota composition to amount of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in blood plasma...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896158/prebiotics-supplementation-impact-on-the-reinforcing-and-motivational-aspect-of-feeding
#8
Anne-Sophie Delbès, Julien Castel, Raphaël G P Denis, Chloé Morel, Mar Quiñones, Amandine Everard, Patrice D Cani, Florence Massiera, Serge H Luquet
Energy homeostasis is tightly regulated by the central nervous system which responds to nervous and circulating inputs to adapt food intake and energy expenditure. However, the rewarding and motivational aspect of food is tightly dependent of dopamine (DA) release in mesocorticolimbic (MCL) system and could be operant in uncontrolled caloric intake and obesity. Accumulating evidence indicate that manipulating the microbiota-gut-brain axis through prebiotic supplementation can have beneficial impact of the host appetite and body weight...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896129/gut-brain-axis-and-mood-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Lu Liu, Gang Zhu
Humans have over 100 trillion bacteria, highly abundant in the intestinal tract. Evidence suggests that intestinal microbiota is associated with the neuro-endocrine-immune pathways and can be associated with various mood disorders. This review summarizes findings from studies looking into neurobiochemical, neuroendocrine, and neuroimmune system mechanisms of the gut-brain axis to determine the relationship between intestinal microbiota and mood disorders. The effect of prebiotics, probiotics and antibiotics on mood disorders are also discussed, with the aim to propose some new therapeutic strategies for mood disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896124/-immune-gate-of-psychopathology-the-role-of-gut-derived-immune-activation-in-major-psychiatric-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Leszek Rudzki, Agata Szulc
Interaction between the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and brain functions has recently become a topic of growing interest in psychiatric research. These multidirectional interactions take place in the so-called gut-brain axis or more precisely, the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The GI tract is the largest immune organ in the human body and is also the largest surface of contact with the external environment. Its functions and permeability are highly influenced by psychological stress, which are often a precipitating factor in the first episode, reoccurrence and/or deterioration of symptoms of psychiatric disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894766/prion-like-propagation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-the-gut-brain-axis
#11
REVIEW
Ying Chen, Qianhang Shao, Yu-He Yuan, Nai-Hong Chen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive degenerative disease of the nervous system, which is characterized by movement disorders, such as static tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia in advanced patients. Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, such as gastric dysmotility, constipation, and anorectic dysfunction, is common non-motor symptom in the early stage of PD. The progression of PD includes the degenerative loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and aggregation of α-synuclein in the substantia nigra (SN). Interestingly, both of them are also present in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of PD patients...
June 9, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886183/nutritional-modulation-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-future-opportunities-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-neuroimmune-and-neuroinflammatory-disease
#12
REVIEW
Vincent C Lombardi, Kenny L De Meirleir, Krishnamurthy Subramanian, Sam M Nourani, Ruben K Dagda, Shannon L Delaney, András Palotás
The gut-brain-axis refers to the bidirectional communication between the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system. Mounting evidence supports the premise that the intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in its function and has led to the more common and perhaps more accurate term gut-microbiota-brain axis. Numerous studies have identified associations between an altered microbiome and neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory diseases. In most cases, it is unknown if these associations are cause or effect; notwithstanding, maintaining or restoring homeostasis of the microbiota may represent future opportunities when treating or preventing these diseases...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882798/microbiome-gut-brain-axis-and-toll-like-receptors-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Valentina Caputi, Maria Cecilia Giron
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressively debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by α-synucleinopathy, which involves all districts of the brain-gut axis, including the central, autonomic and enteric nervous systems. The highly bidirectional communication between the brain and the gut is markedly influenced by the microbiome through integrated immunological, neuroendocrine and neurological processes. The gut microbiota and its relevant metabolites interact with the host via a series of biochemical and functional inputs, thereby affecting host homeostasis and health...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881357/absence-of-gut-microbiota-reduces-emotional-reactivity-in-japanese-quails-coturnix-japonica
#14
Narjis Kraimi, Ludovic Calandreau, Manon Biesse, Sylvie Rabot, Edouard Guitton, Philippe Velge, Christine Leterrier
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated an effect of the gut microbiota on brain development and behavior leading to the concept of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. However, its effect on behavior in birds is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the absence of gut microbiota on emotional reactivity in birds by comparing germ-free (GF) quails to those colonized (COL) with gut microbiota. Material and Methods: From hatching, the quails of both groups GF ( n = 36) and COL ( n = 36) were reared in sterile isolators...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878576/microbiota-gut-brain-axis-interaction-of-gut-microbes-and-their-metabolites-with-host-epithelial-barriers
#15
REVIEW
Y Bhattarai
The gastrointestinal barrier and the blood brain barrier represent an important line of defense to protect the underlying structures against harmful external stimuli. These host barriers are composed of epithelial and endothelial cells interconnected by tight junction proteins along with several other supporting structures. Disruption in host barrier structures has therefore been implicated in various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system. While there are several factors that influence host barrier, recently there is an increasing appreciation of the role of gut microbiota and their metabolites in regulating barrier integrity...
June 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877952/pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-management-of-chronic-intestinal-pseudo-obstruction
#16
Thomas J Downes, Manikandar S Cheruvu, Tennekoon B Karunaratne, Roberto De Giorgio, Adam D Farmer
Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare disorder characterized by an impairment of coordinated propulsive activity in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which clinically mimics mechanical intestinal obstruction. CIPO is the most severe and debilitating form of GI dysmotility. CIPO may be primary or be secondary to pathology at any level of the brain-gut axis as well as systemic disease. The clinical features of CIPO are pleomorphic and largely depend on the site and extent of the segment of the GI tract involved...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872383/from-the-bottom-up-chemotherapy-and-gut-brain-axis-dysregulation
#17
REVIEW
Juliana E Bajic, Ian N Johnston, Gordon S Howarth, Mark R Hutchinson
The central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract form the primary targets of chemotherapy-induced toxicities. Symptoms associated with damage to these regions have been clinically termed chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment and mucositis. Whilst extensive literature outlines the complex etiology of each pathology, to date neither chemotherapy-induced side-effect has considered the potential impact of one on the pathogenesis of the other disorder. This is surprising considering the close bidirectional relationship shared between each organ; the gut-brain axis...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872139/gut-vagal-sensory-signaling-regulates-hippocampus-function-through-multi-order-pathways
#18
Andrea N Suarez, Ted M Hsu, Clarissa M Liu, Emily E Noble, Alyssa M Cortella, Emily M Nakamoto, Joel D Hahn, Guillaume de Lartigue, Scott E Kanoski
The vagus nerve is the primary means of neural communication between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the brain. Vagally mediated GI signals activate the hippocampus (HPC), a brain region classically linked with memory function. However, the endogenous relevance of GI-derived vagal HPC communication is unknown. Here we utilize a saporin (SAP)-based lesioning procedure to reveal that selective GI vagal sensory/afferent ablation in rats impairs HPC-dependent episodic and spatial memory, effects associated with reduced HPC neurotrophic and neurogenesis markers...
June 5, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870894/gut-microbiome-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-of-subjects-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-may-support-the-membrane-hypothesis
#19
Ying He, Tomasz Kosciolek, Jinsong Tang, Yao Zhou, Zongchang Li, Xiaoqian Ma, Qiyun Zhu, Ning Yuan, Liu Yuan, Chunwang Li, Ke Jin, Rob Knight, Ming T Tsuang, Xiaogang Chen
BACKGROUND: The microbiota-gut-brain axis and membrane dysfunction in the brain has attracted increasing attention in the field of psychiatric research. However, the possible interactive role of gut microbiota and brain function in the prodromal stage of schizophrenia has not been studied yet. METHODS: To explore this, we collected fecal samples and performed Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) scans in 81 high risk (HR) subjects, 19 ultra-high risk (UHR) subjects and 69 health controls (HC)...
June 2, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870270/impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-neurological-diseases-diet-composition-and-novel-treatments
#20
Ana Larroya-García, Diana Navas-Carrillo, Esteban Orenes-Piñero
Gut microbiota has significant effects on the structure and function of the enteric and central nervous system including human behaviour and brain regulation. Herein, we analyze the role of this intestinal ecosystem, the effects of dietary changes and the administration of nutritional supplements, such as probiotics, prebiotics, or fecal transplantation in neuropsychiatric disorders. Numerous factors have been highlighted to influence gut microbiota composition, including genetics, health status, mode of birth delivery and environment...
June 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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