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Gut brain axis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243233/finding-the-needle-in-the-haystack-systematic-identification-of-psychobiotics
#1
REVIEW
Aisling Bambury, Kiran Sandhu, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis is increasingly viewed as a novel paradigm in neuroscience with the capacity to generate innovative therapies for patients with psychiatric illnesses. Psychobiotics, defined as live bacteria which when ingested in adequate amounts confer mental health benefits, are increasingly of interest, as pre-clinical trials continue to show promising results. Particularly in stress related, anxiety and depressive disorders, there is potential for psychobiotics to deliver new therapies. The question of which microbes may prove to be the most promising psychobiotic in delivering such therapies at clinical level is of great importance...
December 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237568/radiomicrobiomics-advancing-along-the-gut-brain-axis-through-big-data-analysis
#2
Silvia De Santis, David Moratal, Santiago Canals
The gut-brain axis communicates the brain with the gut microbiota, a bidirectional conduit that has received increasing attention in recent years thanks to its emerging role in brain development and function. Alterations in microbiota composition have been associated to neurological and psychiatric disorders, and several studies suggest that the immune system plays a fundamental role in the gut-brain interaction. Recent advances in brain imaging and in microbiome sequencing have generated a large amount of information, yet the data from both these sources needs to be combined efficiently to extract biological meaning, and any diagnostic and/or prognostic benefit from these tools...
December 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230947/dietary-slowly-digestible-starch-triggers-the-gut-brain-axis-in-obese-rats-with-accompanied-reduced-food-intake
#3
Like Y Hasek, Robert J Phillips, Genyi Zhang, Kimberly P Kinzig, Choon Young Kim, Terry L Powley, Bruce R Hamaker
SCOPE: Slowly digestible starch (SDS), as a functional carbohydrate providing a slow and sustained glucose release, may be able to modulate food intake through activation of the gut-brain axis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diet-induced obese rats were used to test the effect on feeding behavior of high fat (HF) diets containing a SDS, fabricated to digest into the ileum, as compared to rapidly digestible starch (RDS). Ingestion of the HF-SDS diet over an 11-week period reduced daily food intake, through smaller meal size, to the same level as a lean body control group, while the group consuming the HF-RDS diet remained at a high food intake...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229199/microbiota-and-aging-a-review-and-commentary
#4
REVIEW
Carmen García-Peña, Teresa Álvarez-Cisneros, Ricardo Quiroz-Baez, Robert P Friedland
Although there is a consensus that the dominant species that make up the adult microbiota remains unchanged in elderly people, it has been reported that there are significant alterations in the proportion and composition of the different taxa, leading to reduced microbiota diversity, as well as an increase of enteropathogens that may lead to chronic inflammation. The ageing of mucosal immune and motor systems also contributes to these changes. As the individual ages, there is a loss in the number of Peyer's patches, an altered local capacity of T and B cell functions as well as chronic macrophage activation...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220570/neuromicrobiology-how-microbes-influence-the-brain
#5
Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Beatriz Torres Meneguetti, Octávio Luiz Franco, Timothy K Lu
We review here recent discoveries in the exciting new field of neuromicrobiology. This field encompasses the interactions between the microbiome and the central nervous system. The microbiome has a tremendous impact on human health. In particular, the gut microbiota may play a key role in many essential processes in health and disease via the activity of the gut-brain axis, possibly contributing to autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anxiety disorder. Gut microbes may also be involved in nociception, complex host behaviors, and brain development...
December 8, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215589/impact-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-the-gut-microbiota
#6
REVIEW
Lara Costantini, Romina Molinari, Barbara Farinon, Nicolò Merendino
Long-term dietary habits play a crucial role in creating a host-specific gut microbiota community in humans. Despite the many publications about the effects of carbohydrates (prebiotic fibers), the impact of dietary fats, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), on the gut microbiota is less well defined. The few studies completed in adults showed some common changes in the gut microbiota after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. In particular, a decrease in Faecalibacterium, often associated with an increase in the Bacteroidetes and butyrate-producing bacteria belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family, has been observed...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213280/subthreshold-psychiatric-psychopathology-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-can-it-be-the-bridge-between-gastroenterology-and-psychiatry
#7
Cristina Stasi, Cristiana Nisita, Sonia Cortopassi, Giorgio Corretti, Dario Gambaccini, Nicola De Bortoli, Bernardo Fani, Natalia Simonetti, Angelo Ricchiuti, Liliana Dell'Osso, Santino Marchi, Massimo Bellini
Background and Aims: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGDs) are multifactorial disorders of the gut-brain interaction. This study investigated the prevalence of Axis I and spectrum disorders in patients with FGD and established the link between FGDs and psychopathological dimensions. Methods: A total of 135 consecutive patients with FGD were enrolled. The symptoms' severity was evaluated using questionnaires, while the psychiatric evaluation by clinical interviews established the presence/absence of mental (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-4th edition, Axis I Diagnosis) or spectrum disorders...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213271/visceral-inflammation-and-immune-activation-stress-the-brain
#8
REVIEW
Peter Holzer, Aitak Farzi, Ahmed M Hassan, Geraldine Zenz, Angela Jačan, Florian Reichmann
Stress refers to a dynamic process in which the homeostasis of an organism is challenged, the outcome depending on the type, severity, and duration of stressors involved, the stress responses triggered, and the stress resilience of the organism. Importantly, the relationship between stress and the immune system is bidirectional, as not only stressors have an impact on immune function, but alterations in immune function themselves can elicit stress responses. Such bidirectional interactions have been prominently identified to occur in the gastrointestinal tract in which there is a close cross-talk between the gut microbiota and the local immune system, governed by the permeability of the intestinal mucosa...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201595/microbes-tickling-your-tummy-the-importance-of-the-gut-brain-axis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Paula Perez-Pardo, Mitch Hartog, Johan Garssen, Aletta D Kraneveld
Purpose of Review: Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) are known to experience gastrointestinal dysfunction that might precede the onset of motor symptoms by several years. Evidence suggests an important role of the gut-brain axis in PD pathogenesis. These interactions might be essentially influenced by the gut microbiota. Here, we review recent findings supporting that changes in the gut microbiota composition might be a trigger for inflammation contributing to neurodegeneration in PD...
2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193450/clostridium-butyricum-exerts-a-neuroprotective-effect-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-via-the-gut-brain-axis
#10
H Li, J Sun, J Du, F Wang, R Fang, C Yu, J Xiong, W Chen, Z Lu, J Liu
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common occurrence following gastrointestinal dysfunction. Recently, more and more attentions are being focused on gut microbiota in brain and behavior. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is considered as a mediator that links the gut-brain axis. The aim of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of Clostridium butyricum (Cb) on brain damage in a mouse model of TBI. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a model of TBI-induced by weight-drop impact head injury and were treated intragastrically with Cb...
November 27, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186317/computational-profiling-of-the-gut-brain-axis-microflora-dysbiosis-insights-to-neurological-disorders
#11
Nikolas Dovrolis, George Kolios, George M Spyrou, Ioanna Maroulakou
Almost 2500 years after Hippocrates' observations on health and its direct association to the gastrointestinal tract, a paradigm shift has recently occurred, making the gut and its symbionts (bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses) a point of convergence for studies. It is nowadays well established that the gut microflora's compositional diversity regulates via its genes (the microbiome) the host's health and provides preliminary insights into disease progression and regulation. The microbiome's involvement is evident in immunological and physiological studies that link changes in its biodiversity to its contributions to the host's phenotype but also in neurological investigations, substantiating the aptly named gut-brain axis...
November 27, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173525/the-brain-gut-axis-and-stress-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
REVIEW
Charles N Bernstein
The brain-gut axis serves as a circuit that incorporates the human experience, the state of mind, the gut microbiome, and the immune response that ultimately drives the phenotypic expression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There are several biological pathways through which stress can play a deleterious role, including through increasing intestinal permeability, which can facilitate intestinal translocation of bacteria. Stress has an impact on symptoms in IBD; however, there is limited evidence that stress triggers increased intestinal inflammation...
December 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173065/neurobehavioural-effects-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-alone-and-in-combination-with-prebiotics-polydextrose-and-galactooligosaccharide-in-male-rats-exposed-to-early-life-stress
#13
Karen-Anne McVey Neufeld, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Alan E Hoban, Rosaline V Waworuntu, Brian M Berg, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Early life is a period of significant brain development when the brain is at its most plastic and vulnerable. Stressful episodes during this window of development have long-lasting effects on the central nervous system. Rodent maternal separation (MS) is a reliable model of early-life stress and induces alterations in both physiology and behaviour. Intriguingly, the gut microbiota of MS offspring differ from that of non-separated offspring, suggesting a mechanistic role for the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Hence, we tested whether dietary factors known to affect the gut microbiota alter the neurobehavioural effects of MS...
November 27, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163522/the-vagus-nerve-in-the-neuro-immune-axis-implications-in-the-pathology-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#14
REVIEW
Bruno Bonaz, Valérie Sinniger, Sonia Pellissier
The vagus nerve (VN) is the longest nerve of the organism and a major component of the parasympathetic nervous system which constitutes the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with the sympathetic nervous system. There is classically an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems which is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis. An imbalance of the ANS is observed in various pathologic conditions. The VN, a mixed nerve with 4/5 afferent and 1/5 efferent fibers, is a key component of the neuro-immune and brain-gut axes through a bidirectional communication between the brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160817/impact-of-high-dose-multi-strain-probiotic-supplementation-on-neurocognitive-performance-and-central-nervous-system-immune-activation-of-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#15
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Jason M Brenchley, Eugenio Nelson Cavallari, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Mariangela Fratino, Claudia Pinacchio, Ivan Schietroma, Saeid Najafi Fard, Carolina Scagnolari, Ivano Mezzaroma, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota has metabolic activity which influences mucosal homeostasis, local and systemic immune responses, and other anatomical systems (i.e., brain). The effects of dysbiosis are still poorly studied in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects and insufficient data are available on the impairment of the gut-brain axis, despite neurocognitive disorders being commonly diagnosed in these patients. This study evaluated the impact of a probiotic supplementation strategy on intrathecal immune activation and cognitive performance in combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) treated HIV-1 infected subjects...
November 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159583/the-association-between-artificial-sweeteners-and-obesity
#16
REVIEW
Michelle Pearlman, Jon Obert, Lisa Casey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of obesity and the evolution of artificial sweeteners; to examine the latest research on the effects of artificial sweeteners on the host microbiome, the gut-brain axis, glucose homeostasis, and energy consumption; and to discuss how all of these changes ultimately contribute to obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Although artificial sweeteners were developed as a sugar substitute to help reduce insulin resistance and obesity, data in both animal models and humans suggest that the effects of artificial sweeteners may contribute to metabolic syndrome and the obesity epidemic...
November 21, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157499/functional-abdominal-pain-and-related-syndromes
#17
REVIEW
Michael Herzlinger, Carolina Cerezo
Functional gastrointestinal disorders are very common. They result from dysfunctional interaction in the brain-gut axis. Although the nature is benign, symptoms may be debilitating. The etiology is multifactorial; therefore, the diagnosis should be approached in a bio-psychosocial model. There are no biomarkers to characterize these conditions, but a solid understanding of the pathophysiology allows providers to present these disorders as a positive clinical diagnosis, rather than a diagnosis of exclusion. Effective management entails close collaboration between the medical and mental health providers...
January 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155324/angiotensin-receptor-blocker-irbesartan-reduces-stress-induced-intestinal-inflammation-via-at1a-signaling-and-ace2-dependent-mechanism-in-mice
#18
Maimaiti Yisireyili, Yasuhiro Uchida, Koji Yamamoto, Takayuki Nakayama, Xian Wu Cheng, Tadashi Matsushita, Shigeo Nakamura, Toyoaki Murohara, Kyosuke Takeshita
Stress is associated with pathophysiology of both irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and hypertension. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) have anti-inflammatory properties via inhibition of angiotensin II (Ang II)/Ang II type I receptor axis (AT1). Inhibition of the classical RAS pathway is also involved in upregulation of angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), which activates the Ang-(1-7) /Mas pathway to counteract inflammatory signaling and acts as a partner of the amino acid transporter, B(0)AT-1, to absorb tryptophan for regulation of microbiota-gut-brain axis...
November 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149921/gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-disease-in-fibromyalgia
#19
REVIEW
Richard A Schatz, Baharak Moshiree
Fibromyalgia (FM) has historically been associated with several diseases in gastroenterology and hepatology. The most substantiated evidence pertains to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The pathogeneses of FM and IBS remain unclear, but it is likely related to dysregulation within the brain-gut axis, resulting in a hyperalgesic state. IBS and FM share other similarities, including a female predominance, fatigue, insomnia, and susceptibility to psychiatric state. These common manifestations and pathogeneses serve as a foundation for overlapping, multidisciplinary treatment modalities...
February 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147024/comparison-of-r-ketamine-and-lanicemine-on-depression-like-phenotype-and-abnormal-composition-of-gut-microbiota-in-a-social-defeat-stress-model
#20
Youge Qu, Chun Yang, Qian Ren, Min Ma, Chao Dong, Kenji Hashimoto
Accumulating evidence suggests a key role of the gut-microbiota-brain axis in the antidepressant actions of certain compounds. Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, showed rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressed patients. In contrast, another NMDAR antagonist, lanicemine, did not exhibit antidepressant effects in such patients. (R)-ketamine, the (R)-enantiomer of ketamine, has rapid-acting and long-lasting antidepressant effects in rodent models of depression...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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