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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545237/emotion-recognition-in-adolescents-with-down-syndrome-a-nonverbal-approach
#1
Régis Pochon, Claire Touchet, Laure Ibernon
Several studies have reported that persons with Down syndrome (DS) have difficulties recognizing emotions; however, there is insufficient research to prove that a deficit of emotional knowledge exists in DS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recognition of emotional facial expressions without making use of emotional vocabulary, given the language problems known to be associated with this syndrome. The ability to recognize six emotions was assessed in 24 adolescents with DS. Their performance was compared to that of 24 typically developing children with the same nonverbal-developmental age, as assessed by Raven's Progressive Matrices...
May 23, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544880/systems-wide-studies-uncover-commander-a-multiprotein-complex-essential-to-human-development
#2
REVIEW
Anna L Mallam, Edward M Marcotte
Recent mass spectrometry maps of the human interactome independently support the existence of a large multiprotein complex, dubbed "Commander." Broadly conserved across animals and ubiquitously expressed in nearly every human cell type examined thus far, Commander likely plays a fundamental cellular function, akin to other ubiquitous machines involved in expression, proteostasis, and trafficking. Experiments on individual subunits support roles in endosomal protein sorting, including the trafficking of Notch proteins, copper transporters, and lipoprotein receptors...
May 24, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544175/prevalence-and-potential-factors-associated-with-overweight-and-obesity-status-in-adults-with-intellectual-developmental-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Sobhana Ranjan, Jennifer A Nasser, Kathleen Fisher
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of being overweight and obese is increasing not just in the general population but also in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Therefore, a need to identify factors contributing to overweight/obesity arises as this population is escalating. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This narrative review article summarizes pertinent research focusing on prevalence and the potential factors associated with overweight and obesity in adults with intellectual disability during the past decade...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544045/are-there-sensitive-periods-when-child-maltreatment-substantially-elevates-suicide-risk-results-from-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-adolescents
#4
Stephanie H Gomez, Jenny Tse, Yan Wang, Brianna Turner, Alexander J Millner, Matthew K Nock, Erin C Dunn
BACKGROUND: Although child maltreatment is a well documented risk factor for suicidal behavior, little is known about whether the timing of child maltreatment differentially associates with risk of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, or suicide attempts. The goal of this study was to examine whether a first exposure to physical or sexual abuse during specific developmental periods significantly elevated risk for suicidal behavior in adolescents. METHODS: Data came from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement, a population-based sample of US adolescents aged 13-18 years old (n = 9,272)...
May 23, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544009/a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-effects-of-delaying-onset-of-adolescent-substance-abuse-on-cognitive-development-and-addiction-following-a-selective-personality-targeted-intervention-program-the-co-venture-trial
#5
Maeve O'Leary-Barrett, Benoit Mâsse, Robert Pihl, Sherry Stewart, Jean R Séguin, Patricia Conrod
AIMS: Substance use and binge drinking during early adolescence are associated with neurocognitive abnormalities, mental health problems and an increased risk for future addiction. The trial aims to evaluate the protective effects of an evidence-based substance use prevention program on the onset of alcohol and drug use in adolescence, as well as on cognitive, mental health and addiction outcomes over 5 years. DESIGN: Thirty-eight high schools will be recruited, with a final sample of 31 schools assigned to intervention or control conditions (approximately 3800 youth)...
May 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543191/methadone-buprenorphine-and-naltrexone-for-the-treatment-of-opioid-use-disorder-in-pregnant-women
#6
Tran H Tran, Brooke L Griffin, Rebecca H Stone, Kathleen M Vest, Timothy J Todd
Pregnant women with opioid use disorder can be treated with methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone to reduce opioid use and improve retention to treatment. In this review, we compare the pregnancy outcomes of methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone in clinical trials and discuss the potential behavioral and developmental effects of these agents seen in offspring in animal studies. Important clinical considerations in the management of opioid use disorder in pregnant women and their infants are also discussed...
May 24, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542867/use-of-active-video-gaming-in-children-with-neuromotor-dysfunction-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Robbin Hickman, Lisa Popescu, Robert Manzanares, Brendan Morris, Szu-Ping Lee, Janet S Dufek
AIM: To examine current evidence on use of active video gaming (AVG) to improve motor function in children with movement disorders including cerebral palsy, developmental coordination disorder, and Down syndrome. METHOD: Scopus, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched. Included papers studied the use of AVG for improving movement-related outcomes in these populations. Parameters studied included health condition, strength of evidence, AVG delivery methods, capacity for individualizing play, outcomes addressed, effectiveness for achieving outcomes, and challenges/limitations...
May 19, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540683/genomic-regulation-of-microrna-expression-in-disease-development
#8
Feng Liu
MiroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of regulators of gene expression . Through base paring with messenger RNAs, miRNAs repress the expression levels of other genes, including those encoding transcription factors. On the other hand, the spatial and temporal patterns of miRNAs transcription are subject to regulation by transcription factors. The inter-regulation between miRNAs and TFs integrates two gene regulatory networks-at transcriptional level and post-transcriptional level to fine-tune the gene expression pattern in the development of multicellular organisms...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540636/gm2-activator-deficiency-caused-by-a-homozygous-exon-2-deletion-in-gm2a
#9
Patricia L Hall, Regina Laine, John J Alexander, Arunkanth Ankala, Lisa A Teot, Hart G W Lidov, Irina Anselm
GM2 activator (GM2A) deficiency (OMIM 613109) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder, with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Clinically, it is almost indistinguishable from Tay-Sachs disease (OMIM 272800) or Sandhoff disease (OMIM 268800); however, traditionally available biochemical screening tests will most likely reveal normal results. We report a 2-year-old male with initially normal development until the age of 9 months, when he presented with developmental delay and regression. Workup at that time was unrevealing; at 15 months, he had abnormal brain MRI findings and a cherry red spot on ophthalmological examination...
May 25, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540600/microglial-interferon-signaling-and-white-matter
#10
Ashley McDonough, Richard V Lee, Jonathan R Weinstein
Microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, are primary regulators of the neuroimmune response to injury. Type I interferons (IFNs), including the IFNαs and IFNβ, are key cytokines in the innate immune system. Their activity is implicated in the regulation of microglial function both during development and in response to neuroinflammation, ischemia, and neurodegeneration. Data from numerous studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke suggest that type I IFNs can modulate the microglial phenotype, influence the overall neuroimmune milieu, regulate phagocytosis, and affect blood-brain barrier integrity...
May 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540549/the-association-between-air-pollutants-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Chunyan Yang, Weiwei Zhao, Kui Deng, Vanessa Zhou, Xiaohua Zhou, Yan Hou
Autism spectrum disorders are a member of the pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) that have been increasing dramatically since described by Leo Kanner in 1943. In the past decade, the number of epidemiological publications addressing air pollution exposures and autism has grown correspondingly, but the association is still unclear. Whether air pollutants play a causal role and which substances are related with autism requires further study. We systematically reviewed the literature from 2005 to 2016 in MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine), Web of Science, and PubMed and summarized the association between different air pollutants and autism...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539882/function-and-dysfunction-of-microglia-during-brain-development-consequences-for-synapses-and-neural-circuits
#12
REVIEW
Rosa C Paolicelli, Maria T Ferretti
Many diverse factors, ranging from stress to infections, can perturb brain homeostasis and alter the physiological activity of microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system. Microglia play critical roles in the process of synaptic maturation and brain wiring during development. Any perturbation affecting microglial physiological function during critical developmental periods could result in defective maturation of synaptic circuits. In this review, we critically appraise the recent literature on the alterations of microglial activity induced by environmental and genetic factors occurring at pre- and early post-natal stages...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539430/physiologic-thymic-involution-underlies-age-dependent-accumulation-of-senescence-associated-cd4-t-cells
#13
Kyosuke Sato, Aiko Kato, Miho Sekai, Yoko Hamazaki, Nagahiro Minato
Immune aging may underlie various aging-related disorders, including diminished resistance to infection, chronic inflammatory disorders, and autoimmunity. PD-1(+) and CD153(+) CD44(high) CD4(+) T cells with features of cellular senescence, termed senescence-associated T (SA-T) cells, increasingly accumulate with age and may play a role in the immune aging phenotype. In this article, we demonstrate that, compared with young mice, the aged mouse environment is highly permissive for spontaneous proliferation of transferred naive CD4(+) T cells, and it drives their transition to PD-1(+) and CD153(+) CD44(high) CD4(+) T cells after extensive cell divisions...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538871/what-do-cochrane-systematic-reviews-say-about-interventions-for-autism-spectrum-disorders
#14
Larissa Lyra, Luiz Eduardo Rizzo, Camila Sá Sunahara, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz Latorraca, Ana Luiza Cabrera Martimbianco, Rachel Riera
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder and pervasive developmental disorder. The manifestations of ASDs can have an important impact on learning and social functioning that may persist during adulthood. The aim here was to summarize the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on interventions for ASDs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted within the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo...
March 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538046/general-pediatrician-staffed-behavioral-developmental-access-clinic-decreases-time-to-evaluation-of-early-childhood-developmental-disorders
#15
Meghan Harrison, Persephone Jones, Iman Sharif, Matthew D Di Guglielmo
OBJECTIVE: To describe and evaluate the effectiveness of a quality improvement project to decrease wait time to evaluation for children referred to Developmental Behavioral Pediatricians (DBPs). METHODS: The authors created a Behavioral/Developmental Access Clinic (BDAC) staffed by a general pediatrician (GP) and pediatric psychologist. Clinicians in the BDAC provided comprehensive developmental evaluations for children in a discrete age range (<5 yr old). We describe the establishment of the BDAC along with referrals, diagnoses, and recommended follow-up for patients seen by the GP...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536960/predictors-of-inpatient-psychiatric-hospitalization-for-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Giulia Righi, Jill Benevides, Carla Mazefsky, Matthew Siegel, Stephen J Sheinkopf, Eric M Morrow
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with significant healthcare expenditures and a greater utilization of psychiatric health services. High utilization may not be evenly distributed across individuals with ASD. The objective of this study was to identify individual and family characteristics that increase the risk of psychiatric hospitalization. Naturalistic study of two age- and gender-matched ASD cohorts, inpatients enrolled in the Autism Inpatient Collection (AIC) and outpatients enrolled in the Rhode Island Consortium of Autism Research and Treatment (RI-CART), revealed a number of factors associated with hospitalization...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536956/improving-functional-language-and-social-motivation-with-a-parent-mediated-intervention-for-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Jessica Bradshaw, Lynn Kern Koegel, Robert L Koegel
Recent research suggests that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may now be reliably identified in later infancy, highlighting the need for empirically-validated interventions for infants and toddlers with early symptoms of ASD. Using a multiple baseline design across 15- to 21-month-old toddlers, this study implemented a brief, parent-mediated, Pivotal Response Treatment program, focusing on improving expressive communication. The results indicated that verbal communication improved as a consequence of the intervention, with concomitant improvements in untreated areas for all participants...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536874/-genetic-findings-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
REVIEW
C M Freitag
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive developmental disorders comprising problems in social interaction, communication, and stereotyped behavior and interests. They show a prevalence of around 0.8% in children, adolescents, and adults, and a skewed sex distribution (about 4:1 = male:female). ASD are predominantly genetically determined disorders. Heritability estimates from twin studies range between 64 and 91%. Recurrence risk in siblings is 20-fold elevated. De novo and inherited monogenetic disorders, mutations, sex chromosomal abnormalities, cytogenetic and imprinting disorders as well as common variants are associated with ASD...
May 23, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536274/mapping-22q11-2-gene-dosage-effects-on-brain-morphometry
#19
Amy Lin, Christopher R K Ching, Ariana Vajdi, Daqiang Sun, Rachel K Jonas, Maria Jalbrzikowski, Leila Kushan-Wells, Laura Pacheco Hansen, Emma Krikorian, Boris Gutman, Deepika Dokoru, Gerhard Helleman, Paul M Thompson, Carrie E Bearden
Reciprocal chromosomal rearrangements at the 22q11.2 locus are associated with elevated risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. The 22q11.2 deletion confers the highest known genetic risk for schizophrenia, but a duplication in the same region is strongly associated with autism and is less common in schizophrenia cases than in the general population. Here we conducted the first study of 22q11.2 gene dosage effects on brain structure in a sample of 143 human subjects: 66 with 22q11.2 deletions (22q-del; 32 males), 21 with 22q11...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535720/retrospectively-assessed-early-motor-and-current-pragmatic-language-skills-in-autistic-and-neurotypical-children
#20
Jennifer L Stevenson, Caitlin E Lindley, Nicole Murlo
Autistic individuals often struggle developmentally, even in areas that are not explicit diagnostic criteria, such as motor skills. This study explored the relation between early motor skills, assessed retrospectively, and current pragmatic language skills. Caregivers of neurotypical and autistic children, matched on gender and age, completed assessments of their child's early motor development and current language abilities. Early motor skills were correlated with later pragmatic language skills, and autistic children exhibited fewer motor skills than neurotypical children...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
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