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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161162/patient-perceived-and-laboratory-measured-halos-associated-with-diffractive-bifocal-and-trifocal-intraocular-lenses
#1
Francisco Alba-Bueno, Nuria Garzón, Fidel Vega, Francisco Poyales, María S Millán
PURPOSE: To examine and assess the halos generated in distance vision by multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) using both in vitro objective and in vivo subjective methods. SETTING: The objective method was carried out in the optics laboratory of the Applied Optics and Image Processing Group (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya -Barcelona). The psychophysical and subjective methods were carried out in the Instituto de Oftalmología Avanzada Madrid Innova Ocular...
November 21, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152732/in-home-salivary-melatonin-collection-methodology-for-children-and-adolescents
#2
Belinda N Mandrell, Yvonne Avent, Breya Walker, Megan Loew, Brooklee Lightsey Tynes, Valerie McLaughlin Crabtree
In-home salivary collection quality and adherence to a prescribed collection methodology for evaluation of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) is unknown in children. Primary aims of this study were to 1) describe a novel family centered methodology for in-home salivary collection; 2) determine the acceptance and feasibility of this methodology; 3) measure adherence to collection instructions; and 4) identify patterns between participants' age and quality of samples collected. After receiving instructional handouts from the study team, families utilized in-home salivary melatonin collection...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148844/circadian-phase-circadian-period-and-chronotype-are-reproducible-over-months
#3
Thomas Kantermann, Charmane I Eastman
The timing of the circadian clock, circadian period and chronotype varies among individuals. To date, not much is known about how these parameters vary over time in an individual. We performed an analysis of the following five common circadian clock and chronotype measures: 1) the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO, a measure of circadian phase), 2) phase angle of entrainment (the phase the circadian clock assumes within the 24-h day, measured here as the interval between DLMO and bedtime/dark onset), 3) free-running circadian period (tau) from an ultradian forced desynchrony protocol (tau influences circadian phase and phase angle of entrainment), 4) mid-sleep on work-free days (MSF from the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire; MCTQ) and 5) the score from the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ)...
November 17, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144169/bright-light-exposure-during-daytime-sleeping-affects-nocturnal-melatonin-secretion-after-simulated-night-work
#4
Shunsuke Nagashima, Madoka Osawa, Hiroto Matsuyama, Wataru Ohoka, Aemi Ahn, Tomoko Wakamura
The guidelines for night and shift workers recommend that after night work, they should sleep in a dark environment during the daytime. However, staying in a dark environment during the daytime reduces nocturnal melatonin secretion and delays its onset. Daytime bright-light exposure after night work is important for melatonin synthesis the subsequent night and for maintaining the circadian rhythms. However, it is not clear whether daytime sleeping after night work should be in a dim- or a bright-light environment for maintaining melatonin secretion...
November 16, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143302/convergent-selection-pressures-drive-the-evolution-of-rhodopsin-kinetics-at-high-altitudes-via-non-parallel-mechanisms
#5
Gianni M Castiglione, Ryan K Schott, Frances E Hauser, Belinda S W Chang
Convergent evolution in response to similar selective pressures is a well-known phenomenon in evolutionary biology. Less well understood is how selection drives convergence in protein function, and the underlying mechanisms by which this can be achieved. Here we investigate functional convergence in the visual system of two distantly related lineages of high-altitude adapted Andean and Himalayan catfishes. Statistical analyses revealed in the two high-altitude lineages, a parallel acceleration of evolutionary rates in rhodopsin, the dim-light visual pigment...
November 16, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134201/pushing-the-limits-of-photoreception-in-twilight-conditions-the-rod-like-cone-retina-of-the-deep-sea-pearlsides
#6
Fanny de Busserolles, Fabio Cortesi, Jon Vidar Helvik, Wayne I L Davies, Rachel M Templin, Robert K P Sullivan, Craig T Michell, Jessica K Mountford, Shaun P Collin, Xabier Irigoien, Stein Kaartvedt, Justin Marshall
Most vertebrates have a duplex retina comprising two photoreceptor types, rods for dim-light (scotopic) vision and cones for bright-light (photopic) and color vision. However, deep-sea fishes are only active in dim-light conditions; hence, most species have lost their cones in favor of a simplex retina composed exclusively of rods. Although the pearlsides, Maurolicus spp., have such a pure rod retina, their behavior is at odds with this simplex visual system. Contrary to other deep-sea fishes, pearlsides are mostly active during dusk and dawn close to the surface, where light levels are intermediate (twilight or mesopic) and require the use of both rod and cone photoreceptors...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131980/pedestrians-perception-and-response-towards-vehicles-during-road-crossing-at-nighttime
#7
Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Rahul Bhardwaj
Pedestrian being involved in road traffic accidents (RTA) is about 22% of all road traffic related deaths. In this study, we have estimated the pedestrian's response towards an approaching vehicle and the time taken to correctly recognize it while they crossed the road in dim-light nighttime conditions. This is also extendable to cycles and other low powered vehicles. Thirty volunteers participated in this study. A collection of six videos, which comprised of different vehicle scenarios were shown to each of the participants...
November 10, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127575/bright-light-therapy-improves-cancer-related-fatigue-in-cancer-survivors-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Jillian A Johnson, Sheila N Garland, Linda E Carlson, Josée Savard, J Steven A Simpson, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Tavis S Campbell
PURPOSE: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common and distressing symptom that can persist after cancer treatment has concluded. Bright light therapy has shown preliminary efficacy in reducing CRF, but its impact on other psychosocial factors is unclear. The purpose was to examine the impact of a 1-month light therapy intervention on fatigue, mood, and quality of life in cancer survivors with fatigue. METHODS: This 4-week blinded randomized controlled trial recruited cancer survivors who met diagnostic criteria for CRF...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117518/protein-sequence-and-membrane-lipid-roles-in-the-activation-kinetics-of-bovine-and-human-rhodopsins
#9
Istvan Szundi, Chie Funatogawa, Ying Guo, Elsa C Y Yan, David S Kliger
Rhodopsin is a G protein-coupled receptor found in the rod outer segments in the retina, which triggers a visual response under dim light conditions. Recently, a study of the late, microsecond-to-millisecond kinetics of photointermediates of the human and bovine rhodopsins in their native membranes revealed a complex, double-square mechanism of rhodopsin activation. In this kinetic scheme, the human rhodopsin exhibited more Schiff base deprotonation than bovine rhodopsin, which could arise from the ∼7% sequence difference between the two proteins, or from the difference between their membrane lipid environments...
November 7, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097992/circadian-and-metabolic-effects-of-light-implications-in-weight-homeostasis-and-health
#10
REVIEW
Santiago A Plano, Leandro P Casiraghi, Paula García Moro, Natalia Paladino, Diego A Golombek, Juan J Chiesa
Daily interactions between the hypothalamic circadian clock at the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peripheral circadian oscillators regulate physiology and metabolism to set temporal variations in homeostatic regulation. Phase coherence of these circadian oscillators is achieved by the entrainment of the SCN to the environmental 24-h light:dark (LD) cycle, coupled through downstream neural, neuroendocrine, and autonomic outputs. The SCN coordinate activity and feeding rhythms, thus setting the timing of food intake, energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and active and basal metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089553/homeostatic-plasticity-shapes-the-visual-system-s-first-synapse
#11
Robert E Johnson, Nai-Wen Tien, Ning Shen, James T Pearson, Florentina Soto, Daniel Kerschensteiner
Vision in dim light depends on synapses between rods and rod bipolar cells (RBCs). Here, we find that these synapses exist in multiple configurations, in which single release sites of rods are apposed by one to three postsynaptic densities (PSDs). Single RBCs often form multiple PSDs with one rod; and neighboring RBCs share ~13% of their inputs. Rod-RBC synapses develop while ~7% of RBCs undergo programmed cell death (PCD). Although PCD is common throughout the nervous system, its influences on circuit development and function are not well understood...
October 31, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070712/l-serine-enhances-light-induced-circadian-phase-resetting-in-mice-and-humans
#12
Shinobu Yasuo, Ayaka Iwamoto, Sang-Il Lee, Shotaro Ochiai, Rina Hitachi, Satomi Shibata, Nobuo Uotsu, Chie Tarumizu, Sayuri Matsuoka, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Shigekazu Higuchi
Background: The circadian clock is modulated by the timing of ingestion or food composition, but the effects of specific nutrients are poorly understood.Objective: We aimed to identify the amino acids that modulate the circadian clock and reset the light-induced circadian phase in mice and humans.Methods: Male CBA/N mice were orally administered 1 of 20 l-amino acids, and the circadian and light-induced phase shifts of wheel-running activity were analyzed. Antagonists of several neurotransmitter pathways were injected before l-serine administration, and light-induced phase shifts were analyzed...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064336/the-effect-of-dim-light-at-night-on-cerebral-hemodynamic-oscillations-during-sleep-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#13
Tae-Joon Kim, Byeong Uk Lee, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Jung-Ick Byun, Jangsup Moon, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kon Chu, Manho Kim, Jong-Min Lim, Eunil Lee, Sang Kun Lee, Ki-Young Jung
Recent studies have reported that dim light at night (dLAN) is associated with risks of cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension and carotid atherosclerosis; however, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Here, we evaluated the effect of dLAN on the cerebrovascular system by analyzing cerebral hemodynamic oscillations using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Fourteen healthy male subjects underwent polysomnography coupled with cerebral NIRS. The data collected during sleep with dim light (10 lux) were compared with those collected during sleep under the control dark conditions for the sleep structure, cerebral hemodynamic oscillations, heart rate variability (HRV), and their electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectrum...
October 24, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056434/dim-light-melatonin-onset-and-affect-in-adolescents-with-an-evening-circadian-preference
#14
Michael R Dolsen, Allison G Harvey
PURPOSE: A shift toward an evening circadian preference and the onset of mood problems often occur during adolescence. Although these changes are linked to poorer outcomes, few studies have considered how positive and negative affect are related to the circadian rhythm during adolescence. This study examined the relationship between evening and morning affect ratings and dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), a measure of endogenous circadian rhythm. Age and sex were tested as moderators. METHODS: This study is based on a subset of 163 (94 female, age = 14...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053981/clinical-efficacy-onset-time-and-safety-of-bright-light-therapy-in-acute-bipolar-depression-as-an-adjunctive-therapy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Tian-Hang Zhou, Wei-Min Dang, Yan-Tao Ma, Chang-Qing Hu, Ning Wang, Guo-Yi Zhang, Gang Wang, Chuan Shi, Hua Zhang, Bin Guo, Shu-Zhe Zhou, Lei Feng, Shu-Xia Geng, Yu-Zhen Tong, Guan-Wen Tang, Zhong-Kai He, Long Zhen, Xin Yu
BACKGROUND: Bright light therapy (BLT) is an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder and non- seasonal depression. The efficacy of BLT in treating patients with bipolar disorder is still unknown. AIMS: The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy, onset time and clinical safety of BLT in treating patients with acute bipolar depression as an adjunctive therapy (trial registration at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02009371). METHODS: This was a multi-center, single blind, randomized clinical trial...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045623/the-influence-of-circadian-timing-on-olfactory-sensitivity
#16
Rachel S Herz, Eliza Van Reen, David Barker, Cassie J Hilditch, Ashten Bartz, Mary A Carskadon
Olfactory sensitivity has traditionally been viewed as a trait that varies according to individual differences but is not expected to change with one's momentary state. Recent research has begun to challenge this position and time of day has been shown to alter detection levels. Links between obesity and the timing of food intake further raise the issue of whether odor detection may vary as a function of circadian processes. To investigate this question, thirty-seven (21 male) adolescents (M age =13.7 years) took part in a 28-hr forced-desynchrony (FD) protocol with 17...
October 17, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042459/environmental-and-genetic-factors-regulating-localization-of-the-plant-plasma-membrane-h-atpase
#17
Miyoshi Haruta, Li Xuan Tan, Daniel B Bushey, Sarah J Swanson, Michael R Sussman
A P-type H+-ATPase is the primary transporter that converts ATP to electrochemical energy at the plasma membrane of higher plants. Its product, the protonmotive force (PMF), is composed of an electrical potential and a pH gradient. Many studies have demonstrated that this PMF not only drives the secondary transporters required for nutrient uptake, but also plays a direct role in regulating cell expansion. Here, we have generated a transgenic Arabidopsis plant expressing H+-ATPase isoform 2 (AHA2) that is translationally fused with a fluorescent protein and examined its cellular localization by live-cell microscopy...
October 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040758/linking-light-exposure-and-subsequent-sleep-a-field-polysomnography-study-in-humans
#18
Emma J Wams, Tom Woelders, Irene Marring, Laura van Rosmalen, Domien G M Beersma, Marijke C M Gordijn, Roelof A Hut
Study objectives: To determine the effect of light exposure on subsequent sleep characteristics under ambulatory field conditions. Methods: Twenty healthy participants were fitted with ambulatory PSG and wrist-actigraphs to assess light exposure, rest-activity, sleep quality, timing and architecture. Laboratory salivary dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) was analyzed to determine endogenous circadian phase. Results: Later circadian clock phase was associated with lower intensity (R2=0...
October 11, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029340/circadian-phase-and-phase-angle-disorders-in-primary-insomnia
#19
Erin E Flynn-Evans, Julia A Shekleton, Belinda Miller, Lawrence J Epstein, Douglas Kirsch, Lauren A Brogna, Liza M Burke, Erin Bremer, Jade M Murray, Philip Gehrman, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Steven W Lockley
Objectives: We aimed to identify the prevalence of circadian phase and phase angle abnormalities in patients with insomnia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, multicenter study at three sleep laboratories in the United States and Australia. Patients with insomnia and healthy control participants completed a sleep log for seven days. Circadian phase was assessed from salivary Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) time during a 12-hour laboratory visit. Results: Seventy-nine patients meeting the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Primary, Psychophysiological, Paradoxical, and/or Idiopathic Childhood Insomnia (46F, 35...
October 3, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992302/northern-spotted-owl-strix-occidentalis-caurina-genome-divergence-with-the-barred-owl-strix-varia-and-characterization-of-light-associated-genes
#20
Zachary R Hanna, James B Henderson, Jeffrey D Wall, Christopher A Emerling, Jérôme Fuchs, Charles Runckel, David P Mindell, Rauri C K Bowie, Joseph L DeRisi, John P Dumbacher
We report here the assembly of a northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) genome. We generated Illumina paired-end sequence data at 90× coverage using nine libraries with insert lengths ranging from ∼250 to 9,600 nt and read lengths from 100 to 375 nt. The genome assembly is comprised of 8,108 scaffolds totaling 1.26 × 109 nt in length with an N50 length of 3.98 × 106 nt. We calculated the genome-wide fixation index (FST) of S. o. caurina with the closely related barred owl (Strix varia) as 0...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
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