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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932909/cigesmed-for-divers-establishing-a-citizen-science-initiative-for-the-mapping-and-monitoring-of-coralligenous-assemblages-in-the-mediterranean-sea
#1
Vasilis Gerovasileiou, Thanos Dailianis, Emmanouela Panteri, Nikitas Michalakis, Giulia Gatti, Maria Sini, Charalampos Dimitriadis, Yiannis Issaris, Maria Salomidi, Irene Filiopoulou, Alper Doğan, Laure Thierry de Ville d'Avray, Romain David, Melih Ertan Ҫinar, Drosos Koutsoubas, Jean-Pierre Féral, Christos Arvanitidis
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, inventorying and monitoring of marine biodiversity has significantly benefited from the active engagement of volunteers. Although several Citizen Science projects concern tropical reef ecosystems worldwide, none of the existing initiatives has yet specifically focused on their Mediterranean equivalents. Mediterranean coralline reefs, known as "coralligenous", are bioherms primarily built by calcifying rhodophytes on hard substrates under dim-light conditions; they are considered hotspots of biodiversity and are extremely popular among divers due to their complex structure, conspicuous biological wealth and high aesthetic value...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929128/extraordinary-behavioral-entrainment-following-circadian-rhythm-bifurcation-in-mice
#2
Elizabeth M Harrison, Thijs J Walbeek, Jonathan Sun, Jeremy Johnson, Qays Poonawala, Michael R Gorman
The mammalian circadian timing system uses light to synchronize endogenously generated rhythms with the environmental day. Entrainment to schedules that deviate significantly from 24 h (T24) has been viewed as unlikely because the circadian pacemaker appears capable only of small, incremental responses to brief light exposures. Challenging this view, we demonstrate that simple manipulations of light alone induce extreme plasticity in the circadian system of mice. Firstly, exposure to dim nocturnal illumination (<0...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906953/what-s-tramadol-got-to-do-with-it-a-case-report-of-rebound-hypoglycemia-a-reappraisal-and-review-of-potential-mechanisms
#3
Charles A Odonkor, Akhil Chhatre
BACKGROUND: Tramadol has gained traction as an analgesic of choice among pain practicing physicians. However some concerns regarding a previously unlabeled adverse reaction - hypoglycemia - have cast it in a dim light. Prior reports have noted an associated risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia after tramadol use, but whether tramadol is the main causal agent is poorly understood and the underlying mechanisms are not well delineated. We present a unique case of rebound hypoglycemia as a variation of the theme of tramadol's adverse effect profile in a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and reappraise potential mechanisms underlying this underappreciated phenomenon...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896899/characterization-of-a-novel-form-of-progressive-retinal-atrophy-in-whippet-dogs-a-clinical-electroretinographic-and-breeding-study
#4
André Tavares Somma, Juan Carlos Duque Moreno, Mario Teruo Sato, Blanche Dreher Rodrigues, Marianna Bacellar-Galdino, Laurence Mireille Occelli, Simon Michael Petersen-Jones, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: To describe a form of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) in Whippets including clinical, electroretinographic, optical coherence tomographic changes and pedigree analysis. ANIMALS STUDIED: Client-owned Whippet dogs (n = 51) living in Brazil. PROCEDURES: All animals were submitted for routine ophthalmic screening for presumed inherited ocular disease, which included the following: visual tests, such as obstacle course tests, in scotopic and photopic conditions, cotton ball test, dazzle reflex, ocular fundus evaluation by indirect ophthalmoscopy followed by fundus photography...
November 29, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886591/gambling-machine-annexes-as-enabling-spaces-for-addictive-engagement
#5
Peter J Adams, Janine Wiles
The widespread proliferation of electronic gambling machines and improvements to their design have contributed to rising levels of gambling-related harm including harms associated with addictive behaviour and other impacts on health and wellbeing. Research into their addictive potential has focused mainly on the interface between gamblers and the machines themselves. We shift the focus onto the spatial contexts, the rooms and the venues, in which gambling machines are positioned. By examining a series of common layouts we identify the division of venues into two main areas: one for the main social activities of the venue (the "main hall") and the other a partitioned area (the "annex") in which gambling machines are tightly clumped in ways that discourage social interaction...
November 22, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870848/genetically-blocking-the-zebrafish-pineal-clock-affects-circadian-behavior
#6
Zohar Ben-Moshe Livne, Shahar Alon, Daniela Vallone, Yared Bayleyen, Adi Tovin, Inbal Shainer, Laura G Nisembaum, Idit Aviram, Sima Smadja-Storz, Michael Fuentes, Jack Falcón, Eli Eisenberg, David C Klein, Harold A Burgess, Nicholas S Foulkes, Yoav Gothilf
The master circadian clock in fish has been considered to reside in the pineal gland. This dogma is challenged, however, by the finding that most zebrafish tissues contain molecular clocks that are directly reset by light. To further examine the role of the pineal gland oscillator in the zebrafish circadian system, we generated a transgenic line in which the molecular clock is selectively blocked in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland by a dominant-negative strategy. As a result, clock-controlled rhythms of melatonin production in the adult pineal gland were disrupted...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868260/an-experimental-study-of-adolescent-sleep-restriction-during-a-simulated-school-week-changes-in-phase-sleep-staging-performance-and-sleepiness
#7
Alex Agostini, Mary A Carskadon, Jillian Dorrian, Scott Coussens, Michelle A Short
This laboratory study investigated the impact of restricted sleep during a simulated school week on circadian phase, sleep stages and daytime functioning. Changes were examined across and within days and during a simulated weekend recovery. Participants were 12 healthy secondary school students (six male) aged 15-17 years [mean = 16.1 years, standard deviation (SD) = 0.9]. After 2 nights with 10 h (21:30-07:30 hours), time in bed was restricted to 5 h for 5 nights (02:30-07:30 hours), then returned to 10 h time in bed for 2 nights (21:30-07:30 hours)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847819/acute-mountain-sickness-symptoms-depend-on-normobaric-versus-hypobaric-hypoxia
#8
Dana M DiPasquale, Gary E Strangman, N Stuart Harris, Stephen R Muza
Acute mountain sickness (AMS), characterized by headache, nausea, fatigue, and dizziness when unacclimatized individuals rapidly ascend to high altitude, is exacerbated by exercise and can be disabling. Although AMS is observed in both normobaric (NH) and hypobaric hypoxia (HH), recent evidence suggests that NH and HH produce different physiological responses. We evaluated whether AMS symptoms were different in NH and HH during the initial stages of exposure and if the assessment tool mattered. Seventy-two 8 h exposures to normobaric normoxia (NN), NH, or HH were experienced by 36 subjects...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827445/decrease-in-fmri-brain-activation-during-working-memory-performed-after-sleeping-under-10-lux-light
#9
Seung-Gul Kang, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Chul-Hyun Cho, Soonwook Kwon, June Kang, Young-Min Park, Eunil Lee, Leen Kim, Heon-Jeong Lee
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) when sleeping on functional brain activation during a working-memory tasks. We conducted the brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis on 20 healthy male subjects. All participants slept in a polysomnography laboratory without light exposure on the first and second nights and under a dim-light condition of either 5 or 10 lux on the third night. The fMRI scanning was conducted during n-back tasks after second and third nights...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824104/degeneration-and-energy-shortage-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-underlies-the-circadian-rhythm-disturbance-in-apoe-mice-implications-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Lan Zhou, Qian Gao, Meng Nie, Jing-Li Gu, Wei Hao, Lin Wang, Ji-Min Cao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients suffer sleep disorders and circadian rhythm disturbances (CRDs). The underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood, and treatments are lacking. In this study, we characterized the locomotor activity, clock gene expression, morphological degeneration and energy metabolism of suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), together with retinal light sensing, in ApoE(-/-) mice, a model for AD. Compared with the control C57BL/6J mice, ApoE(-/-) mice exhibited disordered circadian locomotor activity under dim light and constant darkness, with impaired re-entrainment to phase change schedules...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821114/bright-light-therapy-in-pregnant-women-with-major-depressive-disorder-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-clinical-trial
#11
Babette Bais, Astrid M Kamperman, Marjolein D van der Zwaag, Gwen C Dieleman, Hanneke W Harmsen van der Vliet-Torij, Hilmar H Bijma, Ritsaert Lieverse, Witte J G Hoogendijk, Mijke P Lambregtse-van den Berg
BACKGROUND: Depression during pregnancy is a common and high impact disease. Generally, 5-10 % of pregnant women suffer from depression. Children who have been exposed to maternal depression during pregnancy have a higher risk of adverse birth outcomes and more often show cognitive, emotional and behavioural problems. Therefore, early detection and treatment of antepartum depression is necessary. Both psychotherapy and antidepressant medication, first choice treatments in a non-pregnant population, have limitations in treating depression during pregnancy...
November 8, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820822/light-effects-on-behavioural-performance-depend-on-the-individual-state-of-vigilance
#12
Ángel Correa, Antonio Barba, Francisca Padilla
Research has shown that exposure to bright white light or blue-enriched light enhances alertness, but this effect is not consistently observed in tasks demanding high-level cognition (e.g., Sustained Attention to Response Task-SART, which measures inhibitory control). Individual differences in sensitivity to light effects might be mediated by variations in the basal level of arousal. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the participants' behavioural state of vigilance before light exposure, through the Psychomotor Vigilance Task...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812851/pineal-volume-and-evening-melatonin-in-young-people-with-affective-disorders
#13
Joanne S Carpenter, Amy C Abelmann, Sean N Hatton, Rébecca Robillard, Daniel F Hermens, Maxwell R Bennett, Jim Lagopoulos, Ian B Hickie
Affective disorders in young people have been associated with disruptions in circadian rhythms, including abnormalities in secretion of the pineal hormone melatonin. Previous research reports relationships between pineal gland volumes, melatonin secretion, and sleep-wake cycles, but the relationship between these factors has not been explored in affective disorders. This study aimed to characterize these factors and explore associations with mood symptoms and functioning in a sample of young people with affective disorders...
November 3, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811293/a-second-visual-rhodopsin-gene-rh1-2-is-expressed-in-zebrafish-photoreceptors-and-found-in-other-ray-finned-fishes
#14
James M Morrow, Savo Lazic, Monica Dixon Fox, Claire Kuo, Ryan K Schott, Eduardo de A Gutierrez, Francesco Santini, Vincent Tropepe, Belinda S W Chang
Rhodopsin (rh1) is the visual pigment expressed in rod photoreceptors of vertebrates that is responsible for initiating the critical first step of dim-light vision. Rhodopsin is usually a single copy gene, however, we previously discovered a novel rhodopsin-like gene expressed in the zebrafish retina, rh1-2, which we identified as a functional photosensitive pigment that binds 11-cis retinal and activates in response to light. Here, we localize expression of rh1-2 in the zebrafish retina to a subset of peripheral photoreceptor cells, which indicates a partially overlapping expression pattern with rh1 We also express, purify, and characterize Rh1-2, including investigations of the stability of the biologically active intermediate...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802146/innate-preference-and-learning-of-colour-in-the-male-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera
#15
Aya Satoh, Michiyo Kinoshita, Kentaro Arikawa
We investigated the ability of colour discrimination and learning in male adults of nocturnal cotton bollworm moth, Helicoverpa armigera, under a dim light condition. The naïve moths preferred blue and discriminated the innately preferred blue from several shades of grey indicating that the moths have colour vision. After being trained for 2 days to take nectar at yellow, an innately non-preferred colour, moths learned to select yellow over blue. The choice distribution between yellow and blue changed significantly from that of naïve moths...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802145/three-dimensional-motion-tracking-reveals-a-diving-component-to-visual-and-auditory-escape-swims-in-zebrafish-larvae
#16
Benjamin H Bishop, Nathan Spence-Chorman, Ethan Gahtan
Escape behaviors have been studied in zebrafish by neuroscientists seeking cellular-level descriptions of neural circuits but few studies have examined vertical swimming during escapes. We analyzed 3-dimensional swimming paths of zebrafish larvae during visually-evoked and auditory-evoked escapes while the fish were in a cubical tank with equal vertical and lateral range. Visually-evoked escapes, elicited by sudden dimming of ambient light, consistently elicited downward spiral swimming (dives) with faster vertical than lateral movement...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797990/cohort-profile-the-baependi-heart-study-a-family-based-highly-admixed-cohort-study-in-a-rural-brazilian-town
#17
Kieren J Egan, Malcolm von Schantz, André B Negrão, Hadassa C Santos, Andréa R V R Horimoto, Nubia E Duarte, Guilherme C Gonçalves, Júlia M P Soler, Mariza de Andrade, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Homero Vallada, Tâmara P Taporoski, Mario Pedrazzoli, Ana P Azambuja, Camila M de Oliveira, Rafael O Alvim, José E Krieger, Alexandre C Pereira
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major challenge to global health. The same epidemiological transition scenario is replayed as countries develop, but with variations based on environment, culture and ethnic mixture. The Baependi Heart Study was set up in 2005 to develop a longitudinal family-based cohort study that reflects on some of the genetic and lifestyle-related peculiarities of the Brazilian populations, in order to evaluate genetic and environmental influences on CVD risk factor traits...
October 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795550/circadian-timing-and-alignment-in-healthy-adults-associations-with-bmi-body-fat-caloric-intake-and-physical-activity
#18
K G Baron, K J Reid, T Kim, L Van Horn, H Attarian, L Wolfe, J Siddique, G Santostasi, P C Zee
INTRODUCTION: Disruption of circadian rhythms is one of the proposed mechanisms linking late sleep timing to obesity risk but few studies have evaluated biological markers outside of the laboratory. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between the timing and alignment of melatonin and sleep onset (phase angle) with BMI, body fat and obesity related behaviors. We hypothesized that circadian alignment (relationship of melatonin to sleep timing) rather than circadian (melatonin) timing would be associated with higher BMI, body fat, dietary intake and lower physical activity...
October 31, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769202/a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-to-assess-the-effect-of-bright-light-therapy-on-depression-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Sonja Rutten, Chris Vriend, Jan H Smit, Henk W Berendse, Adriaan W Hoogendoorn, Odile A van den Heuvel, Ysbrand D van der Werf
BACKGROUND: A disturbed circadian rhythm seems to be a causal factor in the occurrence of depressive disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The circadian rhythm can be restored with light. Therefore, Bright Light Therapy (BLT) might be a new treatment option for depression in PD patients. METHODS/DESIGN: In this double-blind controlled trial, 84 subjects with idiopathic PD are randomized to either BLT or a control light condition. The BLT condition emits white light with an intensity of 10,000 Lux, while the control device emits dim white light of 200 Lux, which is presumed to be too low to influence the circadian rhythm...
October 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762290/dim-light-at-night-disturbs-the-daily-sleep-wake-cycle-in-the-rat
#20
Dirk Jan Stenvers, Rick van Dorp, Ewout Foppen, Jorge Mendoza, Anne-Loes Opperhuizen, Eric Fliers, Peter H Bisschop, Johanna H Meijer, Andries Kalsbeek, Tom Deboer
Exposure to light at night (LAN) is associated with insomnia in humans. Light provides the main input to the master clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that coordinates the sleep-wake cycle. We aimed to develop a rodent model for the effects of LAN on sleep. Therefore, we exposed male Wistar rats to either a 12 h light (150-200lux):12 h dark (LD) schedule or a 12 h light (150-200 lux):12 h dim white light (5 lux) (LDim) schedule. LDim acutely decreased the amplitude of daily rhythms of REM and NREM sleep, with a further decrease over the following days...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
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