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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430415/omnidirectional-harvesting-of-weak-light-using-a-graphene-quantum-dot-modified-organic-silicon-hybrid-device
#1
Meng-Lin Tsai, Dung-Sheng Tsai, Libin Tang, Lih-Juann Chen, Shu Ping Lau, Jr-Hau He
Despite great improvements in traditional inorganic photodetectors and photovoltaics, more progress is needed in the detection/collection of light at low-level conditions. Traditional photodetectors tend to suffer from high noise when operated at room temperature; therefore these devices require additional cooling systems to detect weak or dim light. Conventional solar cells also face the challenge of poor light-harvesting capabilities in hazy or cloudy weather. The real world features such varying levels of light, which makes it important to develop strategies that allow optical devices to function when conditions are less than optimal...
April 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429215/effect-of-preparation-based-on-trametes-pubescens-xylotroph-fungi-on-lipid-peroxidation-in-the-blood-of-experimental-animals-under-conditions-of-dark-stress
#2
L I Kolesnikova, S I Kolesnikov, E D Romanova, V A Chkhenkeli, M A Darenskaya, L A Grebenkina, L I Korytov, O V Bugun, N V Koroleva, I N Gutnik, F F Antonenko
Using the model of dark stress caused by animal maintenance at dimmed light we showed that Trametin (product obtained during liquid-phase culturing of Trametes pubescens xylotroph fungi) effectively prevented oxidative stress under conditions of light deprivation. The preparation increased the level of unsaturation of lipids, reduced the concentration of primary and end-products of LPO, and increases both the integral parameter of the antioxidant defense system (total antioxidant activity) and its components (activity of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione)...
April 20, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427391/fish-with-red-fluorescent-eyes-forage-more-efficiently-under-dim-blue-green-light-conditions
#3
Ulrike Katharina Harant, Nicolaas Karel Michiels
BACKGROUND: Natural red fluorescence is particularly conspicuous in the eyes of some small, benthic, predatory fishes. Fluorescence also increases in relative efficiency with increasing depth, which has generated speculation about its possible function as a "light organ" to detect cryptic organisms under bluish light. Here we investigate whether foraging success is improved under ambient conditions that make red fluorescence stand out more, using the triplefin Tripterygion delaisi as a model system...
April 20, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426025/modular-low-light-microscope-for-imaging-cellular-bioluminescence-and-radioluminescence
#4
Tae Jin Kim, Silvan Türkcan, Guillem Pratx
Low-light microscopy methods are receiving increased attention as new applications have emerged. One such application is to allow longitudinal imaging of light-sensitive cells with no phototoxicity and no photobleaching of fluorescent biomarkers. Another application is for imaging signals that are inherently dim and undetectable using standard microscopy techniques, such as bioluminescence, chemiluminescence or radioluminescence. In this protocol, we provide instructions on how to build a modular low-light microscope (1-4 d) by coupling two microscope objective lenses, back to back from each other, using standard optomechanical components...
May 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425474/invasion-of-ancestral-mammals-into-dim-light-environments-inferred-from-adaptive-evolution-of-the-phototransduction-genes
#5
Yonghua Wu, Haifeng Wang, Elizabeth A Hadly
Nocturnality is a key evolutionary innovation of mammals that enables mammals to occupy relatively empty nocturnal niches. Invasion of ancestral mammals into nocturnality has long been inferred from the phylogenetic relationships of crown Mammalia, which is primarily nocturnal, and crown Reptilia, which is primarily diurnal, although molecular evidence for this is lacking. Here we used phylogenetic analyses of the vision genes involved in the phototransduction pathway to predict the diel activity patterns of ancestral mammals and reptiles...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405608/circadian-phase-resetting-by-a-single-short-duration-light-exposure
#6
Shadab A Rahman, Melissa A St Hilaire, Anne-Marie Chang, Nayantara Santhi, Jeanne F Duffy, Richard E Kronauer, Charles A Czeisler, Steven W Lockley, Elizabeth B Klerman
BACKGROUND. In humans, a single light exposure of 12 minutes and multiple-millisecond light exposures can shift the phase of the circadian pacemaker. We investigated the response of the human circadian pacemaker to a single 15-second or 2-minute light pulse administered during the biological night. METHODS. Twenty-six healthy individuals participated in a 9-day inpatient protocol that included assessment of dim light melatonin onset time (DLMO time) before and after exposure to a single 15-second (n = 8) or 2-minute (n = 12) pulse of bright light (9,500 lux; 4,100 K fluorescent) or control background dim light (<3 lux; n = 6)...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387117/performance-characterization-of-dye-sensitized-photovoltaics-under-indoor-lighting
#7
Chia-Yuan Chen, Zih-Hong Jian, Shih-Han Huang, Kun-Mu Lee, Ming-Hsuan Kao, Chang-Hong Shen, Jia-Min Shieh, Chin-Li Wang, Chiung-Wen Chang, Bo-Zhi Lin, Ching-Yao Lin, Ting-Kuang Chang, Yun Chi, Cheng-Yu Chi, Wei-Ting Wang, Yian Tai, Ming-De Lu, Yung-Liang Tung, Po-Ting Chou, Wen-Ti Wu, Tahsin J Chow, Peter Chen, Xiang-Hao Luo, Yuh-Lang Lee, Chih-Chung Wu, Chih-Ming Chen, Chen-Yu Yeh, Miao-Syuan Fan, Jia-De Peng, Kuo-Chuan Ho, Yu-Nan Liu, Hsiao-Yi Lee, Chien-Yu Chen, Hao-Wu Lin, Chia-Te Yen, Yu-Ching Huang, Cheng-Si Tsao, Yu-Chien Ting, Tzu-Chien Wei, Chun-Guey Wu
Indoor utilization of emerging photovoltaics is promising; however, efficiency characterization under room lighting is challenging. We report the first round-robin interlaboratory study of performance measurement for dye-sensitized photovoltaics (cells and mini-modules) and one silicon solar cell under a fluorescent dim light. Among 15 research groups, the relative deviation in power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the samples reaches an unprecedented 152%. On the basis of the comprehensive results, the gap between photometry and radiometry measurements and the response of devices to the dim illumination are identified as critical obstacles to the correct PCE...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385173/novel-augmentation-strategies-in-major-depression
#8
Klaus Martiny
Hypothesis The hypotheses of all the four included studies share the common idea that it is possible to augment the effect of antidepressant drug treatment by applying different interventions and with each intervention attain a clinically meaningful better effect compared to a control condition, and with minor side effects, thus improving the short- and medium-term outcome in major depression. Procedures Study design The basic study design has been the double blind randomised controlled trial (RCT). In the light therapy study, all patients were treated with sertraline for the whole of the study duration...
April 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381642/voltage-dependent-k-channels-improve-the-energy-efficiency-of-signalling-in-blowfly-photoreceptors
#9
Francisco J H Heras, John Anderson, Simon B Laughlin, Jeremy E Niven
Voltage-dependent conductances in many spiking neurons are tuned to reduce action potential energy consumption, so improving the energy efficiency of spike coding. However, the contribution of voltage-dependent conductances to the energy efficiency of analogue coding, by graded potentials in dendrites and non-spiking neurons, remains unclear. We investigate the contribution of voltage-dependent conductances to the energy efficiency of analogue coding by modelling blowfly R1-6 photoreceptor membrane. Two voltage-dependent delayed rectifier K(+) conductances (DRs) shape the membrane's voltage response and contribute to light adaptation...
April 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378363/impact-of-sleep-inertia-on-visual-selective-attention-for-rare-targets-and-the-influence-of-chronotype
#10
Hannah K Ritchie, Tina M Burke, Tristan B Dear, Andrew W Mchill, John Axelsson, Kenneth P Wright
Sleep inertia is affected by circadian phase, with worse performance upon awakening from sleep during the biological night than biological day. Visual search/selective visual attention performance is known to be sensitive to sleep inertia and circadian phase. Individual differences exist in the circadian timing of habitual wake time, which may contribute to individual differences in sleep inertia. Because later chronotypes awaken at an earlier circadian phase, we hypothesized that later chronotypes would have worse visual search performance during sleep inertia than earlier chronotypes if awakened at habitual wake time...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377293/insights-into-substrate-modification-by-dehydratases-from-type-i-polyketide-synthases
#11
Alexandre Faille, Sabine Gavalda, Nawel Slama, Christian Lherbet, Laurent Maveyraud, Valérie Guillet, Françoise Laval, Annaïk Quémard, Lionel Mourey, Jean-Denis Pedelacq
Dehydration reactions play a crucial role for de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids and a wide range of pharmacologically active polyketide natural products with strong emphasis in human medicine. The type I polyketide synthase PpsC from Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalyzes key biosynthetic steps of lipid virulence factors phthiocerol dimycocerosates (DIM) and phenolic glycolipids (PGL). Given the insolubility of the natural C28-C30 fatty acyl substrate of the PpsC DH domain, we investigated its structure-function relationships in the presence of shorter surrogate substrates...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374068/light-at-night-acutely-impairs-glucose-tolerance-in-a-time-intensity-and-wavelength-dependent-manner-in-rats
#12
Anne-Loes Opperhuizen, Dirk J Stenvers, Remi D Jansen, Ewout Foppen, Eric Fliers, Andries Kalsbeek
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Exposure to light at night (LAN) has increased dramatically in recent decades. Animal studies have shown that chronic dim LAN induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Furthermore, several studies in humans have demonstrated that chronic exposure to artificial LAN may have adverse health effects with an increased risk of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes. It is well-known that acute exposure to LAN affects biological clock function, hormone secretion and the activity of the autonomic nervous system, but data on the effects of LAN on glucose homeostasis are lacking...
April 3, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366816/the-impact-of-morning-light-intensity-and-environmental-temperature-on-body-temperatures-and-alertness
#13
Marije Te Kulve, Luc J M Schlangen, Lisje Schellen, Arjan J H Frijns, Wouter D van Marken Lichtenbelt
Indoor temperature and light exposure are known to affect body temperature, productivity and alertness of building occupants. However, not much is known about the interaction between light and temperature exposure and the relationship between morning light induced alertness and its effect on body temperature. Light intensity and room temperature during morning office hours were investigated under strictly controlled conditions. In a randomized crossover study, two white light conditions (4000K, either bright 1200lx or dim 5lx) under three different room temperatures (26, 29 and 32°C) were investigated...
March 30, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364493/effects-of-melatonin-and-bright-light-treatment-in-childhood-chronic-sleep-onset-insomnia-with-late-melatonin-onset-a-randomized-controlled-study
#14
Annette van Maanen, Anne Marie Meijer, Marcel G Smits, Kristiaan B van der Heijden, Frans J Oort
Study Objectives: Chronic sleep onset insomnia with late melatonin onset is prevalent in childhood, and has negative daytime consequences. Melatonin treatment is known to be effective in treating these sleep problems. Bright light therapy might be an alternative treatment, with potential advantages over melatonin treatment. In this study, we compare the effects of melatonin and bright light treatment with a placebo condition in children with chronic sleep onset insomnia and late melatonin onset...
February 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364473/prevalence-of-circadian-misalignment-and-its-association-with-depressive-symptoms-in-delayed-sleep-phase-disorder
#15
Jade M Murray, Tracey L Sletten, Michelle Magee, Christopher Gordon, Nicole Lovato, Delwyn J Bartlett, David J Kennaway, Leon C Lack, Ronald R Grunstein, Steven W Lockley, Shantha M W Rajaratnam
Study Objective: To examine the prevalence of circadian misalignment in clinically diagnosed delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) and to compare mood and daytime functioning in those with and without a circadian basis for the disorder. Methods: One hundred and eighty-two DSPD patients aged 16-64 years, engaged in regular employment or school, underwent sleep-wake monitoring in the home, followed by a sleep laboratory visit for assessment of salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO)...
January 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364421/development-of-circadian-sleep-regulation-in-the-rat-a-longitudinal-study-under-constant-conditions
#16
Marcos G Frank, Norman F Ruby, Horace Craig Heller, Paul Franken
Study Objectives: To better understand the development of sleep, we characterized the development of circadian rhythms in sleep and wakefulness in the artificially-reared, isolated rat pup using an experimental design that minimized the effects of maternal separation. Methods: Neonatal rats were reared in constant conditions (dim red light) while electroencephalographic and electromyographic signals were continuously recorded for up to 3 weeks. This time period spanned the preweaned and weaned ages...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361901/parental-exposure-to-dim-light-at-night-prior-to-mating-alters-offspring-adaptive-immunity
#17
Yasmine M Cissé, Kathryn L G Russart, Randy J Nelson
Exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) disrupts natural light/dark cycles and impairs endogenous circadian rhythms necessary to maintain optimal biological function, including the endocrine and immune systems. We have previously demonstrated that white dLAN compromises innate and cell mediated immune responses in adult Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). We hypothesized that dLAN has transgenerational influences on immune function. Adult male and female Siberian hamsters were exposed to either dark nights (DARK) or dLAN (~5 lux) for 9 weeks, then paired in full factorial design, mated, and thereafter housed under dark nights...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355662/-photoreceptor-transplantation-into-the-degenerative-retina
#18
O Borsch, T Santos-Ferreira, M Ader
Vision impairment and blindness due to photoreceptor loss represents one of the major causes for disability in industrialized societies. Whereas rod photoreceptors allow vision under dim light conditions, cone photoreceptors provide high-acuity vision in daylight conditions and color detection. Several therapeutic strategies are currently developed to repair vision loss, including cell-based interventions. Within the last decade, major progress regarding the replacement of photoreceptors by transplantation has been made in pre-clinical animal models...
March 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349282/detailed-electroretinographic-findings-in-rd8-mice
#19
Alan B Saul, Xuezhi Cui, Shanu Markand, Sylvia B Smith
PURPOSE: Previous work has suggested that the retinal degeneration mutant rd8 mouse lacks an electroretinographic (ERG) phenotype until about 9 months of age. We evaluated the ERG phenotype of these mice by measuring both conventional ERG responses and scotopic threshold responses. METHODS: Groups of 4-month-old wild-type (WT) and mutant (rd8) mice were anesthetized and tested for mass retinal responses (ERGs) to several types of visual stimuli. Scotopic threshold responses were accumulated with brief scotopic flashes at a series of very dim intensities...
March 27, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334493/glucose-metabolism-in-mammalian-photoreceptor-inner-and-outer-segments
#20
REVIEW
Daniel S Narayan, Glyn Chidlow, John Pm Wood, Robert J Casson
Photoreceptors are the first order neurons of the visual pathway, converting light into electrical signals. Rods and cones are the two main types of photoreceptors in the mammalian retina. Rods are specialized for sensitivity at the expense of resolution and are responsible for vision in dimly lit conditions. Cones are responsible for high acuity central vision and colour vision. Many human retinal diseases are characterized by a progressive loss of photoreceptors. Photoreceptors consist of four primary regions: outer segments, inner segments, cell bodies, and synaptic terminals...
March 23, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
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