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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731695/how-rhodopsin-tunes-the-equilibrium-between-protonated-and-deprotonated-forms-of-the-retinal-chromophore
#1
Siri Camee van Keulen, Alicia Solano, Ursula Rothlisberger
Rhodopsin is a photoactive G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that converts dim light into a signal for the brain, leading to eyesight. Full activation of this GPCR is achieved after passing through several steps of the protein's photoactivation pathway. Key events of rhodopsin activation are the initial cis-trans photoisomerisation of the covalently bound retinal moiety followed by conformational rearrangements and deprotonation of the chromophore's protonated Schiff base (PSB), which ultimately lead to full activation in the meta II state...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729748/on-flare-cme-characteristics-from-sun-to-earth-combining-remote-sensing-image-data-with-in-situ-measurements-supported-by-modeling
#2
Manuela Temmer, Julia K Thalmann, Karin Dissauer, Astrid M Veronig, Johannes Tschernitz, Jürgen Hinterreiter, Luciano Rodriguez
We analyze the well-observed flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) from 1 October 2011 (SOL2011-10-01T09:18) covering the complete chain of effects - from Sun to Earth - to better understand the dynamic evolution of the CME and its embedded magnetic field. We study in detail the solar surface and atmosphere associated with the flare and CME using the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and ground-based instruments. We also track the CME signature off-limb with combined extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and white-light data from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)...
2017: Solar Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716735/pupillary-measurements-and-anisocoria-in-chinese-preschoolers-3-4-years-of-age-screened-using-the-plusoptix-a12c
#3
Dan Huang, Xiaohan Zhang, Yue Wang, Hui Zhu, Hui Ding, Jing Bai, Ji Chen, Zhujun Fu, Zijin Wang, Xuejuan Chen, Hu Liu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the distribution of the pupil diameter and distance and the incidence of anisocoria in a screening setting for Chinese preschoolers 3-4 years of age. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in children aged 3-4 years in Nanjing, China. Plusoptix photoscreening was conducted without cycloplegia. Additional assessments were conducted, including light reaction test, reevaluation for anisocoria (in dim and bright light), swinging-flashlight test, and cocaine test, if necessary...
July 14, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711776/sleep-wake-profiles-and-circadian-rhythms-of-core-temperature-and-melatonin-in-young-people-with-affective-disorders
#4
Joanne S Carpenter, Rébecca Robillard, Daniel F Hermens, Sharon L Naismith, Christopher Gordon, Elizabeth M Scott, Ian B Hickie
While disturbances of the sleep-wake cycle are common in people with affective disorders, the characteristics of these disturbances differ greatly between individuals. This heterogeneity is likely to reflect multiple underlying pathophysiologies, with different perturbations in circadian systems contributing to the variation in sleep-wake cycle disturbances. Such disturbances may be particularly relevant in adolescents and young adults with affective disorders as circadian rhythms undergo considerable change during this key developmental period...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711262/genetic-and-nongenetic-factors-associated-with-milk-color-in-dairy-cows
#5
S Scarso, S McParland, G Visentin, D P Berry, A McDermott, M De Marchi
Milk color is one of the sensory properties that can influence consumer choice of one product over another and it influences the quality of processed dairy products. This study aims to quantify the cow-level genetic and nongenetic factors associated with bovine milk color traits. A total of 136,807 spectra from Irish commercial and research herds (with multiple breeds and crosses) were used. Milk lightness ( Lˆ*) red-green index ( aˆ*) and yellow-blue index ( bˆ*) were predicted for individual milk samples using only the mid-infrared spectrum of the milk sample...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692905/prediction-of-outcome-of-bright-light-treatment-in-patients-with-seasonal-affective-disorder-discarding-the-early-response-confirming-a-higher-atypical-balance-and-uncovering-a-higher-body-mass-index-at-baseline-as-predictors-of-endpoint-outcome
#6
Tzvetelina D Dimitrova, Gloria M Reeves, Soren Snitker, Manana Lapidus, Aamar R Sleemi, Theodora G Balis, Partam Manalai, Muhammad M Tariq, Johanna A Cabassa, Naila N Karim, Mary A Johnson, Patricia Langenberg, Kelly J Rohan, Michael Miller, John W Stiller, Teodor T Postolache
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that the early improvement in mood after the first hour of bright light treatment compared to control dim-red light would predict the outcome at six weeks of bright light treatment for depressed mood in patients with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). We also analyzed the value of Body Mass Index (BMI) and atypical symptoms of depression at baseline in predicting treatment outcome. METHODS: Seventy-eight adult participants were enrolled...
November 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690558/blue-enriched-white-light-enhances-physiological-arousal-but-not-behavioral-performance-during-simulated-driving-at-early-night
#7
Beatriz Rodríguez-Morilla, Juan A Madrid, Enrique Molina, Angel Correa
Vigilance usually deteriorates over prolonged driving at non-optimal times of day. Exposure to blue-enriched light has shown to enhance arousal, leading to behavioral benefits in some cognitive tasks. However, the cognitive effects of long-wavelength light have been less studied and its effects on driving performance remained to be addressed. We tested the effects of a blue-enriched white light (BWL) and a long-wavelength orange light (OL) vs. a control condition of dim light on subjective, physiological and behavioral measures at 21:45 h...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676737/gene-therapy-in-a-large-animal-model-of-pde6a-retinitis-pigmentosa
#8
Freya M Mowat, Laurence M Occelli, Joshua T Bartoe, Kristen J Gervais, Ashlee R Bruewer, Janice Querubin, Astra Dinculescu, Sanford L Boye, William W Hauswirth, Simon M Petersen-Jones
Despite mutations in the rod phosphodiesterase 6-alpha (PDE6A) gene being well-recognized as a cause of human retinitis pigmentosa, no definitive treatments have been developed to treat this blinding disease. We performed a trial of retinal gene augmentation in the Pde6a mutant dog using Pde6a delivery by capsid-mutant adeno-associated virus serotype 8, previously shown to have a rapid onset of transgene expression in the canine retina. Subretinal injections were performed in 10 dogs at 29-44 days of age, and electroretinography and vision testing were performed to assess functional outcome...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676736/lower-in-vivo-myo-inositol-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-correlates-with-delayed-melatonin-rhythms-in-young-persons-with-depression
#9
Rébecca Robillard, Jim Lagopoulos, Daniel F Hermens, Sharon L Naismith, Naomi L Rogers, Django White, Joanne S Carpenter, Manreena Kaur, Elizabeth M Scott, Ian B Hickie
Myo-inositol, a second messenger glucose isomer and glial marker, is potentiated by melatonin. In addition to common abnormalities in melatonin regulation, depressive disorders have been associated with reduced myo-inositol in frontal structures. This study examined associations between myo-inositol in the anterior cingulate cortex and the timing of evening melatonin release. Forty young persons with unipolar depression were recruited from specialized mental health services (20.3 ± 3.8 years old). Healthy controls were recruited from the community (21...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667303/measurement-of-stokes-operator-squeezing-for-continuous-variable-orbital-angular-momentum
#10
Jun Guo, Chunxiao Cai, Long Ma, Kui Liu, Hengxin Sun, Jiangrui Gao
We demonstrate experimentally a measurement scheme for the Stokes operators for the continuous-variable squeezed states of orbital angular momentum (OAM). An OAM squeezed state is generated by coupling a dim Hermite-Gauss HG01-mode quadrature-squeezed light beam with a bright HG10-mode coherent light beam on a 98/2 beam splitter. Using an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer with an extra Dove prism in one arm, we measured the three orbital Stokes operators of the OAM squeezed states with a self-homodyne detection and finally characterized their positions and noise on the orbital Poincaré sphere...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653274/spatial-updating-of-multiple-targets-comparison-of-younger-and-older-adults
#11
Christopher R Bennett, Jack M Loomis, Roberta L Klatzky, Nicholas A Giudice
When walking without vision, people mentally keep track of the directions and distances of previously viewed objects, a process called spatial updating. The current experiment indicates that while people across a large age range are able to update multiple targets in memory without perceptual support, aging negatively affects accuracy, precision, and decision time. Participants (20 to 80 years of age) viewed one, three, or six targets (colored lights) on the floor of a dimly lit room. Then, without vision, they walked to a target designated by color, either directly or indirectly (via a forward turning point)...
June 26, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651468/human-adolescent-phase-response-curves-to-bright-white-light
#12
Stephanie J Crowley, Charmane I Eastman
Older adolescents are particularly vulnerable to circadian misalignment and sleep restriction, primarily due to early school start times. Light can shift the circadian system and could help attenuate circadian misalignment; however, a phase response curve (PRC) to determine the optimal time for receiving light and avoiding light is not available for adolescents. We constructed light PRCs for late pubertal to postpubertal adolescents aged 14 to 17 years. Participants completed 2 counterbalanced 5-day laboratory sessions after 8 or 9 days of scheduled sleep at home...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644985/depressive-like-behavior-is-elevated-among-offspring-of-parents-exposed-to-dim-light-at-night-prior-to-mating
#13
Yasmine M Cissé, Kathryn L G Russart, Randy J Nelson
Rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) have steadily increased over the past 50 years. Many factors have been implicated in the etiology of depressive disorders and environmental influences are being increasingly recognized. The increase in depression rates has coincided with increased artificial nighttime lighting. Exposure to light at night (LAN) has been associated with increased depressive-like behavior in rodents and decreased mood in humans. However, relatively little is known on the multigenerational effects of dLAN on affect...
June 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642345/evolution-of-nonspectral-rhodopsin-function-at-high-altitudes
#14
Gianni M Castiglione, Frances E Hauser, Brian S Liao, Nathan K Lujan, Alexander Van Nynatten, James M Morrow, Ryan K Schott, Nihar Bhattacharyya, Sarah Z Dungan, Belinda S W Chang
High-altitude environments present a range of biochemical and physiological challenges for organisms through decreases in oxygen, pressure, and temperature relative to lowland habitats. Protein-level adaptations to hypoxic high-altitude conditions have been identified in multiple terrestrial endotherms; however, comparable adaptations in aquatic ectotherms, such as fishes, have not been as extensively characterized. In enzyme proteins, cold adaptation is attained through functional trade-offs between stability and activity, often mediated by substitutions outside the active site...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637860/higher-order-neural-processing-tunes-motion-neurons-to-visual-ecology-in-three-species-of-hawkmoths
#15
A L Stöckl, D O'Carroll, E J Warrant
To sample information optimally, sensory systems must adapt to the ecological demands of each animal species. These adaptations can occur peripherally, in the anatomical structures of sensory organs and their receptors; and centrally, as higher-order neural processing in the brain. While a rich body of investigations has focused on peripheral adaptations, our understanding is sparse when it comes to central mechanisms. We quantified how peripheral adaptations in the eyes, and central adaptations in the wide-field motion vision system, set the trade-off between resolution and sensitivity in three species of hawkmoths active at very different light levels: nocturnal Deilephila elpenor, crepuscular Manduca sexta, and diurnal Macroglossum stellatarum...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637032/investigation-of-an-immediate-effect-of-bright-light-on-oxygen-consumption-heart-rate-cortisol-and-%C3%AE-amylase-in-seasonal-affective-disorder-subjects-and-healthy-controls
#16
Iana A Ivanova, Konstantin V Danilenko, Lyubomir I Aftanas
BACKGROUND: Body (fat) mass has been shown to decrease following bright light treatment for overweight women, irrespective of their seasonal (light) dependence. It is not known if this is due to an (immediate) increase of metabolism. METHODS: Ten women with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and 10 non-SAD women matched by age, body mass index, and menopausal status participated in a laboratory study in the morning, twice within 1-5 days. During one session, bright light (4,300 lx) was presented for 30 min, and during the other session, red light (250 lx "placebo") was used...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637029/blue-enriched-morning-light-as-a-countermeasure-to-light-at-the-wrong-time-effects-on-cognition-sleepiness-sleep-and-circadian-phase
#17
Mirjam Münch, Claudia Nowozin, Johannes Regente, Frederik Bes, Jan De Zeeuw, Sven Hädel, Amely Wahnschaffe, Dieter Kunz
Light during the day and darkness at night are crucial factors for proper entrainment of the human circadian system to the solar 24-h day. However, modern life and work styles have led to much more time spent indoors, often with lower daytime and higher evening/nighttime light intensity from electrical lighting than outdoors. Whether this has long-term consequences for human health is being currently investigated. We tested if bright blue-enriched morning light over several days could counteract the detrimental effects of inadequate daytime and evening lighting...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633582/dopamine-and-light-effects-on-facial-emotion-recognition
#18
Elizabeth Cawley, Maria Tippler, Nicholas J Coupland, Chawki Benkelfat, Diane B Boivin, Marije Aan Het Rot, Marco Leyton
Bright light can affect mood states and social behaviours. Here, we tested potential interacting effects of light and dopamine on facial emotion recognition. Participants were 32 women with subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder tested in either a bright (3000 lux) or dim light (10 lux) environment. Each participant completed two test days, one following the ingestion of a phenylalanine/tyrosine-deficient mixture and one with a nutritionally balanced control mixture, both administered double blind in a randomised order...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624918/randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-effect-of-environment-on-patient-embarrassment-and-anxiety-with-urodynamics
#19
Azadeh Rezvan, Stephanie Amaya, Lance Betson, Tajnoos Yazdany
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: In previous survey studies, women undergoing urodynamic testing (UDT) have reported bother and embarrassment and have provided suggestions for improving the experience. The suggestions include audio distraction and increased privacy, neither of which have been prospectively examined. We report a prospective randomized controlled trial to evaluate the hypothesis that an improved ambience can decrease UDT-related embarrassment and anxiety. METHODS: A total of 60 participants were recruited to achieve an 80% power to detect a conservative 20-point difference with a significance level of 0...
June 17, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617488/potential-use-of-the-pri-and-active-fluorescence-for-the-diagnosis-of-the-physiological-state-of-plants-under-ozone-exposure-and-high-atmospheric-vapor-pressure-deficit
#20
Elodie Merlier, Gabriel Hmimina, Matthieu Bagard, Eric Dufrêne, Kamel Soudani
Assessing photosynthesis rates with remote sensing is important for tracking the physiological state of plants. The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is a good estimator of short-term light-use efficiency (LUE) at the leaf scale but its responses to environmental factors are poorly understood. In this study, we assessed changes in the responses of the PRI to ozone exposure and to an increase in atmospheric drought (separately and combined) in oak (Quercus robur) and holm oak (Quercus ilex) that were planted in climatic cells under controlled conditions...
June 15, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
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