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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102700/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-deficient-mice-are-protected-from-high-fat-diet-induced-changes-in-metabolic-rhythms
#1
Cassie Jaeger, Canxin Xu, Mingwei Sun, Stacey Krager, Shelley A Tischkau
High fat diet (HFD) consumption alters the synchronized circadian timing system resulting in harmful loss, gain or shift of transcriptional oscillations. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) shares structural homology to clock genes, containing both PAS domains and basic helix-loop helix structural motifs, allowing for interaction with components of the primary circadian feedback loop. Activation of AhR alters circadian rhythmicity, primarily through inhibition of Clock/Bmal1-mediated regulation of Per1. AhR-deficient mice are protected from diet-induced metabolic dysfunction, exhibiting enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance...
January 19, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101904/functional-analysis-of-the-circadian-clock-gene-timeless-in-tribolium-castaneum
#2
Chengjun Li, Xiaopei Yun, Xiaojuan Yu, Bin Li
Circadian rhythms are endogenous oscillations with a period of about 24 h driven by a circadian clock. So far, the variable oscillators were designed in insects. To explore the circadian clock of Tribolium castaneum, we have cloned the clock gene timeless (Tctimeless). Its open reading frame is 3240 bp in length and consists of 10 exons. Tctimeless is highly expressed in the late pupal stage. Tissue-specific expression analysis in late adult stages revealed high expression of Tctimeless in the head, epidermis, fat body and accessory glands...
January 19, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101270/using-online-active-learning-techniques-to-convey-time-compensated-sun-compass-orientation-in-the-eastern-north-american-monarch
#3
Noah H Green, Douglas G McMahon, Cynthia Brame
A common tool that animals use to navigate in a constant direction is known as "time compensated sun compass orientation." This is a process by which animals use the position of the sun along with information from their internal circadian clocks to determine and maintain a directional heading. Many circadian scientists and educators use this process as an example of how the internal circadian clock can directly influence animal behavior. However, many students have difficulty grasping this biological process due to its multivariable nature...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100634/cryptochromes-regulate-igf-1-production-and-signaling-through-control-jak2-dependent-stat5b-phosphorylation
#4
Amol Chaudhari, Richa Gupta, Sonal Patel, Nikkhil Velingkaar, Roman Kondratov
Insulin like growth factor (IGF) signaling plays an important role in cell growth and proliferation and implicated in regulation of cancer, metabolism and aging. Here we report that IGF-1 level in blood and IGF-1 signaling demonstrates circadian rhythms. Circadian control occurs through Cryptochromes (CRYs), transcriptional repressors and components of the circadian clock. IGF-1 rhythms are disrupted in Cry deficient mice and IGF-1 level is reduced by 80% in these mice, which leads to reduced IGF signaling...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100385/-phylogenetic-analysis-of-envelope-gene-of-dengue-virus-serotype-2-in-guangzhou-2001-2015
#5
Y Liu, L Y Jiang, L Luo, Y M Cao, Q L Jing, Z C Yang
Objective: To investigate the molecular characteristics of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) in Guangzhou during 2001-2015, and analyze the E gene of the strains isolated, the phylogenetic tree and molecular clock were constructed to know about the evolution of the strains. Methods: The serum samples of the patients were detected by real time PCR, and positive samples were used to isolate dengue virus by using C6/36 cells. The E gene of the isolated strains were sequenced. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by using software Mega 4...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099792/implementing-an-error-disclosure-coaching-model-a-multicenter-case-study
#6
Andrew A White, Douglas M Brock, Patricia I McCotter, Sarah E Shannon, Thomas H Gallagher
National guidelines call for health care organizations to provide around-the-clock coaching for medical error disclosure. However, frontline clinicians may not always seek risk managers for coaching. As part of a demonstration project designed to improve patient safety and reduce malpractice liability, we trained multidisciplinary disclosure coaches at 8 health care organizations in Washington State. The training was highly rated by participants, although not all emerged confident in their coaching skill. This multisite intervention can serve as a model for other organizations looking to enhance existing disclosure capabilities...
January 2017: Journal of Healthcare Risk Management: the Journal of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099496/plasticity-of-daily-behavioral-rhythms-in-foragers-and-nurses-of-the-ant-camponotus-rufipes-influence-of-social-context-and-feeding-times
#7
Stephanie Mildner, Flavio Roces
Daily activities within an ant colony need precise temporal organization, and an endogenous clock appears to be essential for such timing processes. A clock drives locomotor rhythms in isolated workers in a number of ant species, but its involvement in activities displayed in the social context is unknown. We compared locomotor rhythms in isolated individuals and behavioral rhythms in the social context of workers of the ant Camponotus rufipes. Both forager and nurse workers exhibited circadian rhythms in locomotor activity under constant conditions, indicating the involvement of an endogenous clock...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099477/chronic-maternal-low-protein-diet-in-mice-affects-anxiety-night-time-energy-expenditure-and-sleep-patterns-but-not-circadian-rhythm-in-male-offspring
#8
Randy F Crossland, Alfred Balasa, Rajesh Ramakrishnan, Sangeetha K Mahadevan, Marta L Fiorotto, Ignatia B Van den Veyver
Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP) diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decreased liver enzyme serum levels. We conducted energy expenditure, neurobehavioral and circadian rhythm assays in male offspring to examine mechanisms for the body-weight phenotype and assess neurodevelopmental implications of MLP exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098888/hclock-induction-by-hypoxia-promotes-inflammatory-responses-by-activating-the-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#9
Xiao Tang, Daqiao Guo, Changpo Lin, Zhenyu Shi, Ruizhe Qian, Weiguo Fu, Jianjun Liu, Xu Li, Longhua Fan
The expression and secretion of infla-mmation‑associated cytokines are induced by hypoxia. Circadian locomotor output cycles protein kaput (CLOCK) has previously been shown to activate the nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) pathway, which is a key transcription factor during hypoxia. The present study evaluated the role of the NF‑κB pathway in the CLOCK‑induced inflammatory response. Under hypoxic conditions, the expression levels of NF‑κB and proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)‑1, IL‑1β, IL‑6, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, cyclooxygenase 2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha, were significantly increased compared with under control conditions...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098396/the-effects-of-chronic-cobalt-and-chromium-exposure-after-metal-on-metal-hip-resurfacing-an-epigenome-wide-association-pilot-study
#10
Julia Steinberg, Karan M Shah, Alison Gartland, Eleftheria Zeggini, J Mark Wilkinson
Metal-on-metal (MOM) hip resurfacing has recently been a popular prosthesis choice for the treatment of symptomatic arthritis, but results in the release of cobalt and chromium ions into the circulation that can be associated with adverse clinical effects. The mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. While chromosomal aneuploidy and translocations are associated with this exposure, the presence of subtle structural epigenetic modifications in patients with MOM joint-replacements remains unexplored...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098350/endogenous-circadian-rhythms-in-pigment-composition-induce-changes-in-photochemical-efficiency-in-plant-canopies
#11
José Ignacio García-Plazaola, Beatriz Fernández-Marín, Juan Pedro Ferrio, Josu G Alday, Günter Hoch, Damien Landais, Alexandru Milcu, David T Tissue, Jordi Voltas, Arthur Gessler, Jacques Roy, Víctor Resco de Dios
There is increasing evidence that the circadian clock is a significant driver of photosynthesis that becomes apparent when environmental cues are experimentally held constant. We studied whether the composition of photosynthetic pigments is under circadian regulation, and whether pigment oscillations lead to rhythmic changes in photochemical efficiency. To address these questions, canopies of bean and cotton were maintained, after an entrainment phase, under constant (light or darkness) conditions for 30-48 h...
January 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096235/role-of-cardiotrophin-1-in-the-regulation-of-metabolic-circadian-rhythms-and-adipose-core-clock-genes-in-mice-and-characterization-of-24-h-circulating-ct-1-profiles-in-normal-weight-and-overweight-obese-subjects
#12
Miguel López-Yoldi, Kimber L Stanhope, Marta Garaulet, X Guoxia Chen, Beatriz Marcos-Gómez, María Paz Carrasco-Benso, Eva M Santa Maria, Xavier Escoté, Vivien Lee, Marinelle V Nunez, Valentina Medici, Eduardo Martínez-Ansó, Neira Sáinz, Ana E Huerta, Laura M Laiglesia, Jesús Prieto, J Alfredo Martínez, Matilde Bustos, Peter J Havel, Maria J Moreno-Aliaga
Cardiotrophin (CT)-1 is a regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. In the present study, we analyzed whether CT-1 also acts to peripherally regulate metabolic rhythms and adipose tissue core clock genes in mice. Moreover, the circadian pattern of plasma CT-1 levels was evaluated in normal-weight and overweight subjects. The circadian rhythmicity of oxygen consumption rate (Vo2) was disrupted in aged-obese CT-1-deficient (CT-1(-/-)) mice (12 mo). Although circadian rhythms of Vo2 were conserved in young-lean CT-1(-/-) mice (2 mo), CT-1 deficiency caused a phase shift of the acrophase...
January 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095742/lithium-response-in-bipolar-disorders-and-core-clock-genes-expression
#13
Pierre A Geoffroy, Emmanuel Curis, Cindie Courtin, Jeverson Moreira, Thomas Morvillers, Bruno Etain, Jean-Louis Laplanche, Frank Bellivier, Cynthia Marie-Claire
OBJECTIVES: We examine if the lithium response is associated with changes in core clock genes expressions. METHODS: The effect of a therapeutic concentration of lithium (1mM) on the expression levels of 17 circadian genes, was examined in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from two well-characterized groups of BD patients, defined as lithium non-responders (NR, n = 20) or excellent responders (ER, n = 16). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were conducted at 2, 4 and 8 days (d2, d4, d8) with and without lithium exposure...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093779/reaching-multi-nanosecond-timescales-in-combined-qm-mm-molecular-dynamics-simulations-through-parallel-horsetail-sampling
#14
Marilia T C Martins-Costa, Manuel F Ruiz-López
We report an enhanced sampling technique that allows to reach the multi-nanosecond timescale in quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics molecular dynamics simulations. The proposed technique, called horsetail sampling, is a specific type of multiple molecular dynamics approach exhibiting high parallel efficiency. It couples a main simulation with a large number of shorter trajectories launched on independent processors at periodic time intervals. The technique is applied to study hydrogen peroxide at the water liquid-vapor interface, a system of considerable atmospheric relevance...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093627/-validation-of-the-german-version-of-the-6%C3%A2-item-screener-brief-cognitive-test-with-broad-application-possibilities
#15
S Krupp, A Seebens, J Kasper, M Willkomm, F Balck
BACKGROUND: Especially during admission the detection of cognitive deficits relevant to everyday life should burden patient and examiner as little as possible. The 6‑item screener (SIS) takes approximately 1 min, is easy to learn, does not require any material and is independent of the patient's visual and fine motor skills. The test was first published in 2002 by Callahan who approved the present German translation. OBJECTIVE: We checked the convergent and discriminant validity, reliability and sensitivity to change of the German translation among geriatric patients...
January 16, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092655/circadian-and-upr-dependent-control-of-cpeb4-mediates-a-translational-response-to-counteract-hepatic-steatosis-under-er-stress
#16
Carlos Maillo, Judit Martín, David Sebastián, Maribel Hernández-Alvarez, Mar García-Rocha, Oscar Reina, Antonio Zorzano, Mercedes Fernandez, Raúl Méndez
The cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding (CPEB) proteins regulate pre-mRNA processing and translation of CPE-containing mRNAs in early embryonic development and synaptic activity. However, specific functions in adult organisms are poorly understood. Here we show that CPEB4 is required for adaptation to high-fat-diet- and ageing-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and subsequent hepatosteatosis. Stress-activated liver CPEB4 expression is dual-mode regulated. First, Cpeb4 mRNA transcription is controlled by the circadian clock, and then its translation is regulated by the unfolded protein response (UPR) through upstream open reading frames within the 5'UTR...
January 16, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091348/effects-of-intermittent-fasting-on-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#17
Rona Antoni, Kelly L Johnston, Adam L Collins, M Denise Robertson
Two intermittent fasting variants, intermittent energy restriction (IER) and time-restricted feeding (TRF), have received considerable interest as strategies for weight-management and/or improving metabolic health. With these strategies, the pattern of energy restriction and/or timing of food intake are altered so that individuals undergo frequently repeated periods of fasting. This review provides a commentary on the rodent and human literature, specifically focusing on the effects of IER and TRF on glucose and lipid metabolism...
January 16, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090585/circadian-forced-desynchrony-of-the-master-clock-leads-to-phenotypic-manifestation-of-depression-in-rats
#18
Miriam Ben-Hamo, Tracy A Larson, Leanne S Duge, Carl Sikkema, Charles W Wilkinson, Horacio O de la Iglesia, Mónica M C González
In mammals, a master circadian clock within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus maintains the phase coherence among a wide array of behavioral and physiological circadian rhythms. Affective disorders are typically associated with disruption of this fine-tuned "internal synchronization," but whether this internal misalignment is part of the physiopathology of mood disorders is not clear. To date, depressive-like behavior in animal models has been induced by methods that fail to specifically target the SCN regulation of internal synchronization as the mode to generate depression...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089957/the-epigenetic-clock-and-physical-development-during-childhood-and-adolescence-longitudinal-analysis-from-a-uk-birth-cohort
#19
Andrew J Simpkin, Laura D Howe, Kate Tilling, Tom R Gaunt, Oliver Lyttleton, Wendy L McArdle, Susan M Ring, Steve Horvath, George Davey Smith, Caroline L Relton
BACKGROUND: Statistical models that use an individual's DNA methylation levels to estimate their age (known as epigenetic clocks) have recently been developed, with 96% correlation found between epigenetic and chronological age. We postulate that differences between estimated and actual age [age acceleration (AA)] can be used as a measure of developmental age in early life. METHODS: We obtained DNA methylation measures at three time points (birth, age 7 years and age 17 years) in 1018 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087932/the-complexity-of-fungal-vision
#20
Reinhard Fischer, Jesus Aguirre, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Luis M Corrochano
Life, as we know it, would not be possible without light. Light is not only a primary source of energy, but also an important source of information for many organisms. To sense light, only a few photoreceptor systems have developed during evolution. They are all based on an organic molecule with conjugated double bonds that allows energy transfer from visible (or UV) light to its cognate protein to translate the primary physical photoresponse to cell-biological actions. The three main classes of receptors are flavin-based blue-light, retinal-based green-light (such as rhodopsin), and linear tetrapyrrole-based red-light sensors...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
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