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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923220/differential-regulation-of-bmal1-clock-and-endothelial-signaling-in-the-aortic-arch-and-ligated-common-carotid-artery
#1
Xia Shang, Paramita Pati, Ciprian B Anea, David J R Fulton, R Daniel Rudic
The circadian clock is rhythmically expressed in blood vessels, but the interaction between the circadian clock and disturbed blood flow remains unclear. We examined the relationships between BMAL1 and CLOCK and 2 regulators of endothelial function, AKT1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), in vascular regions of altered blood flow. We found that the aortic arch from WT mice exhibited reduced sensitivity to acetylcholine (Ach)-mediated relaxation relative to the thoracic aorta. In Clock-mutant (mut) mice the aorta exhibited a reduced sensitivity to Ach...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922614/molecular-mechanisms-at-the-core-of-the-plant-circadian-oscillator
#2
REVIEW
Maria A Nohales, Steve A Kay
Circadian clocks are endogenous timekeeping networks that allow organisms to align their physiology with their changing environment and to perform biological processes at the most relevant times of the day and year. Initial feedback-loop models of the oscillator have been enriched by emerging evidence highlighting the increasing variety of factors and mechanisms that contribute to the generation of rhythms. In this Review, we consider the two major input pathways that connect the circadian clock of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to its environment and discuss recent advances in understanding of how transcriptional, post-translational and post-transcriptional mechanisms contribute to clock function...
December 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922612/the-intricate-dance-of-post-translational-modifications-in-the-rhythm-of-life
#3
REVIEW
Arisa Hirano, Ying-Hui Fu, Louis J Ptáček
Endogenous biological rhythms with approximately 24-h periodicity are generated by the circadian clock, in which clock genes coordinate with one another and form a transcriptional-translational negative feedback loop. The precision of the circadian clock is further regulated by multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs), including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and SUMOylation. Here, we review current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of the core clock proteins by PTMs in the mammalian circadian clock...
December 6, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922611/genetic-and-epigenomic-mechanisms-of-mammalian-circadian-transcription
#4
REVIEW
Romeo Papazyan, Yuxiang Zhang, Mitchell A Lazar
The mammalian molecular clock comprises a complex network of transcriptional programs that integrates environmental signals with physiological pathways in a tissue-specific manner. Emerging technologies are extending knowledge of basic clock features by uncovering their underlying molecular mechanisms, thus setting the stage for a 'systems' view of the molecular clock. Here we discuss how recent data from genome-wide genetic and epigenetic studies have informed the understanding of clock function. In addition to its importance in human physiology and disease, the clock mechanism provides an ideal model to assess general principles of dynamic transcription regulation in vivo...
December 6, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920997/cyclic-variation-of-cellular-clock-proteins-in-the-mouse-estrous-ovary
#5
George Wiggins, Michael Legge
BACKGROUND: The mammalian ovary is controlled by a number of biological rhythms, which regulate the recruitment and release of mature oocytes. The main objective of this study was to investigate the role of cellular clock proteins during follicle maturation in the mouse estrous ovary. METHODS: Immunohistochemical (IHC) studies were performed on ovaries from 50 estrous staged mice culled at two time points of 09:00 [day] and 01:00 [mid-point of the dark cycle]. Six antibodies were used to identify the expression of core cellular clock proteins (BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, PER1 and PER2) within the ovary and four follicle stages, primordial, primary, antral and corpus lutea...
October 2016: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920802/the-role-of-drugs-in-bone-pain
#6
REVIEW
Francesco Marras, Paolo Tranquilli Leali
: Painful symptomatology in the skeletal system can be found in various pathological conditions and can be either localised or diffused. Bone tenderness is common in those who are of an elderly age. TREATMENT STRATEGY: Patients should be informed of the possible causes of their pain and the different therapies that could alleviate it; furthermore they should be encouraged to have an active role in their therapy. It is necessary to prevent the onset of the pain (by the clock) by considering the biological half-life, the bioavailability and the duration of action of the therapy...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920510/the-clock-in-the-box-a-brief-cognitive-screen-is-associated-with-failure-to-return-home-in-an-elderly-hospitalized-sample
#7
Colleen E Jackson, Laura J Grande, Kelly Doherty, Elizabeth Archambault, Brittany Kelly, Jane A Driver, William P Milberg, Regina McGlinchey, James L Rudolph
PURPOSE: Cognitive screening upon hospital admission can provide important information about the patient's ability to process information during the inpatient stay. The Clock-in-the-Box (CIB) is a rapidly administered cognitive screening measure which has been previously validated with cognitive screening and neuropsychological assessments. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the predictive validity of the CIB for discharge location among a sample of older medical inpatients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Hospitalized Veterans (N=218), aged 55 years and older, were recruited on the day after admission after they gave their consent...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920231/bayesian-morphological-clock-methods-resurrect-placoderm-monophyly-and-reveal-rapid-early-evolution-in-jawed-vertebrates
#8
Benedict King, Tuo Qiao, Michael S Y Lee, Min Zhu, John A Long
The phylogeny of early gnathostomes provides an important framework for understanding one of the most significant evolutionary events, the origin and diversification of jawed vertebrates. A series of recent cladistic analyses have suggested that the placoderms, an extinct group of armoured fish, form a paraphyletic group basal to all other jawed vertebrates. We revised and expanded this morphological data set, most notably by sampling autapomorphies in a similar way to parsimony-informative traits, thus ensuring this data (unlike most existing morphological data sets) satisfied an important assumption of Bayesian tip-dated morphological clock approaches...
December 5, 2016: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920227/geographic-variation-of-plant-circadian-clock-function-in-natural-and-agricultural-settings
#9
Kathleen Greenham, Ping Lou, Joshua R Puzey, Ganesh Kumar, Cindy Arnevik, Hany Farid, John H Willis, C Robertson McClung
The increasing demand for improved agricultural production will require more efficient breeding for traits that maintain yield under heterogeneous environments. The internal circadian oscillator is essential for perceiving and coordinating environmental cues such as day length, temperature, and abiotic stress responses within physiological processes. To investigate the contribution of the circadian clock to local adaptability, we have analyzed circadian period by leaf movement in natural populations of Mimulus guttatus and domesticated cultivars of Glycine max We detected consistent variation in circadian period along a latitudinal gradient in annual populations of the wild plant and the selectively bred crop, and this provides novel evidence of natural and artificial selection for circadian performance...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920039/systems-chronobiology-global-analysis-of-gene-regulation-in-a-24-hour-periodic-world
#10
Jérôme Mermet, Jake Yeung, Felix Naef
Mammals have evolved an internal timing system, the circadian clock, which synchronizes physiology and behavior to the daily light and dark cycles of the Earth. The master clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, takes fluctuating light input from the retina and synchronizes other tissues to the same internal rhythm. The molecular clocks that drive these circadian rhythms are ticking in nearly all cells in the body. Efforts in systems chronobiology are now being directed at understanding, on a comprehensive scale, how the circadian clock controls different layers of gene regulation to provide robust timing cues at the cellular and tissue level...
December 5, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919824/melatonin-s-role-as-a-co-adjuvant-treatment-in-colonic-diseases-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Eduardo Esteban-Zubero, Laura López-Pingarrón, Moisés Alejandro Alatorre-Jiménez, Purificación Ochoa-Moneo, Celia Buisac-Ramón, Miguel Rivas-Jiménez, Silvia Castán-Ruiz, Ángel Antoñanzas-Lombarte, Dun-Xian Tan, José Joaquín García, Russel J Reiter
Melatonin is produced in the pineal gland as well as many other organs, including the enterochromaffin cells of the digestive mucosa. Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant that resists oxidative stress due to its capacity to directly scavenge reactive species, to modulate the antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and to stimulate the innate immune response through its direct and indirect actions. In addition, the dysregulation of the circadian system is observed to be related with alterations in colonic motility and cell disruptions due to the modifications of clock genes expression...
December 2, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919298/molecular-characterization-and-genotype-shift-of-dengue-virus-strains-between-2001-and-2014-in-guangzhou
#12
L Y Jiang, Q L Jing, Y Liu, Y M Cao, W Z Su, D Biao, Z C Yang
We studied the evolution, genotypes, and the molecular clock of dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1), between 2001 and 2014 in Guangzhou, China. The analysis of the envelope (E) gene sequences of 67 DENV-1 strains isolated in Guangzhou, together with 58 representative sequences downloaded from NCBI, have shown shifts in viral genotypes. The genotype changed several times, from genotype I to IV in 2002, from IV to I in 2005, and from I to V in 2014. These genotype shifts may be the cause of DENV outbreaks. The diversity of genotypes and clades demonstrates a high risk of future outbreaks in Guangzhou...
December 6, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918467/phylogenetic-relationships-of-the-fern-cyrtomium-falcatum-dryopteridaceae-from-dokdo-island-sea-of-east-japan-based-on-chloroplast-genome-sequencing
#13
Gurusamy Raman, Kyoung Su Choi, SeonJoo Park
Cyrtomium falcatum is a popular ornamental fern cultivated worldwide. Native to the Korean Peninsula, Japan, and Dokdo Island in the Sea of Japan, it is the only fern present on Dokdo Island. We isolated and characterized the chloroplast (cp) genome of C. falcatum, and compared it with those of closely related species. The genes trnV-GAC and trnV-GAU were found to be present within the cp genome of C. falcatum, whereas trnP-GGG and rpl21 were lacking. Moreover, cp genomes of Cyrtomium devexiscapulae and Adiantum capillus-veneris lack trnP-GGG and rpl21, suggesting these are not conserved among angiosperm cp genomes...
December 2, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918074/the-origin-of-animals-can-molecular-clocks-and-the-fossil-record-be-reconciled
#14
John A Cunningham, Alexander G Liu, Stefan Bengtson, Philip C J Donoghue
The evolutionary emergence of animals is one of the most significant episodes in the history of life, but its timing remains poorly constrained. Molecular clocks estimate that animals originated and began diversifying over 100 million years before the first definitive metazoan fossil evidence in the Cambrian. However, closer inspection reveals that clock estimates and the fossil record are less divergent than is often claimed. Modern clock analyses do not predict the presence of the crown-representatives of most animal phyla in the Neoproterozoic...
December 5, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917538/five-short-screening-tests-in-the-detection-of-prevalent-delirium-diagnostic-accuracy-and-performance-in-different-neurocognitive-subgroups
#15
N A O'Regan, K Maughan, N Liddy, J Fitzgerald, D Adamis, D W Molloy, D Meagher, S Timmons
BACKGROUND: Delirium is prevalent and serious, yet remains under-recognised. Systematic screening could improve detection; however, consensus is lacking as to the best approach. Our aim was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of five simple cognitive tests in delirium screening: six-item cognitive impairment test (6-CIT), clock-drawing test, spatial span forwards, months of the year backwards (MOTYB) and intersecting pentagons (IPT). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916729/enkephalin-and-neuropeptide-y-interaction-in-the-intergeniculate-leaflet-network-a-part-of-the-mammalian-biological-clock
#16
K Palus, L Chrobok, M Kepczynski, M H Lewandowski
The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) is a flat thalamic nucleus implicated in the modulation of circadian rhythmicity. In rat, two main GABAergic subpopulations can be distinguished in the IGL: neurons synthesising neuropeptide Y (NPY), which directly innervates the suprachiasmatic nuclei, and enkephalinergic cells, which connect contralaterally located leaflets. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible effects of inner IGL neurotransmitters on the spontaneous and synaptic activity of IGL neurons. The data presented in this article provide evidence that enkephalin, and not NPY, could act upon the majority of IGL neurons...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916643/homeostatic-effects-of-exercise-and-sleep-on-metabolic-processes-in-mice-with-an-overexpressed-skeletal-muscle-clock
#17
Allison J Brager, Lydia Heemstra, Raman Bhambra, J Christopher Ehlen, Karyn A Esser, Ketema N Paul, Colleen M Novak
Brain and muscle-ARNT-like factor (Bmal1/BMAL1) is an essential transcriptional/translational factor of circadian clocks. Loss of function of Bmal1/BMAL1 is highly disruptive to physiological and behavioral processes. In light of these previous findings, we examined if transgenic overexpression of Bmal1/BMAL1 in skeletal muscle could alter metabolic processes. First, we characterized in vivo and ex vivo metabolic phenotypes of muscle overexpressed mice (male and female) compared to wild-type littermates (WT)...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913843/molecular-evolution-in-historical-perspective
#18
Edna Suárez-Díaz
In the 1960s, advances in protein chemistry and molecular genetics provided new means for the study of biological evolution. Amino acid sequencing, nucleic acid hybridization, zone gel electrophoresis, and immunochemistry were some of the experimental techniques that brought about new perspectives to the study of the patterns and mechanisms of evolution. New concepts, such as the molecular evolutionary clock, and the discovery of unexpected molecular phenomena, like the presence of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes, eventually led to the realization that evolution might occur at a different pace at the organismic and the molecular levels, and according to different mechanisms...
December 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913335/frequency-measurement-system-of-optical-clocks-without-a-flywheel-oscillator
#19
Miho Fujieda, Tetsuya Ido, Hidekazu Hachisu, Tadahiro Gotoh, Hiroshi Takiguchi, Kazuhiro Hayasaka, Kenji Toyoda, Kenji Yonegaki, Utako Tanaka, Shinji Urabe
We developed a system for the remote frequency comparison of optical clocks. The system does not require a flywheel oscillator at the remote end, making it possible to evaluate optical frequencies even in laboratories, where no stable microwave reference, such as an Rb clock, a Cs clock, or a hydrogen maser exists. The system is established by the integration of several systems: a portable carrier-phase two-way satellite frequency transfer station and a microwave signal generation system by an optical frequency comb from an optical clock...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912128/time-to-grow-circadian-regulation-of-growth-and-metabolism-in-photosynthetic-organisms
#20
REVIEW
Santiago Mora-García, María José de Leone, Marcelo Yanovsky
Circadian clocks are molecular devices that help adjust organisms to periodic environmental changes. Although formally described as self-sustaining oscillators that are synchronized by external cues and produce defined outputs, it is increasingly clear that physiological processes not only are regulated by, but also regulate the function of the clock. We discuss three recent examples of the intimate relationships between the function of the clock, growth and metabolism in photosynthetic organisms: the daily tracking of sun by sunflowers, the fine computations plants and cyanobacteria perform to manage carbon reserves and prevent starvation, and the changes in clock parameters that went along with domestication of tomato...
November 29, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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