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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453432/validation-of-house-keeping-genes-for-normalization-of-gene-expression-data-during-diurnal-circadian-studies-in-rice-by-rt-qpcr
#1
Nitin Jain, Satyam Vergish, Jitendra P Khurana
The circadian clock in plants is the intrinsic rhythmic expression of thousands of genes in a 24 h period, which is set by the day-night cycles in the environment. The study of the circadian clock often requires expression profiling of genes over a large number of samples for which RT-qPCR is invariably used. Reliability of the results depends largely on the house-keeping genes, which serve as control and thus should be chosen carefully to prevent erroneous results. In this study, ten house-keeping genes were chosen from rice for stability analysis with 48 tissue samples harvested from plants subjected to diurnal/circadian cycles...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451884/a-damped-oscillator-imposes-temporal-order-on-posterior-gap-gene-expression-in-drosophila
#2
Berta Verd, Erik Clark, Karl R Wotton, Hilde Janssens, Eva Jiménez-Guri, Anton Crombach, Johannes Jaeger
Insects determine their body segments in two different ways. Short-germband insects, such as the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, use a molecular clock to establish segments sequentially. In contrast, long-germband insects, such as the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, determine all segments simultaneously through a hierarchical cascade of gene regulation. Gap genes constitute the first layer of the Drosophila segmentation gene hierarchy, downstream of maternal gradients such as that of Caudal (Cad). We use data-driven mathematical modelling and phase space analysis to show that shifting gap domains in the posterior half of the Drosophila embryo are an emergent property of a robust damped oscillator mechanism, suggesting that the regulatory dynamics underlying long- and short-germband segmentation are much more similar than previously thought...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450382/iridex-micropulse-p3-innovative-cyclophotocoagulation
#3
M Monica Gavris, Ioana Olteanu, Erzsebet Kantor, Radu Mateescu, Roxana Belicioiu
Purpose: To present the new IRIDEX MicroPulse P3 (MP3) technology in patients with refractory glaucoma and our preliminary results at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively. Methods: IRIDEX MP3 laser cyclophotocoagulation was performed in 7 eyes of 7 patients under retrobulbar anaesthesia with lidocaine 2% in the operating room. Each eye received two treatments of 80-90s over the superior and inferior hemisphere, avoiding the temporal- and nasal-most clock hours. 810nm IRIDEX MP3 was set to 31,3% duty cycle (0,5ms treatment pulse followed by 1,1 ms of rest)...
April 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449708/cancer-reset-your-circadian-clock
#4
M Teresa Villanueva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449373/tyrosine-hydroxylase-down-regulation-after-loss-of-abelson-helper-integration-site-1-ahi1-promotes-depression-via-the-circadian-clock-pathway-in-mice
#5
Dongkai Guo, Shun Zhang, Hongyang Sun, Xingyun Xu, Zongbing Hao, Chenchen Mu, Xingshun Xu, Guanghui Wang, Haigang Ren
Abelson helper integration site 1 (AHI1) is associated with several neuropsychiatric and brain developmental disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, autism, and Joubert syndrome. Ahi1 deficiency in mice leads to behaviors typical of depression. However, the mechanisms by which AHI1 regulates behavior remain to be elucidated. Here, we found that down-regulation of expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), in the midbrains of Ahi1 -knockout (KO) mice is responsible for Ahi1 -deficiency-mediated depressive symptoms...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447778/the-effect-of-high-dose-atorvastatin-on-neural-activity-and-cognitive-function
#6
Beth A Taylor, Alecia D Dager, Gregory A Panza, Amanda L Zaleski, Shashwath Meda, Gregory Book, Michael C Stevens, Sarah Tartar, C Michael White, Donna M Polk, Godfrey D Pearlson, Paul D Thompson
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has not been used to assess the effects of statins on the brain. We assessed the effect of statins on cognition using standard neuropsychological assessments and brain neural activation with fMRI on two tasks. METHODS: Healthy statin-naïve men and women (48±15 years) were randomized to 80 mg/day atorvastatin (n=66; 27 men) or placebo (n=84; 48 men) for 6 months. Participants completed cognitive testing while on study drug and 2 months after treatment cessation using alternative test and task versions...
March 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447387/ezh2-promotes-clock-function-and-hematopoiesis-independent-of-histone-methyltransferase-activity-in-zebrafish
#7
Yingbin Zhong, Qiang Ye, Chengyan Chen, Mingyong Wang, Han Wang
EZH2 is a subunit of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) that silences gene transcription via H3K27me3 and was shown to be essential for mammalian liver circadian regulation and hematopoiesis through gene silencing. Much less, however, is known about how Ezh2 acts in live zebrafish. Here, we show that zebrafish ezh2 is regulated directly by the circadian clock via both E-box and RORE motif, while core circadian clock genes per1a, per1b, cry1aa and cry1ab are down-regulated in ezh2 null mutant and ezh2 morphant zebrafish, and either knockdown or overexpression of ezh2 alters locomotor rhythms, indicating that Ezh2 is required for zebrafish circadian regulation...
February 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447256/modulation-of-neural-circuits-underlying-temporal-production-by-facial-expressions-of-pain
#8
Daniela Ballotta, Fausta Lui, Carlo Adolfo Porro, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Francesca Benuzzi
According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447160/modeling-the-interactions-of-sense-and-antisense-period-transcripts-in-the-mammalian-circadian-clock-network
#9
Dorjsuren Battogtokh, Shihoko Kojima, John J Tyson
In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that antisense transcription plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. The circadian clock is no exception: an antisense transcript of the mammalian core-clock gene PERIOD2 (PER2), which we shall refer to as Per2AS RNA, oscillates with a circadian period and a nearly 12 h phase shift from the peak expression of Per2 mRNA. In this paper, we ask whether Per2AS plays a regulatory role in the mammalian circadian clock by studying in silico the potential effects of interactions between Per2 and Per2AS RNAs on circadian rhythms...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445191/minute-hands-of-clocks-indicating-the-same-time-are-not-perceived-as-haptically-parallel
#10
Astrid M L Kappers
Many studies have already shown that a large idiosyncratic orientation difference is needed to perceive two bars that are far apart as haptically parallel. There exist also strong indications that if such bars are imagined to be minute hands of clocks, errors made in clock time estimates and clock time settings are much smaller. The current study investigated this seemingly discrepancy. Participants partook in three experiments: parallel setting, clock time estimate and clock time setting, in this order. As the individual parallel settings were used in the subsequent clock time estimate experiment, and the estimated clock times in the clock time setting experiment, the deviations could be compared directly...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444889/it-s-about-time-a-mesc-derived-model-of-the-segmentation-clock
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444823/introduction-to-the-thematic-minireview-series-green-biological-chemistry
#12
Joseph M Jez
Plants and their green cousins cyanobacteria and algae use sunlight to drive the chemistry that lets them grow, survive, and perform an amazing range of biochemical reactions. The ability of these organisms to use a freely available energy source makes them attractive for use as sustainable and renewable platforms for more than just food production. They are also a source of metabolic tools for engineering microbes for "green" chemistry. This thematic collection of mini-reviews discusses how green organisms capture light and protect their photosynthetic machinery from too much light, new structural snapshots of the clock complex that orchestrates signaling during the light/dark cycle, challenges for improving stress responses in crops, harnessing cyanobacteria for as sustainable factories, and efforts to engineer microbes for "green" biopolymer production...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444635/diel-pattern-of-circadian-clock-and-storage-protein-gene-expression-in-leaves-and-during-seed-filling-in-cowpea-vigna-unguiculata
#13
Julia Weiss, Marta I Terry, Marina Martos-Fuentes, Lisa Letourneux, Victoria Ruiz-Hernández, Juan A Fernández, Marcos Egea-Cortines
BACKGROUND: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important source of protein supply for animal and human nutrition. The major storage globulins VICILIN and LEGUMIN (LEG) are synthesized from several genes including LEGA, LEGB, LEGJ and CVC (CONVICILIN). The current hypothesis is that the plant circadian core clock genes are conserved in a wide array of species and that primary metabolism is to a large extent controlled by the plant circadian clock. Our aim was to investigate a possible link between gene expression of storage proteins and the circadian clock...
February 14, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444612/circadian-clock-synchronization-of-the-cell-cycle-in-zebrafish-occurs-through-a-gating-mechanism-rather-than-a-period-phase-locking-process
#14
Ricardo Laranjeiro, T Katherine Tamai, William Letton, Noémie Hamilton, David Whitmore
Studies from a number of model systems have shown that the circadian clock controls expression of key cell cycle checkpoints, thus providing permissive or inhibitory windows in which specific cell cycle events can occur. However, a major question remains: Is the clock actually regulating the cell cycle through such a gating mechanism or, alternatively, is there a coupling process that controls the speed of cell cycle progression? Using our light-responsive zebrafish cell lines, we address this issue directly by synchronizing the cell cycle in culture simply by changing the entraining light-dark (LD) cycle in the incubator without the need for pharmacological intervention...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444258/modeling-the-influence-of-seasonal-differences-in-the-hpa-axis-on-synchronization-of-the-circadian-clock-and-cell-cycle
#15
Kamau Pierre, Rohit T Rao, Clara Hartmanshenn, Ioannis P Androulakis
Synchronization of biological functions to environmental signals enables organisms to anticipate and appropriately respond to daily external fluctuations and is critical to the maintenance of homeostasis. Misalignment of circadian rhythms with environmental cues is associated with adverse health outcomes. Cortisol, the downstream effector of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, facilitates synchronization of peripheral biological processes to the environment. Cortisol levels exhibit substantial seasonal rhythmicity, with peak levels occurring during the short-photoperiod winter months and reduced levels occurring in the long-photoperiod summer season...
February 12, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443100/single-cell-resolution-fluorescence-live-imaging-of-drosophila-circadian-clocks-in-larval-brain-culture
#16
Virginie Sabado, Emi Nagoshi
The circadian pacemaker circuit orchestrates rhythmic behavioral and physiological outputs coordinated with environmental cues, such as day/night cycles. The molecular clock within each pacemaker neuron generates circadian rhythms in gene expression, which underlie the rhythmic neuronal functions essential to the operation of the circuit. Investigation of the properties of the individual molecular oscillators in different subclasses of pacemaker neurons and their interaction with neuronal signaling yields a better understanding of the circadian pacemaker circuit...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441427/isolated-focal-cartilage-and-labral-defects-in-patients-with-femoroacetabular-impingement-syndrome-may-represent-new-unique-injury-patterns
#17
Ashley L Kapron, Stephen K Aoki, Jeffrey A Weiss, Aaron J Krych, Travis G Maak
PURPOSE: Develop a framework to quantify the size, location and severity of femoral and acetabular-sided cartilage and labral damage observed in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy, and generate a database of individual defect parameters to facilitate future research and treatment efforts. METHODS: The size, location, and severity of cartilage and labral damage were prospectively collected using a custom, standardized post-operative template for 100 consecutive patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome...
February 13, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440392/structure-function-and-mechanism-of-the-core-circadian-clock-in-cyanobacteria
#18
Jeffrey A Swan, Susan Golden, Andy LiWang, Carrie L Partch
Circadian rhythms enable cells and organisms to coordinate their physiology with the cyclic environmental changes that come as a result of Earth's light/dark cycles. Cyanobacteria make use of a post-translational oscillator (PTO) to maintain circadian rhythms, and this elegant system has become an important model for the post-translational timing mechanisms. Comprised of three proteins, the KaiABC system undergoes an oscillatory biochemical cycle that provides timing cues to achieve a 24-hour molecular clock...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439026/rev-erb%C3%AE-dynamically-modulates-chromatin-looping-to-control-circadian-gene-transcription
#19
Yong Hoon Kim, Sajid A Marhon, Yuxiang Zhang, David J Steger, Kyoung-Jae Won, Mitchell A Lazar
Mammalian physiology exhibits 24-hour cyclicity due to circadian rhythms of gene expression controlled by transcription factors (TF) that comprise molecular clocks. Core clock TFs bind to the genome at enhancer sequences to regulate circadian gene expression, but not all binding sites are equally functional. Here we demonstrate that circadian gene expression in mouse liver is controlled by rhythmic chromatin interactions between enhancers and promoters. Rev-erbα, a core repressive TF of the clock, opposes functional loop formation between Rev-erbα-regulated enhancers and circadian target gene promoters by recruitment of the NCoR-HDAC3 corepressor complex, histone deacetylation, and eviction of the elongation factor BRD4 and the looping factor MED1...
February 8, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437832/es-cell-derived-presomitic-mesoderm-like-tissues-for-analysis-of-synchronized-oscillations-in-the-segmentation-clock
#20
Marina Matsumiya, Takehito Tomita, Kumiko Yoshioka-Kobayashi, Akihiro Isomura, Ryoichiro Kageyama
Somites are periodically formed by segmentation of the anterior parts of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). In the mouse embryo, this periodicity is controlled by the segmentation clock gene Hes7 , which exhibits wave-like oscillatory expression in the PSM. Despite intensive studies, the exact mechanism of such synchronous oscillatory dynamics of Hes7 expression still remains to be analyzed. Detailed analysis of the segmentation clock has been hampered because it requires the use of live embryos, and establishment of an in vitro culture system would facilitate such analyses...
February 14, 2018: Development
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