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Isabel Larridon, Kenneth Bauters, Ilias Semmouri, Jan-Adriaan Viljoen, Christina J Prychid, A Muthama Muasya, Jeremy J Bruhl, Karen L Wilson, Bruno Senterre, Paul Goetghebeur
We investigated the monophyly of Costularia (25 species), a genus of tribe Schoeneae (Cyperaceae) that illustrates a remarkable distribution pattern from southeastern Africa, over Madagascar, the Mascarenes and Seychelles, to Malesia and New Caledonia. A further species, Tetraria borneensis, has been suggested to belong to Costularia. Relationships and divergence times were inferred using an existing four marker phylogeny of Cyperaceae tribe Schoeneae expanded with newly generated sequence data mainly for Costularia s...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Christine C Johnson, Susanne Roberts, Douglas Mintz, Peter D Fabricant, Robert N Hotchkiss, Aaron Daluiski
PURPOSE: The location of capitellar osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions in the sagittal plane guides the surgical approach, and lesion location in the coronal plane influences surgical management. Although most lesions have been reported to occur between 4 o'clock and 4:30 (120° to 135° anterior to the humerus), some lesions are located elsewhere in the capitellum. The primary aim was to define the region of the capitellum affected by OCD lesions using a novel clock-face localization system...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Yunzhi Wang, Lei Song, Mingwei Liu, Rui Ge, Quan Zhou, Wanlin Liu, Ruiyang Li, Jingbo Qie, Bei Zhen, Yi Wang, Fuchu He, Jun Qin, Chen Ding
As a circadian organ, liver executes diverse functions in different phase of the circadian clock. This process is believed to be driven by a transcription program. Here, we present a transcription factor (TF) DNA-binding activity-centered multi-dimensional proteomics landscape of the mouse liver, which includes DNA-binding profiles of different TFs, phosphorylation, and ubiquitylation patterns, the nuclear sub-proteome, the whole proteome as well as the transcriptome, to portray the hierarchical circadian clock network of this tissue...
April 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Matej Rataj, Peter Vďačný
Morphology, systematic position and time-calibrated phylogeny of Haptophrya planariarum were investigated. This endosymbiont of freshwater turbellarians is characterized by: (i) a length of about 200-900 μm; (ii) a campanulate to truncate claviform body carrying an anterior adhesive sucker; (iii) an ellipsoidal macronucleus localized in the rear body end; (iv) a contractile canal extending along the dorsal margin; and (v) usually more than 150 meridional ciliary rows, a horseshoe-shaped suture line along the sucker, and two inconspicuous secant systems at lateral ends of the suture line...
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Peng Jiang, Fred W Turek
The discovery of the molecular mechanisms underlying the circadian clock, which functions in virtually every cell throughout the body to coordinate biological processes to anticipate and better adapt to daily rhythmic changes in the environment, is one of the major biomedical breakthroughs in the 20th century. Twenty years after this breakthrough, the biomedical community is now at a new frontier to incorporate the circadian clock mechanisms into many areas of biomedical research, as studies continue to reveal an important role of the circadian clock in a wide range of biological functions and diseases...
April 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Rong-Chi Huang
Circadian clocks evolved to allow plants and animals to adapt their behaviors to the 24-hr change in the external environment due to the Earth's rotation. While the first scientific observation of circadian rhythm in the plant leaf movement may be dated back to the early 18th century, it took 200 years to realize that the leaf movement is controlled by an endogenous circadian clock. The cloning and characterization of the first Drosophila clock gene period in the early 1980s, independently by Jeffery C. Hall and Michael Rosbash at Brandeis University and Michael Young at Rockefeller University, paved the way for their further discoveries of additional genes and proteins, culminating in establishing the so-called transcriptional translational feedback loop (TTFL) model for the generation of autonomous oscillator with a period of ∼24 h...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
Bo Li, Xiliang Yang, Jiaqi Li, Yi Yang, Zhaoyong Yan, Hongxin Zhang, Jiao Mu
Objective To evaluate the expression of circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) and its effects on cell growth in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The expression of CLOCK in 158 pairs of human HCC tissues and matched noncancerous samples was detected by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The expression of CLOCK in HCC patients was also verified using the data from GEO and TCGA (a total of 356 cases). The relationship between CLOCK expression and clinicopathological features of HCC patients was analyzed by single factor statistical analysis...
February 2018: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Chloé Monnier, Martine Auclair, Gala Le Cam, Marie-Pauline Garcia, Bénédicte Antoine
The RORα-deficient staggerer (sg/sg) mouse is lean and resistant to diet-induced obesity. Its thermogenic activity was shown to be increased not only in brown adipose tissue (BAT), but also in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) where UCP1 content was enhanced, however, without Prdm16 coexpression. Our observation of partial multilocular lipid morphology of WAT in sg/sg mice both in the inguinal and perigonadal sites led us to focus on the phenotype of both fat depots. Because RORα is a nuclear factor acting in the clock machinery, we looked at the circadian expression profile of genes involved in thermogenesis and browning in WAT and BAT depots of sg/sg and WT mice, through real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
Matthew J Rubin, Marcus T Brock, Robert L Baker, Stephanie Wilcox, Kyle Anderson, Seth J Davis, Cynthia Weinig
Circadian rhythms are key regulators of diverse biological processes under controlled settings. Yet, the phenotypic and fitness consequences of quantitative variation in circadian rhythms remain largely unexplored in the field. As with other pathways, phenotypic characterization of circadian outputs in the field may reveal novel clock functions. Across consecutive growing seasons, we test for associations between clock variation and flowering phenology, plant size, shoot architecture, and fruit set in clock mutants and segregating progenies of Arabidopsis thaliana expressing quantitative variation in circadian rhythms...
April 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Adolf M Sandbichler, Bianca Jansen, Bettina A Peer, Monika Paulitsch, Bernd Pelster, Margit Egg
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Reduced oxygen availability, hypoxia, is frequently encountered by organisms, tissues and cells, in aquatic environments as well as in high altitude or under pathological conditions such as infarct, stroke or cancer. The hypoxic signaling pathway was found to be mutually intertwined with circadian timekeeping in vertebrates and, as reported recently, also in mammals. However, the impact of hypoxia on intracellular metabolic oscillations is still unknown. METHODS: For determination of metabolites we used Multilabel Reader based fluorescence and luminescence assays, circadian levels of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 alpha and oxidized peroxiredoxins were semi quantified by Western blotting and ratiometric quantification of cytosolic and mitochondrial H2O2 was achieved with stable transfections of a redox sensitive green fluorescent protein sensor into zebrafish fibroblasts...
April 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
David R Weaver, Vincent van der Vinne, E Lela Giannaris, Thomas J Vajtay, Kristopher L Holloway, Christelle Anaclet
Mice with targeted gene disruption have provided important information about the molecular mechanisms of circadian clock function. A full understanding of the roles of circadian-relevant genes requires manipulation of their expression in a tissue-specific manner, ideally including manipulation with high efficiency within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). To date, conditional manipulation of genes within the SCN has been difficult. In a previously developed mouse line, Cre recombinase was inserted into the vesicular GABA transporter (Vgat) locus...
April 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Lydia Hannou, Erika Bélanger-Nelson, Emma K O'Callaghan, Julien Dufort-Gervais, Maria Neus Ballester Roig, Pierre-Gabriel Roy, Jean-Martin Beaulieu, Nicolas Cermakian, Valérie Mongrain
NEUROLIGIN-1 (NLGN1) is a postsynaptic adhesion molecule involved in the regulation of glutamatergic transmission. It has been associated with several features of sleep and psychiatric disorders. Our previous work suggested that transcription of the Nlgn1 gene could be regulated by the transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1 because they bind to the Nlgn1 gene promoter in vivo. However, whether CLOCK/BMAL1 can directly activate Nlgn1 transcription is not yet known. We thus aimed to verify whether CLOCK/BMAL1, as well as their homologs NPAS2 and BMAL2, can activate transcription via the Nlgn1 promoter by using luciferase assays in COS-7 cells...
April 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Eduardo Bossone, Giuseppe Del Giorno, Troy M LaBounty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Chidambaram Ramanathan, Andrew C Liu
In mammals, many aspects of metabolic, physiological, and behavioral processes are regulated by endogenous circadian clocks. Oscillators of different tissue types share a common molecular mechanism at the cellular and molecular level which underlies the rhythmic expression of genes. Individual cells are the functional units for rhythm generation and cell-based clock models offer experimental tractability for discovery. Cellular clock models can be developed by introducing a noninvasive and readily detectable luciferase bioluminescence reporter as a rhythmic output, in which the promoter of a rhythmically expressed gene is fused with the firefly luciferase (Luc) gene...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Johannes Thielking, Maxim V Okhapkin, Przemysław Głowacki, David M Meier, Lars von der Wense, Benedict Seiferle, Christoph E Düllmann, Peter G Thirolf, Ekkehard Peik
The isotope 229 Th is the only nucleus known to possess an excited state 229m Th in the energy range of a few electronvolts-a transition energy typical for electrons in the valence shell of atoms, but about four orders of magnitude lower than typical nuclear excitation energies. Of the many applications that have been proposed for this nuclear system, which is accessible by optical methods, the most promising is a highly precise nuclear clock that outperforms existing atomic timekeepers. Here we present the laser spectroscopic investigation of the hyperfine structure of the doubly charged 229m Th ion and the determination of the fundamental nuclear properties of the isomer, namely, its magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments, as well as its nuclear charge radius...
April 2018: Nature
Yuki Takeuchi, Ryo Kabutomori, Chihiro Yamauchi, Hitomi Miyagi, Akihiro Takemura, Keiko Okano, Toshiyuki Okano
Goldlined spinefoot, Siganus guttatus, inhabits tropical and subtropical waters and synchronizes its spawning around the first quarter moon likely using an hourglass-like lunar timer. In previous studies, we have found that clock genes (Cryptochrome3 and Period1) could play the role of state variable in the diencephalon when determining the lunar phase for spawning. Here, we identified three Cry, two Per, two Clock, and two Bmal genes in S. guttatus and investigated their expression patterns in the diencephalon and pituitary gland...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hiroki Mashiko, Yuta Chisuga, Ikufumi Katayama, Katsuya Oguri, Hiroyuki Masuda, Jun Takeda, Hideki Gotoh
Lightwave-field-induced ultrafast electric dipole oscillation is promising for realizing petahertz (1015  Hz: PHz) signal processing in the future. In building the ultrahigh-clock-rate logic operation system, one of the major challenges will be petahertz electron manipulation accompanied with multiple frequencies. Here we study multi-petahertz interference with electronic dipole oscillations in alumina with chromium dopant (Cr:Al2 O3 ). An intense near-infrared lightwave-field induces multiple electric inter-band polarizations, which are characterized by Fourier transform extreme ultraviolet attosecond spectroscopy...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Kakeru Ito, Miho Yasuda, Yuki Maeda, Jean-Michel Fustin, Yoshiaki Yamaguchi, Yuka Kono, Hiromitsu Negoro, Akihiro Kanematsu, Osamu Ogawa, Masao Doi, Hitoshi Okamura
Micturition behavior follows regular day/night fluctuations, and unwanted increase in micturition could occur during night in jet lag condition. To clarify the effect of jet lag on micturition behavior, we simultaneously detected circadian micturition patterns and locomotor activity rhythms of mice under experimental jet lag conditions, by applying the improved automated Voided Stain on Paper (aVSOP) method. When wild-type (WT) mice were phase-advanced for 8 hours, day-night variation of micturition was disrupted suddenly, and this irregular daily micturition continued until 8 days, although their activity rhythms entrained gradually day by day until 8 days...
2018: Biomedical Research
Luciana Ordunha Araripe, Jéssica Rodrigues Assunção Bezerra, Gustavo Bueno da Silva Rivas, Rafaela Vieira Bruno
BACKGROUND: The study of physiological and behavioral traits of mosquito vectors has been of growing relevance for the proposition of alternative methods for controlling vector-borne diseases. Despite this, most studies focus on the female's traits, including the behavior of host seeking, the physiology of disease transmission and the site-choice for oviposition. However, understanding the factors that lead to males' reproductive success is of utmost importance, since it can help building new strategies for constraining population growth...
April 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Maíra P Martins, Eriston V Gomes, Pablo R Sanches, Wellington R Pedersoli, Nilce M Martinez-Rossi, Antonio Rossi
Advances in the understanding of molecular systems depend on specific tools like the disruption of genes to produce strains with the desired characteristics. The disruption of any mutagen sensitive (mus) genes in the model fungus Neurospora crassa, i.e. mus-51, mus-52, or mus-53, orthologous to the human genes KU70, KU80, and LIG4, respectively, provides efficient tools for gene targeting. Accordingly, we used RNA-sequencing and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification techniques to evaluate the effects of mus-52 deletion in N...
2018: PloS One
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