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brain iron

Mao-Hsuan Huang, Yu-Chuan Chiu, Chia-Fen Tsai
PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration is a major subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Patients with PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration usually present degenerative motor symptoms with neuropsychiatric disturbance. This report presents a patient with PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism, who had neuropsychiatric symptoms preceding movement symptoms. Antipsychotic drug was prescribed, and he developed parkinsonism years later. Differential diagnosis between drug-induced parkinsonism and PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism could be challenging...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Lorenzo Ugga, Valeria Romeo, Enrico Tedeschi, Arturo Brunetti, Mario Quarantelli
Iron oxide (IO) nanocolloids are being increasingly used to image cellular contribution to neuroinflammation using MRI, as these particles are capable of labeling circulating cells with phagocytic activity, allowing to assess cell trafficking from the blood to neuroinflammation sites. The use of IOs relies on the natural phagocytic properties of immune cells, allowing their labeling either in vitro or directly in vivo, following intravenous injection. Despite concerns on the specificity of the latter approach, the widespread availability and relatively low cost of these techniques, coupled to a sensitivity that allows to reach single cell detection, have promoted their use in several preclinical and clinical studies...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
P Oberst, D A Sandercock, P Di Giminiani, S A Edwards, P J Brunton
Background Adverse experiences in early life, such as exposure to stress, can have long term detrimental effects on the future physiology and behaviour of the animal. Typically animals exposed to such experiences are more anxious and more reactive to stress in later life. Tail biting is a major problem in modern pig production, both in terms of animal welfare and productivity. Tail docking in early postnatal life is common practice to reduce risk of this problem, but causes pain and may alter pain sensitivity...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Brian Chiou, Emma H Neal, Aaron B Bowman, Ethan S Lippmann, Ian A Simpson, James R Connor
Iron delivery to the brain is essential for multiple neurological processes such as myelination, neurotransmitter synthesis, and energy production. Loss of brain iron homeostasis is a significant factor in multiple neurological disorders. Understanding the mechanism by which the transport of iron across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is regulated is crucial to address the impact of iron deficiency on brain development and excessive accumulation of iron in neurodegenerative diseases. Using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain endothelial cells (huECs) as a human BBB model, we demonstrate the ability of transferrin, hepcidin, and DMT1 to impact iron transport and release...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Sushanta Kumar Mishra, Subash Khushu, Ajay K Singh, Gurudutta Gangenahalli
Stem cells transplantation has emerged as a promising alternative therapeutic due to its potency at injury site. The need to monitor and non-invasively track the infused stem cells is a significant challenge in the development of regenerative medicine. Thus, in vivo tracking to monitor infused stem cells is especially vital. In this manuscript, we have described an effective in vitro labelling method of MSCs, a serial in vivo tracking of implanted stem cells at traumatic brain injury (TBI) site through 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
June 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Yasir Abdul, Mohammed Abdelsaid, Weiguo Li, R Clinton Webb, Jennifer C Sullivan, Guangkuo Dong, Adviye Ergul
Diabetes increases the risk of occurrence and poor functional recovery after ischemic stroke injury. Previously, we have demonstrated greater hemorrhagic transformation (HT), edema, and more severe functional deficits after stroke in diabetic animals that also presented with cerebral vasoregression and endothelial cell death in the recovery period. Given that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) activation in microvascular endothelial cells triggers a robust inflammatory response, we hypothesized that inhibition of TLR-4 signaling prevents endothelial cell death and improves outcomes after stroke...
June 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Jack R Foucher, Olivier Mainberger, Julien Lamy, Mathieu D Santin, Alexandre Vignaud, Mathilde M Roser, Paulo L de Sousa
INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows slight spatial variations in brain white matter (WM). We used quantitative multi-parametric MRI to evaluate in what respect these inhomogeneities could correspond to WM subtypes with specific characteristics and spatial distribution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six controls (12 women, 38 ±9 Y) took part in a 60-min session on a 3T scanner measuring 7 parameters: R1 and R2, diffusion tensor imaging which allowed to measure Axial and Radial Diffusivity (AD, RD), magnetization transfer imaging which enabled to compute the Macromolecular Proton Fraction (MPF), and a susceptibility-weighted sequence which permitted to quantify R2* and magnetic susceptibility (χm)...
2018: PloS One
Fuhua Yan, Naying He, Huimin Lin, Ruokun Li
Iron has long been implicated in many neurological and other organ diseases. It is known that over and above the normal increases in iron with age, in certain diseases there is an excessive iron accumulation in the brain and liver. MRI is a noninvasive means by which to image the various structures in the brain in three dimensions and quantify iron over the volume of the object of interest. The quantification of iron can provide information about the severity of iron-related diseases as well as quantify changes in iron for patient follow-up and treatment monitoring...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Jasmine L Hect, Ana M Daugherty, Klodia M Hermez, Moriah E Thomason
Non-heme iron is a vital metabolic cofactor for many core processes of brain development including myelination, dendritogenesis, and neurotransmitter synthesis, and accumulates in the brain with age. However, little is known about development-related differences in brain iron and its association with emerging cognitive abilities during formative years. In this study, we estimated brain iron via R2* relaxometry in children ages 7-16 (N = 57; 38 females) and examined its relation to age-related differences in cognitive ability...
May 22, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Patrick P Komane, Pradeep Kumar, Thashree Marimuthu, Lisa C du Toit, Pierre P D Kondiah, Yahya E Choonara, Viness Pillay
The complete synthesis, optimization, purification, functionalization and evaluation of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) was reported for potential application in dexamethasone delivery to the ischemic brain tissue. The conditions for high yield were optimized and carbon nanotubes functionalized and PEGylated prior to dexamethasone loading. Morphological changes were confirmed by SEM and TEM. Addition of functional groups to MWCNTs was demonstrated by FTIR. Thermal stability reduced following MWCNTs functionalization as demonstrated in TGA...
June 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Simon Hametner, Verena Endmayr, Andreas Deistung, Pilar Palmrich, Max Prihoda, Evelin Haimburger, Christian Menard, Xiang Feng, Thomas Haider, Marianne Leisser, Ulrike Köck, Alexandra Kaider, Romana Höftberger, Simon Robinson, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Hans Lassmann, Hannes Traxler, Siegfried Trattnig, Günther Grabner
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*) mapping are both highly sensitive to variations in brain iron content. Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies report changes of susceptibilities and relaxation rates in various neurological diseases which are often equated with changes in regional brain iron content. However, these mentioned metrics lack specificity for iron, since they are also influenced by the presence of myelin. In this study, we assessed the extent to which QSM and R2* reflect iron concentration as well as histological iron and myelin intensities...
June 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Brian Chiou, Emma H Neal, Aaron B Bowman, Ethan S Lippmann, Ian A Simpson, James R Connor
Whether iron formulations used therapeutically for a variety of conditions involving iron deficiency can deliver iron to the brain is a significant clinical question given the impact that iron loading has on the brain in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examine the ability of 5 pharmaceutical iron formulations that are given intravenously for treatment of iron deficiency to cross an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. The model uses human brain endothelial cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells...
2018: PloS One
F M Bosco, I Gabbatore, R Angeleri, M Zettin, A Parola
Quality of life and social integration are strongly influenced by the ability to communicate and previous research has shown that pragmatic ability can be specifically impaired in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition, TBI usually results in damage to the frontotemporal lobes with a consequent impairment of cognitive functions, i.e., attention, memory, executive function (EF) and theory of mind (ToM). The role of the underlying cognitive deficits in determining the communicative-pragmatic difficulties of an individual with TBI is not yet completely clear...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
Meric A Altinoz, Ilhan Elmaci, Salih Cengiz, Ebru Emekli-Alturfan, Aysel Ozpinar
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies indicate that aspirin consumption reduces the risk of tumors, which is especially relevant for colonic adenoma and carcinoma. Similar observations were made for glial brain tumors and breast cancers, yet the results are inconsistent. Gentisic acid (GA) is a minor catabolite of aspirin; yet humans carrying CYP2C9-variants incapable to catabolize aspirin to GA do not benefit from aspirin in prevention against colonic adenoma. GA blocks binding of Fibroblastic Growth Factor to its receptor and its sulphonate metabolite dobesilic acid blocks growth of C6 glioblastoma in vivo...
June 7, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Natalia Fernández-Bertólez, Carla Costa, Fátima Brandão, Gözde Kiliç, Joao Paulo Teixeira, Eduardo Pásaro, Blanca Laffon, Vanessa Valdiglesias
Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) awaken a particular interest for biomedical applications due to their unique physicochemical properties, especially superparamagnetism, and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. ION surface can be coated to improve their properties and facilitate functionalization. Still, coating may affect toxicity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible effects of oleic acid-coated ION (O-ION) on human neuronal cells (SH-SY5Y). A set of assays was conducted in complete and serum-free culture media for 3 and 24 h to assess O-ION cytotoxic effects - cell membrane disruption, cell cycle alteration and cell death induction -, and genotoxic effects - primary DNA damage, H2AX phosphorylation and micronuclei induction -, considering also DNA repair competence and iron ion release...
June 6, 2018: Toxicology
Ningning Cui, Hui Lu, Meng Li
A facile brain drug delivery system for Alzheimer's disease, the Magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles loaded with polyethylene glycol-polylactide-polyglycolide co-polymer nanocomposite was fabricated with anti-transferrin monoclonal antibody (OX26) receptor in this present research work with its in vitro delivery properties evaluated by using clioquinol. TEM microscopic analysis confirmed the presence of active MNPs on the surface of OX26-PEG/PLGA nanocomposite matrix. The results of in vitro cell cytocompatibility studies of MNPs incorporated OX26-PEG/PLGA matrix showed a more favorable environment and increasing cell viability in normal human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells than that of raw MNPs and PEG/PLGA co-polymer matrix...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Yinhui Li, Di Xu, Hei-Nga Chan, Chung-Yan Poon, See-Lok Ho, Hung-Wing Li, Man Shing Wong
Senile plaques, the extracellular deposit of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, are one of the neuropathological hallmarks found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. The current method of brain imaging of amyloid plaques based on positron emission tomography (PET) is expensive and invasive with low spatial resolution. Thus, the development of sensitive and nonradiative amyloid-β (Aβ)-specific contrast agents is highly important and beneficial to achieve early AD detection, monitor the disease progression, and evaluate the effectiveness of potential AD drugs...
June 7, 2018: Small
Shuxiang Wang, Arash Azarfar, YaJing Wang, Zhijun Cao, Quangui Shi, Shengli Li
Objective: This study was conducted to investigate hematological and vasodilator characteristics for high altitude acclimatization in Holstein heifers ascended to high altitude. Methods: Holstein heifers resided at low altitude (LH; Beijing, China 43 meter), and Holstein heifers ascended to high altitude (Lhasa city, Tibet; 3,658 meter) after one year exposure including hypoxia acclimated Holstein heifers (AH; with mean pulmonary arterial pressure mPAP < 41 mmHg) and Holstein heifers affected by high altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH; with mPAP > 49 mmHg) and crossbred cattle (CB; Holstein × Tibet cattle) born and resided in Tibet were selected to compare parameters of blood gas, blood cells and vasodilators...
May 31, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Shuhui Dai, Ya Hua, Richard F Keep, Nemanja Novakovic, Zhou Fei, Guohua Xi
Brain iron overload is involved in brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). There is evidence that systemic administration of minocycline reduces brain iron level and improves neurological outcome in experimental models of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. However, there is evidence in cerebral ischemia that minocycline is not protective in aged female animals. Since most ICH research has used male models, this study was designed to provide an overall view of ICH-induced iron deposits at different time points (1 to 28 days) in aged (18-month old) female Fischer 344 rat ICH model and to investigate the neuroprotective effects of minocycline in those rats...
June 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Mohammad A Kaisar, Farzane Sivandzade, Aditya Bhalerao, Luca Cucullo
It is well established that tobacco smoking is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in a causative and dose dependent manner primarily related to the tobacco smoke (TS) content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and oxidative stress (OS) -driven inflammation. Preclinical studies have also shown that nicotine (the principal e-liquid's ingredient used in e-cigarettes (e-Cigs) can also cause OS, exacerbation of cerebral ischemia and secondary brain injury. Likewise, chronic e-Cig vaping could be prodromal to vascular endothelial dysfunctions...
June 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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