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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232769/antiparkinsonian-and-antidyskinetic-profiles-of-two-novel-potent-and-selective-nociceptin-orphanin-fq-receptor-agonists
#1
Ludovico Arcuri, Salvatore Novello, Martina Frassineti, Daniela Mercatelli, Clarissa Anna Pisanò, Ilaria Morella, Stefania Fasano, Blair V Journigan, Michael E Meyer, Willma E Polgar, Riccardo Brambilla, Nurulain T Zaveri, Michele Morari
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We previously showed that Nociceptin/orphanin FQ opioid peptide (NOP) receptor agonists attenuate the expression of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in animal models of Parkinson's disease. We now investigate the efficacy of two novel, potent and chemically distinct NOP receptor agonists, AT-390 and AT-403, to improve parkinsonian disabilities and attenuate dyskinesia development and expression. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Binding affinity and functional efficacy of AT-390 and AT-403 at the opioid receptors were determined in radioligand displacement assays and in GTPγS binding assay respectively, conducted in Chinese hamster ovary cells...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232641/effect-of-thiacloprid-on-early-life-stages-of-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#2
Josef Velisek, Alzbeta Stara
Toxicity of the neonicotinoid pesticide thiacloprid to embryos and larvae of common carp Cyprinus carpio was assessed under laboratory conditions. Carp embryos and larvae were exposed to thiacloprid at four concentrations: 4.5 (environmental concentration), 45, 225, and 450 μg/L for 35 days and compared to a non-treated control group. The effects on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme levels (superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and reduced glutathione), mortality, growth, development, and histopathogenesis were assessed...
December 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232525/a-modified-ficoll-paque-gradient-method-for-isolating-mononuclear-cells-from-the-peripheral-and-umbilical-cord-blood-of-humans-for-biobanks-and-clinical-laboratories
#3
Yanjuan Jia, Hui Xu, Yonghong Li, Chaojun Wei, Rui Guo, Fang Wang, Yu Wu, Jing Liu, Jing Jia, Junwen Yan, Xiaoming Qi, Yuanting Li, Xiaoling Gao
Although the Ficoll-Paque method is classically used to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), modifications in this method are required for a more rapid and economic output for biobanks and clinical laboratories, particularly in developing countries. In this study, we addressed this issue by modifying the Ficoll-Paque method for the isolation of PBMCs or mononuclear cells from the peripheral and the umbilical cord blood of healthy and diseased (infected, anemic, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) adult individuals...
December 12, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232494/reconstructing-relational-information
#4
Kevin M Horecka, Michael Dulas, Hillary Schwarb, Heather Lucas, Melissa Duff, Neal J Cohen
Hippocampal involvement in learning and remembering relational information has an extensive history, often focusing specifically on spatial information. In humans, spatial reconstruction (SR) paradigms are a powerful tool for evaluating an individuals' spatial-relational memory. In SR tasks, participants study locations of items in space and subsequently reconstruct the studied display after a short delay. Previous work has revealed that patients with hippocampal damage are impaired both in overall placement accuracy as well as on a specific measure of relational memory efficacy, "swaps" (i...
December 12, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232366/estimating-the-impact-of-antiretroviral-treatment-on-adult-mortality-trends-in-south-africa-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#5
Leigh F Johnson, Margaret T May, Rob E Dorrington, Morna Cornell, Andrew Boulle, Matthias Egger, Mary-Ann Davies
BACKGROUND: Substantial reductions in adult mortality have been observed in South Africa since the mid-2000s, but there has been no formal evaluation of how much of this decline is attributable to the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART), as previous models have not been calibrated to vital registration data. We developed a deterministic mathematical model to simulate the mortality trends that would have been expected in the absence of ART, and with earlier introduction of ART. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Model estimates of mortality rates in ART patients were obtained from the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) collaboration...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230819/genetic-inheritance-of-pulp-colour-and-selected-traits-of-cassava-manihot-esculenta-crantz-at-early-generation-selection
#6
Athanase Nduwumuremyi, Rob Melis, Paul Shanahan, Asiimwe Theodore
BACKGROUND: The early generation selection of cassava quantitative and qualitative traits saves breeding resources as it can shorten breeding schemes. The inheritance analysis provides important breeding information for developing new improved varieties. This study aimed at developing an F1 segregating cassava population and determining mode of gene action of pulp colour and selected traits at early generation selection (F1 seedling and clones). RESULTS: The fifteen families exhibited significant (p<0...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230699/predictive-psychiatric-genetic-testing-in-minors-an-exploration-of-the-non-medical-benefits
#7
Arianna Manzini, Danya F Vears
Predictive genetic testing for susceptibility to psychiatric conditions is likely to become part of standard practice. Because the onset of most psychiatric diseases is in late adolescence or early adulthood, testing minors could lead to early identification that may prevent or delay the development of these disorders. However, due to their complex aetiology, psychiatric genetic testing does not provide the immediate medical benefits that current guidelines require for testing minors. While several authors have argued non-medical benefits may play a crucial role in favour of predictive testing for other conditions, little research has explored such a role in psychiatric disorders...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230439/ex-vivo-detection-and-quantification-of-gold-nanoparticles-in-human-seminal-and-follicular-fluids
#8
Dimitrios Bitounis, Jean-Philippe Klein, Lionel Mery, Amira El-Merhie, Valérie Forest, Delphine Boudard, Jérémie Pourchez, Michèle Cottier
Increasing consumption of engineered nanoparticles and occupational exposure to novel, ultrafine airborne particles during the last decades has coincided with deterioration of sperm parameters and delayed fecundity. In order to prevent possible adverse health effects and ensure a sustainable growth for the nanoparticle industry, the ability to investigate the nanosized, mineralogical load of human reproductive systems is becoming a real clinical need. Toward this goal, the current study proposes two methods for the detection and quantification of engineered nanoparticles in human follicular and seminal fluid, developed with the use of well-defined 60 nm Au particles...
December 12, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230392/non-invasive-monitoring-of-cardiac-output-in-critical-care-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Lee S Nguyen, Pierre Squara
Critically ill patients require close hemodynamic monitoring to titrate treatment on a regular basis. It allows administering fluid with parsimony and adjusting inotropes and vasoactive drugs when necessary. Although invasive monitoring is considered as the reference method, non-invasive monitoring presents the obvious advantage of being associated with fewer complications, at the expanse of accuracy, precision, and step-response change. A great many methods and devices are now used over the world, and this article focuses on several of them, providing with a brief review of related underlying physical principles and validation articles analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230307/who-parents-skills-training-pst-programme-for-children-with-developmental-disorders-and-delays-delivered-by-family-volunteers-in-rural-pakistan-study-protocol-for-effectiveness-implementation-hybrid-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
S U Hamdani, P Akhtar, Zill-E-Huma, H Nazir, F A Minhas, S Sikander, D Wang, C Servilli, A Rahman
Background: Development disorders and delays are recognised as a public health priority and included in the WHO mental health gap action programme (mhGAP). Parents Skills Training (PST) is recommended as a key intervention for such conditions under the WHO mhGAP intervention guide. However, sustainable and scalable delivery of such evidence based interventions remains a challenge. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and scaled-up implementation of locally adapted WHO PST programme delivered by family volunteers in rural Pakistan...
2017: Global Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230290/delayed-severe-anaphylactoid-reaction-following-retrograde-pyelogram-a-case-report
#11
Aydin Pooli, Thomas Brush, Joshua D Belle, Chad A LaGrange
Retrograde pyelography is used to evaluate upper collecting system in patients with hematuria who have contrast allergy. Reported here is a patient who developed severe, late-onset anaphylactoid reaction after retrograde pyelography. Premedication is commonly used to reduce risk of allergic reaction but has limited evidence to support its efficacy. Caution should be used when evaluating microhematuria with retrograde pyelography in patients with prior anaphylactoid reaction to intravenous contrast.
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230103/oxygen-supplementation-ameliorates-tibial-development-via-stimulating-vascularization-in-tibetan-chickens-at-high-altitudes
#12
Shucheng Huang, Xiaole Tong, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Meng Wang, Lihong Zhang, Lei Wang, Jiakui Li, Shijin Yang
Tibetan chickens (TBCs) living in high-altitude hypoxic environment, are characterized by delayed growth and small size as compared to low-altitude broiler chickens. Increasing evidences signify the beneficial effect of oxygen (O2) supplementation in animal's body for regulating their body growth and organ development. However, it is still unclear that whether O2 supplementation has an ameliorative and protective role in TBCs living at high altitude. In this study, we first found that O2 supplementation not only increased the survival rate but also promoted the growth of TBCs associated with bone development...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229893/prognostic-factors-for-epilepsy-following-first-febrile-seizure-in-saudi-children
#13
Abdullah I Almojali, Anwar E Ahmed, Muhammed Y Bagha
BACKGROUND: Febrile seizure is the most common convulsive event during childhood, but it is generally considered benign. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the rate of epilepsy after first presentation of febrile seizure and to describe factors that can predispose children to have subsequent epilepsy after their first febrile seizure. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: A tertiary care center in Riyadh. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All children whose first febrile seizure developed between 2009-2012, and who were admitted to the pediatric wards...
November 2017: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229863/noncanonical-thyroid-hormone-signaling-mediates-cardiometabolic-effects-in-vivo
#14
G Sebastian Hönes, Helena Rakov, John Logan, Xiao-Hui Liao, Eugenie Werbenko, Andrea S Pollard, Stine M Præstholm, Majken S Siersbæk, Eddy Rijntjes, Janina Gassen, Sören Latteyer, Kathrin Engels, Karl-Heinz Strucksberg, Petra Kleinbongard, Denise Zwanziger, Jan Rozman, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Helmut Fuchs, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Josef Köhrle, David L Armstrong, Lars Grøntved, J H Duncan Bassett, Graham R Williams, Samuel Refetoff, Dagmar Führer, Lars C Moeller
Thyroid hormone (TH) and TH receptors (TRs) α and β act by binding to TH response elements (TREs) in regulatory regions of target genes. This nuclear signaling is established as the canonical or type 1 pathway for TH action. Nevertheless, TRs also rapidly activate intracellular second-messenger signaling pathways independently of gene expression (noncanonical or type 3 TR signaling). To test the physiological relevance of noncanonical TR signaling, we generated knockin mice with a mutation in the TR DNA-binding domain that abrogates binding to DNA and leads to complete loss of canonical TH action...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229821/critical-dynamics-in-population-vaccinating-behavior
#15
A Demetri Pananos, Thomas M Bury, Clara Wang, Justin Schonfeld, Sharada P Mohanty, Brendan Nyhan, Marcel Salathé, Chris T Bauch
Vaccine refusal can lead to renewed outbreaks of previously eliminated diseases and even delay global eradication. Vaccinating decisions exemplify a complex, coupled system where vaccinating behavior and disease dynamics influence one another. Such systems often exhibit critical phenomena-special dynamics close to a tipping point leading to a new dynamical regime. For instance, critical slowing down (declining rate of recovery from small perturbations) may emerge as a tipping point is approached. Here, we collected and geocoded tweets about measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and classified their sentiment using machine-learning algorithms...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229734/macrophage-polarization-alters-post-phagocytosis-survivability-of-the-commensal-streptococcus-gordonii
#16
Andrew J Croft, Sarah Metcalfe, Kiyonobu Honma, Jason G Kay
Oral streptococci are generally considered commensal organisms; however, they are becoming recognized as important associate pathogens during the development of periodontal disease as well as being associated with several systemic diseases, including as a causative agent of infective endocarditis. An important virulence determinant of these bacteria is an ability to evade destruction by phagocytic cells, yet how this subversion occurs is mostly unknown. Using Streptococcus gordonii as a model commensal oral streptococcus that is also associated with disease, we find resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) with an active ability to damage phagosomes allows the bacterium to avoid destruction within macrophages...
December 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229552/caspase-6-is-a-dispensable-enabler-of-adult-mammalian-axonal-degeneration
#17
V Woo, C Cheng, A Duraikannu, A Chandrasekhar, K Purdy, J A Martinez, D W Zochodne
The progress of axonal degeneration (AxD) following injury or insult impacts both recovery from axonal transection and protection of axons from diverse insults, or axonopathy. Here we provide evidence that increases in capase-6 (Casp6) expression and action contribute to the progression of AxD. The expression of Casp6 protein and mRNA in distal branches of sensory axons undergoing AxD was confirmed. We developed and utilized a new model of axonopathy in live mice by serially visualizing the viability of cutaneous axons in the ear pinna that expressed an axonal YFP transgene, in response to capasaicin-induced AxD...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229547/role-of-angiotensin-system-modulation-on-progression-of-cognitive-impairment-and-brain-mri-changes-in-aged-hypertensive-animals-a-randomized-double-blind-pre-clinical-study
#18
Heba A Ahmed, Tauheed Ishrat, Bindu Pillai, Kristopher M Bunting, Ashni Patel, Almira Vazdarjanova, Jennifer L Waller, Ali S Arbab, Adviye Ergul, Susan C Fagan
Growing evidence suggests that renin angiotensin system (RAS) modulators support cognitive function in various animal models. However, little is known about their long-term effects on the brain structure in aged hypertensive animals with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion as well as which specific domains of cognition are most affected. Therefore, in the current study we examined the effects of Candesartan and Compound 21 (C21) (RAS modulators) on aspects of cognition known to diminish with advanced age and accelerate with hypertension and vascular disease...
December 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229338/delayed-occurrence-of-diabetes-insipidus-following-transsphenoidal-surgery-with-radiological-evaluation-of-the-pituitary-stalk-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Yasuhiko Hayashi, Yasuhiro Aida, Yasuo Sasagawa, Masahiro Oishi, Daisuke Kita, Osamu Tachibana, Fumiaki Ueda, Mitsutoshi Nakada
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a major complication of transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). DI usually occurs within a couple of days after TSS. Delayed occurrence of postoperative DI is rarely observed and its developing mechanisms remain unknown. Methods Six patients were identified as having postoperative delayed DI, which was defined as DI that first occurred two or more weeks after TSS. They consisted of one male and five females, and their mean age was 38.3 (range: 10-76) years...
December 8, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229166/holding-water-congenital-anomalies-of-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract-ckd-and-the-ongoing-role-of-excellence-in-plumbing
#20
REVIEW
Lars J Cisek
Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tracts can result in diminished natal kidney function, possibly through common embryologic pathway disruption or as a result of development taking place in the face of disordered 'post-renal' drainage. Impaired conduit and reservoir function present potential for an ongoing assault leading to further deterioration and progression of chronic kidney disease, a risk that extends to adults with these conditions, even after "correction". The drainage and storage aspects of the urinary system that can impact kidney function are reviewed with attention to correctable or manageable problems including: Bladder dysfunction wherein the low pressure storage of urine is compromised requiring the kidney to work against a pressure gradient, the classic post renal failure problem...
November 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
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