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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441242/identifying-undiagnosed-pediatric-mental-illness-in-the-emergency-department
#1
La Vonne A Downey, Leslie S Zun
BACKGROUND: It is well known that pediatric psychiatric patients frequent emergency department (ED), but the number of patients with undiagnosed psychiatric illness presenting to an ED is not well known. Identification and referral of these patients may provide an opportunity for improved patient care. The primary study objective was to identify a tool that can screen for unsuspected psychiatric illness in pediatric patients who present to the ED with non-psychiatric-related complaints...
April 24, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439478/development-of-microsatellite-loci-in-mediterranean-sarsaparilla-smilax-aspera-smilacaceae-using-transcriptome-data
#2
Zhe-Chen Qi, Chao Shen, Yu-Wei Han, Wei Shen, Man Yang, Jinliang Liu, Zong-Suo Liang, Pan Li, Cheng-Xin Fu
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Although several microsatellite markers of Smilax aspera (Smilacaceae) have been reported in a previous study, due to universality issues in cross-population amplification, we have newly developed microsatellite markers for S. aspera based on transcriptome data to further investigate gene flow and genetic structure of its circum-Mediterranean, East African, and South Asian populations. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 4854 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs were designed from 99,193 contigs acquired from public transcriptome data of S...
April 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438702/global-phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-the-fern-genus-ctenitis-dryopteridaceae-with-a-focus-on-the-indian-ocean-region
#3
Sabine Hennequin, Germinal Rouhan, Alexandre Salino, Yi-Fan Duan, Marie-Capucine Lepeigneux, Marguerite Guillou, Steve Ansell, Thaís Elias Almeida, Li-Bing Zhang, Harald Schneider
The diverse and pantropical genus Ctenitis, in the Dryopteridaceae, has been largely ignored in phylogenetic studies until now. In this study, we fill in this gap by reconstructing the first comprehensive phylogeny of the genus including 53 species currently recognized in the genus Ctenitis, among which seven species formerly were assigned to the genus Pseudotectaria and one to Heterogonium. Special emphasis was given to the sampling of species occurring in the African-Indian Ocean region. The presented results include reconstruction of a biogeographic scenario based on estimated divergence times and ancestral area reconstruction...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438553/human-leukocyte-antigen-class-i-a-b-and-c-allele-and-haplotype-variation-in-a-south-african-mixed-ancestry-population
#4
Shayne Loubser, Maria Paximadis, Caroline T Tiemessen
South Africa has a large (∼53 million), ethnically diverse population (black African, Caucasian, Indian/Asian and Mixed ancestry) and a high disease burden (particularly HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The Mixed ancestry population constitutes ∼9% of the total population and was established ∼365 years ago in the Western Cape region through interracial mixing of black Africans, Europeans and Asians. Admixed populations present unique opportunities to identify genetic factors involved in disease susceptibility...
April 21, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437785/the-retina-of-asian-and-african-elephants-comparison-of-newborn-and-adult
#5
Heidrun Kuhrt, Andreas Bringmann, Wolfgang Härtig, Gudrun Wibbelt, Leo Peichl, Andreas Reichenbach
Elephants are precocial mammals that are relatively mature as newborns and mobile shortly after birth. To determine whether the retina of newborn elephants is capable of supporting the mobility of elephant calves, we compared the retinal structures of 2 newborn elephants (1 African and 1 Asian) and 2 adult animals of both species by immunohistochemical and morphometric methods. For the first time, we present here a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative characterization of the cellular composition of the newborn and the adult retinas of 2 elephant species...
April 25, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437779/further-evidence-of-male-offspring-preference-for-certain-subgroups-in-the-united-states-2007-2015
#6
Grech Victor
INTRODUCTION: Males are born in excess of females. This ratio (M/T=male/total births) is influenced by various factors. A recent study showed that M/T in the United States (US) is Asian or Pacific Islander>White>American Indian or Alaska Native>Black or African American. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether there are M/T differences in different races in the US by birth order. METHODS: Monthly male and female live births by race and birth order for the entire US were obtained for 2007-2015 with birth order as 1-≥6 for these races...
April 21, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437319/quality-of-antiepileptic-treatment-among-older-medicare-beneficiaries-with-epilepsy-a-retrospective-claims-data-analysis
#7
Maria Pisu, Joshua Richman, Kendra Piper, Roy Martin, Ellen Funkhouser, Chen Dai, Lucia Juarez, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Edward Faught
BACKGROUND: Enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EI-AEDs) are not recommended for older adults with epilepsy. Quality Indicator for Epilepsy Treatment 9 (QUIET-9) states that new patients should not receive EI-AEDs as first line of treatment. In light of reported racial/ethnic disparities in epilepsy care, we investigated EI-AED use and QUIET-9 concordance across major racial/ethnic groups of Medicare beneficiaries. RESEARCH DESIGN: Retrospective analyses of 2008-2010 Medicare claims for a 5% random sample of beneficiaries 67 years old and above in 2009 augmented for minority representation...
April 21, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437029/the-men-s-eating-and-living-meal-study-calgb-70807-alliance-recruitment-feasibility-and-baseline-demographics-of-a-randomized-trial-of-diet-in-men-on-active-surveillance-for-prostate-cancer
#8
J Kellogg Parsons, John P Pierce, James Mohler, Electra Paskett, Sin-Ho Jung, Michael J Morris, Eric Small, Olwen Hahn, Peter Humphrey, John Taylor, James Marshall
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of performing national, randomized trials of dietary interventions for localized prostate cancer. METHODS: The Men's Eating and Living (MEAL) Study (CALGB 70807 [Alliance]) is a phase 3 clinical trial testing the efficacy of a high-vegetable diet to prevent progression in prostate cancer patients on active surveillance. Participants were randomized to a validated diet counseling intervention or a control condition. Chi-Square and Kruskal Wallis analyses were used to assess between-group differences at baseline...
April 24, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434102/outcomes-following-surgical-management-of-cauda-equina-syndrome-does-race-matter
#9
Amit Jain, Emmanuel Menga, Addisu Mesfin
Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a surgical emergency requiring urgent spinal decompression. Our objective is to analyze the association between race and in-hospital outcomes (complications, mortality, length of stay, and discharge disposition) in patients with CES. This is a retrospective cohort study of CES patients identified via the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2000 to 2010 in inpatient hospitalizations in the USA. The patient sample includes 46,017 patients ≥18 undergoing spine surgery for CES...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432321/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lineage-distribution-in-xinjiang-and-gansu-provinces-china
#10
Haixia Chen, Li He, Hairong Huang, Chengmin Shi, Xumin Ni, Guangming Dai, Liang Ma, Weimin Li
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) genotyping has dramatically improved the understanding of the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). In this study, 187 M. tuberculosis isolates from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) and Gansu province in China were genotyped using large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) and variable number tandem repeats (VNTR). Ten isolates, which represent major nodes of VNTR-based minimum spanning tree, were selected and subsequently subjected to multi-locus sequence analyses (MLSA) that include 82 genes...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428231/thresholds-for-ambulatory-blood-pressure-among-african-americans-in-the-jackson-heart-study
#11
Joseph E Ravenell, Daichi Shimbo, John N Booth, Daniel F Sarpong, Charles Agyemang, Danielle L Beatty Moody, Marwah Abdalla, Tanya M Spruill, Amanda J Shallcross, Adam P Bress, Paul Muntner, Gbenga Ogedegbe
Background -Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) is the reference standard for out-of-clinic BP measurement. Thresholds for identifying ambulatory hypertension (daytime systolic BP [SBP]/diastolic BP [DBP] ≥ 135/85 mmHg, 24-hour SBP/DBP ≥ 130/80 mmHg, and nighttime SBP/DBP ≥ 120/70 mmHg) have been derived from European, Asian and South American populations. We determined BP thresholds for ambulatory hypertension in a US population-based sample of African Americans. Methods -We analyzed data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), a population-based cohort study comprised exclusively of African-American adults (n=5,306)...
April 20, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426890/fine-mapping-of-lipid-regions-in-global-populations-discovers-ethnic-specific-signals-and-refines-previously-identified-lipid-loci
#12
Niha Zubair, Mariaelisa Graff, Jose Luis Ambite, William S Bush, Gleb Kichaev, Yingchang Lu, Ani Manichaikul, Wayne H-H Sheu, Devin Absher, Themistocles L Assimes, Suzette J Bielinski, Erwin P Bottinger, Petra Buzkova, Lee-Ming Chuang, Ren-Hua Chung, Barbara Cochran, Logan Dumitrescu, Omri Gottesman, Jeffrey W Haessler, Christopher Haiman, Gerardo Heiss, Chao A Hsiung, Yi-Jen Hung, Chii-Min Hwu, Jyh-Ming J Juang, Loic Le Marchand, I-Te Lee, Wen-Jane Lee, Li-An Lin, Danyu Lin, Shih-Yi Lin, Rachel H Mackey, Lisa W Martin, Bogdan Pasaniuc, Ulrike Peters, Irene Predazzi, Thomas Quertermous, Alex P Reiner, Jennifer Robinson, Jerome I Rotter, Kelli K Ryckman, Pamela J Schreiner, Eli Stahl, Ran Tao, Michael Y Tsai, Lindsay L Waite, Tzung-Dau Wang, Steven Buyske, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Iona Cheng, Dana C Crawford, Ruth J F Loos, Stephen S Rich, Myriam Fornage, Kari E North, Charles Kooperberg, Cara L Carty
Genome-wide association studies have identified over 150 loci associated with lipid traits, however, no large-scale studies exist for Hispanics and other minority populations. Additionally, the genetic architecture of lipid-influencing loci remains largely unknown. We performed one of the most racially/ethnically diverse fine-mapping genetic studies of HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides to-date using SNPs on the MetaboChip array on 54,119 individuals: 21,304 African Americans, 19,829 Hispanic Americans, 12,456 Asians, and 530 American Indians...
December 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426597/accommodating-immigrant-women-s-preferences-for-female-health-care-providers
#13
Christa Aubrey, Zubia Mumtaz, Patrick B Patterson, Radha Chari, B F Peter Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: To investigate obstetricians' perspectives of the importance, effect, and challenges of providing intrapartum care to immigrant women who request a female obstetrician. METHODS: A focused ethnography was conducted at a large teaching hospital, which serves a high proportion of immigrant clientele (predominantly North or East African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian) in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Data collection comprised single, semistructured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 obstetric health care providers (10 resident and 10 staff obstetricians)...
May 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426286/on-the-evolution-of-lactase-persistence-in-humans
#14
Laure Ségurel, Céline Bon
Lactase persistence-the ability of adults to digest the lactose in milk-varies widely in frequency across human populations. This trait represents an adaptation to the domestication of dairying animals and the subsequent consumption of their milk. Five variants are currently known to underlie this phenotype, which is monogenic in Eurasia but mostly polygenic in Africa. Despite being a textbook example of regulatory convergent evolution and gene-culture coevolution, the story of lactase persistence is far from clear: Why are lactase persistence frequencies low in Central Asian herders but high in some African hunter-gatherers?Whywas lactase persistence strongly selected for even though milk processing can reduce the amount of lactose? Are there other factors, outside of an advantage of caloric intake, that contributed to the selective pressure for lactase persistence? It is time to revisit what we know and still do not know about lactase persistence in humans...
April 19, 2017: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424259/maternal-vitamin-d-insufficiency-early-in-pregnancy-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-preterm-birth-in-ethnic-minority-women-in-canada
#15
Negar Tabatabaei, Nathalie Auger, Catherine M Herba, Shuqin Wei, Catherine Allard, Guy D Fink, William D Fraser
Background: Maternal vitamin D insufficiency (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <75 nmol/L) may play a role in ethnic disparities in rates of preterm and spontaneous preterm births.Objective: We explored the relation between maternal plasma 25(OH)D concentration in the first trimester (8-14 wk of gestation) and the risk of preterm and spontaneous preterm births (<37 wk of gestation) by ethnicity.Methods: We designed a case-control study that included 120 cases of preterm birth (<37 wk of gestation) and 360 term controls (≥37 wk of gestation) of singleton pregnancies from the 3D cohort, a multicenter study in 2456 pregnant women in Quebec, Canada...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415846/is-urban-rural-location-associated-with-weight-status-in-school-children-an-examination-of-42-small-and-rural-californian-counties
#16
Ron Strochlic, Lauren E Au, Lorrene Ritchie
INTRODUCTON: Studies have identified geographic variation in overweight and obesity rates among children, with higher rates of overweight and obesity often found among children living in rural compared to urban areas. A small number of studies have explored differences in overweight and obesity based on more nuanced gradations along the urban-rural continuum. The purpose of the present study was to identify differences in overweight and obesity based on gradations along the urban-rural continuum among children in 42 Californian counties with populations less than 500 000...
April 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412384/molecular-epidemiology-of-penicillinase-producing-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-in-france
#17
Maité Micaëlo, Agathe Goubard, Guy La Ruche, Erick Denamur, Olivier Tenaillon, Emmanuelle Cambau, Hervé Jacquier, Béatrice Bercot
OBJECTIVES: Characterising the molecular epidemiology of antibiotic resistance is crucial for a better understanding of the evolution and spread of resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Here, we examine the molecular epidemiology of penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) isolates in France. METHODS: We investigated 176 PPNG isolates collected between 2010 and 2012 by the National Reference Centre in France. Genotyping was performed using the NG-MAST technique, blaTEM genes were Sanger-sequenced, and plasmids were characterized by PCR-typing...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412154/quality-indicator-for-epilepsy-treatment-15-quiet-15-intervening-after-recurrent-seizures-in-the-elderly
#18
Jerzy P Szaflarski, Roy C Martin, Edward Faught, Ellen Funkhouser, Joshua Richman, Kendra Piper, Lucia Juarez, Chen Dai, Maria Pisu
In this study, we examined the provision of care to older adults with epilepsy and compliance with the "Quality Indicator for Epilepsy Treatment 15" (QUIET-15) measure. We analyzed 2008-2010, 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries augmented with data from all beneficiaries who identified as a minority with claims related to seizures (780.3x) or epilepsy (345.xx). Of 36,912 identified epilepsy cases, 12.6% had ≥1 emergency room (ER) visit for seizure(s). For those who presented to ER, among those taking anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), AED was changed in 15...
April 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411329/racial-and-ethnic-difference-in-falls-among-older-adults-results-from-the-california-health-interview-survey
#19
Simona C Kwon, Benjamin H Han, Julie A Kranick, Laura C Wyatt, Caroline S Blaum, Stella S Yi, Chau Trinh-Shevrin
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that fall risk among older adults varies by racial/ethnic groups; however, few studies have examined fall risk among Hispanics and Asian American older adults. METHODS: Using 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey data, this study examines falling ≥2 times in the past year by racial/ethnic groups (Asian Americans, Hispanics, and Blacks) aged ≥65, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, body mass index, co-morbidities, and functional limitations...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407748/the-role-of-ethnicity-in-pathways-to-emergency-psychiatric-services-for-clients-with-psychosis
#20
Martin Rotenberg, Andrew Tuck, Rachel Ptashny, Kwame McKenzie
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the role of ethnicity in pathways to emergency mental health care in Toronto for clients with psychosis, while taking into account neighborhood factors. Previous literature has focused on Afro-Caribbean clients, reporting an increased risk of accessing mental health care through negative pathways. METHODS: A retrospective chart review for clients from 6 different ethnic origin groups presenting with psychosis - East Asian, South Asian, Black African, Black Caribbean, White European, and White North American - was undertaken in a psychiatric emergency department (ED)...
April 13, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
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