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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719265/differences-in-inflammation-patterns-induced-by-african-and-asian-burkholderia-pseudomallei-isolates-in-mice
#1
Tassili A F Weehuizen, Emma Birnie, Bart Ferwerda, Joris J T H Roelofs, Alex F de Vos, Martin P Grobusch, W Joost Wiersinga
AbstractBurkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an emerging tropical disease of high mortality. Sub-Saharan Africa represents potential melioidosis "hotspots"; however, to date, only a few cases have been reported. Here in, we compared the inflammatory patterns induced by a B. pseudomallei strain recently isolated from a fatal Gabonese case with the Thai reference strain B. pseudomallei-1026b and Burkholderia thailandensis-E264. Ex vivo, no differences were observed in terms of cellular responsiveness between strains...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718431/racial-differences-in-cancer-susceptibility-and-survival-more-than-the-color-of-the-skin
#2
REVIEW
Berna C Özdemir, Gian-Paolo Dotto
Epidemiological studies point to race as a determining factor in cancer susceptibility. In US registries recording cancer incidence and survival by race (distinguishing 'black versus white'), individuals of African ancestry have a globally increased risk of malignancies compared with Caucasians and Asian Americans. Differences in socioeconomic status and health-care access play a key role. However, the lesser disease susceptibility of Hispanic populations with comparable lifestyles and socioeconomic status as African Americans (Hispanic paradox) points to the concomitant importance of genetic determinants...
March 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716916/genomic-landscape-of-human-diversity-across-madagascar
#3
Denis Pierron, Margit Heiske, Harilanto Razafindrazaka, Ignace Rakoto, Nelly Rabetokotany, Bodo Ravololomanga, Lucien M-A Rakotozafy, Mireille Mialy Rakotomalala, Michel Razafiarivony, Bako Rasoarifetra, Miakabola Andriamampianina Raharijesy, Lolona Razafindralambo, Ramilisonina, Fulgence Fanony, Sendra Lejamble, Olivier Thomas, Ahmed Mohamed Abdallah, Christophe Rocher, Amal Arachiche, Laure Tonaso, Veronica Pereda-Loth, Stéphanie Schiavinato, Nicolas Brucato, Francois-Xavier Ricaut, Pradiptajati Kusuma, Herawati Sudoyo, Shengyu Ni, Anne Boland, Jean-Francois Deleuze, Philippe Beaujard, Philippe Grange, Sander Adelaar, Mark Stoneking, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Chantal Radimilahy, Thierry Letellier
Although situated ∼400 km from the east coast of Africa, Madagascar exhibits cultural, linguistic, and genetic traits from both Southeast Asia and Eastern Africa. The settlement history remains contentious; we therefore used a grid-based approach to sample at high resolution the genomic diversity (including maternal lineages, paternal lineages, and genome-wide data) across 257 villages and 2,704 Malagasy individuals. We find a common Bantu and Austronesian descent for all Malagasy individuals with a limited paternal contribution from Europe and the Middle East...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716601/changes-in-refractive-status-in-an-elderly-chinese-population-in-a-7-year-follow-up-the-shihpai-eye-study
#4
Tung-Mei Kuang, Su-Ying Tsai, Catherine Jiu-Ling Liu, Yu-Chieh Ko, Shui-Mei Lee, Pesus Chou
BACKGROUND: Refractive error is the major cause of moderate and severe visual impairment. Visual impairment limits people's ability to perform daily tasks and affects their quality of life. Longitudinal data on the refractive status of the elderly was available only for whites and Africans. The purpose of this study was to report the 7-year incidence of myopia, hyperopia and refractive error change as well as their associated risk factors in a metropolitan elderly Chinese population. METHODS: The Shihpai Eye Study 2006 included 460/824 (55...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714599/the-utility-of-empirically-assigning-ancestry-groups-in-cross-population-genetic-studies-of-addiction
#5
Roseann E Peterson, Alexis C Edwards, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler, Bradley T Webb
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Given moderate heritability and significant heterogeneity among addiction phenotypes, successful genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are expected to need very large samples. As sample sizes grow, so can genetic diversity leading to challenges in analyzing these data. Methods for empirically assigning individuals to genetically informed ancestry groups are needed. METHODS: We describe a strategy for empirically assigning ancestry groups in ethnically diverse GWAS data including extensions of principal component analysis (PCA) and population matching through minimum Mahalanobis distance...
July 17, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710451/selection-of-complementary-foods-based-on-optimal-nutritional-values
#6
Partho Sen, Adil Mardinogulu, Jens Nielsen
Human milk is beneficial for growth and development of infants. Several factors result in mothers ceasing breastfeeding which leads to introduction of breast-milk substitutes (BMS). In some communities traditional foods are given as BMS, in others they are given as complementary foods during weaning. Improper food selection at this stage is associated with a high prevalence of malnutrition in children under 5 years. Here we listed the traditional foods from four continents and compared them with human milk based on their dietary contents...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710207/comorbidities-complications-and-mortality-in-people-of-south-asian-ethnicity-with-type-1-diabetes-compared-with-other-ethnic-groups-a-systematic-review
#7
Komil N Sarwar, Phoebe Cliff, Ponnusamy Saravanan, Kamlesh Khunti, Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar, Parth Narendran
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to explore the association of South Asian (SA) ethnicity on comorbidities, microvascular and macrovascular complications and mortality compared with other ethnic groups in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). DESIGN: Systematic review. METHOD: A systematic literature search strategy was designed and carried out using Medline and Embase for full-text and abstract studies published in English from 1946 to February 2016...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709582/the-incidence-of-transfusion-and-associated-risk-factors-in-pelvic-reconstructive-surgery
#8
Lopa K Pandya, Courtney Lynch, Andrew F Hundley, Silpa Nekkanti, Catherine O Hudson
BACKGROUND: Almost 400,000 female pelvic reconstructive operations were performed in 2010 for urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse in the United States, and it is likely that this will continue to increase each year. There is a lack of population-based data evaluating the risk of blood transfusion after urogynecologic procedures. OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence of blood transfusion related to pelvic reconstructive surgery in a large national surgical quality database and to identify transfusion-associated risk factors...
July 11, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704695/emergence-of-the-asian-genotype-of-denv-1-in-south-india
#9
D Cecilia, J A Patil, M B Kakade, A Walimbe, K Alagarasu, B Anukumar, A Abraham
A large outbreak of dengue occurred in Tamil Nadu, South India in 2012 with 12,000 cases and CFR of 0.5%. Molecular characterization of virus present in the sera of dengue patients was undertaken to determine if there were changes in the virus population. All four serotypes were circulating but DENV-1 was dominant, present in 52% of the serotyped samples. Furthermore, the genotype of only DENV-1 had changed; the Asian genotype had displaced the American/African. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Asian genotype was introduced from Singapore and shared 99% similarity with viruses, associated with large outbreaks in Singapore and Sri Lanka...
July 10, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704570/signs-of-eclampsia-during-singleton-deliveries-and-early-neonatal-mortality-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-from-three-who-regions
#10
Saverio Bellizzi, Howard L Sobel, Mohamed M Ali
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of eclampsia symptoms and to explore associations between eclampsia and early neonatal mortality. METHODS: The present secondary analysis included Demographic and Health Surveys data from 2005 to 2012; details of signs related to severe obstetric adverse events of singleton deliveries during interviewees' most recent delivery in the preceding 5 years were included. Data and delivery history were merged for pooled analyses. Convulsions-used as an indicator for having experienced eclampsia-and early neonatal mortality rates were compared, and a generalized random effect model, adjusted for heterogeneity between and within countries, was used to investigate the impact of presumed eclampsia on early neonatal mortality...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700747/the-association-between-ethnicity-and-vaginal-microbiota-composition-in-amsterdam-the-netherlands
#11
Hanneke Borgdorff, Charlotte van der Veer, Robin van Houdt, Catharina J Alberts, Henry J de Vries, Sylvia M Bruisten, Marieke B Snijder, Maria Prins, Suzanne E Geerlings, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Janneke H H M van de Wijgert
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether ethnicity is independently associated with vaginal microbiota (VMB) composition in women living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, as has been shown for American women. METHODS: Women (18-34 years, non-pregnant, N = 610) representing the six largest ethnic groups (Dutch, African Surinamese, South-Asian Surinamese, Turkish, Moroccan, and Ghanaian) were sampled from the population-based HELIUS study. Sampling was performed irrespective of health status or healthcare seeking behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698339/ethnic-differences-in-current-smoking-and-former-smoking-in-the-netherlands-and-the-contribution-of-socioeconomic-factors-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-helius-study
#12
Rachel Brathwaite, Liam Smeeth, Juliet Addo, Anton E Kunst, Ron J G Peters, Marieke B Snijder, Eske M Derks, Charles Agyemang
OBJECTIVES: Data exploring how much of the ethnic differences in smoking prevalence and former smoking are explained by socioeconomic status (SES) are lacking. We therefore assessed ethnic differences in smoking prevalence and former smoking and the contribution of both educational level and occupational-related SES to the observed ethnic differences in smoking behaviour. METHODS: Data of 22 929 participants (aged 18-70 years) from the multiethnic cross-sectional Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study in the Netherlands were analysed...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696906/assessment-of-recent-hiv-testing-among-older-adults-in-the-united-states
#13
Yuqi Guo, Omar T Sims
Older adults are the fastest growing segment of people living with HIV, and unfortunately many are unaware of their HIV status. Many providers are reluctant to ask older adults about their sexual histories, evaluate their risk factors, and test for HIV, and older adults have low perception of HIV risk. Using data from the 2013 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, this study assessed the prevalence of recent HIV testing among older adults in the United States (n = 1,056) and identified predictors and barriers to recent HIV testing...
July 11, 2017: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690629/genome-wide-analysis-of-simple-sequence-repeats-in-bitter-gourd-momordica-charantia
#14
Junjie Cui, Jiaowen Cheng, Dingguo Nong, Jiazhu Peng, Yafei Hu, Weiming He, Qianjun Zhou, Narinder P S Dhillon, Kailin Hu
Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is widely cultivated as a vegetable and medicinal herb in many Asian and African countries. After the sequencing of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), and melon (Cucumis melo) genomes, bitter gourd became the fourth cucurbit species whose whole genome was sequenced. However, a comprehensive analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in bitter gourd, including a comparison with the three aforementioned cucurbit species has not yet been published...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688886/antileukemic-ancistrobenomine-b-and-related-5-1-coupled-naphthylisoquinoline-alkaloids-from-the-chinese-liana-ancistrocladus-tectorius
#15
Gerhard Bringmann, Raina Seupel, Doris Feineis, Minjuan Xu, Guoliang Zhang, Marcel Kaiser, Reto Brun, Ean-Jeong Seo, Thomas Efferth
A striking feature of the metabolite pattern of the Southeast Asian liana Ancistrocladus tectorius (Ancistrocladaceae) is the predominance of 5,1'-coupled naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids. About 20 alkaloids of this coupling type have so far been discovered in this plant species. Here, we report on the isolation of four new 5,1'-linked naphthylisoquinolines from the twigs and stems of A. tectorius. Two of them, the ancistrobenomines B (5) and C (6), belong to the very rare group of alkaloids with a fully dehydrogenated isoquinoline portion...
July 6, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685055/identification-of-genetic-variants-in-pharmacogenetic-genes-associated-with-type-2-diabetes-in-a-mexican-mestizo-population
#16
Nidia Samara Rodríguez-Rivera, Patricia Cuautle-Rodríguez, Fernando Castillo-Nájera, Juan Arcadio Molina-Guarneros
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most prevalent chronic pathologies in the world. In developing countries, such as Mexico, its prevalence represents an important public health and research issue. Determining factors triggering T2DM are environmental and genetic. While diet, exercise and proper weight control are the first measures recommended to improve the quality of life and life expectancy of patients, pharmacological treatment is usually the next step. Within every population there are variations in interindividual drug response, which may be due to genetic background...
July 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684774/tumoral-expression-of-drug-and-xenobiotic-metabolizing-enzymes-in-breast-cancer-patients-of-different-ethnicities-with-implications-to-personalized-medicine
#17
Yan Li, Albert Steppi, Yidong Zhou, Feng Mao, Philip Craig Miller, Max M He, Tingting Zhao, Qiang Sun, Jinfeng Zhang
Drug and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (DXME) play important roles in drug responses and carcinogenesis. Recent studies have found that expression of DXME in cancer cells significantly affects drug clearance and the onset of drug resistance. In this study we compared the expression of DXME in breast tumor tissue samples from patients representing three ethnic groups: Caucasian Americans (CA), African Americans (AA), and Asian Americans (AS). We further combined DXME gene expression data with eQTL data from the GTEx project and with allele frequency data from the 1000 Genomes project to identify SNPs that may be associated with differential expression of DXME genes...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683213/proteomics-of-culture-filtrate-of-prevalent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-2d-page-map-and-maldi-tof-ms-analysis
#18
Gavish Kumar, Hari Shankar, Divakar Sharma, Prashant Sharma, Deepa Bisht, Vishwa M Katoch, Beenu Joshi
Although diverse efforts have been done to identify biomarkers for control of tuberculosis using laboratory strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, the disease still poses a threat to mankind. There are many emerging M. tuberculosis strains, and proteomic profiling of these strains might be important to find out potential targets for diagnosis and/or prevention of tuberculosis. We evaluated the comparative proteomic profiling of culture filtrate (CF) proteins from prevalent M. tuberculosis strains (Central Asian or Delhi type; CAS1_Del, East African-Indian; EAI-3 and Beijing family) by 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
July 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681901/dense-genotyping-of-immune-related-regions-identifies-loci-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-risk-and-damage-in-african-americans
#19
Maria I Danila, Vincent Albert Laufer, Richard J Reynolds, Qi Yan, Nianjun Liu, Peter K Gregersen, Annette Lee, Marlena Kern, Carl D Langefeld, Donna K Arnett, S Louis Bridges
Over 100 risk loci for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been identified in individuals of European and Asian descent, but the genetic basis for RA in African Americans is less well understood. We genotyped 610 African Americans with autoantibody positive RA and 933 African American controls on the ImmunoChip (iChip) array. Using multivariable regression we evaluated the association between iChip markers and the risk of RA and radiographic severity. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1964995 (OR = 1.97, p = 1...
June 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680668/culture-moderates-changes-in-linguistic-self-presentation-and-detail-provision-when-deceiving-others
#20
Paul J Taylor, Samuel Larner, Stacey M Conchie, Tarek Menacere
Change in our language when deceiving is attributable to differences in the affective and cognitive experience of lying compared to truth telling, yet these experiences are also subject to substantial individual differences. On the basis of previous evidence of cultural differences in self-construal and remembering, we predicted and found evidence for cultural differences in the extent to which truths and lies contained self (versus other) references and perceptual (versus social) details. Participants (N = 320) of Black African, South Asian, White European and White British ethnicity completed a catch-the-liar task in which they provided genuine and fabricated statements about either their past experiences or an opinion and counter-opinion...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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