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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052175/african-americans-with-cirrhosis-are-less-likely-to-receive-endoscopic-variceal-screening-within-one-year-of-cirrhosis-diagnosis
#1
Ann Robinson, Hesam Tavakoli, Benny Liu, Taft Bhuket, Ramsey Cheung, Robert J Wong
BACKGROUND: Esophageal variceal hemorrhage is a complication of cirrhosis that carries high mortality, and can be reduced with timely endoscopic variceal screening and treatment. AIM: We aim to evaluate overall rates of and disparities in receipt of endoscopic variceal screening among an ethnically diverse urban safety-net hospital. METHODS: All consecutive adults with cirrhosis (7/1/2014 to 12/31/2015) were retrospectively evaluated to determine the rates of receiving esophageal variceal screening within 6 months and within 1 year after cirrhosis diagnosis...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049140/metopism-a-study-of-the-persistent-metopic-suture
#2
Matthew J Zdilla, Michelle L Russell, Aaron W Koons, Kaitlyn N Bliss, Kelsey R Mangus
Metopism, the persistence of the metopic suture in adulthood, is a clinically significant radiographic finding. In addition to masquerading as a fracture of the frontal bone, a persistent metopic suture may be associated with other clinically significant anatomical variations including frontal sinus abnormalities. Several geographically and craniofacially distinct populations have yet to be assessed for the prevalence of metopism. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of metopic sutures in adult crania of diverse populations among which scant research exists...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045352/impact-of-race-and-ethnicity-on-outcomes-for-children-waitlisted-for-pediatric-liver-transplantation
#3
Douglas B Mogul, Xun Luo, Eric K Chow, Allan B Massie, Tanjala S Purnell, Kathleen B Schwarz, Andrew M Cameron, John F P Bridges, Dorry L Segev
OBJECTIVE: African Americans and other minorities are known to face barriers to health care influencing their access to organ transplantation but it is not known whether these barriers exist among pediatric liver transplant waitlist candidates. We sought to determine whether outcomes on the waitlist (i.e., mortality, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT), and living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT)) varied by race/ethnicity. METHODS: National registry data were studied to estimate the race/ethnicity-specific risk of waitlist mortality, DDLT and LDLT in children (<18 years) waitlisted between March, 2002 and March, 2015...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044149/development-and-evaluation-of-a-rapid-molecular-diagnostic-test-for-zika-virus-infection-by-reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#4
Yohei Kurosaki, Danyelly Bruneska Gondim Martins, Mayuko Kimura, Andriu Dos Santos Catena, Maria Amélia Carlos Souto Maior Borba, Sandra da Silva Mattos, Haruka Abe, Rokusuke Yoshikawa, José Luiz de Lima Filho, Jiro Yasuda
The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) disease caused an enormous number of infections in Central and South America, and the unusual increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection aroused global concern. Here, we developed a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay using a portable device for the detection of ZIKV. The assay specifically detected ZIKV strains of both Asian and African genotypes without cross-reactivity with other arboviruses, including Dengue and Chikungunya viruses...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043846/-gay-equals-white-racial-ethnic-and-sexual-identities-and-attitudes-toward-lgbt-individuals-among-college-students-at-a-bible-belt-university
#5
Meredith G F Worthen
While past research has certainly explored a variety of correlates of attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, the current study is among the first in an emerging line of inquiry that examines attitudes toward each of these groups separately utilizing an intersectional framework with special attention to racial, ethnic, and sexual identities. Using a college sample of students from the Bible Belt of the United States (N = 1,940), I investigated the roles of racial and ethnic identities (Caucasian/White, African American/Black, Asian/Pacific Islander, Native American/Alaskan Native, other race, and Hispanic/Latinx), religiosity, patriarchal gender norms, parental perspectives, and the intersections among these identities and experiences as they relate to attitudes toward LGBT individuals among heterosexual (n = 1,551) and LGB respondents (n = 389)...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043831/del-phenotype
#6
Dong H Kwon, S G Sandler, Willy A Flegel
DEL red blood cells (RBCs) type as D- by routine serologic methods and are transfused routinely, without being identified as expressing a very weak D antigen, to D- recipients. DEL RBCs are detected only by adsorption and elution of anti-D or by molecular methods. Most DEL phenotypes have been reported in population studies conducted in East Asia, although DEL phenotypes have been detected also among Caucasian individuals. Approximately 98 percent of DEL phenotypes in East Asians are associated with the RHD*DEL1 or RHD*01EL...
September 2017: Immunohematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040546/variation-and-functional-impact-of-neanderthal-ancestry-in-western-asia
#7
Recep Ozgur Taskent, Duha Alioglu, Evrim Fer, Handan Melike Donertas, Mehmet Somel, Omer Gokcumen
Neanderthals contributed genetic material to modern humans via multiple admixture events. Initial admixture events presumably occurred in Western Asia shortly after humans migrated out-of-Africa. Despite being a focal point of admixture, earlier studies indicate lower Neanderthal introgression rates in some Western Asian populations as compared to other Eurasian populations. To better understand the genome-wide and phenotypic impact of Neanderthal introgression in the region, we sequenced whole genomes of 10 present-day Europeans, Africans, and the Western Asian Druze at high depth, and analyzed available whole genome data from various other populations, including 16 genomes from present-day Turkey...
October 13, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039132/violent-injury-and-neighborhood-racial-ethnic-diversity-in-oakland-california
#8
Joshua Berezin, Sara Gale, Amani Nuru-Jeter, Maureen Lahiff, Colette Auerswald, Harrison Alter
Racial and ethnic segregation has been linked to a number of deleterious health outcomes, including violence. Previous studies of segregation and violence have focused on segregation between African Americans and Whites, used homicide as a measure of violence, and employed segregation measures that fail to take into account neighborhood level processes. We examined the relationship between neighborhood diversity and violent injury in Oakland, California. Violent injuries from the Alameda County Medical Center Trauma Registry that occurred between 1998 and 2002 were geocoded...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034365/ethnicity-sex-and-age-are-determinants-of-red-blood-cell-storage-and-stress-hemolysis-results-of-the-reds-iii-rbc-omics-study
#9
Tamir Kanias, Marion C Lanteri, Grier P Page, Yuelong Guo, Stacy M Endres, Mars Stone, Sheila Keating, Alan E Mast, Ritchard G Cable, Darrell J Triulzi, Joseph E Kiss, Edward L Murphy, Steve Kleinman, Michael P Busch, Mark T Gladwin
Genetic polymorphisms in blood donors may contribute to donor-specific differences in the survival of red blood cells (RBCs) during cold storage and after transfusion. Genetic variability is anticipated to be high in donors with racial admixture from malaria endemic regions such as Africa and Asia. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that donor genetic background, reflected by sex and self-reported ethnicity, significantly modulates RBC phenotypes in storage. High throughput hemolysis assays were developed and used to evaluate stored RBC samples from 11 115 African American, Asian, white, and Hispanic blood donors from 4 geographically diverse regions in the United States...
June 27, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032629/consumption-of-commercially-produced-snack-foods-and-sugar-sweetened-beverages-during-the-complementary-feeding-period-in-four-african-and-asian-urban-contexts
#10
Alissa M Pries, Sandra L Huffman, Mary Champeny, Indu Adhikary, Margaret Benjamin, Aminata Ndeye Coly, El Hadji Issakha Diop, Khin Mengkheang, Ndèye Yaga Sy, Shrid Dhungel, Alison Feeley, Bineti Vitta, Elizabeth Zehner
The availability and consumption of commercially produced foods and beverages have increased across low-income and middle-income countries. This cross-sectional survey assessed consumption of commercially produced foods and beverages among children 6-23 months of age, and mothers' exposure to promotions for these products. Health facility-based interviews were conducted among 218 randomly sampled mothers utilizing child health services in Dakar, Senegal; 229 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 228 in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; and 222 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031817/bcrp-abcg2-and-high-alert-medications-biochemical-pharmacokinetic-pharmacogenetic-and-clinical-implications
#11
REVIEW
Daiki Hira, Tomohiro Terada
The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is an ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter that uses ATP hydrolysis to expel xenobiotics from cells, including anti-cancer medications. It is expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, and brain endothelium. Thus, ABCG2 functions as a tissue barrier to drug transport that strongly influences the pharmacokinetics of substrate medications. Genetic polymorphisms of ABCG2 are closely related to inter-individual variations in therapeutic performance...
October 12, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031637/molecular-epidemiology-of-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-ireland-2001-2014
#12
E Roycroft, R F O'Toole, M M Fitzgibbon, L Montgomery, M O'Meara, P Downes, S Jackson, J O'Donnell, I F Laurenson, A M McLaughlin, J Keane, T R Rogers
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this work was to examine the acquisition and spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in Ireland. METHODS: All available Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates (n = 42), from MDR-TB cases diagnosed in Ireland between 2001 and 2014, were analysed using phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing, Mycobacterial-Interspersed-Repetitive-Units Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030973/returning-to-work-after-laparoscopic-myomectomy-a-prospective-observational-study
#13
Keren O Huff, Mehrnoosh Aref-Adib, Zwelihle Magama, Evangelia K Vlachodimitropoulou, Reeba Oliver, Funlayo Odejinmi
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic myomectomy offers women many benefits over conventional open surgery, including an expedited recovery and return to employment. Our study evaluates the time taken for women to return to work after laparoscopic myomectomy and identifies factors prolonging recovery to over eight weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 94 women undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy by a single surgeon between January 2012 and March 2015. Women had standardised pre-operative counseling and completed a validated return to work questionnaire three months post-operatively via telephone, post or in clinic...
October 14, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030403/new-blood-pressure-associated-loci-identified-in-meta-analyses-of-475%C3%A2-000-individuals
#14
Aldi T Kraja, James P Cook, Helen R Warren, Praveen Surendran, Chunyu Liu, Evangelos Evangelou, Alisa K Manning, Niels Grarup, Fotios Drenos, Xueling Sim, Albert Vernon Smith, Najaf Amin, Alexandra I F Blakemore, Jette Bork-Jensen, Ivan Brandslund, Aliki-Eleni Farmaki, Cristiano Fava, Teresa Ferreira, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Ayush Giri, Franco Giulianini, Megan L Grove, Xiuqing Guo, Sarah E Harris, Christian T Have, Aki S Havulinna, He Zhang, Marit E Jørgensen, AnneMari Käräjämäki, Charles Kooperberg, Allan Linneberg, Louis Little, Yongmei Liu, Lori L Bonnycastle, Yingchang Lu, Reedik Mägi, Anubha Mahajan, Giovanni Malerba, Riccardo E Marioni, Hao Mei, Cristina Menni, Alanna C Morrison, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Walter Palmas, Alaitz Poveda, Rainer Rauramaa, Nigel William Rayner, Muhammad Riaz, Ken Rice, Melissa A Richard, Jennifer A Smith, Lorraine Southam, Alena Stančáková, Kathleen E Stirrups, Vinicius Tragante, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Tibor V Varga, Stefan Weiss, Andrianos M Yiorkas, Robin Young, Weihua Zhang, Michael R Barnes, Claudia P Cabrera, He Gao, Michael Boehnke, Eric Boerwinkle, John C Chambers, John M Connell, Cramer K Christensen, Rudolf A de Boer, Ian J Deary, George Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Anna F Dominiczak, Marcus Dörr, Roby Joehanes, Todd L Edwards, Tõnu Esko, Myriam Fornage, Nora Franceschini, Paul W Franks, Giovanni Gambaro, Leif Groop, Göran Hallmans, Torben Hansen, Caroline Hayward, Oksa Heikki, Erik Ingelsson, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Sharon L R Kardia, Fredrik Karpe, Jaspal S Kooner, Timo A Lakka, Claudia Langenberg, Lars Lind, Ruth J F Loos, Markku Laakso, Mark I McCarthy, Olle Melander, Karen L Mohlke, Andrew P Morris, Colin N A Palmer, Oluf Pedersen, Ozren Polasek, Neil R Poulter, Michael A Province, Bruce M Psaty, Paul M Ridker, Jerome I Rotter, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Nilesh J Samani, Peter J Sever, Tea Skaaby, Jeanette M Stafford, John M Starr, Pim van der Harst, Peter van der Meer, Cornelia M van Duijn, Anne-Claire Vergnaud, Vilmundur Gudnason, Nicholas J Wareham, James G Wilson, Cristen J Willer, Daniel R Witte, Eleftheria Zeggini, Danish Saleheen, Adam S Butterworth, John Danesh, Folkert W Asselbergs, Louise V Wain, Georg B Ehret, Daniel I Chasman, Mark J Caulfield, Paul Elliott, Cecilia M Lindgren, Daniel Levy, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Patricia B Munroe, Joanna M M Howson
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have recently identified >400 loci that harbor DNA sequence variants that influence blood pressure (BP). Our earlier studies identified and validated 56 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) associated with BP from meta-analyses of exome chip genotype data. An additional 100 variants yielded suggestive evidence of association. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we augment the sample with 140 886 European individuals from the UK Biobank, in whom 77 of the 100 suggestive SNVs were available for association analysis with systolic BP or diastolic BP or pulse pressure...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029367/genetic-diversity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-merozoite-surface-protein-1-block-2-glutamate-rich-protein-and-sexual-stage-antigen-pfs25-from-chandigarh-north-india
#15
Hargobinder Kaur, Rakesh Sehgal, Kapil Goyal, Nikita Makkar, Richa Yadav, Praveen K Bharti, Neeru Singh, Nilanju P Sarmah, Pradymna K Mohapatra, Jagadish Mahanta, Devendra Bansal, Ali A Sultan, Jagat R Kanwar
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the genetic diversity of P. falciparum in residual transmission foci of northern India. METHODS: Clinically suspected malaria patients were screened for malaria infection by microscopy. 48 P. falciparum-infected patients were enrolled from two tertiary care hospitals in Chandigarh, India. Blood samples were collected from enrolled patients, genomic DNA extraction and nested PCR was performed for further species confirmation. Sanger sequencing was carried out using block 2 region of msp1, R2 region of glurp and pfs25 specific primers...
October 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027504/pharmacokinetic-considerations-for-use-of-artemisinin-based-combination-therapies-against-falciparum-malaria-in-different-ethnic-populations
#16
Sri Riyati Sugiarto, Timothy M E Davis, Sam Salman
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is used extensively as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. There has been no rigorous assessment of the potential for racial/ethnic differences in the pharmacokinetic properties of ACTs that might influence their pharmacokinetic properties. Areas covered: A comprehensive literature search was performed that identified 72 publications in which the geographical origin of the patients could be ascertained and the key pharmacokinetic parameters maximum drug concentration (Cmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and elimination half-life (t½β) were available for one or more of the five WHO-recommended ACTs (artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine, artesunate-mefloquine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine)...
October 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027495/monitoring-and-managing-antibiotic-resistance-in-refugee-children
#17
Helena C Maltezou, Dana Elhadad, Daniel Glikman
The past decade the Middle East and Southeastern Europe have witnessed an enormous movement of refugees due to the Syrian war and conflicts in Asia and Africa. Although carriage of and infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens in refugees have been reported, pediatric data are scarce. Areas covered: MDR bacterial carriage and infections, and MDR-tuberculosis (TB) in refugee children from 2010. Expert commentary: High MDR carriage rates in refugee children are attributed to high pre-civil war MDR rates, war-damaged infrastructure and healthcare systems, and poor hygiene conditions...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026474/using-growth-mixture-modeling-for-clustering-asian-and-north-african-countries-on-the-road-injury-death-trend-1990-2010
#18
Maryam Salari, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Farid Zayeri
OBJECTIVES: The physical injuries and financial implications as a result of road accidents have serious economic, cultural, and social effects. We conducted this study to determine any changes in the trend of road-accident-related deaths in Asian and North African countries from 1990 to 2010. METHODS: The current study was carried out using data from the Global Burden of Disease database. First, the process was assessed using the growth curve divided into six regions...
September 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025994/loci-associated-with-skin-pigmentation-identified-in-african-populations
#19
Nicholas G Crawford, Derek E Kelly, Matthew E B Hansen, Marcia H Beltrame, Shaohua Fan, Shanna L Bowman, Ethan Jewett, Alessia Ranciaro, Simon Thompson, Yancy Lo, Susanne P Pfeifer, Jeffrey D Jensen, Michael C Campbell, William Beggs, Farhad Hormozdiari, Sununguko Wata Mpoloka, Gaonyadiwe George Mokone, Thomas Nyambo, Dawit Wolde Meskel, Gurja Belay, Jake Haut, Harriet Rothschild, Leonard Zon, Yi Zhou, Michael A Kovacs, Mai Xu, Tongwu Zhang, Kevin Bishop, Jason Sinclair, Cecilia Rivas, Eugene Elliot, Jiyeon Choi, Shengchao A Li, Belynda Hicks, Shawn Burgess, Christian Abnet, Dawn E Watkins-Chow, Elena Oceana, Yun S Song, Eleazar Eskin, Kevin M Brown, Michael S Marks, Stacie K Loftus, William J Pavan, Meredith Yeager, Stephen Chanock, Sarah Tishkoff
Despite the wide range of skin pigmentation in humans, little is known about its genetic basis in global populations. Examining ethnically diverse African genomes, we identify variants in or near SLC24A5, MFSD12, DDB1, TMEM138, OCA2 and HERC2 that are significantly associated with skin pigmentation. Genetic evidence indicates that the light pigmentation variant at SLC24A5 was introduced into East Africa by gene flow from non-Africans. At all other loci, variants associated with dark pigmentation in Africans are identical by descent in southern Asian and Australo-Melanesian populations...
October 12, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023835/school-based-health-centers-and-adolescent-substance-use-moderating-effects-of-race-ethnicity-and-socioeconomic-status
#20
Melina Bersamin, Mallie J Paschall, Deborah A Fisher
BACKGROUND: School-based health centers (SBHCs) have been associated with many positive health and academic outcomes. The current study extends previous research and examines possible differences in the association between SBHC exposure and adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use by race/ethnicity, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: California Healthy Kids Survey data from 504 traditional high schools in California were linked with publicly available data on SBHCs and school demographics...
November 2017: Journal of School Health
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