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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343667/comparison-of-maxillary-anterior-tooth-width-and-facial-dimensions-of-3-ethnicities
#1
Ewa C Parciak, Ankur T Dahiya, Hamad S AlRumaih, Mathew T Kattadiyil, Nadim Z Baba, Charles J Goodacre
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: As the cosmetic demands of patients increase, determining the appropriate dimensions of the maxillary anterior teeth has become increasingly relevant. The relationship between facial measurements and tooth size provide guidance for maxillary anterior tooth size selection. However, most publications on this topic have focused on the white population, and more data for tooth sizes and their proportions in other ethnicities are needed. PURPOSE: The purpose of this observational study was to investigate the relationship between the mesiodistal dimensions of the 6 maxillary anterior teeth and the bizygomatic width, interpupillary distance, intercanthal distance, interalar width, and intercommissural width of individuals of Asian, African-American, and white ethnicities...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338521/ethnicity-lipids-and-cardiovascular-disease
#2
Katia Gazzola, Rens Reeskamp, Bert-Jan van den Born
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease differs among ethnic groups and along geographic boundaries. At present, most of the projected increase in mortality from cardiovascular disease occurs in sub-Saharan African, Chinese and Southeast Asian populations. Ethnic disparities in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease coincide with quantitative and qualitative differences in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. High plasma cholesterol is one of the most important preventable causes of ischemic heart disease...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335411/how-the-cobra-got-its-flesh-eating-venom-cytotoxicity-as-a-defensive-innovation-and-its-co-evolution-with-hooding-aposematic-marking-and-spitting
#3
Nadya Panagides, Timothy N W Jackson, Maria P Ikonomopoulou, Kevin Arbuckle, Rudolf Pretzler, Daryl C Yang, Syed A Ali, Ivan Koludarov, James Dobson, Brittany Sanker, Angelique Asselin, Renan C Santana, Iwan Hendrikx, Harold van der Ploeg, Jeremie Tai-A-Pin, Romilly van den Bergh, Harald M I Kerkkamp, Freek J Vonk, Arno Naude, Morné A Strydom, Louis Jacobsz, Nathan Dunstan, Marc Jaeger, Wayne C Hodgson, John Miles, Bryan G Fry
The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. On the other hand, a consistent positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and utilisation of the defensive hooding display that cobras are famous for...
March 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330589/ethnicity-and-excess-mortality-in-severe-mental-illness-a-cohort-study
#4
Jayati Das-Munshi, Chin-Kuo Chang, Rina Dutta, Craig Morgan, James Nazroo, Robert Stewart, Martin J Prince
BACKGROUND: Excess mortality in severe mental illness (defined here as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders, and bipolar affective disorders) is well described, but little is known about this inequality in ethnic minorities. We aimed to estimate excess mortality for people with severe mental illness for five ethnic groups (white British, black Caribbean, black African, south Asian, and Irish) and to assess the association of ethnicity with mortality risk. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of individuals with a valid diagnosis of severe mental illness between Jan 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2014, from the case registry of the South London and Maudsley Trust (London, UK)...
March 16, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330456/genome-wide-expression-profiling-in-leaves-and-roots-of-date-palm-phoenix-dactylifera-l-exposed-to-salinity
#5
Mahmoud W Yaish, Himanshu V Patankar, Dekoum V M Assaha, Yun Zheng, Rashid Al-Yahyai, Ramanjulu Sunkar
BACKGROUND: Date palm, as one of the most important fruit crops in North African and West Asian countries including Oman, is facing serious growth problems due to salinity, arising from persistent use of saline water for irrigation. Although date palm is a relatively salt-tolerant plant species, its adaptive mechanisms to salt stress are largely unknown. RESULTS: In order to get an insight into molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance, RNA was profiled in leaves and roots of date palm seedlings subjected to NaCl for 10 days...
March 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330330/a-combined-chloroplast-atpb-rbcl-and-trnl-f-phylogeny-unveils-the-ancestry-of-balsams-impatiens-spp-in-the-western-ghats-of-india
#6
P P Shajitha, N R Dhanesh, P J Ebin, Joseph Laly, Devassy Aneesha, John Reshma, Jomy Augustine, Mathew Linu
Only a few Impatiens spp. from South India (one of the five centers of diversity for Impatiens species) were included in the published datum of molecular phylogeny of the family Balsaminaceae. The present investigation is a novel attempt to reveal the phylogenetic association of Impatiens species of South India, by placing them in the global phylogeny of Impatiens based on a combined analysis of two chloroplast genes. Thirty species of genus Impatiens were collected from different locations of South India. Total genomic DNA was extracted from fresh plant leaf, and polymerase chain reaction was carried out using atpB-rbcL and trnL-F intergenic spacer-specific forward and reverse primers...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329646/gaps-in-the-understanding-and-treatment-of-skin-cancer-in-people-of-color
#7
Ajay Kailas
People of color are at significantly higher risk in mortality from skin cancers, such as melanoma, than Caucasians. Around 4,500,000 people of color are affected by skin cancer The five-year survival rates from melanoma are 81.1% for Hispanics, 80.2% for Asians, 72.2% for African- Americans, and 89.6% for Caucasians. For this reason, it is important to ensure the scientific literature reflects the most up to date recommendations and treatment for blacks regarding skin cancer. Therefore the authors conducted a "gap analysis" on the current treatment of skin cancer in people of color...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329475/classic-kaposi-sarcoma-in-an-hiv-negative-han-chinese-man-a-case-report
#8
Victoria Mitre, Danielle S Applebaum, Silvia Potenziani, Sylvia Hsu
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal angioproliferativetumor of endothelial origin. Despite nearly identicalclinical and histopathologic presentations, KS isclassified into four distinct varieties: classic/sporadic,AIDS-associated, African/endemic, and iatrogenic. Allsubtypes are invariably linked to human herpesvirus-8(HHV-8) and show a male predilection. Classic Kaposisarcoma is exceedingly rare in the Asian populationand its incidence varies by region and ethnic grouppredominance. A study in the Xinjiang region of Chinafound that only 1% of classic KS cases occurred inpatients belonging to the Han Chinese ethnic group,which formulates 84% of the Taiwanese population...
January 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328118/22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-in-diverse-populations
#9
Paul Kruszka, Yonit A Addissie, Daniel E McGinn, Antonio R Porras, Elijah Biggs, Matthew Share, T Blaine Crowley, Brian H Y Chung, Gary T K Mok, Christopher C Y Mak, Premala Muthukumarasamy, Meow-Keong Thong, Nirmala D Sirisena, Vajira H W Dissanayake, C Sampath Paththinige, L B Lahiru Prabodha, Rupesh Mishra, Vorasuk Shotelersuk, Ekanem Nsikak Ekure, Ogochukwu Jidechukwu Sokunbi, Nnenna Kalu, Carlos R Ferreira, Jordann-Mishael Duncan, Siddaramappa Jagdish Patil, Kelly L Jones, Julie D Kaplan, Omar A Abdul-Rahman, Annette Uwineza, Leon Mutesa, Angélica Moresco, María Gabriela Obregon, Antonio Richieri-Costa, Vera L Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, Adebowale A Adeyemo, Marshall Summar, Elaine H Zackai, Donna M McDonald-McGinn, Marius George Linguraru, Maximilian Muenke
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome and is underdiagnosed in diverse populations. This syndrome has a variable phenotype and affects multiple systems, making early recognition imperative. In this study, individuals from diverse populations with 22q11.2 DS were evaluated clinically and by facial analysis technology. Clinical information from 106 individuals and images from 101 were collected from individuals with 22q11.2 DS from 11 countries; average age was 11.7 and 47% were male...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327576/genotypic-spectrum-and-phenotype-correlations-of-abca4-associated-disease-in-patients-of-south-asian-descent
#10
Winston Lee, Kaspar Schuerch, Jana Zernant, Frederick T Collison, Srilaxmi Bearelly, Gerald A Fishman, Stephen H Tsang, Janet R Sparrow, Rando Allikmets
Variants in the ABCA4 gene are the most common cause of juvenile-onset blindness affecting close to 1 in 10 000 people worldwide. Disease severity varies largely according to genotype, which can be specific to ethnic and racial groups. Here we investigate the spectrum of ABCA4 variation and its phenotypic expression in 38 patients of South Asian descent, notably from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Sequencing of all exons and flanking intronic sequences of ABCA4 revealed disease-causing variants in all patients: 3 in 2...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325931/body-mass-index-adjustments-to-increase-the-validity-of-body-fatness-assessment-in-uk-black-african-and-south-asian-children
#11
M T Hudda, C M Nightingale, A S Donin, M S Fewtrell, D Haroun, S Lum, J E Williams, C G Owen, A R Rudnicka, J C K Wells, D G Cook, P H Whincup
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: BMI (weight/height(2)) is the most widely used marker of childhood obesity and total body fatness (BF). However, its validity is limited, especially in children of South Asian and black African origins. We aimed to quantify BMI adjustments needed for UK children of black African and South Asian origins so that adjusted BMI related to BF in the same way as for white European children. METHODS: We used data from four recent UK studies which made deuterium dilution BF measurements in UK children of white European, South Asian and black African origins...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325830/into-africa-molecular-phylogenetics-and-historical-biogeography-of-sub-saharan-african-woodferns-dryopteris
#12
Emily B Sessa, Aino Juslén, Henry Väre, Sally M Chambers
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Our goal was to infer the phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of the genus Dryopteris with a focus on taxa in sub-Saharan Africa and neighboring islands. In general, little is known about the relationships between African fern species and their congeners in other geographic regions, and our aim was to determine whether the sub-Saharan African species of Dryopteris are monophyletic and evolved within Africa or arrived there via repeated dispersals into Africa from other regions...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323330/insights-on-the-evolutionary-origin-of-detarioideae-a-clade-of-ecologically-dominant-tropical-african-trees
#13
Manuel de la Estrella, Félix Forest, Jan J Wieringa, Marie Fougère-Danezan, Anne Bruneau
African tropical forests are generally considered less diverse than their Neotropical and Asian counterparts. By contrast, the Detarioideae is much more diverse in Africa than in South America and Asia. To better understand the evolution of this contrasting diversity pattern, we investigated the biogeographical and ecological origin of this subfamily, testing whether they originated in dry biomes surrounding the Tethys Seaway as currently hypothesized for many groups of Leguminosae. We constructed the largest time-calibrated phylogeny for the subfamily to date, reconstructed ancestral states for geography and biome/habitat, estimated diversification and extinction rates, and evaluated biome/habitat and geographic shifts in Detarioideae...
March 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321312/preserved-glucagon-like-peptide-1-responses-to-oral-glucose-but-reduced-incretin-effect-insulin-secretion-and-sensitivity-in-young-asians-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Toh Peng Yeow, Giovanni Pacini, Andrea Tura, Chee Peng Hor, Shueh Lin Lim, Florence Hui Sieng Tan, Chin Voon Tong, Janet Yeow Hua Hong, Fuziah Md Zain, Jens Juul Holst, Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud
OBJECTIVE: Youth onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (YT2DM) is a globally rising phenomenon with substantial Asians representation. The understanding of its pathophysiology is derived largely from studies in the obese African-American and Caucasian populations, while studies on incretin effect are scarce. We examined the insulin resistance, β-cell function (BC), glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 hormone and incretin effect in Asian YT2DM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This case-control study recruited 25 Asian YT2DM and 15 healthy controls, matched for gender, ethnicity and body mass index...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319006/high-rates-of-severe-hypoglycemia-among-african-american-patients-with-diabetes-the-surveillance-prevention-and-management-of-diabetes-mellitus-supreme-dm-network
#15
Andrew J Karter, Kasia J Lipska, Patrick J O'Connor, Jennifer Y Liu, Howard H Moffet, Emily B Schroeder, Jean M Lawrence, Gregory A Nichols, Katherine M Newton, Ram D Pathak, Jay Desai, Beth Waitzfelder, Melissa G Butler, Abraham Thomas, John F Steiner
AIMS: Seven-year surveillance study (2005-2011) to evaluate race/ethnic differences in the trends in rates of severe hypoglycemia (SH) in a population of insured, at-risk adults with diabetes. METHODS: SH events were identified via any primary or principal diagnosis from emergency department or inpatient encounters among African American, Asian, Latino and White adult diabetes patients treated with insulin or secretagogues (Sulfonylureas or Meglitinides), receiving care from integrated healthcare delivery systems across the United States...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317624/cap-assisted-colonoscopy-increases-detection-of-advanced-adenomas-and-polyps
#16
Mohamed O Othman, Daniel Zhang, Sherif Elhanafi, Mohamed Eloliby, Brian Davis, Richard Guererro, Luis Alvarado, Linda Sanchez, Alok Dwivedi, Marc J Zuckerman
BACKGROUND: Cap-assisted colonoscopy (CAC) has been reported to increase the adenoma detection rate (ADR) in Asian population. However, CAC trials in non-Asian population have had conflicting results. Studies in North America have shown an improvement in ADRs with the use of CAC, but it mainly included white and African American patients. Given the lack of prospective studies of CAC in Hispanics, we conducted this randomized controlled trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a randomized controlled trial comparing CAC with standard colonoscopy (SC) in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy...
April 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317286/trend-analysis-and-survival-of-primary-gallbladder-cancer-in-the-united-states-a-1973-2009-population-based-study
#17
Rubayat Rahman, Eduardo J Simoes, Chester Schmaltz, Christian S Jackson, Jamal A Ibdah
Primary gallbladder cancer is an aggressive and uncommon cancer with poor outcomes. Our study examines epidemiology, trend, and survival of gallbladder cancer in the United States from 1973 to 2009. We utilized the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database (SEER). Frequency and rate analyses on demographics, stage, and survival were compared among non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, African American, and Asian/Pacific Islanders. A total of 18,124 cases were reported in SEER from 1973 to 2009 comprising 1...
March 20, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316911/electronic-media-time-and-sedentary-behaviors-in-children-findings-from-the-built-environment-and-active-play-study-in-the-washington-dc-area
#18
Jennifer D Roberts, Lindsey Rodkey, Rashawn Ray, Brandon Knight, Brian E Saelens
An objective of the Built Environment and Active Play (BEAP) Study was to examine whether home built environment, bedroom electronic presence, parental rules and demographics predicted children's sedentary behavior (SB). In 2014, BEAP Study questionnaires were mailed to 2000 parents of children (7-12 years) within the Washington DC area. SB-Duration (hours/day) and SB-Frequency (days/week) were assessed by two questions with multiple subparts relating to SB activity type (e.g. car riding) and SB companionship (e...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315476/comparative-analysis-of-protein-evolution-in-the-genome-of-pre-epidemic-and-epidemic-zika-virus
#19
Arunachalam Ramaiah, Lei Dai, Deisy Contreras, Sanjeev Sinha, Ren Sun, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami
Zika virus (ZIKV) causes microcephaly in congenital infection, neurological disorders, and poor pregnancy outcome and no vaccine is available for use in humans or approved. Although ZIKV was first discovered in 1947, the exact mechanism of virus replication and pathogenesis remains unknown. Recent outbreaks of Zika virus in the Americas clearly suggest a human-mosquito cycle or urban cycle of transmission. Understanding the conserved and adaptive features in the evolution of ZIKV genome will provide a hint on the mechanism of ZIKV adaptation to a new cycle of transmission...
March 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315188/social-goals-impact-adolescent-substance-use-through-influencing-adolescents-connectedness-to-their-schools
#20
Samuel N Meisel, Craig R Colder
Although developmental models of risk behavior highlight the role of school connectedness in the etiology of adolescent substance use, no studies to our knowledge have assessed longitudinal mediational models examining how adolescents form bonds to their school, and how the quality of those bonds relate to substance use. To address this gap, the current study used four waves of data, spanning ages 11-16 (grades 5-11), to examine the association between individual differences in agentic (Dominance/Power) and communal (Nurturance/Affiliation) social goals and school connectedness, and in turn, whether levels of school connectedness are associated with substance use...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
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