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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827581/asian-zika-virus-strains-target-cd14-blood-monocytes-and-induce-m2-skewed-immunosuppression-during-pregnancy
#1
Suan-Sin Foo, Weiqiang Chen, Yen Chan, James W Bowman, Lin-Chun Chang, Younho Choi, Ji Seung Yoo, Jianning Ge, Genhong Cheng, Alexandre Bonnin, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Patrícia Brasil, Jae U Jung
Blood CD14(+) monocytes are frontline immunomodulators categorized into classical, intermediate or non-classical subsets, and subsequently differentiated into M1 pro- or M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages on stimulation. Although the Zika virus (ZIKV) rapidly establishes viraemia, the target cells and immune responses, particularly during pregnancy, remain elusive. Furthermore, it is unknown whether African- and Asian-lineage ZIKV have different phenotypic impacts on host immune responses. Using human blood infection, we identified CD14(+) monocytes as the primary target for African- or Asian-lineage ZIKV infection...
August 21, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822097/a-38-year-old-woman-with-necrotising-cervical-lymphadenitis-due-to-histoplasma-capsulatum
#2
Esther van de Vosse, Annelies van Wengen, Wendy F van der Meide, Leo G Visser, Jaap T van Dissel
CASE PRESENTATION: We analysed a 38-year-old woman with disseminated histoplasmosis for primary immunodeficiency. Her blood showed no IFN-γ response while her peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) did. We identified IFN-γ autoantibodies of the IgG class in her serum. CONCLUSION: IFN-γ autoantibodies leading to infections were so far mainly detected in people from Asian descent, where it was found to be associated with certain HLA types. This may be the first patient of African descent, and without the typical HLA types that predispose to this problem, that produces IFN-γ autoantibodies...
August 18, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820694/differential-neurovirulence-of-african-and-asian-genotype-zika-virus-isolates-in-outbred-immunocompetent-mice
#3
Nisha K Duggal, Jana M Ritter, Erin M McDonald, Hannah Romo, Farshad Guirakhoo, Brent S Davis, Gwong-Jen J Chang, Aaron C Brault
Although first isolated almost 70 years ago, Zika virus (ZIKV; Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) has only recently been associated with significant outbreaks of disease in humans. Several severe ZIKV disease manifestations have also been recently documented, including fetal malformations, such as microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Although principally transmitted by mosquitoes, sexual transmission of ZIKV has been documented. Recent publications of several interferon receptor knockout mouse models have demonstrated ZIKV-induced disease...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818212/national-trends-in-hospitalizations-for-venous-thromboembolism
#4
Anand Brahmandam, Marwan S Abougergi, Cassius Iyad Ochoa Chaar
OBJECTIVE: The management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has evolved during the last decade. This study sheds light on the national trends in hospital admissions, outcomes, and economic burden for VTE. METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was reviewed between 2003 and 2013 for hospitalizations for VTE, defined as admissions with a principal diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE). Outcomes measured were incidence, inpatient mortality, rates of interventions, hospital length of stay (LOS), and charges...
September 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817590/reconstructing-asian-faunal-introductions-to-eastern-africa-from-multi-proxy-biomolecular-and-archaeological-datasets
#5
Mary E Prendergast, Michael Buckley, Alison Crowther, Laurent Frantz, Heidi Eager, Ophélie Lebrasseur, Rainer Hutterer, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, Wim Van Neer, Katerina Douka, Margaret-Ashley Veall, Eriéndira M Quintana Morales, Verena J Schuenemann, Ella Reiter, Richard Allen, Evangelos A Dimopoulos, Richard M Helm, Ceri Shipton, Ogeto Mwebi, Christiane Denys, Mark Horton, Stephanie Wynne-Jones, Jeffrey Fleisher, Chantal Radimilahy, Henry Wright, Jeremy B Searle, Johannes Krause, Greger Larson, Nicole L Boivin
Human-mediated biological exchange has had global social and ecological impacts. In sub-Saharan Africa, several domestic and commensal animals were introduced from Asia in the pre-modern period; however, the timing and nature of these introductions remain contentious. One model supports introduction to the eastern African coast after the mid-first millennium CE, while another posits introduction dating back to 3000 BCE. These distinct scenarios have implications for understanding the emergence of long-distance maritime connectivity, and the ecological and economic impacts of introduced species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815211/phenotypic-differences-between-asian-and-african-lineage-zika-viruses-in-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#6
Fatih Anfasa, Jurre Y Siegers, Mark van der Kroeg, Noreen Mumtaz, V Stalin Raj, Femke M S de Vrij, W Widagdo, Gülsah Gabriel, Sara Salinas, Yannick Simonin, Chantal Reusken, Steven A Kushner, Marion P G Koopmans, Bart Haagmans, Byron E E Martina, Debby van Riel
Recent Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been associated with a range of neurological complications, in particular congenital microcephaly. Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of microcephaly, and experimental ZIKV infection of hNPCs has been shown to induce cell death. However, the infection efficiency and rate of cell death have varied between studies, which might be related to intrinsic differences between African and Asian lineage ZIKV strains...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815105/extracting-country-of-origin-from-electronic-health-records-for-gene-environment-studies-as-part-of-the-epidemiologic-architecture-for-genes-linked-to-environment-eagle-study
#7
Eric Farber-Eger, Robert Goodloe, Jonathan Boston, William S Bush, Dana C Crawford
We describe here the extraction of country-of-origin, an acculturation variable relevant for gene-environment studies, in a biorepository linked to de-identified electronic health records (EHRs) assessed by the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE), a study site of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) I study. We extracted country-of-origin from the unstructured clinical free text using regular expressions within the MySQL relational database system in a cohort of 15,863 subjects of mostly non-European descent (including 11,519 African Americans, 1,702 Hispanics, and 1,118 Asians)...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814266/lack-of-satellite-dna-species-specific-homogenization-and-relationship-to-chromosomal-rearrangements-in-monitor-lizards-varanidae-squamata
#8
Ornjira Prakhongcheep, Watcharaporn Thapana, Aorarat Suntronpong, Worapong Singchat, Khampee Pattanatanang, Rattanin Phatcharakullawarawat, Narongrit Muangmai, Surin Peyachoknagul, Kazumi Matsubara, Tariq Ezaz, Kornsorn Srikulnath
BACKGROUND: Satellite DNAs (stDNAs) are highly repeated sequences that constitute large portions of any genome. The evolutionary dynamics of stDNA (e.g. copy number, nucleotide sequence, location) can, therefore, provide an insight into genome organization and evolution. We investigated the evolutionary origin of VSAREP stDNA in 17 monitor lizards (seven Asian, five Australian, and five African) at molecular and cytogenetic level. RESULTS: Results revealed that VSAREP is conserved in the genome of Asian and Australian varanids, but not in African varanids, suggesting that these sequences are either differentiated or lost in the African varanids...
August 16, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811091/pregravid-hypertension-may-have-different-secondary-sex-ratio-effects-in-different-races-in-the-united-states
#9
Victor Grech
BACKGROUND: Males are born in excess of females and the ratio is expressed as M/F (male/female births=secondary sex ratio, also known as secondary sex ratio). This is expected to approximate 1.048. Racial M/F disparities are known. A recent study in China showed that pregravid systolic hypertension is higher in women who delivered a boy than in those who had a girl. This study was carried out in order to identify the effect of pregravid hypertension in the United States on M/F by race...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805974/effect-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-adh1b-adh4-adh1c-oprm1-drd2-bdnf-and-aldh2-genes-on-alcohol-dependence-in-a-caucasian-population
#10
Martha-Spyridoula Katsarou, Konstantinos Karakonstantis, Nikolaos Demertzis, Emmanouil Vourakis, Aspasia Skarpathioti, Aleksandr E Nosyrev, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Theodoris Kalogridis, Nikolaos Drakoulis
Alcohol is a frequently used addictive substance worldwide. Aim of this study is to determine the frequency distribution of SNPs within ADH1B, ADH4, ADH1C, ALDH2, BDNF, OPRM1, and DRD2 genes in a southeastern European Caucasian population from Greece. For this purpose samples of 1276 volunteers were analyzed after deidentification and anonymization. The allele distribution of the examined polymorphisms in the present Greek population cohort was as follows: rs1229984 (ADH1B): GG(wt) = 64.14%, GA = 29.86%, AA = 4...
August 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805152/comparing-the-prevalence-and-the-risk-profile-for-antenatal-depressive-symptoms-across-cultures
#11
Irene E Corbani, Paola Rucci, Elena Iapichino, Marta Quartieri Bollani, Gilla Cauli, Mara R Ceruti, Costanzo Gala, Mariano Bassi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although several studies have analyzed the risk factors of antenatal and post-partum depression, evidence on the prevalence and the risk profile for antenatal depressive symptoms (ADS) between native-born and different groups of non-native born women living in the same country is scant. The aim of this article is to compare the prevalence and the risk profile for ADS across geographical areas in women recruited from two large hospitals of North-western Italy. METHOD: The presence of ADS was defined as an Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale (EPDS) score ≥12 or a Beck Depression Inventory, Short Form (BDI-SF) score ≥9 or the presence of suicidal ideation/behavior...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800731/the-analysis-of-apol1-genetic-variation-and-haplotype-diversity-provided-by-1000-genomes-project
#12
Ting Peng, Li Wang, Guisen Li
BACKGROUND: The APOL1 gene variants has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of multiple kinds of diseases, particularly in African Americans, but not in Caucasians and Asians. In this study, we explored the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and haplotype diversity of APOL1 gene in different races provided by 1000 Genomes project. METHODS: Variants of APOL1 gene in 1000 Genome Project were obtained and SNPs located in the regulatory region or coding region were selected for genetic variation analysis...
August 11, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797198/association-between-the-asp312asn-lys751gln-and-arg156arg-polymorphisms-in-xpd-and-the-risk-of-prostate-cancer
#13
Weijin Fu, Feifan Xiao, Ruoheng Zhang, Jiatong Li, Dong Zhao, Xuandong Lin, Yanzhen Xu, Xiaowei Song, Zhibin Xie, Qiongxian Wen, Xiaoli Yang
Prostate cancer is the most common solid cancer and genetic factors play important roles in its pathogenesis. XPD is one of the 8 core genes involved in the nucleotide excision repair pathway. The relationship between Asp312Asn, Lys751Gln, and Arg156Arg polymorphisms in XPD and prostate cancer risk is a controversial topic. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore the relationship between these 3 polymorphisms and the risk of developing prostate cancer. We searched the electronic literature in PubMed and Google Scholar for all relevant studies (last updated January 1, 2017)...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796991/epidemiology-of-intracranial-and-extracranial-large-artery-stenosis-in-a-population-based-study-of-stroke-in-the-middle-east
#14
Hamidreza Saber, Amin Amiri, Amanda G Thrift, Saverio Stranges, Reza Bavarsad Shahripour, Mohammad T Farzadfard, Naghmeh Mokhber, Réza Behrouz, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh
BACKGROUND: Intracranial large-artery disease (LAD) is a predominant vascular lesion found in patients with stroke of Asian, African, and Hispanic origin, whereas extracranial LAD is more prevalent among Caucasians. These patterns are not well-established in the Middle East. We aimed to characterize the incidence, risk factors, and long-term outcome of LAD strokes in a Middle-Eastern population. METHODS: The Mashhad Stroke Incidence Study is a community-based study that prospectively ascertained all cases of stroke among the 450,229 inhabitants of Mashhad, Iran between 2006 and 2007...
August 11, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796652/acyanotic-hypoxia-in-a-febrile-child
#15
Fiona Murphy, Julian Blackham, John Moppett, Mark Lyttle
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency affects approximately 400 million people worldwide and is an X-linked disorder most commonly found in individuals of African, Asian, Mediterranean, and Middle Eastern descent. It can present with acute hemolysis in response to certain drugs, infections, or fava beans, and affected individuals may not be aware that they have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. This case illustrates the importance of those working in the acute and urgent care sector having an awareness of the condition and the value of a full set of vital signs in an unwell child...
August 7, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796034/the-association-between-xpg-polymorphisms-and-cancer-susceptibility-evidence-from-observational-studies
#16
Cuihong Han, Xiaoyi Huang, Ruixi Hua, Shujie Song, Lihua Lyu, Na Ta, Jinhong Zhu, Peixi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental carcinogens can cause damages to DNA. If not properly repaired, the DNA damages may increase the risk of carcinogenesis. Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) gene is an essential gene in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. The association between XPG polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility has been the focus of attention in the molecular epidemiology of cancer. However, the conclusions have been divergent. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to precisely evaluate the association of 3 frequently investigated XPG polymorphisms (rs751402, rs873601, and rs2296147) with cancer risk...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793858/mtdna-structure-the-women-who-formed-the-brazilian-northeast
#17
Ana Paula Schaan, Lorenna Costa, Diego Santos, Antonio Modesto, Marcos Amador, Camile Lopes, Sílvia Helena Rabenhorst, Raquel Montenegro, Bruno D A Souza, Thayson Lopes, France Keiko Yoshioka, Giovanny Pinto, Vivian Silbiger, Ândrea Ribeiro-Dos-Santos
BACKGROUND: The distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages in Brazil is heterogeneous due to different regional colonization dynamics. Northeastern Brazil, although being an important region in terms of human imigration and ethnic admixture, has little information regarding its population mtDNA composition. Here, we determine which mitochondrial lineages contributed to the formation of the Northeastern Brazilian population. Our sample consisted of 767 individuals distributed as follows i) 550 individuals from eight Northeastern states (Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, and Bahia) which were sequenced for mtDNA hypervariable segments I, II, and III; ii) 217 individuals from Alagoas and Pernambuco (previously published data)...
August 9, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792634/meeting-american-diabetes-association-diabetes-management-targets-trends-in-mauritius
#18
M Tabesh, J E Shaw, P Z Zimmet, S Soderberg, S Kowlessur, M Timol, N Joonas, G M M Alberti, J Tuomilehto, B J Shaw, D J Magliano
AIMS: To examine the proportion of people with diabetes in the multi-ethnic country of Mauritius meeting American Diabetes Association targets in 2009 and 2015. METHODS: Data from independent population-based samples of 858 and 656 adults with diagnosed diabetes in 2009 and 2015, respectively, were analysed with regard to recommended American Diabetes Association targets for HbA1c , blood pressure and LDL cholesterol. RESULTS: In 2015 compared with 2009, the proportion of people achieving American Diabetes Association targets for glycaemic control in Mauritius was higher in women (P≤0...
August 9, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781218/risk-factors-for-nocturnal-hypoglycemia-in-insulin-treated-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-secondary-analysis-of-observational-data-derived-from-an-integrated-clinical-trial-database
#19
Jay P Bae, Ran Duan, Haoda Fu, Byron J Hoogwerf
PURPOSE: A trade-off exists in most diabetes therapies between the benefits of good glycemic control and the morbidity of hypoglycemia. Balancing these factors to achieve desired outcomes is a key consideration for personalized diabetes therapy. Hypoglycemia at night (nocturnal hypoglycemia [NH]) is a common but often under-reported problem in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. To better understand the risk for NH, we pooled data from multiple clinical trials of insulin treatment and specifically examined NH risk factors in relation to glycemic goals...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777980/fatty-acid-profiling-and-multivariate-analysis-in-the-genus-leucas-reveals-its-nutritional-pharmaceutical-and-chemotaxonomic-significance
#20
Ashish Kumar Choudhary, P Sunojkumar, Girish Mishra
Genus Leucas with about 41 species found in India, is an Asian genus with separation from its close relatives in Africa based on phylogenetic evidence. Present study represents the only comprehensive phytochemical investigation on this genus. We have analyzed the seed fatty acid compositions of 26 species and five varieties of Leucas for nutritional, pharmaceutical and chemotaxonomic perspectives. The fatty acids and their composition in seeds of Leucas species, collected from different geographical regions in India, were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry...
August 1, 2017: Phytochemistry
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