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African asian

Elyse J McGlumphy, Jordan A Margo, Moulaye Haidara, Clayton H Brown, Caroline K Hoover, Wuqaas M Munir
PURPOSE: Corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) is an important measure for determining suitability for transplantation. Although age has been correlated with ECD, the impact of sex and ethnicity is unclear. METHODS: Corneal donor information from SightLife Eye Bank was collected between 2012 and 2016. Tests of association were adjusted for covariates using linear regression including age, race, and sex. "Unsuitable for transplantation" was a label assigned to specimens with extensive cell dropout, ECD <2000 cells/mm, and poor cell morphology...
June 14, 2018: Cornea
Xuanzong Li, Shijiang Wang, Butuo Li, Zhen Wang, Shuheng Shang, Yang Shao, Xindong Sun, Linlin Wang
The third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) osimertinib (AZD9291) has shown significant clinical efficacy against the EGFR T790M mutation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, resistance inevitably occurs, and the mechanisms leading to treatment failure need to be further investigated. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2)-like 11 (BIM) deletion polymorphism, which occurs at a frequency of 21% in East Asians but is absent in African and European populations, has been associated with resistance to first-generation EGFR TKIs, such as gefitinib and erlotinib; and is a poor prognostic factor for NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations...
June 16, 2018: Targeted Oncology
Xi Zhong, Zhexu Guo, Peng Gao, Yongxi Song, Jingxu Sun, Xiaowan Chen, Yu Sun, Zhenning Wang
BACKGROUND: Most race/ethnicity-oriented investigations focus on Caucasian Americans (whites) and African Americans (blacks), leaving Asians, Hispanic white (Hispanics), and other minorities less well studied. Adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) after curative resection is critical to patients with locally advanced colon cancer (LACC). We studied the racial disparities in the adjuvant CT of LACC to aid in selecting optimal treatments for people from different races/ethnicities in this era of precision medicine...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Chani Jo Hodonsky, Claudia Schurmann, Ursula M Schick, Jonathan Kocarnik, Ran Tao, Frank Ja van Rooij, Christina Wassel, Steve Buyske, Myriam Fornage, Lucia A Hindorff, James S Floyd, Santhi K Ganesh, Dan-Yu Lin, Kari E North, Alex P Reiner, Ruth Jf Loos, Charles Kooperberg, Christy L Avery
Red blood cell (RBC) traits provide insight into a wide range of physiological states and exhibit moderate to high heritability, making them excellent candidates for genetic studies to inform underlying biologic mechanisms. Previous RBC trait genome-wide association studies were performed primarily in European- or Asian-ancestry populations, missing opportunities to inform understanding of RBC genetic architecture in diverse populations and reduce intervals surrounding putative functional SNPs through fine-mapping...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
Susan L Fink, Lucia Vojtech, Jessica Wagoner, Natalie S J Slivinski, Konner J Jackson, Ruofan Wang, Sudip Khadka, Priya Luthra, Christopher F Basler, Stephen J Polyak
There are many emerging and re-emerging globally prevalent viruses for which there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral medicines. Arbidol (ARB, umifenovir), used clinically for decades in several countries as an anti-influenza virus drug, inhibits many other viruses. In the current study, we show that ARB inhibits six different isolates of Zika virus (ZIKV), including African and Asian lineage viruses in multiple cell lines and primary human vaginal and cervical epithelial cells. ARB protects against ZIKV-induced cytopathic effects...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vicky L Baillie, Courtney P Olwagen, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: The detection of human rhinoviruses (HRV) is highly prevalent in children with pneumonia, bronchiolitis, acute asthma and croup; however, there is also evidence that HRV is common in asymptomatic individuals. The majority of studies on the role of different HRV serotypes during acute respiratory tract infections episodes have limited sample size to fully characterize the epidemiology of HRV infection, including those from low-middle income countries, where the burden of childhood respiratory disease is greatest...
July 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sameh Abuseir, Sabine Schicht, Andrea Springer, Uschi Nagel-Kohl, Christina Strube
The beef tapeworm Taenia saginata, which causes taeniosis in humans and cysticercosis in cattle, is of medical and economic importance. Understanding the parasite's genetic population structure may help to analyze transmission patterns and aid in the development of control measures. As information on sequence variability is scarce for European isolates, this study aimed to elucidate the intraspecific genetic variability of T. saginata cysts from German cattle by sequence comparison of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) genes, in relationship to sequences from other geographical origins...
June 12, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Sara J Grundy, Lhab Tshering, Stanley W Wanjala, Megan B Diamond, Martin S Audi, Sashank Prasad, Russell T Shinohara, Debora Rogo, Dechen Wangmo, Ugyen Wangdi, Abi Aarayang, Thukten Tshering, Thomas F Burke, Farrah J Mateen
The retina shares embryological derivation with the brain and may provide a new measurement of overall growth status, especially useful in resource-limited settings. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides detailed quantification of retinal structures. We enrolled community-dwelling children ages 3-11 years old in Siaya, Kenya and Thimphu, Bhutan in 2016. We measured head circumference (age < 5 years only), height, and weight, and standardized these by age and gender. Research staff performed OCT ( iScan ; Optovue, Inc...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Christopher J Rogers, Myriam Forster, Jennifer B Unger
Introduction: Financial strain and discrimination are consistent predictors of negative health outcomes and maladaptive coping behaviors, including tobacco use. Although there is considerable information exploring stress and smoking, limited research has examined the relationship between patterns of stress domains and specific tobacco/nicotine product use. Even fewer studies have assessed ethnic variations in these relationships. Methods: This study investigated the relationship between discrimination and financial strain and current tobacco/nicotine product use and explored the ethnic variation in these relationships among diverse sample of US adults ( N  = 1068)...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Marie Delafontaine, Claudia Panfil, Felix Spöler, Stefan Kray, François Burgher, Laurence Mathieu, Joël Blomet, Norbert F Schrage, Denise V Tambourgi
Snakes belonging to the genus Naja (Elapid family), also known as "spitting cobras", can spit venom towards the eyes of the predator as a defensive strategy, causing painful and potentially blinding ocular envenoming. Venom ophthalmia is characterized by pain, hyperemia, blepharitis, blepharospasm and corneal erosions. Elapid venom ophthalmia is not well documented and no specific treatment exists. Furthermore, accidental ejection of venom by non-spitting vipers, as Bothrops, also occurs. The Ex vivo Eye Irritation Test model (EVEIT) has enabled important progress in the knowledge of chemical ocular burns...
June 8, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Sandra S-J Lee, Mildred K Cho, Stephanie A Kraft, Nina Varsava, Katie Gillespie, Kelly E Ormond, Benjamin S Wilfond, David Magnus
PURPOSE: To determine whether patients distinguish between biospecimens and electronic health records (EHRs) when considering research participation to inform research protections. METHODS: We conducted 20 focus groups with individuals who identified as African American, Hispanic, Chinese, South Asian, and non-Hispanic white on the collection of biospecimens and EHR data for research. RESULTS: Our study found that many participants did not distinguish between biospecimens and EHR data...
June 11, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Md Asiful Islam, Fahmida Alam, Cinzia Cavestro, Cornelia Calcii, Teguh Haryo Sasongko, Roger A Levy, Siew Hua Gan
BACKGROUND: Autoimmunity is believed to play an important causative role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. There are evidences for the presence of autoantibodies in patients with epilepsy. To date, many studies have assessed the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) in epilepsy patients, though the relationship has been inconclusive. AIMS: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the presence of aPLs in epileptic patients as compared to healthy controls...
June 6, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Donald P Knowles, Lowell S Kappmeyer, Darrell Haney, David R Herndon, Lindsay M Fry, James B Munro, Kelly Sears, Massaro W Ueti, Lauren N Wise, Marta Silva, David A Schneider, Juanita Grause, Stephen N White, Kyle Tretina, Richard P Bishop, David O Odongo, Angela M Pelzel-McCluskey, Glen A Scoles, Robert H Mealey, Joana C Silva
A novel apicomplexan parasite was serendipitously discovered in horses at the United States - Mexico border. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA showed the erythrocyte-infective parasite to be related to, but distinct from, Theileria spp. in Africa, the most similar taxa being Theileria spp. from waterbuck and mountain zebra. The degree of sequence variability observed at the 18S rDNA locus also suggests the likely existence of additional cryptic species. Among described species, the genome of this novel equid Theileria parasite is most similar to that of Theileria equi, also a pathogen of horses...
June 6, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Alicia Toeruna Widge, Elizabeth Flory, Hemant Sharma, Linda Jones Herbert
This study examined caregiver perceptions of risk of food allergen exposure, and food allergy severity, worry, and health-related quality of life, and identified variations by race/ethnicity. Given the lack of data on racial/ethnic background in research on the psychosocial impacts of food allergy, this study meets a pressing need for research regarding food allergy-related experiences among diverse populations. This study found there were significant differences in perceived risk of allergen exposure among racial/ethnic groups with Asian Americans reporting significantly higher perceived risk of allergen exposure than Hispanic, Caucasian, and African American caregivers...
June 6, 2018: Children
Wei-Qi Hao, Jing Liu, Li Jiang, Jun-Ping Han, Ling Wang, Jiu-Ling Li, Quan Ma, Chao Liu, Hui-Jun Wang, Cai-Xia Li
Inferring an unknown DNA's ancestry using a set of ancestry-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in forensic science is useful to provide investigative leads. This is especially true when there is no DNA database match or specified suspect. Thus, a set of SNPs with highly robust and balanced differential power is strongly demanded in forensic science. In addition, it is also necessary to build a genotyping database for estimating the ancestry of an individual or an unknown DNA. For the differentiation of Africans, Europeans, East Asians, Native Americans, and Oceanians, the Global Nano set that includes just 31 SNPs was developed by de la Puente et al...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
S Dave, J L Dodge, N A Terrault, M Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Racial differences in post-liver transplantation (LT) outcomes are identified in predominantly male cohorts. Despite known sex differences in a spectrum of liver-related outcomes, it is not known how race influences graft outcomes in women. METHODS: Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we examined race and ethnicity and graft loss (death or retransplant) in women transplanted from 2002 to 2012. Covariates included recipient and donor characteristics, socioeconomics, and medical comorbidities...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Sandra G Guerra, Winnie Chong, Colin J Brown, Cristina V Navarrete
The development of techniques to define the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region has proven to be challenging due to its high level of polymorphism. Within a clinical laboratory, a technique for high-resolution HLA typing, which is rapid and cost effective is essential. NGS has provided a rapid, high-resolution HLA typing solution, which has reduced the number of HLA ambiguities seen with other typing methods. In this study, the One Lambda NXType NGS kit was tested on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. A total of 362 registry donors from four ethnic populations (Europeans, South Asians, Africans and Chinese) were NGS HLA typed across 9-loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1,-DRB345 -DQB1 and -DPB1)...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Immunogenetics
Tuan T Tran, Alvaro L Pérez-Quintero, Issa Wonni, Sara C D Carpenter, Yanhua Yu, Li Wang, Jan E Leach, Valérie Verdier, Sébastien Cunnac, Adam J Bogdanove, Ralf Koebnik, Mathilde Hutin, Boris Szurek
Most Xanthomonas species translocate Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors into plant cells where they function like plant transcription factors via a programmable DNA-binding domain. Characterized strains of rice pathogenic X. oryzae pv. oryzae harbor 9-16 different tal effector genes, but the function of only a few of them has been decoded. Using sequencing of entire genomes, we first performed comparative analyses of the complete repertoires of TAL effectors, herein referred to as TALomes, in three Xoo strains forming an African genetic lineage different from Asian Xoo...
June 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Yoona Kang, Hadley Rahrig, Kristina Eichel, Halsey F Niles, Tomas Rocha, Nathaniel E Lepp, Jonathan Gold, Willoughby B Britton
Mindfulness training has been used to improve emotional wellbeing in early adolescents. However, little is known about treatment outcome moderators, or individual differences that may differentially impact responses to treatment. The current study focused on gender as a potential moderator for affective outcomes in response to school-based mindfulness training. Sixth grade students (N = 100) were randomly assigned to either the six weeks of mindfulness meditation or the active control group as part of a history class curriculum...
June 2018: Journal of School Psychology
Shannon Lange, Charlotte Probst, Jürgen Rehm, Svetlana Popova
BACKGROUND: Smoking during pregnancy has been linked to numerous adverse health consequences for both the developing fetus and mother. We estimated the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy by country, WHO region, and globally and the proportion of pregnant women who smoked during pregnancy, by frequency and quantity, on a global level. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we did a comprehensive systematic literature search for studies reporting the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in the general population, published between Jan 1, 1985 and Feb 1, 2016, using several electronic bibliographic databases (CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, Medline, Medline in process, PsychINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science), without language or geographical restrictions...
May 30, 2018: Lancet Global Health
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