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Lisa B VanWagner, Hongyan Ning, Norrina B Allen, Juned Siddique, April P Carson, Michael P Bancks, Cora E Lewis, John Jeffrey Carr, Elizabeth Speliotes, Norah A Terrault, Mary E Rinella, Miriam B Vos, Donald M Lloyd-Jones
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Insulin resistance is a risk marker for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and a risk factor for liver disease progression. We assessed temporal trajectories of insulin resistance and β-cell response to serum glucose concentration throughout adulthood and their association with diabetes risk in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: Three thousand and sixty participants from Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults, a prospective bi-racial cohort of adults age 18-30 years at baseline (1985-1986; Y0) who completed up to 5 exams over 25 years and had fasting insulin and glucose measurement were included...
April 2, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
May A Beydoun, Marie T Fanelli-Kuczmarski, Hind A Beydoun, Greg A Dore, Jose A Canas, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman
The role of dairy foods and related nutrients in cardiometabolic health aetiology is poorly understood. We investigated longitudinal associations between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with key dairy product exposures. We used prospective data from a bi-racial cohort of urban adults (30-64 years at baseline (n 1371)), the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS), in Baltimore City, MD (2004-2013). The average of two 24-h dietary recalls measured 4-10 d apart was computed at baseline (V1) and follow-up (V2) waves...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Joshua Lang, Ronit Katz, Joachim H Ix, Orlando M Gutierrez, Carmen A Peralta, Chirag R Parikh, Suzanne Satterfield, Snezana Petrovic, Prasad Devarajan, Michael Bennett, Linda F Fried, Steven R Cummings, Mark J Sarnak, Michael G Shlipak
Background: Previous studies in HIV-infected individuals have demonstrated serum albumin to be strongly associated with kidney function decline, independent of urine albumin and inflammatory markers. Lower serum albumin concentrations may be an under-appreciated risk factor for kidney function decline in elders. Methods: We performed a cohort analysis in the Health Aging and Body Composition Study, a cohort of well-functioning, bi-racial, community-dwelling elders between the age of 70 and 79 years...
June 1, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Hee-Sung Shin, David S Black, Eleanor Tate Shonkoff, Nathaniel R Riggs, Mary Ann Pentz
The study objective was to examine the effects of two conceptually related constructs, self-compassion and dispositional mindfulness, on executive function (EF) proficiency among early adolescents. Executive function refers to a set of psychological processes governing emotional regulation, organization, and planning. While the benefits of positive psychology appear evident for mental health and wellness, little is known about the etiological relationship between dispositional mindfulness and self-compassion in their associations with EF...
December 2016: Mindfulness
Stephanie O Zandieh, Amarilis Cespedes, Adam Ciarleglio, Wallace Bourgeois, David M Rapoport, Jean-Marie Bruzzese
OBJECTIVE: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has not been well studied in urban adolescents with asthma in community settings. Nor has the association of SDB symptoms and asthma severity been studied. We characterized self-reported symptoms suggesting SDB and investigated the association of SDB symptoms, probable asthma, and asthma severity. METHODS: 9,565 adolescents from 21 inner-city high schools were screened for an asthma intervention study. Students reported on symptoms suggesting SDB using questions from the 2007 NHANES, if they were ever diagnosed with asthma, and on asthma symptoms...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Benjamin D Pollock, Tian Hu, Wei Chen, Emily W Harville, Shengxu Li, Larry S Webber, Vivian Fonseca, Lydia A Bazzano
AIMS: To evaluate several adult diabetes risk calculation tools for predicting the development of incident diabetes and pre-diabetes in a bi-racial, young adult population. METHODS: Surveys beginning in young adulthood (baseline age ≥18) and continuing across multiple decades for 2122 participants of the Bogalusa Heart Study were used to test the associations of five well-known adult diabetes risk scores with incident diabetes and pre-diabetes using separate Cox models for each risk score...
January 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Radhika Takiar, Pamela L Lutsey, Di Zhao, Eliseo Guallar, Andrea L C Schneider, Morgan E Grams, Lawrence J Appel, Elizabeth Selvin, Erin D Michos
BACKGROUND: Deficient levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] have been associated with increased fracture risk. Racial differences in fracture risk may be related to differences in bioavailable vitamin D due to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variations in the vitamin D binding protein (DBP). METHODS: We measured 25(OH)D levels in 12,781 middle-aged White and Black participants [mean age 57 years (SD 5.7), 25% Black] in the ARIC Study who attended the second examination from 1990-1992...
September 2015: Bone
Hicham Skali, Amil Shah, Deepak K Gupta, Susan Cheng, Brian Claggett, Jiankang Liu, Natalie Bello, David Aguilar, Orly Vardeny, Kunihiro Matsushita, Elizabeth Selvin, Scott Solomon
BACKGROUND: Individuals with diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus are at particularly high risk of incident heart failure or death, even after accounting for known confounders. Nevertheless, the extent of impairments in cardiac structure and function in elderly individuals with diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus is not well known. We aimed to assess the relationship between echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure and function and dysglycemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed measures of cardiac structure and function in 4419 participants without prevalent coronary heart disease or heart failure who attended the Atherosclerosis Risk In the Community (ARIC) visit 5 examination (2011-2013) and underwent transthoracic echocardiography (age, 75±6 years; 61% women, 23% black)...
May 2015: Circulation. Heart Failure
M Reuel Friedman, Brian Dodge, Vanessa Schick, Debby Herbenick, Randolph Hubach, Jessamyn Bowling, Gabriel Goncalves, Sarah Krier, Michael Reece
PUROPSE: A newly emergent literature suggest that bisexual men and women face profound health disparities in comparison to both heterosexual and homosexual individuals. Additionally, bisexual individuals often experience prejudice, stigma, and discrimination from both gay/lesbian and straight communities, termed "biphobia." However, only limited research exists that empirically tests the extent and predictors of this double discrimination. The Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Survey (BIAS) was developed to test associations between biphobia and sexual identity...
December 2014: LGBT Health
Anh Bao Nguyen, Nancy Breen, Trenette T Clark, Richard Moser
OBJECTIVES: To examine health outcomes and chronic conditions for the biracial Asian population in California. We hypothesized that the biracial population will display intermediate (or an average of) outcomes in comparison to their monoracial counterparts. DESIGN: The study was cross-sectional. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, multivariable regression models predicted health outcomes (ie, diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, disability status, BMI, and general health) and compared health outcomes among various (mono- and bi-) racial and ethnic groups...
2014: Ethnicity & Disease
Mary Ann Pentz, HeeSung Shin, Nathaniel Riggs, Jennifer B Unger, Katherine L Collison, Chih-Ping Chou
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about influences on e-cigarette use among early adolescents. This study examined influences that have been previously found to be associated with gateway drug use in adolescents: demographic (age, gender, ethnicity, free lunch), social contextual influences of parents and peers, and executive function deficits (EF). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 410 7th grade students from two diverse school districts in Southern California (M age;=12...
March 2015: Addictive Behaviors
Yvonne M Golightly, Marian T Hannan, Alyssa B Dufour, Jordan B Renner, Joanne M Jordan
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hallux valgus (HV) was associated with potential risk factors, including foot pain in a large, biracial cohort of older men and women. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of cohort members of the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project, of whom 1,502 had complete clinical and demographic data available (mean age 68 years, mean body mass index [BMI] 31.3 kg/m(2) , 68% women, and 30% African American). The presence of HV was assessed visually using a validated examination...
May 2015: Arthritis Care & Research
Anh Bao Nguyen, Nancy Breen, Trenette T Clark, Richard Moser
OBJECTIVES: To examine health outcomes and chronic conditions for the biracial Asian population in California. We hypothesized that the biracial population will display intermediate (or an average of) outcomes in comparison to their monoracial counterparts. DESIGN: The study was cross-sectional. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, multivariable regression models predicted health outcomes (ie, diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, disability status, BMI, and general health) and compared health outcomes among various (mono- and bi-) racial and ethnic groups...
2014: Ethnicity & Disease
Bryana H French, Yu Bi, Tracey G Latimore, Heather R Klemp, Ellen E Butler
Sexual victimization is prevalent in the United States and overrepresented among adolescents. Research typically assesses victimization on a continuum of severity and rarely examines patterns of victimization within an individual. Using latent class analysis, the present study investigated whether meaningful classes of sexual victimization could be found based on the tactic used and severity of sexual behavior. Personal characteristics and psycho-behavioral outcomes were explored as they related to victimization classes...
April 2014: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Mary Pat Frintner, Fernando S Mendoza, Benard P Dreyer, William L Cull, Danielle Laraque
OBJECTIVE: To describe the diversity of pediatric residents and examine relationships of cross-cultural training experiences with training satisfaction, perceived preparedness for providing culturally effective care, and attitudes surrounding care for underserved populations. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of a national random sample of graduating pediatric residents and an additional sample of minority residents. Using weighted analysis, we used multivariate regression to test for differences in satisfaction, preparedness, and attitudes between residents with more and less cross-cultural experiences during residency, controlling for residents' characteristics and experiences before training...
January 2013: Academic Pediatrics
Tracy Evian Waasdorp, Courtney N Baker, Brooke S Paskewich, Stephen S Leff
While much prior research has documented the negative associations between aggression, peer relationships, and social skills, other research has begun to examine whether forms of aggression also may be associated with prosocial skills and increased social status. However, few studies have examined these associations within diverse samples of elementary aged youth. The current study examined the associations between aggression, popularity, social preference, and leadership among 227 urban, ethnic minority (74 % African American, 9 % bi-racial including African American, 12 % other ethnic minorities, and 5 % European American) elementary school youth (average age 9...
February 2013: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Talar W Markossian, Julie S Darnell, Elizabeth A Calhoun
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the efficacy of a Chicago-based cancer patient navigation program developed to increase the proportion of patients reaching diagnostic resolution and reduce the time from abnormal screening test to definitive diagnostic resolution. METHODS: Women with an abnormal breast (n = 352) or cervical (n = 545) cancer screening test were recruited for the quasi-experimental study. Navigation subjects originated from five federally qualified health center sites and one safety net hospital...
October 2012: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Angelo L Gaffo, David R Jacobs, Cora E Lewis, Ted R Mikuls, Kenneth G Saag
INTRODUCTION: Findings that African-American race/ethnicity is associated with higher concentrations of serum urate have not been adjusted for possible confounding factors or have not explored this question as a primary outcome. We tested this hypothesis in a bi-racial cohort of younger African-American and white men and women. METHODS: Data from 5,049 participants at the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort baseline (1985 to 1986) and follow-up for up to 20 years of individuals without hyperuricemia (defined as a serum urate of 6...
January 6, 2012: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Jan Bressler, Lawrence C Shimmin, Eric Boerwinkle, James E Hixson
OBJECTIVE: The association between hepatic global DNA methylation measured using pyrosequencing technology and the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis was examined in the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) study. PDAY is a bi-racial investigation of the natural history of atherosclerosis and its risk factors involving 3013 individuals aged 15-34 years who underwent autopsy after dying of unrelated causes in 1987-1994. METHODS: Raised atherosclerotic lesions were defined as the sum of the percentages of intimal surface area detected in the right coronary artery and left half of the abdominal and thoracic aorta harboring fibrous plaques, complicated lesions, and calcified lesions during a postmortem pathological examination...
December 2011: Atherosclerosis
Yvonne N Flores, Cathy M Lang, Jorge Salmerón, Roshan Bastani
Latinos in the US are disproportionately affected by chronic liver disease, which is the sixth most common cause of death among this group. In Mexico, cirrhosis and other liver diseases are the fourth leading cause of general mortality. The objective of this study was to contrast the liver disease risk factors, knowledge, and prevention practices reported among separate samples of Mexicans living in Los Angeles, CA and in Cuernavaca, Mexico. We assessed the prevalence of specific risk factors (body mass index, waist circumference, and alcohol consumption), the level of knowledge about liver disease in general, hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C (HCV), as well as prevention activities such as screening and vaccination...
April 2012: Journal of Community Health
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